OA?III?EUeNUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IAAeAAIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea

OAeE 483 ( 09 )

NIE?E Aiaaeai Ieeieaeiae/

AeINE?AeAEAIIss INIAEEAINOAE OE?A?INUeEI? E?OA?AOO?II? IIAE ?
E?IAA?NOE*I? AeENEON?? IAAEIEI IA? O O?O-ii/.OO no.

10.02.01 – oe?a?inueea iiaa

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?iii?eue – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?iii?euenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao?

?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea II Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie,

I?I*OE Aaneeue Aaneeueiae/,

?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? iiae ?iai?
I.Iioaai?,

aee?aeoi?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

IIETHAA Eaa Ieoaeeiae/,

?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?iai?
?.E?ei’yeaae/a

IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee;

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?,

AAAE* Iaae?y Aeaien?aia,

*a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? TH.Oaaeueeiae/a,

caa. eaoaae?ith ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e
oe?a?inueei? iiae.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — I?eea?iaonueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea,

eaoaae?a oe?a?inueei? iiae,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 26 aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 58.053.01 a Oa?iii?euenueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea ca
aae?anith: 282009, i. Oa?iii?eue, aoe. I.E?eaiiina, 2.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?iii?euenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 25 ethoiai 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I.I.Iaoi/oe

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Inoaii?ie aeanyoee?ooyie aeoea?coaaeeny
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai iiaiciaanoaa. O a?o/eciyi?e
o?eieia?? ?noi??ia?ao?y e?iaa?noeee ioi?ieeany a ie?aio aaeocue iaoee.
??ci? ae?eyiee ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai iiaiciaanoaa ii?aoeueiaai?
iaiaeiaeiai iiaii.

Caaaeii aeia?a aeine?aeaeaia ?noi??y noa?iaeeoiueiai ia??iaeo (O? –
OV?? no.) caaaeyee nooae?yi A.A. I?i/oea, yeee, e??i iecee noaoae i?e
aeaeaiiyo ? ia?aaeaeaiiyo iai’yoie a?o/eciyieo o?eieia?a, iioae?eoaaa
aea? niaoe?aeuei? iiiia?ao??, i?enay/ai? aeaai?e eaeneeia?ao?? oa
?icaeoeia? a?aiaoe/ii? aeoiee a Oe?a?i?. Iauiaeaaii i?i
noa?ioe?a?inueea iiaiciaanoai a ?a?iiaenueeiio eiioaeno? iaienaa
aeena?oaoe?th N.I. Eo/eaiei.

?noi??th oe?a?inueei? eaeneeia?ao?? iiaiai ia??iaeo ii?aoethaaee a
niaoe?aeueieo iiiia?ao?yo I.E. Ai?aoeueeee, A.A. Iineaeaiei,
E.N. Iaeaia?/oe. Noeneo ?noi??th e?iaa?noe/ii? oe?a?i?noeee O?O —
ii/aoeo OO no. (aei 1917 ?.) aeeeaa I.A. Iaaethe. ?noi??th aea/aiiy
no?oeoo?e oe?a?inueei? iiae aeineoue aeieeaaeii aeine?aeea
N.I. Aaacaiei . I.A. AEiaoia?tho iaienaa iiiia?ao?th i?i ?noi??th
oe?a?inueeiai iiaiciaanoaa oioae?oa?ii? aeiae.

Ieoaiiy ?noi??? a?o/eciyii? e?iaa?noeee iia?aeii ii?oooaaee oaeiae
?noi?eee oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae, cie?aia aaoi?e aeaaeai?/iiai
eo?no, I.Iethu, A.*aieaiei, TH.Oaaaeueia, aeieeaaei?oa — I.Iai?iei.
E??i cacia/aieo iiiia?ao?e, aa?oi caaaeaoe oe?ii? nooae?? I.Aiciyea,
E.Nooaeeinueeiai, ?.O?aiea i?i eiie?aoi? oai?e oa yaeua a oe?a?inuee?e
e?iaa?noeoe?.

Iaoa??aee c inoi?i? eiiaainoe/ii? oe?a?iinoeee i?noyoue a?aeii?
iiiia?ao?? ?in?enueeiai iiaiciaaoey N.Aoee/a oa neaa?noa I.ssae/a.

C iia?oi?o ioae?eaoe?e, a yeeo ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy, aeioe/i? aei
oaie iaoi? aeena?oaoe??, aa?oi caaaeaoe eieao A.Iaiaoeoeia oa
ss. ?aaecaae/a-Aeiieoeueeiai. Iniaeeai ae o?aaa a?aecia/eoe iiiia?ao?th
“Iaa?/ii eaeaeaie eoaaee” A.Eecai/oea i?i ?noi??th ?oneo?eaoe?? a
Oe?a?i? .

Ioaea, aeineoue ??oioiaii ii?aoeueiaaii ?noi??th iaoi? e?iaa?noeee
OI-OVII oa /anoeiai OO no. Iaeiaioa aeine?aeaeaii a?o/eciyia
iiaiciaanoai OVIII no.

I?ioa ia??iae O?O – ii/.OO no.a inoi?i? iaoiai iiaiciaanoaa (oa e
aaeeeith i??ith ? a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae)
ii?aoeueiaaii ua iaaeinoaoiuei. Iii?oiith aaaeith aaea iaae?oeiaaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?iaa?noeee oa inoi?i?
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae cacia/aii? aeiae ? oa, ui a ieo o?eueee
i?eiaa?aeii aena?oeththoueny aeeneon?? iaaeiei noaoono oe?a?inueei? iiae
a eie? neia’yinueeeo iia oa ia?niaeoeao ?icaeoeo ??
ienaiii-eioa?aoo?ii? oi?ie. Eeoa iaeei o?aaiaio oe??? i?iaeaie
aeieeaaeii ii?aoethaaa O.Naa/aiei a iiiia?ao?? “Caai?iia oe?a?inoaa
1876 ?.”.

Aeeneon?? iaaeiei noaoono e ia?niaeoea oe?a?inueei? eioa?aoo?ii? iiae
aoee iaa’ycai? ciai?oi?ie, ai?iaeeie uiaei oe?a?inoaa, neeaie. A i?ioa
iieai?ea noiniaii ii?i eioa?aoo?ii? iiae, oi/ ? coiiaeaia aaaeeeie
oiiaaie ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e iaoi? iaoe??, caie? yei? aoei iiae?eaii i?ae
aeaiia /oaeeie aea?aeaaaie, noaea aaaeeeaei /eiieeii ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei? e?iaa?noeee OIO — ii/aoeo OO no. Aiia niaoeeo?/iei /eiii
aeoea?coaaea iiaiciaa/o i?aoeth oe?a?inueeeo (? ia o?eueee ?o) o/aieo.
Oiane?aeie o?eaaeeo noia?a/ie aeaaeae? /?oe?oa ie?anethaaeenue
iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?e oe?a?inueei? iiae, ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c ??
iioiaeaeaiiyi, ?noi???th, iiae?eii ia ae?aeaeoe, ia?niaeoeaaie
e?oa?aoo?iiai oii?ioaaiiy.

O ca’yceo c aeeeaaeaiei aeua aeine?aeaeaiiy ??ciianiaeoieo aeeneon?e
iaaeiei oe?a?inueei? iiae o OIO ia ii/aoeo OO no. ia ao?a/a?
aeooaeueiino?. Aea/aiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie ? ceiaiaeaiiei c
iiaeyaeo ia o?eueee aeania inoi?eei-iiaiciaa/iai, aea e noni?eueiiai, ai
e iei? c’yaeythoueny a i?aaiao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? oaa?aeaeaiiy
oia?i?no?a, ui caia?a/othoue ie?ai?oi?noue ? aeaai?noue oe?a?inueei?
iiae.

Aea?? o?iiieia?/ieo ?aiie iaoi? nooae?? coiiaeaiee oei, ui naia a
cacia/aiee ia??iae ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c oe?a?inueeith iiaith, aoee
aeeneooiaai? iniaeeai aino?i e /anoi. O?eueee aeiiia?aeia caienea
?in?enueei? aeaaeai?? iaoe “I?i neanoaaiiy iaiaaeaiue iaei?onueeiai
ae?oeiaaiiai neiaa”, i?eeiyoa 1905 ?., iieeaea e?ae iieai?oe? i?i oa,
/e oe?a?inueea iiaa ? ie?aiith ? naiino?eiith iiaith oa /e ia?
ia?niaeoeae ?? ienaiii-e?oa?aoo?ia oi?ia.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.
Oaia aeena?oaoe?? iia’ycaia c aeine?aeaeaiiyi, ye? i?iaiaeyoueny ia
eaoaae?? oe?a?inueei? iiae Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i. ?.O?aiea a ?aieao i?ia?aie aea/aiiy ?noi??? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
iiae a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O- ii/. OO no.

