1

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO IAOAI?EE ?IAI? N.I.OEIIOAIEA

AessEII AAEA??E IEEIEAEIAE*

OAeE 539.375

AeINE?AeAEAIIss IAOAI?*IEO IIAeAEAE I?IOeAN?A II*AOEIAIAI ?ICAEOEO
E?EOEIAI ? IEANOE*IIAI ?OEIOAAIIss

01.02.04 – iaoai?ea aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a Oiainueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio ?inoeooo? ?i.
I.A. Oe/eie oa ?inoeooo? iaoai?ee ?i. N.I.Oeiioaiea IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeia? ea??aieee:

Aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eai?inueeee Aiaoie?e
Ieaen?eiae/, ?inoeooo iaoai?ee ?i. N.I.Oeiioaiea IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eo.

Aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?ii?n Eaii?ae Aa?aiiae/,
Oiainueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo ?i. I.A. Oe/eie, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iiae?eue/oe TH??e
Ieeieaeiae/, ?inoeooo iaoai?ee ?i. N.I.Oeiioaiea IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eo.

Eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
Aiaaeaiia A’y/aneaa Eaii?aeiae/, I?aceae?y IAI Oe?a?ie, a/aiee nae?aoa?
naeoi?o.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
?.?.Ia/ieeiaa, eaoaae?a iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/ii? o?ceee. I?iina?oe,
i.Iaeana.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “29” a?oaeiy 1998 ?. 0 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.166.01 a ?inoeooo? iaoai?ee
?i.N.I.Oeii-oaiea IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252057, i.Ee?a-57, aoe.
Ianoa?iaa, 3.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iaoai?ee ?i. N.I.Oeiioaiea IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_26_”eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.166.01

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe
*a?ieoaiei ?.N

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Noai?aiiy no/anii? aenieiaoaeoeaii? oaoi?ee, ui ?
aaaeeeaith eaieith iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, iino?eii noaaeoue ia?aae
iaoeith i?i i?oei?noue iaoa??ae?a iia? caaea/?, iia’ycai? c
iaiao?aei?noth i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ? aeiaaia?/iino? iaoei ?
eiino?oeoe?e. Iaieio/a iayai?noue a aoaeue-yeiio iaoa??ae? o??uei,
o??ueiiaeaeieo aeaoaeo?a, ?ioeo iaaeineiiaeinoae no?oeoo?e, ye?
c’yaeythoueny ua ia noaae?? eiai aeaioiaeaiiy, a oiae? ianooiii?
ia?iaee, i?ae ae??th iaaaioaaeaiue ? iiaeooue noaoe i?e/eiith
iaia?aaeaa/aiiai eaoano?io?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy eiino?oeoe??, iiynith?
iaia?a?aii c?inoath/ee ?ioa?an aeine?aeiee?a aei iaoai?ee ?oeioaaiiy –
aaeoc? iaoee i?i i?oei?noue iaoa??ae?a, yea noaea a aeaiee /an iaeiei c
iaea?eueo aeooaeueieo iai?yie?a no/anii? iaoai?ee.

Iniiae iaoai?ee ?oeioaaiiy aoee caeeaaeai? A??o?onii, ??a?iii, I?iaaiii.
Aaeeeee aeeaae a ?icaeoie oeueiai ?icae?eo iaoai?ee aeaoi?i?aiiai
oaa?aeiai o?ea aianee A.I.Aeaenaiae?ia, A.?.Aa?aiaeaoo, I.I.Ai?iaea/ia,
I.I.Aeoaeoeueeee, I.I.Aocue, A.I.Eai?inueeee, A.N.E?o, I.ss.Eaiiia,
A.I.Ii?icia, A.I.Iaca?aiei, A.A.Iaianthe, TH.I.Iiae?eue/oe, A.ss.Iiiia,
TH.I.?aaioiia, I.I.Naa?oe, E.?.Ne?iyi, E.I.Oi?iooi, A.I.*a?aiaiia,
?.N.*a?ieoaiei, D.S.Dugdala, H.Liebowitz, J.R.Rice, G.C.Sih,
T.Yokibori, oa ?io?.