Ia’?eoii aeineiaeaeaiiy noaee iaoeia? e eaac?iaoeia? ioae?eaoe??, ui
noinoaaeeny ?noi???, no?oeoo?e, noaoono, ia?niaeoea oe?a?inueei? iiae,
i?aoe? oe?a?inueeeo o/aieo, o yeeo a?aeia?aaeaii ?oi? iiaeyaee ia ii?ie
oe?a?inueei? iiae oa ?? i?aaiieno, ioioeieii aeieoiaioe, ui aecia/aee
noa?e ooieoeiiioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? eioa?aoo?ii-ienaiii? iiae o OIO — ia
ii/aoeo OO no., – oee?eoey?e oa oeace ?in?enueei? ?iia???.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? iiiia?ao??–aeine?aeeoe e?iaa?noe/i? oa iie?oe/i?
aeeneon?? iaaeiei noaoono oe?a?inueei? iiae a eie? ?ioeo neia’yinueeeo
iia, ?? iioiaeaeaiiy, i?aaa ia ?nioaaiiy ye iiae ie?aiiai neia’yinueeiai
ia?iaeo, aea/aiiy ?? oa?eoi?iaeueii-aeiaeaeoii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? a
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae, c’ynoaaoe, yeee aieea iaee cacia/ai? aeeneon??
ia ?icaeoie e?iaaioe?a?i?noeee.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei iinoaaeaii e?eueea caaaeaiue,
aieiaieie c yeeo ?:

1. Aeyaeoe ? i?inooae?thaaoe iaoeia?, iaoeiai-iiioey?i? oa
ioae?oeenoe/i? i?aoe?, a yeeo ?icaeyaeathoueny iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?e
oe?a?inueei? iiae, ?? noaoon o neia’yinueeiio eiioaeno?, ia?niaeoeae
?icaeoeo.

2. Aea/eoe io?oe?ei? aeieoiaioe OIO — ii/aoeo OO no., ye? anoaiiaethaaee
aeene?ei?iaoe?ei? iaae? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae.

3. Aeine?aeeoe a?aoiaioe e i?ioea?aoiaioe o/aniee?a aeeneon?e i?i
oe?a?inueeo iiao.

4. I?inoaaeeoe aaiethoe?th iaoeiaeo oyaeaiue i?i oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino?
no?oeoo?e oa ae?aeaeoio aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th oe?a?inueei? iiae, i?i ??
i?noea na?aae ?ioeo neia’yinueeeo, i?i ?? iioiaeaeaiiy oa ?noi??th
iaoi? iiae a oiaei iaa’ycaieo oe?a?inueeei o/aiei aeeneonie.

5. Aea/eoe iiaeyaee oe?a?inueeeo o/aieo uiaei aeoai?aiiy ii?i
caaaeueiioe?a?inueei? eioa?aoo?ii? iiae.

O ?iaio? canoiniaoaaeeny iieniaee, c?noaaiee oa ii??aiyeueiee iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeaea?aeaie aeey iaienaiiy aoee ia?oiioaeieaoei? c aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie
a iaoeiaeo, a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo, iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo aeo?iaeao,
aacaoao, ioae?eaoe?? aeieoiaio?a, oai??a, eenooaaiiy in?a, aeioe/ieo aei
aeeneon??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, ui a i?e
iiiia?aoi/ii aeine?aeaeothoueny noia?a/ee i?i oe?a?inueeo iiao ye
e?iaaaeueiee i noni?eueiee oaiiiai, c’yniao?oueny i?ia?an o aea/aii?
no?oeoo?e oa inoi?i? oe?a?inueei? iiae a eiioaeno? aeeneoni? iaaeiei
ia?, ine?eueee aac aeieeaaeiiai aea/aiiy aeeneon?e iaaeiei oe?a?inueei?
iiae ia iiaea aooe iiaii? inoi?i? a?o/eciyii? eiiaainoeee oa ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae; o i?ioean? aeeneon?? iaaeiei noaoono i
ia?niaeoea oe?a?inueei? iiae aoei ie?aneaii ?? iniaeeaino? ye
i?ea?iaeueii? no?oeoo?e; aeiaaaeaii, ui oea ie?aia iiaa; aeyaeaii
iniiaii a?oie ?? ae?aeaeo?a; iai?/aii oeyoe aea/aiiy iioiaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? iiae; ia??oioiaaii i?aai ia naiino?eiee ?icaeoie
e?oa?aoo?ii-ienaiii? oi?ie ooieoe?iioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae.

Oe?a?inuee? aeeneonaioe ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui caaaeueiioe?a?inueea iiaa
ia? ii?aeiaoe a nia? aeaiaioe an?o ia??/, aea aacoaaoeny ia
i?aaeaiii-no?aeiiio.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui a iueiio iieacaii,
ui eeoa aacnoi?iii? ? iicaiie?oe/ia aea/aiiy e?iaa?noe/iiai ia’?eoa aea?
i?aenoaae ?iaeoe nooi iaoeia?, ia’?eoeai? aeniiaee. Aea/aiee iaoa??ae ?
aaaeeeaei aeey noai?aiiy neioaoe/ieo i?aoeue c ?noi??ia?ao??
oe?a?inueei? (i oe?oa — no?aeiineia’yinueei?) e?iaa?noeee, ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae, noaiiaeaiiy ?? ii?i, i?e iaienaii?
i?aoeue i?i oe?a?inueeee aeioiaaiac.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ooi/iththoue i?aaaeea? oaeoe c ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae, ni?eyoeiooue ooaa?aeaeaiith ?? no/aniiai
aea?aeaaiiai noaoono.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy aeathoue
aeiaeaoeia? a?aeiiino? i?i oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoa??ae iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee i?e
/eoaii? niaoeeo?n?a ? niaoenai?ia??a o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao oa
eieaaeaeao, a oaeiae aeey iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaaiai?ai? ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao oa can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e ??aeii? iiae
oa iaoiaeeee ?? aeeeaaeaiiy Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? A.Aiaothea (1996, 1998) oa
ii?eethaeiai? ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ieoaeei
A?ooaanueeee ? Euea?anueea ?noi?e/ia oeiea” (Euea?a, 1994), ia
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie ooaa?aeaeaiiy ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? iiae a Oe?a?i?” (Ee?a, 1998), ia /ioe?ueio
anaoe?a?inueeeo (Euea?a, 1990, 1991, 1992, Iae?oiiieue, 1996) oa aeaio
?aa?iiaeueieo (Oa?iii?eue, 1989, 1991) eiioa?aioe?yo. Ca oaiith
aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 11 i?aoeue. C ieo — 5 oac, 5 noaoae ? 1
iiiia?ao?y.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y ianyaii 177 noi??iie neeaaea?oueny
?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
(151 iaeiaioaaiiy). Ooo cie?aia neacaii, ui a ii/aoeiaiio caaeoi? ie
cae?aeeny aeine?aeeoe o?eueee ia??iae ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO
noie?ooy. A oiae? i?aoe? aeyaeeiny, ui ia iiaeia iieiooe aeeneon?e ?c
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ieoaiiy, ye? oi/eeeny a ia?o?e iieiaei? OIO noieiooy,
oiio ui /anoeia a?aoiaio?a i i?ioea?aoiaioia, yei aeei?enoiaoaaee
aeeneooaioe, aaea aeania aoee ia’?eoii noia?a/ie ua a ia?oie iieiaeii
OIO noieiooy.

O aeeneon?yo iaaeiei noaoono oa iaeaooiueiai oe?a?inueei? iiae acyei
o/anoue aaaaoi ethaeae, aea aecia/aeueieie aoee aenooie a?aeiieo
o/aieo-eiiaainoia – ye i?aaenoaaiee?a oea?nueei? io?oe?eii? iaoee,
cie?aia I. Iiaiaeiia, I. Niaieaanueeiai, N. Aoee/a, O.Oei?einueeiai,
?in?enueeeo e?iaa?no?a, ui iaiaaaeeny ia’?eoeaii aeeaeoeny ia ?a/?, a
oiio /ene? I.*a?ieoaanueeiai, I.Oaoiaoiaa, O.Oi?ooiaoiaa, O.Ei?oa, oae i
i?aaenoaaieeia oe?a?inueei? iaoee, cie?aia I.Iaeneiiae/a, I.Iioaai?,
E.Ieoaeue/oea, I.Iaiiianueeiai, ?.Oei/aiea, N.Niaeue-Noioeueeiai,
A.E?einueeiai, A.Iaoiaiea, A.A?ii/aiea oa ii.

O aea/aii? oe?a?inueei? iiae oa aeeneon?e iaaeiei ia? a OIO — ii/aoeo
OO no. aeae?eythoueny aeaa ia??iaee, ca oiiaio iaaeo i?ae yeeie
aaaaea?ii ia?oo iinoaiiao oea?nueeeo aeanoae 1863 ?. i?i iaiaaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai ae?oeiaaiiai neiaa. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai a
aeena?oaoe?? aeae?eaii aeaa ?icae?ee. Oaeee iiae?e iaoa??aeo ia? i?ae
niaith i?aenoaae. ?noi?ee oe?a?inueei? e?iaa?noeee I.A. Iaaethe oaeiae
ae?eeoue ?icaeoie iaoiai iiaiciaanoaa aei 1917 ?. ia aeaa ia??iaee (1 —
ia?oa iieiaeia O?O no.; 2 — ae?oaa iieiaeia O?O — ii/aoie OO no.).

A ie?aiiio (o?aoueiio) ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyiooi aeeneon??
iaaeiei oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae, ui oi/eeeny a e?ioe? O?O – ii/.
OO no.

O iaaeao ?icae?e?a a ie?aieo ia?aa?aoao ?icaeyaeathoueny i?iaeaie
aeyaeaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo ?en oe?a?inueei? iiae oa ??
aioo?oiueineia’yinueeiai noaoono, iioiaeaeaiiy ? ia?niaeoea e?oa?aoo?ii?
iiae. Aea ??ceiai iiae?eo iaoa??aeo ia aeeoei, ai iaia? ??ceiai iiae?eo
i?ae oaiaoeeith ioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue o/aniee?a aeeneon?? /a?ac oa, ui
iaeei ? oie aea aaoi? ia??aeei oi?ea?oueny ??cieo i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c
oe?a?inueeith iiaith.

Ie aea/aee aeaea?aea ca ia?oiae?oeaie, i?ioa yeui aiie aoee iai
iaaeinooii?, oi ie caa?oaeeny aei iaoeiaeo ia?aaeaeaiue i?aoeue o/aieo
OIO — ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy.

An? oeeoaoe c ?in?enueeeo aeaea?ae iiaeaii iiaith i?ea?iaeo, uia
aeio?eiaoenue ia’?eoeaiino? ni?eeiaiiy oa?i?i?a “?onneee ycue”,
“iaua?onneee ycue”, “iaei?onneee ycue”, “thaeii?onneee ycue”,
“iaei?onneia ia?a/ea” oa ?i.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, c’yniaaii noai
?? aea/aiiy, aecia/aii iaoo, caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
noa?aeoa?eciaaii aeaea?aea oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, ?ice?eoi iaoeiao
iiaecio ?iaioe, oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, iiaeaii iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae oe?a?inueei? iiae, noia?a/ee
i?i ?? aeaai?noue oa i?noea a neia’yinuee?e ?iaeei? a 1-?e iie. –
na?aae. O?O no.” ?icaeyiooi i?ioean aeie?aieaiiy oa?aeoa?ieo
iniaeeainoae oe?a?inueei? iiae a cacia/aiee ia??iae, i?iaiae?ciaaii
aeeneon?? iaaeiei iioiaeaeaiiy e noaoono oe?a?inueei? iiae, Aaeo?anueeee
oee?eoey? i?i iaiaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ae?oeiaaiiai neiaa.

I. Iaaeianueeee, aaoi? ia?oi? a?aiaoeee iiaioe?a?inueei? iiae,
ona?aeiiethaaa i?ea?iaeuei?noue ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai
aoiino, ienaa, ui a?i caeia?oueny “oaeei ia?a/eai, eioi?ia ninoaaeyao
ii/oe ianoiyuee ycue”. O/aiee iaeiei ?c ia?oeo a?aecia/ea
iaeoa?aeoa?i?o? iniaeeaino? oe?a?inueei? oiiaoeee e ii?oieia??, cie?aia:
i’ye?noue i?eaieiniiai oe: oea?uoey, iueyiuoey, eaai/iuoey; ai?oaiia
a?oeeoeyoe?y a: aoeyth, aoaea, aa?iue; iayai?noue caoe?a aec, aeae:
aeaeueaoiaoeue, aecaei, aeciue; aeiiaa e ye caoea na?aaeiueiai ?yaeo:
nui?e, eiuaeea; iayai?noue caoea a ia i?noe? e o e?ioe? neeaaeo: aiaeu,
neacaau, oiaaany; ia?ao?ae i a ?, n?iu, a?au, no?eu;  aeiiaa niieoee
oa ia i?noe? o: oaa?aa, oauaa; iayai?noue j i?ney aoaieo i?eaieinieo:
iueyni, o?iuey, iueyeeue.

O ia?o?e iieiaei? O?O no. i?ia?aeio ?ieue o ?ic?iaoe? oe?a?inueei?
oaiaoeee, cie?aia e e?iaa?noe/ii?, a?ae?a?aaaa I.Iaeneiiae/. O nai?o
i?aoeyo “Iaei?inneeneea ianie I. Iaeneiiae/a”, “E?eoeei–enoi?e/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey i ?onneii ycuea”, “Enoi?ey ae?aaiae ?onneie neiaaniinoe”
oa ?i. o/aiee aeaa aeineoue iiaio oa?aeoa?enoeeo iniaeeainoae
oe?a?inueei? iiae, a oiio /ene? a?aecia/ea /a?aoaaiiy a cae?i/aiiyo –aa
ia –c , –ea ia –oe, –oa ia –n; ooai?aiiy ciaioaieo oi?i ia eeoa a?ae
?iai, a e a?ae ae??ne?a oa aeaoe?a; iiyao i?ioaoe/ieo
caoe?a; iii’yeoaiiy e?ioeaaiai i?eaieiniiai a 3-?e inia? oaia??oiueiai
/ano iaeieie. A?i i?aee?aneea, ui ia a?aei?io a?ae ?in?enueei? iiae, a
ye?e o ae??neiaao i?ney a o oeaen?? –o caa??aa?oueny, a oe?a?inuee?e
–oue caaaeaee iionea?oueny, a aea ia?aae a noi?oue a , /anoi
iionea?oueny e a.

I.Iaeneiiae/ c?iaea i?ea?iaeueio eeaneo?eaoe?th neia’yinueeeo iia,
iiae?eeaoe ?o ia aea? a?oie: no?aeiineia’yinueeo
(“ainoi/iineaayineoth”), aai ?onueeo, ? cao?aeiineia’yinueeo. Ca
I.Iaeneiiae/ai, no?aeiineia’yinueea a?oia iiae?ey?oueny ia aea? a?eee:
i?ai?/ii-no?aeio (?one i?ai?/i?) ? i?aaeaiii-no?aeio (?one i?aaeaii?).
Cao?aeiineia’yinueea ia? oaeiae aea? /anoeie – aaiaenueeo (neia’yie
i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?) ? caaeoiaenueeo (neia’yie i?aaeaiii-cao?aei?). A
oe?a?inuee?e iia? a/aiee aeae?eya o?eueee aeaa ia??//y – no?aeia
(oe?a?inueea, aai iaei?in?enueea) ? cao?aeia (aaeeoeueea, aai
/a?aiii?onueea), ui, ia eiai aeoieo, ? na?ae/aiiyi oiai, ui oe?a?inueea
iiaa aeieeea a aeaaith aeiao.

Iaoeia? ?ica?aeee I.Iaeneiiae/a, ui aacia?a/ii aeiaiaeeee aeaai?noue ?
naiiaooi?noue oe?a?inueei? iiae, aeei?enoiaoaaee ?io? aeine?aeieee.

A.Iaoeeinueeee cacia/aa, ui iiaa i?aaeaiii?onueea a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
iiae i?ai?/ii?onueei?, aeae?eya ?yae iciae oe?a?inueei? iiae, a naia: o
oie /an, eiee o aaeeei?in?a aoeae ? oa aeiiaeythoueny iaeiaeiai, o
i?aaeaiii?onuee?e iia? – ii–??ciiio: ? aeiiaey?oueny ye i?inoee a, a —
ye ? oiui. 

Aeoiee oe?a?ioe?a i?i naith iiao aeneiaea ? aaoi? ia?oiai aaeeeiai
neiaieea iiai? oe?a?inueei? iiae I. A?eaoeueeee-Iinaiei. A?i iaeei ?c
ia?oeo iaiaaaany aena?oeeoe ?noi??th oe?a?inueei? iiae. Aeacoth/e ia
aeaai?noue ?? iioiaeaeaiiy, a/aiee iiieeeiai ioioiaeithaaa oe?a?inueeo
iiao c oea?eiaiineia’yinueeith, iieeeeath/enue ia Ianoi?a-e?oiienoey. Ca
I.A?eaoeueeei-Iinaieii, oe?a?inueea iiaa a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
?in?enueei? iaeanieie ia??//yie, ?ae?iiaie caii??cueeeo eicae?a,
eaeneeith, ui aa?eoea aei ?? neeaaeo ca /an i?aae?iiy Eeoae oa Iieueu?.

Aeciaaaee i?aai oe?a?inueei? iiae ia naiino?eiee ?icaeoie ?in?enueeee
?noi?ee I.Eaaoei, oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeee ienueiaiiee A.Eoeaeeinueeee,
a?aeiiee aeine?aeiee noa?iaeie I.Oea?oae?a.

I?ea?iaeuei?noue oe?a?inueei? iiae i?aee?anethaaa ?noi?ee I.Einoiia?ia.
O/aiee oaa?aeea, ui aiia ia ? ia??//yi ?in?enueei? iiae, a ?nioaaea
aeaaii, aeieeea ye iaeia c ia??/ neia’yinueeiai ei?aiy. Aeine?aeiee
aeciaaaa aieea oe?a?inueei? iiae ia ?in?enueeo a aeaaieio, ine?eueee
aiia oiae? aoea a?eueo ae?iaeaiith, ai?ae ?in?enueea, iath ienaeeny
aaaaoi eiea, iaiao?aeieo Iinea?.

I?i aieea oe?a?inueei? iiae ia ?in?enueeo ienaa oaeiae I.Eoe?o.

Aeeneon?y iaaeiei iioiaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae aoea aeooaeueiith a
20-30-o? ?iee aeey oe?a?ioe?a on??? iaoi? oa?eoi???. Euea?anueeee
aeo?iae “Nzasopism naukowy” 1829 ?. iaae?oeoaaa noaooth
?.Iiaeeueieoeueeiai, a ye?e ia?aeiieeai iieacaii, ui oe?a?inueea iiaa –
oea ie?aia iiaa, ui aiia, oi/ ? caciaaaea o aeaai?e ia??iae aieeao
iieuenueei?, naia aieeaaea ia ia?. I?aee?anethth/e noa?iaeeoi?noue
oe?a?inueei? iiae, ?.Iiaeeueieoeueeee ienaa, ui ia?iae iiaea ao?aoeoe
iacaeaaei?noue, aea iiaa caaaeaee caeeoa?oueny eiai caeiaooeii.

O eiioaeno? aeeneon?? iaaeiei oe?a?inueei? iiae a ia?o?e iieiaei?
O?O no. iaaia i?noea iin?aea? e a?aiaoeea E.Eiceinueeiai. Aaoi? ia
noii?aaany a oiio, ui oe?a?inueea iiaa ? ie?aiith neia’yinueeith. A/aiee
aiai?ea, ui aiia iioe?aia ia oa?aiao a?ae i?aaeaiieo noee?a Ea?iao /a?ac
onth i?aaeaiio ?in?th aae aei ??/ee Eoaai?. Aeine?aeiee neooii
caoaaaeoaaa, ui iaia? aeiaeieo aeieac?a oiai, i?ae noa?ineia’yinueea
iiaa aoea iao??’th ?onueei?. A?i ia?aeiieeai ienaa, ui iaoa e?oa?aoo?ia
iiaa ia? aacoaaoeny ia ia?iaei?e iniia?: iaiao?aeii a?aoe iiao c aono
i?inoiai ia?iaeo ? ia?iaeoe ?? a /?oeeo ? i?inoeo i?aaeeao.

Aaaeeeaith o aecia/aii? aeanoeainoae oe?a?inueei? iiae, iniaeeai a
inieneaii? ?? ae?aeaeoiiai iiae?eo, aoea aeiiia?aeue ss.Aieiaaoeueeiai,
i?i/eoaia 1848 ?. ia Niai?? ?onueeeo o/aieo o Eueaia?.
E?iaa?no caia?a/oaaa aieea iieuenueei? iiae ia oe?a?inueeo e oaa?aeea,
ui iaaiaee – iieuenueea iiaa nai?th ae?iaeai?noth iiaeiia caaaey/oaaoe
aieeaia? oe?a?inueei?.

Aeacoaaa ia aeaai? neia’yinueea ei??iiy oe?a?inueei? iiae I. Onoeyiiae/.
Ia eiai aeoieo, e?ana oe?a?inueei? iiae aoea a?aeiiith ia?iaeai ?a?iie.

Iaeiei ?c ia?oeo ?iicaiieo oao?aoe?a, eio?ee ?icaeyaeaa oe?a?inueeo iiao
ye naiino?eio, aoa I.Oaoa?ee. No?aeiineia’yinueeo iiaio ni?eueiioo
aeine?aeiee iiae?eya ia o?e ia??//y: aeania ?onueea, aai aaeeei?onueea,
iaei?onueea oa a?ei?onueea. Aeae?eeaoe ?yae oiiaoe/ieo iciae
oe?a?inueei? iiae, a/aiee ienaa, ui aiia aeoaea aaaaoa ? c-iii?ae on?o
neia’yinueeeo ia??/, iaaooue, iaeaaaaooa ia?iaeieie i?niyie an?o aeae?a.
I.Oaoa?ee ia?aeiieeai cayaea, ui oe?a?ioe? – ie?aia iaoe?y ?c nai?th
iiaith oa eoeueoo?ith.

O na?aaeei? O?O no. ?icii/aeany iieai?ea iaaeiei oe?a?inueei? iiae, a
ye?e iai?yio o/anoue acya ?.N?aciaanueeee e aeoeaio ?io? ?in?enuee?
a/ai?, cie?aia ?noi?ee I.Iiaiae?i oa e?iaa?no I.Eaa?ianueeee.

?.N?aciaanueeee o eeno? aei i?ioani?a ?.Ni?ae?ueiaa caoaaaeea, ui
oe?a?inueea iiaa ? iaei??th c iaeaaaaooeo neia’yinueeeo iia. Ia eiai
aeoieo, oe?a?inueea iiaa i?iaeiaaeoaaoeia ?icaeaaoeny ? noaia iiaith
e?oa?aoo?e. Iaeiae caiaeii o i?aoe? “Iunee ia enoi?ee ?onneiai ycuea”
a/aiee ci?iea nai? iiaeyaee. A?i i?aaioa aeiaanoe, ui “aeaaiea, ii ia
eneiiiu /a?ou, ioaeaeythuea iaeii io ae?oaiai ia?a/ey … — aaeeei?onneia
e iaei?onneia” , ia aecia/ath/e oe?a?inueeo iiao ye naiino?eio.

I.Eaa?ianueeee o nai?e iaa?noa?nuee?e aeena?oaoe?? “I ycuea naaa?iuo
?onneeo eaoiienae” cayaea, ui “?onneee ycue” neeaaea?oueny c aeaio
a?aeae?e?a – aaeeei?onueeiai oa iaei?onueeiai, ye? ??cei
a?ae??ciythoueny iaeei a?ae iaeiiai, i?ioa a?aeie?aieaiiy oeeo ia??/ ia
iaeaaeeoue aei /an?a aei?noi?e/ii? aiioe, aaeaea “iaeeiaeiainoue
neiayineiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, iaeiiia?acea ?iaeiaiai auoa, iaeie
i?aaeaiey noa?eiu… ia aeaaaee e ia iiaee iiaeaaaoue iiaiaea e
?acaeaeueiinoe ycuea ia thaa e naaa?a”. I.Eaa?ianueeee aaaaeaa, ui
??cieoey i?ae ia??//yie i?ai?/iei ? i?aaeaiiei aoea eeoa eaene/ia, a
??ciiiai?oiinoae o aoaeia? iiae, oiiaoeoe?, ii?oieia?? ia aoei. Ia eiai
aeoieo, inoaoi/iee iiae?e a “ycuea ?onneii” a?aeaoany i?ney oaoa?nueei?
iaaaee, oiaoi eeoa a XIII-XIV no.

*e ia iaeiiai?oa a O?O no. oa?aeoa?i? ?ene oe?a?inueei? iiae aeae?eea
I.Eaa?ianueeee, yeee cie?aia cacia/ea: /a?aoaaiiy aoaieo i?eaieinieo:
ieeiaoeue (cai. aeeiu); iayai?noue aeae: i?iaoaeaeoaaoue; aca?iia
/a?aoaaiiy ? ? e: oaee?ea (cai. oa?aeea), oa?aeue (cai.oaea?u);
i?enoaaiee caoe ae ia?aae ae: aecaeiu, aeaea?aei; caiaiaae aieinieo ?
i?eaieinieo caoe?a: eaieea — aieea, eiaoe — iaoe oiui. I.Eaa?ianueeee o
i?aoe? “Iaci? caia/aoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae ia?a/ey iaei?onneiai,
n?aaieoaeueii n aaeeei?onneei e ae?oaeie neaayineeie ia?a/eyie”
i?aee?aneea, ui i?e??iaeuei? ?ene, i?eoaiaii? oe?a?inuee?e iia?, ia
iathoue a?aeiia?aeieo o iieuenuee?e iia?.

Iiaeyaee ?noi?eea I.Iiaiae?ia, ui aeeth/eany a aeeneon?th, aoee aeineoue
noia?a/eeaeie. Aeciaaoe, ui oe?a?ioe? caaeiaai aei ii/aoeo “?onneie”
aea?aeaaiino? iaee nai? iniaeeaino? a iia?, a?i aiaeii/an iaiaaaany
aeiaanoe, i?ae aiie ia caeeoeee ?o o noa?iaeiieo iai’yoeao ? aenoioa
oai??th i?i ?in?enuee?noue ianaeaiiy Ee?aa a aeaaieio, oiae? ye
oe?a?ioe? ia?anaeeeeny nthaee cia/ii i?ci?oa.

I.Iaeneiiae/ ia??oioiaaii aenooiea i?ioe oaa?aeaeaiue I.Iiaiae?ia.
A/aiee ni?inoiao? oai??th i?ci?oiai canaeaiiy Ee?aueie aeo?aeoeyie c
Ea?iao. A?i ienaa, ui ?noi?e/i? ia?aeace Ea?iaonueei? ?on? aiai?youe,
ui ea?iaonuee? oe?a?ioe? i?eeoee a Ea?iaoe c aa?aa?a Aei?i?a ?acii c
oa?aie a O no.

?io? oaa?aeaeaiiy aeneiaea I.Eioey?aanueeee. Ia eiai aeoieo, oe?a?ioe?
i?iaeeaaee ia caieyo Iiaei?i?ia’y caeaaia.

I?aai oe?a?inueei? iiae ia naiino?eiee ?icaeoie i?aeo?eioaaa ? ?in?yiei
I. *a?ieoaanueeee.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Ie?aneaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo ?en oe?a?inueei? iiae,
aeeneon?? i?i ?? noaoon ? iioiaeaeaiiy a 2-?e iie. XIX-ii/.XX no.”
iieacaii i?ioean e?ioeaaiai aeae?eaiiy a iaooe? oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae
oe?a?inueei? iiae ii??aiyii c ?ioeie neia’yinueeeie, ianaiia?aae
?in?enueeith; caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia aeiaaee oeyo aei io?oe?eiiai
aeciaiiy ?? a ?in?? ye ie?aii? iiae, a ia ia??//y ?in?enueei?,
ioi?ieaiiy a?eueo-iaio ia??oioiaaieo aeoiie i?i ?? a?e.

Nai? aaoi?eoaoi? i??eoaaiiy i?i iioiaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae aeneiaea
? I.Iioaaiy. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a/aiee ia anooiaa o iieai?eo, a ia
iniia? aeeaieeo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue iaiaaaany anoaiiaeoe iaoeiao
?noeio. I.Iioaaiy aoa ia?aeiiaiee, ui a aeaaieio ?nioaaea ni?eueia iiaa
aeey no?aeieo neia’yi – ?onueea, yea caiaeii ?iciaeany ia ia??//y.
Iiae?e ?onueei? iiae, ca I.Iioaaiath, aeaai?oee XI no.

Ni?iao aea/eoe nooo?a? ??cieoe? i?ae i?aaeaiii-? i?ai?/ii?onueeeie
a?oiaie ia??/ c?iaea ia iniia? oiiaoe/ieo ?en E.Ieoaeue/oe. Aaoi?
coieieany aeiyoeiai ia iniaeeainoyo aieae?cio ? iiaeaa eeaneo?eaoe?th
ia??/, aeae?eeaoe oae? a?oie: ?onueea (ia??//y i?ai?/ii?onuee?:
aaeeei?onueea, a?ei?onueea e i?aaeaiii?onueea); eynueea (ia??//y
iieuenueei-eaooanueea ? na?aieoaeeoeueea); /anueei-neiaaoeueea (ia??//y
/aoi-ii?aanueea); aaeeainueea (ia??//y ?ee???enuee?: na?ai-oi?aaonueea ?
aieaa?i-iaeaaeiinueea).

I?iaeaie ie?ai?oiino? oe?a?inueei? iiae ii?oooaaa caea?iaonueeee
eaeneeia?ao E.*iiae a ia?aaeiia? aei “?onueei-iaaey?nueeiai neiaieea”,
ui aeeoia o Aoaeaiaoo? 1883 ?.

A oe?a?inuee?e iia? a/aiee aeae?ey? /ioe?e ia??//y, a naia:
a) /a?eaii?onueea; a) iieoaeiaaiiaei?onueea; a) i?ai?/iiiaei?onueea;
a) a?ei?onueea.

Eiaeia c oeeo ia??/ iiae?ey?oueny ia ie?ai? i?aeia??//y oa aiai?e .

Ia noii?aaany a naiino?eiino? oe?a?inueei? iiae ? o?eieia I.Eieania.
Iniaeeaino?, ye? a?aeae?eythoue oe?a?inueeo iiao a?ae ?in?enueei?, a?i
?icae?eya ia aea? a?oie: iaei? c ieo aoee iiaeie, ia aeanoeaeie
“iaua?onneie” iia? ? neeaaeaee aeania oe?a?inuee? iciaee, ia
iiaoi?thth/enue a ?ioeo ia??//yo ??; ?io? (?o, i?aaaea, iaaaaaoi)
oniaaeeiaai? a?ae aeaaiuei?onueei? iiae. Aeine?aeiee i?eioneaa, ui
??cieoe? o oiiaoeoe? i?ae ia??//yie “?onneiai ycuea” ii/aeeny o IX-X
no.

O ia?aaeiia? aei naiai “Neiaieea aeeai? ia?iaeii?, ienueiaiii? ?
aeoiai? iiae ?onueeeo tha?auai ?in?enueei? ? Aano?i-Aaiaa?nueei?
oeana???” O.Ieneoiia noaa?aeaeoaaa, ui oe?a?inueea iiaa a?ae??ciy?oueny
a?ae i?ai?/ii?onueei? ia?iaeii? oa e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae. Ca aaaaonoaii
neiaieeiaiai caiano, e?euee?noth iin??a oe?a?inueea iiaa ia
iinooia?oueny iiaai ?oae?enuee?e ? cia/ii aeia?aaeaeo? iieuenueeo oa
/anueeo. Oe?a?inueeo iiao a/aiee ?icaeyaeaa ye naiino?eio, a ia
ia??//y, ui iioiaeeei a?ae ia?ae?o/aiiy ?in?enueei? iiae. Ia eiai
aeoieo, ?in?enueea iiaa iioiaeeoue a?ae oe?a?inueei?, ui aoea
oi?aa?naeueiith aeey an??? ?on?.

?in?enueeee iiaiciaaaoeue N.Aoee/ ?icaeyaeaa oe?a?inueeo iiao ye
ia??//y ?in?enueei?, ine?eueee ni?eueieie a oeeo iiaao, ia eiai aeoieo,
? aeaye? oiiaoe/i? iniaeeaino?.

Aena?oeaiiy i?iaeaie iioiaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae a 2-?e iie. XIX –
ii/. OO no. /anoeiai ciaoiaeeei i?noea a iienao oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae
oe?a?inueei? iiae. I?ioa iaaeiei iioiaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae, aea
aaea caeaa?eueoiai ia iniia? aea/aiiy iai’yoie no?aeiineia’yinueeeo iia,
oi/eeeny i?yi? aeeneon??.

Nai? ?icoi?iiy ?icaeoeo oa oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae aeneiaea o
e?eueeio i?aoeyo a?aeiiee o/aiee I.Iei?i. O/aiee aeia?a aa/ea ieai?iio
nai???aei?noue aeaio a?eie no?aeieo neia’yi ? cacia/aa, ui ia?iaei?noue
“iaei?onueea” i?e an?e nee? aaeeei?onueeeo aieea?a caa?aaea no?eueee
nai?o ??cieo iciae, ui ie?ai?oi?noue ?? aoea i/aaeaeiith. Ia eiai
aeoieo, ioieoii i/aaeaeiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?aeie?aieaiiy aeaio ieaiai aoei
XII-XIII no. C oiai /ano ?noi??y iaio a?eie ?ic?eoeany eoeueoo?ii ?
iie?oe/ii: aiie iaeaaeaee aei ??cieo eoeueoo?ieo oiia.

O iieai?oe? c I.Iei?iei coieieany ia iioiaeaeaii? neia’yinueeeo iia, ?o
iiae?e? e nii??aeiaii? I.Iaiiianueeee. O/aiee caia?a/oaaa aeoieo i?i oa,
ui oe?a?inueea iiaa ? ia??//yi ?in?enueei?. Ia eiai aeoieo, ?in?enueea
iiaa ooai?eeany c iineianueeiai ia??//y, i?aeo?eioth/enue ua a XVIII no.
aaaaonoaii oea?eiaiineia’yinueei? iiae. Eeoa a XIX no. ?in?enuee?
ienueiaiieee caa?ioee oaaao ia ia??//y i?ai?/ii? ?in??.

Iieai?coaaa c I.Iei?iei oaeiae oe?a?inueeee ienueiaiiee ? ioae?oeeno
O.C?iuee?anueeee. Aeine?aeiee ia iiaiaeaeoaaany c oaa?aeaeaiiyi i?i
i?ia?ioe?ei?noue oe?a?inueei? iiae, iaaieineaoe i?e oeueiio ia ?nioaaii?
a Aano??? ia?iaeieo oe?e, oi?aa?neoao?a, aea iaa/aiiy aaeiny oe??th
iiaith.

?.Ia/oe-Eaaeoeueeee (inaaaeii?i ?.Aaooiaee) aoa ia?aeiiaiee, ui
oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a i?/ei ia iinooia?oueny nai?i ?icaeoeii
?in?enuee?e. Ii/aoie aeieeiaiiy e?oa?aoo?e oe?a?inueeith iiaith
ienueiaiiee a?aeiinea aei /an?a e?oiienoey Ianoi?a, oiae? ye ?in?enueea
iiaa aeieeea ia ??oio? oea?eiaiineia’yinueei? iiae, ae?iaeaii? a/aieie
Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueei? aeaaeai?? a XVII- ii/aoeo XVIII no.

Aeoeaio o/anoue o aeeneon?? iaaeiei oe?a?inueei? iiae a ae?oa?e iieiaei?
XIX no. a?aa i?ioani? I.Niaieaanueeee. A?i aenooiaa iaeiei ?c
iaeaeoeai?oeo i?eoeeueiee?a ?nioaaiiy i?a?onueei? iiae. Aeoiaey/e c
oai??? ?aeiino? “?onneiai” ia?iaeo, I.Niaieaanueeee oaa?aeea, ui a
aeeaieo aeaaieio aiai?e i?aaeaiii?, cao?aeii? ? i?ai?/ii-no?aeii? ?on?
aoee iaeaea oioiaeieie, a oiio “?onneee ycue” oiae? aoa ?aeeiei.

I?ioa a?i aenoioa oaco, i?ae a aeaaiueiio Ee?a? aei Aaoe?ai? iaaaee
aeeee i?aaeee ia oe?a?ioe?a, a ?in?yi.

O iieai?oe? c I.Niaieaanueeei iaeaeoeai?oei aoa a?aeiiee oe?a?inueeee
iiaiciaaaoeue A.E?einueeee. O/aiee o i?aoeyo “Oeeieiaey e iiaiaeeineay
aeiioaca”, “ Ae?aaiaee?aneee aiai?” i?aeaeaa ieu?ai?e e?eoeoe?
aioeiaoeia? oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i iiao aeaai?o Ee?aa ? Ee?aueie, i?i
iioiaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae ? ?? noaoon. A.E?einueeee aeia?a
naiino?ei?noue oe?a?inueei? iiae.

O aaaaoueio i?aoeyo i?iaeaie iioiaeaeaiiy no?aeiineia’yinueeeo iia
oi?eaany ciaiee ?in?enueeee e?iaa?no aeaae. I.Oaoiaoia. O/aiee aeciaaaa
i?aaee aa?aa Aei?i?a niieiia?/iei i?noeai i?iaeeaaiiy iaei?in?a,
caia?a/oth/e oai??th i?ci?oiai canaeaiiy Ee?aueie aeo?aeoeyie c Ea?iao.
Ia eiai aeoieo, iiaa iai’yoie XI – XII no. na?ae/eoue, ui a aeaaieio
“?onneee ycue” ia aoa ?aeeiei, a ?iciaaeaany ia e?eueea ae?aeaeoieo
a?oi. Iiaiciaaaoeue ?icoi?a, ui io?oe?ei? caai?iie iaaaoeaii
iicia/athoueny ia ooieoe?iioaaii? oe?a?inueei? iiae ? aenooiea iaeiei ?c
?i?oe?aoi??a neanoaaiiy oeaco i?i iaiaaeaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy
oe?a?inueei? iiae.

Ie?ai?oi?noue oe?a?inueei? iiae ianoithaaee aaaaoi aeaeaoieo neaa?no?a –
i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a. Cie?aia A. ssae/ i?eioneaa
naiino?eiee ?icaeoie iniiaieo ?onueeeo ia??/ oaea c XI no.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “Aeeneon?? iaaeiei noaoono
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae, ?? ia?niaeoeae oa aa??aio?a o e?ioe? O?O
— ii/. OO no.” ?icaeyiooi ??ci? iiaeyaee ia noa?o aaeeaaiiy ienaiii?
oe?a?inueei? iiae ? ae?iaeaiiy ?aeeieo ii?i.

Iai?ee?ioe? XIX no. aeeneon?y iaaeiei oe?a?inueei? iiae niaeaoioea c
iiaith neeith. Aeoiee a/aieo ?icae?eeeeny uiaei iaae aaeeaaiiy
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae.

I?aaenoaaiee ?in?enueei? io?oe?eii? iaoee N. Aoee/ ia caia?a/oaaa i?aaa
oe?a?inueei? iiae ia aaeeaaiiy a e?oa?aoo??, aea canoa??aaa i?e oeueiio,
i?ae ii?ie oe?a?inueei? iiae ua ia neeaeeny.

Eiai aeoiee i?aeaeaa e?eoeoe? ?.O?aiei, yeee iieacaa oe?ieee ?icaeoie
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e, aeia?aoe aaci?aenoaai?noue iieai?ee, ui aaeany
a ?in?? oa Aaee/ei? iaaeiei caeiiii??iinoae ?nioaaiiy e?oa?aoo?e
oe?a?inueeith iiaith.

I?aeo?eiaa N. Aoee/a ?ioee ?in?enueeee o/aiee O.Oei?einueeee. sse ? eiai
iiia?aaeiee, O.Oei?einueeee oaeiae ia caia?a/oaaa i?aaa oe?a?inueei?
iiae ia aaeeaaiiy ?? ye ienaiii-e?oa?aoo?iith. Ia eiai aeoieo,
oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a iiaeiia aooe i?aee?oa?aoo?ith “iaua?onneie”, eeoa
ae?oai?yaeiith. O.Oei?einueeee oaa?aeea, ui ci?no oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e iiaeiai ae/a?ioaaoeny ooaeiaeiuei-iiaoe/ieie oai?aie ?c
aeeooy iaei?in?a.

C aeeaieith ia??oioiaaiith iaoeiaith e?eoeeith caia?a/oaaa oaa?aeaeaiiy
i?ioani?a O. Oei?einueeiai ?. Oei/aiei. A/aiee cacia/aa, ui i?ioyaii
e?eueeio noie?oue ye o iaei?onuee?e, oae ? aaeeei?onuee?e iiaao aaeany
ai?ioueaa ia?iaeieo aeaiaio?a c oea?eiaiineia’yinueeeie ? cae?i/eeany
aiia ia?aiiaith a iaio ia?iae?a nai?i ia?iaeiei aeaiaioii ? ooai?aiiyi
e?oa?aoo?ieo iia ia ??oio? aeeaeo ia?iaeieo aia??ie. A iniiao
?in?enueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae eyaea iineianueea aia??ea, a a iniiao
oe?a?inueei? – iieoaanueei-/eae?einueea. Oiio oe?a?inueea iiaa ye
naiino?eia ia iiaeiia aooe iaiaaeaiith o nai?io ooieoe?iioaaii?.

Ia aeieeaei aeiaeieo noii?a?a uiaei aeaaiino? no/anieo eiio
no?aeiineia’yinueeeo “ia??/” o E. Ieoaeue/oea, ia aeoieo yeiai
iaei?onueea ia??//y ii/aei ?icaeaaoeny naiino?eii, iiaeeeai, o?ioe
i?ci?oa a?ae iniiaieo neia’yinueeeo ia??/. Iii?oio aeecuee?noue i?ae
iaei?onueeei oa aaeeei?onueeei ia??//yie iiaiciaaaoeue iiynithaaa
oaeaeoei ?icaeoeii i?ioeano aioo??oiuei? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? a ae?eyioe?
neia’yinueei? iiae ia i?aaei?, i?ae ia noiae?. Caia?a/oaaa ?aei?noue
“?onneiai ycuea” ? A. Iaoiaiei, yeee a?aecia/ea aaeeeo e?euee?noue
nooo?aeo a?aei?iiinoae o oiiaoeoe? aeaio iia. O/anoue oaeaiiaeoeo
oe?a?ioe?a o noai?aii? ?in?enueei? e?oa?aoo?e ia ia? i?/iai ni?eueiiai c
ooai?aiiyi ni?eueii? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae, ine?eueee oe? ethaee a/eeeny o
oeie? ?in?enueeith iiaith, oiio e ienaee iath nai? oai?e. Aiaeii/an A.
Iaoiaiei coieiya na?e iiaeyae ia Aaee/ei?, aea oe?a?inueea iiaa
aaeeaaeany a on?o noa?ao noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

I?aaa oe?a?inueei? iiae a?aenoithaaee oaeiae A. Aioiiiae/,
I. A?ooaanueeee, Ae. Ii?aeiaaoeue.

O oeueiio ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii iiaeyaee oe?a?inueeeo o/aieo ia oeyoe
?icaeoeo caaaeueiioe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae. O aeeneon?? acyee
o/anoue i?aaenoaaieee Iaaeaei?i?yiueie, cie?aia A. A??i/aiei,
A.E?einueeee, ?.Ia/oe-Eaaeoeueeee oa ?i. ? Aaee/eie, cie?aia ?.O?aiei,
?.Eiei?oaec, ?.Aa?o?aonueeee. Aeeneon?y ooaa?aeeea aeoieo i?i
no?aeiioe?a?inueeo ae?aeaeoio iniiao caaaeueiioe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii?
iiae, ui iiaeiia iiiiaithaaoeny eaeneeith ?ioeo ae?aeaeo?a.

Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iaie c?iaeaii oae?
aeniiaee:

1. Aeeneon?? iaaeiei oe?a?inueei? iiae oi/eeeny ia noi??ieao iaoeiaeo,
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo, iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo aacao oa aeo?iae?a, o
i?eaaoiiio eenooaaii?. O/anoue o i?e acyee ye oe?a?inuee? a/ai?, oae ?
?in?enuee?, /anoeiai — iieuenuee? oa ?io? neaa?noe, aea iaeaeoeai?oa
? iaea?eueoa iieai?coaaee I.Iiaiae?i ? I.Iaeneiiae/, I.Niaieaanueeee ?
A.E?einueeee, N.Aoee/, O.Oei?einueeee oa E.Ieoaeue/oe ? A.Iaoiaiei.

2.Ia iniia? aeyaeaieo oiiaoe/ieo, ii?oieia?/ieo, neioaene/ieo oa
eaene/ieo iciae aoei iienaii iaeoa?aeoa?i?o? ?ene oe?a?inueei? iiae, ui
a?aeae?eythoue ?? a?ae ?ioeo neia’yinueeeo iia, cie?aia ?in?enueei? oa
iieuenueei?.

3.Ia iniaeeaino? oe?a?inueei? iiae caa?oaee oaaao ye oe?a?inuee? a/ai?
(I.Iaeneiiae/, E.Ieoaeue/oe, I.Iaiiianueeee, I.Iioaaiy, ?.O?aiei,
I.Iaoeeinueeee, A.Iaoiaiei oa ?i.), oae ? ?in?enuee? iaoeiaoe? (N.Aoee/,
O.Oei?einueeee, ?.N?aciaanuee?e, I.Iiaiae?i, I.Niaieaanueeee,
I.Oaoiaoia oa ?io?). Aeaye? ?in?enuee? a/ai?, cie?aia I.Oaoiaoia,
I.Eaa?ianueeee, O.Ei?o, i?aaioee ia’?eoeaii iieacaoe caeiiii??i?
i?ioeane ?? ?icaeoeo, a?aeaiaeeee ?e iaeaaeia i?noea na?aae ?ioeo
neia’yinueeeo iia. I?aaenoaaieee io?oe?eii? iaoee, cie?aia N.Aoee/,
O.Oei?einueeee, I.Iiaiae?i, I.Niaieaanueeee, ?icaeyaeaee oe?a?inueeo
iiao eeoa ye ia??//y “iaua?onneiai ycuea”, a?aeaiaey/e ?e ?ieue
ae?oai?yaeii?, ia caeaoii? aei ianeoaiaoaaiiy ??cieo noa? aeeooy,
ianaiia?aae — aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e. Aeciaaaee naiino?eiith oe?a?inueeo
iiao a?aeii? neaa?noe O.I?eeioe/ oa A.ssae/.

4.Iaiaaaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a ?in?enueei? io?oe?eii? iaoee ?icaeyaeaoe
oe?a?inueeo iiao ye ae?aeaeo “iaua?onneiai ycuea” ni?eyee iiya?
o?yaeiaeo oeac?a i?i iaiaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ae?oeiaaiiai neiaa.
Oe?a?inueea iiaa iaaeiaai aoea aeo?niaia c on?o noa?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. ? o?eueee
caoiaeaie i?ia?aneaieo ?in?enueeeo ae?y/?a, o oiio /ene? I.Oaoiaoiaa,
O.Ei?oa, O.Oi?ooiaoiaa, ciyoi oe? aeene?ei?iaoe?ei? uiaei oe?a?inueei?
ienaiii-e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae oea?nuee? caoiaee.

5. Aeeneon?y iaaeiei oe?a?inueei? iiae ni?eyea c’ynoaaiith ieoaiiy i?i
?? iioiaeaeaiiy, aeine?aeaeaiith ienaiieo iai’yoie. I?aaenoaaieee
io?oe?eii? o?eieia?? iaiaaaeeny aeiaanoe, ui ?iciaae “iaua?onneiai
ycuea” noaany eeoa o XII–XIV no. Oe?a?inuee? iiaiciaaoe? I.Iaeneiiae/,
I.Iioaaiy, I.Iaiiianueeee, A.E?einueeee o nai?o i?aoeyo ia?aeiieeai
iieacaee noa?iaeeoi?noue oe?a?inueei? iiae, naiino?eiee ?? ?icaeoie c XI
no. Ia’?eoeaii i?aeoiaeea aei c’ynoaaiiy aaiaceno oe?a?inueei? iiae ?
I.Oaoiaoia, ia aeoieo yeiai ie?ai? a?aei?iiino? a “iaua?onneii ycuea”
i?iyaeythoueny aaea a XI no.

6.I?ae /an aeeneon?? aoea iiai?noth a?aeeeiooa ye aioeiaoeiaa oai??y, ui
?? aenoioa I.Iiaiae?i, a i?aeo?eiaa I.Niaieaanueeee, i?i i?ci?oa
canaeaiiy caiaeue Ee?aa oa Ee?aueie aeo?aeoeyie c Ea?iao. I.Iaeneiiae/,
I.Eioey?aanueeee, A.E?einueeee oa ?i., ?in?enueeee e?iaa?no I.Oaoiaoia
aoee ia?aeiiai? a oiio, ui oe?a?ioe? i?iaeeaaee ia caieyo Iiaei?i?ia’y
caeaaia.

7.I?ae /an aeeneon?? caa?iaii oaaao ia iniaeea?noue ia??/ oe?a?inueei?
iiae, ?? ae?aeaeoiee iiae?e.

8.?yae aeine?aeiee?a ia eeoa aeciaaaee noa?iaeeoi?noue oe?a?inueei?
iiae, aea e ienaee i?i ?? aieea ia ?icaeoie ?in?enueei? oa iieuenueei?
iia (I.Einoiia?ia, I.Eoe?o, I.Eieania, ?.Iiaeeueieoeueeee).

9.O oiae? iieai?ee aeiaaaeaii ni?iiiaei?noue oe?a?inueei? iiae aooe
iiaith iaoee, ina?oe ( ?.O?aiei, A.A??i/aiei, ?.Ia/oe-Eaaeoeueeee,
?.Oei/aiei, A.Iaoiaiei, I.A?ooaanueeee), onoia?a/ oaa?aeaeaiiyi
i?aaenoaaiee?a oea?nueei? io?oe?eii? iaoee (N.Aoee/a, O.Oei?einueeiai oa
?i.).

10.I?ae /an aeeneon?? i?i ?ieue cao?aeii- oa no?aeiioe?a?inueeiai
aa??aio?a o ?icaeoeia? caaaeueiioe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae
a?o/eciyi? a/ai? ae?eoee aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui a ?? iniia? iiaeiai
eaaeaoe ee?ai-iieoaanueeee ae?aeaeo, iaeiae aiia ia? iiiiaithaaoeny
eaeneeith i?aaeaiii-cao?aeieo, o oiio /ene? e aaeeoeueeeo aiai??a.

11.Aeeneon??, ui aaeeny i?ioyaii XIX — ii/. XX no., inoaoi/ii iieacaee
ie?ai?oi?noue oe?a?inueei? iiae, aeciaee ?? i?aai ia naiino?eiee
?icaeoie, ui i?aeoaa?aeeea 1905 ?. ?in?enueea aeaaeai?y iaoe.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue caeiaoaa/a c oaie aeena?oaoe??

1. Nie?e A.I. Aeaaeai?e N.Niaeue-Noioeueeee ? ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae //Iia? i?aeoiaee aei o?eieia?? o aeu?e
oeie?: Iaoa??aee O?aouei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??, 16-21 aa?aniy 1996
?ieo. — Iae?oiiieue, 1996.- N. 96.

2. Nie?e A.I. Oe?a?inueea iiaa a eie? iaoeiaeo caoe?eaaeaiue A.ssae/a //
Ina?oyiei. Ina?oyinueeee aeo?iae. — 1996.- ? 2-3. — N. 44-46.

3. Nie?e A.I. Iineaio?euenoai aeaai? ? no/ania // Ee?a. — ? 12 .- 1997.
— N. 10-14.

4. Nie?e A.I. ?c aeeneon?e i?i oe?a?inueeo iiao // Iaoeia? caienee.
Na??y: E?oa?aoo?iciaanoai.- Oa?iii?eue: OAeIO, 1997.- N. 229-238.

5. Nie?e A.I. Ieoaiiy “i?a?onueei?” iiae o aeine?aeaeaiiyo
N.Niaeue-Noioeueeiai // Iaoeiaee a?niee EAeO. Na??y o?eieia?/ia. Iiaa ?
nioe?aeuei? i?ioeane. — Aei. 26. — Euea?a, 1997. — N. 28-32.

6. Nie?e A.I. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae
? e?iaa?noe/i? aeeneon?? iaaeiei ia? o XIX — ii/. OO no. — Oa?iii?eue,
1998. -128 n.

7. Nie?e A.I. Aeeneon?? i?i oeyoe ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii?
iiae/ 90-o? ?iee XIX no. // Iaoeia? caienee. Na??y: Iiaiciaanoai.-
Oa?iii?eue: OAeIO, 1998. — N. 30-33.

Nie?e A.I. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae oe?a?inueei? iiae oa e?iaa?noe/i?
aeeneon?? iaaeiei ia? O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.01-oe?a?inueea iiaa. – Oa?iii?euenueeee
aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.Aiaothea, Oa?iii?eue,1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? ia iaoa??ae? ia?oiioae?eaoe?e c aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie a
iaoeiaeo, a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo, iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo aeo?iaeao,
aacaoao, ia iaoa??ae? ioae?eaoe?e aeieoiaio?a, oai??a, eenooaaiiy in?a
aeioe/ieo aei aeeneon?? aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e e?iaa?noeoe? ie?aii
iiiia?ao?/ii iienaii noia?a/ee i?i oe?a?inueeo iiao ye e?iaaaeueiee ?
noni?eueiee oaiiiai, c’yniao?oueny i?ia?an o aea/aii? no?oeoo?e oa
?noi??? oe?a?inueei? iiae o eiioaeno? aeeneon?? iaaeiei ia?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oe?a?inueea iiaa, e?oa?aoo?ia iiaa, iioiaeaeaiiy,
?noi??y oe?a?inueei? iiae, noaoon iiae, “iaua?onneee ycue”, ia??//y.

Nieee A.I. Enneaaeiaaiea iniaaiiinoae oe?aeineiai ycuea e
eeiaaenoe/aneea aeeneonnee aie?oa iaai a XIX — ia/.XX a.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.01 — oe?aeineee ycue. — Oa?iiiieueneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Aeaaeeie?a Aiaothea,
Oa?iiiieue, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ia iaoa?eaea ia?aiioaeeeaoeee a iao/iuo,
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo, iao/ii-iiioey?iuo aeo?iaeao, aacaoao, ia
iaoa?eaea ioaeeeaoeee aeieoiaioia, ni/eiaiee, ia?aienee eeoe, i?e/anoiuo
e aeeneonnee, aia?aua a ioa/anoaaiiie eeiaaenoeea ioaeaeueii
enneaaeiaaiu aeeneonnee ia oe?aeineii ycuea eae eeiaaaeueiii e
iauanoaaiiii oaiiiaia, iienai i?ia?ann i?e eco/aiee no?oeoo?u e enoi?ee
oe?aeineiai ycuea a eiioaenoa aeeneonnee aie?oa iaai.

I?iaiaeece?iaaiu aunooieaiey ecaanoiuo o/aiuo-eeiaaenoia —
i?aaenoaaeoaeae oea?neie, ioeoeeaeueiie iaoee ( I.Iiaiaeei,
A.Niaieaaneee, N.Aoee/, O.Oei?eineee), a oaeaea ae?oaeo ?onneeo
eeiaaenoia, no?aieaoeony iauaeoeaii ?anniao?eaaoue i?iaeaio
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe oe?aeineiai ycuea (A.Oaoiaoia, O.Oi?ooiaoia, O.Ei?o e
ae?.), e i?aaenoaaeoaeae oe?aeineie iaoee (I.Iaeneiiae/, A.Iioaaiy,
E.Ieoaeue/oe, I.Iaiiianeee, A.Oui/aiei, N.Niaeue-Noioeeee, A.E?uineee,
A.A?ei/aiei e ae?.).

A eco/aiee oe?aeineiai ycuea e aeeneonnee aie?oa iaai a OIO – ia/. OO a.
(aei i?eiyoey Caienee ?inneeneie aeaaeaiee iaoe ia ioiaia i?eoaniaiee
oe?aeineiai ycuea) auaeaeythony aeaa ia?eiaea, oneiaiie a?aieoeae
iaaeaeo eioi?uie n/eoaai iinoaiiaeaiea oea?neeo aeanoae 1863 a. ia
ia?aie/aiee oe?aeineiai ia/aoiiai neiaa.

Aeenna?oaoeey ninoieo ec o?ao ?acaeaeia.

A ia?aii ?acaeaea “Auyaeaiea iniaaiiinoae oe?aeineiai ycuea, nii?u i aai
ae?aaiinoe e ianoa a neaayineie naiuea a ia?aie iieiaeia — na?aaeeia
OIO aaea”, ?anniio?ai i?ioeann auaeaeaiey o/aiuie iniaaiiinoae
oe?aeineiai ycuea a ia?aie iieiaeia OIO aaea, aiaeece?othony aeeneonnee
aie?oa aai i?ienoiaeaeaiey e noaoona. Ia iniiaa auyaeaiiuo oiiaoe/aneeo,
ii?oieiae/aneeo, neioaene/aneeo e eaene/aneeo i?eciaeia auee iienaiu
iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou oe?aeineiai ycuea, eioi?ua ioaeaeytho aai io
ae?oaeo neaayineeo ycueia, a /anoiinoe ?onneiai e iieueneiai. A naiae
a?aiiaoeea A. Iaaeianeee aue iaeiei ec ia?auo, eoi oeacae ia naiua
aeaaiua iniaaiiinoe oe?aeineie oiiaoeee e ii?oieiaee. Iaiaeiie?aoii a
naieo ioaeeeaoeeyo ia?auae aieiaiea ia iniaaiiinoe caoeiaie e
a?aiiaoe/aneie nenoaiu oe?aeineiai ycuea I. Iaeneiiae/. O/aiue
?ac?aaioae i?eaeiaeueioth eeanneoeeaoeeth neaayineeo ycueia, ?acaeaeea
eo ia aeaa a?oiiu: ainoi/iineaayineoth, eee ?onneoth e
caiaaeiineaayineoth. Oe?aeineee ycue aue iauaeoii enneaaeiaaiey
oe?aeineeo eeiaaenoia E.Iiaeeueieoeeiai, E.Eiceineiai, I.Oaoeaae/a,
ss.Aieiaaoeeiai, I.Iaiiianeiai, A.Iioaaie e ae?., iaeiaei iaeaieaa
aeoeaii aeeneooe?iaaee I.Iiaiaeei, I.Eaa?ianeee e I.Iaeneiiae/.

Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea “Enneaaeiaaiey niaoeeoe/aneeo /a?o oe?aeineiai ycuea,
aeeneonnee aie?oa aai noaoona e i?ienoiaeaeaiey ai aoi?ie iieiaeia OIO —
ia/. OO a.” aiaeece?othony /a?ou oe?aeineiai ycuea, auaeaeaiiua
eeiaaenoaie ai aoi?ie iieiaeia OIO a. (A.Iioaaiy, E.Ieoaeue/oe,
I.Eieania, N.Aoee/ e ae?.), eco/athony acaeyaeu ycueiaaaeia ia a?aiy
aicieeiiaaiey oe?aeineiai ycuea. E.N?aciaaneee, I.Eaa?ianeee, I.Iiaiaeei
no?aieeenue aeieacaoue, /oi ?aniaae “iaua?onneiai ycuea” ninoiyeny
oieueei a OII — OIV aa.

I. Iaeneiiae/, A. Iioaaiy, I. Iaiiianeee a naieo ?aaioao ionoaeaaee
ae?aaiinoue oe?aeineiai ycuea (O? a.). Iauaeoeaii iiaeoiaeee e
auyniaieth aii?ina i i?ienoiaeaeaiee oe?aeineiai ycuea aeaae.
A. Oaoiaoia, ii iiaieth eioi?iai, ioaeaeueiua ioee/ey a “iaua?onneii
ycuea” i?iyaeythony oaea a OI a.

A. Niaieaaneee n/eoae, /oi n OII a. “iaei?onneia ia?a/ea” nouanoaiaaei a
thai-caiaaeiie ?one, iaeiaei ooaa?aeaeae, /oi aei iaoanoaey Aaouy a
Eeaaa e ia Eeaaueia aeeee i?aaeee ia oe?aeioeaa, a aaeeei?innia.

A oiaea aeeneonnee auea iieiinoueth ii?iaa?aiooa, eae aioeiao/iay,
oai?ey, auaeaeiooay I. Iiaiaeeiui e iiaeaea?aeaiiay A. Niaieaaneei, i
iicaeiai canaeaiee caiaeue Eeaaa e Eeaaueiu auoiaeoeaie ec Ea?iao.
I.Iaeneiiae/, E.Eioey?aaneee, A.E?uineee, A.Oaoiaoia e ae?. auee
oaaaeaeaiu a oii, /oi oe?aeioeu i?iaeeaaee ia caieyo Iiaeiai?iauey
ecaeaaia.

A o?aoueai ?acaeaea “Aeeneonnee aie?oa noaoona oe?aeineiai
eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea, aai ia?niaeoeau e aa?eaioia a eiioea O?O — ia/. OO
aaea” ?anniio?aiu ?acee/iua oi/ee c?aiey ia noa?o oiio?aaeaiey
oe?aeineiai ycuea, acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo ainoi/ii-oe?aeineei e
caiaaeii-oe?aeineei aa?eaioaie eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea.

Iieaieea iieacaea, /oi oe?aeineee ycue iiaeao auoue ycueii iaoee,
ia?aciaaiey. Yoi oaaaeeoaeueii aeieacaee oe?aeineea o/aiua E. O?aiei,
A. A?ei/aiei, E.Ia/oe-Eaaeoeeee, A. Oui/aiei, A. Iaoiaiei,
I. A?ooaaneee, aii?aee N. Aoee/o, O. Oei?eineiio e ae?., eioi?ua
no?aieeenue oaaaeeoue, /oi oe?aeineee ycue iiaeao auoue oieueei
n?aaenoaii ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa e ?ani?ino?aiaiey yeaiaioa?iuo
ciaiee n?aaee i?inoiai ia?iaea.

A eiioea OIO a. aaeanue iieaieea n?aaee oe?aeineeo o/aiuo i iooyo
?acaeoey oe?aeineiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea. A iae i?eiyee o/anoea
i?aaenoaaeoaee I?eaeiai?iauey, a /anoiinoe: A.A?ei/aiei e A.E?uineee, e
o/aiua Aaeeoeee — E.Aa?o?aoneee, E.Eiei?oaec, E.O?aiei e ae?. A oiaea
aeeneonnee i ?iee caiaaeii- e ainoi/iioe?aeineiai aa?eaioia a ?acaeoee
iauaoe?aeineiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea o/aiua i?eoee e iiaieth i oii, /oi a
iniiaa iauaeeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea aeieaeai eaaeaoue eeaai-iieoaaneee
aeeaeaeo. Iaeiaei iaua oe?aeineee ycue aeieaeai iiiieiyoueny eaeneeie ec
ae?oaeo aeeaeaeoia.

Aeeneonnee, eioi?ua aaeenue ia i?ioyaeaiee OIO — ia/. OO no.,
ieii/aoaeueii iieacaee, /oi oe?aeineee ycue — yoi ioaeaeueiue
neaayineee ycue, /oi aai /a?ou iaia?oaeeaathony oaea a iaiyoeao O? aaea;
auei i?eciaii aai i?aai ia naiinoiyoaeueiia ?acaeoea, /oi a eiia/iii
?acoeueoaoa auei iiaeoaa?aeaeaii ?inneeneie aeaaeaieae iaoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oe?aeineee ycue, eeoa?aoo?iue ycue, i?ienoiaeaeaiea,
enoi?ey oe?aeineiai ycuea, noaoon ycuea, “iaua?onneee ycue”, ia?a/ea.

Sokil B.M. The investigation of the Ukrainian language peculiarities and
debates on it in linguistic of the XIX – beginning XX century.
Manuscript.

Candidate of Philological thesis, specialization 10.02.01. – Ukrainian
language. V.Hnatyuk Ternopil State Pedagogical University, Ternopil,
1999.

The thesis deals with the first monografhical description of the debates
on Ukrainian language as the ethnic and social phenomenon. It revealed
the progress in structural studying of the Ukrainian language’s history
in the context of the discussion on it. The result of the investigation
is achieved according to the publications in scientific, social –
political scientific literature and the publications of documents,
works, and correspondence applicable to it.

Key words: Ukrainian language, literary language, origin, history of
Ukrainian language, status of language, dialect, “general Russian”.

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