I?ioeane ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ii/aoeiaiai ?icaeoeo o??uei a?aeiinyoueny aei
/enea oeo aoai?a ?oeioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a, ye? c iiceoe?e iaoai?ee
aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea a ieai? ?ica’ycaiiy e?aeiaeo caaea/, ui
iiaeaeththoue i?ioeane, aei oaia??oiueiai /ano iaaeinoaoiuei aea/ai?.
A?aeiii ?yae iiaeeeaeo iaoai?ci?a ca?iaeaeaiiy o??uei, ye? iio?i
i?eaiaeyoue aei ?oeioaaiiy, ui aea/athoueny o?ceeith oaa?aeiai o?ea —
iaoai?cie No?i, Eioo?aeea, Aeaaeeie?iaa, Oaeea. Na?aae iaoai?ci?a
ca?iaeaeaiiy o??uei a iaoaeao iaeiei ?c iniiaieo ? iaoai?ci Eioo?aeea,
ca?aeii yeiio o??ueia ooai?th?oueny i?e ia?aoei? ieiuei eiacaiiy.
A?aeiia?aeii c iaoai?ciii Eioo?aeea ca?iaeaeaiiy o??ueie a?aeaoaa?oueny
a ?acoeueoao? ooai?aiiy neoi/aiiy aeeneieaoe?e, yea aeeeeea? aenieo
eiioeaio?aoe?th iai?oaeaiue a oi/oe? ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy.
Aiane?aeie eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?oaeaiue a oi/oe? ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy
iiaeeea? ?ic?ea nooe?eueiino? a?ey ia? ? ooai?aiiy aeo?aeii? c ia?
o??ueie, aeiaaeeia yei? cia/ii iaioa aeiaaeei e?i?e eiacaiiy ? an?o
?ioeo ?ici???a o?ea (iiaeaeue Eioo?aeea). Ia aeeaey/enue ia oa, ui
iiaeaeue Eioo?aeea ca?iaeaeaiiy o??uei oe?iei a?aeiia, e?aeia? caaea/?
iaoai?ee aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea, ui iiaeaeththoue i?ioeane
ii/aoeiaiai ?icaeoeo ?oeioaaiiy, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue iiaeae?
Eioo?aeea, ia aeine?aeaeoaaeenue. Oiio iinoaiiaea ? iiaoaeiaa ?ica’yce?a
e?aeiaeo caaea/ i?i o??ueie, ye? ooai?eeeny i?e ia?aoei? e?i?e eiacaiiy,
yaey? niaith aeooaeueio i?iaeaio iaoai?ee aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea.

A aeai?e ?iaio? aeey iaeii??aeiiai ?cio?iiiiai o?ea i?iaaaeaii
aeine?aeaeaiiy o aeacaiiio iai?yi? a oiiaao ieinei? aeaoi?iaoe?? a
?aieao noaoe/ii? caaea/? i?i e?i?? eiacaiiy, ui ia?aoeiathoueny,
neiao?e/ii? a?aeiinii a?naeo?ene eooa i?ae ieie. I?e oeueiio ?icaeyioo?
aeaa aa??aioe ?oeioaaiiy: aeiaaeie, eiee iaoa??ae a?ey oi/ee ia?aoeio
e?i?e eiacaiiy iica aeaieie e?i?yie ? e?eoeei ? ?oeioaaiiy
a?aeaoaa?oueny oeyoii ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo o??ueie, a oaeiae
aeiaaeie, eiee iaoa??ae a?ey oi/ee ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy ? a?eueo
ieanoe/iei ? ?oeioaaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny oeyoii ?icaeoeo ieanoe/ii? ciie,
yea iiaeaeth?oueny ia ii/aoeiaiio eiai aoai? aeaiia aocueeeie
i?yiie?i?eieie ieanoe/ieie nioaaie, ui aeoiaeyoue c aeacaii? oi/ee ?
yaeythoue niaith ieanoe/i? e?i?? ?ic?eao ia?ai?uaiiy – aoi?eii? e?i??
eiacaiiy.

I?aenoaaith aeey caaaeaiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ? oaea. A ii/aoeia?e noaae??
naiai ?icaeoeo ieanoe/i? aeaoi?iaoe??, ye a?aeiii, eieae?ciaai? a oiieeo
oa?ao iaoa??aeo – nioaao ieanoe/iino?. Eeane/ieie a oeueiio ieai? ?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy I.ss. Eaiiiaa, I.I. Aeoaeoeueeiai,
N.ss. ss?aie, ye? aeyaeee ia naiiio ii/aoeiaiio aoai? i?ioeano
ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy aea? ieanoe/i? nioaeee, ye? iaoeeai? aei e?i??
ia ?? i?iaeiaaeaii?. A iiaeaeueoiio a e?oa?aoo?? c iaoai?ee ?oeioaaiiy
aoea iioae?eiaaia aaeeea e?euee?noue oai?aoe/ieo ?ia?o, i?enay/aieo
caaea/ai i?i ?ic?aooiie ieanoe/ieo cii a?ey ??ciiiai?oieo
eiioeaio?aoi??a iai?oaeaiue a ?aieao iiaeaeae c ieanoe/ieie nioaaie, ye?
yaeythoue niaith e?i?? ?ic?eao ia?ai?uaiiy.

Oae? caaea/? aea/aee A.I.Aeaenaiae?ia, E.O. Aa?aaeieoeueeee, A.E.
Aino?ia, A.I. Aeaieeiae/, A.I. Eai?inueeee, E.A.E?ii?n, I. I.
Eoiae?ao, A. I. I??nae?iia, A. A. Iaianthe, I. I. Naa?oe, A. I.
*a?aiaiia, K. K. Lo, J.R. Rice, H. Riedel, V.Vitek oa ?io?.

Aeacaia a?iioaca eieae?caoe?? ii/aoeiaeo ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e a
oiieeo oa?ao iaoa??aeo, yea oe?iei i?aeoeeo?oueny a aeaiee /an,
aeei?enoiao?oueny ? a oe?e ?iaio?.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ce/ieo iiaeaeae i?ioean?a ii/aoeiaiai
?icaeoeo e?eoeiai ? ieanoe/iiai ?oeioaaiiy, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue iiaeae?
Eioo?aeea ca?iaeaeaiiy o??uei, iaoiaeaie iaoai?ee ?oeioaaiiy oa oai???
i?oaeiino? ia iniia? no?iaeo iaoaiaoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy
iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii cae?enieoe:

1) iinoaiiaeo a oiiaao ieinei? aeaoi?iaoe?? noaoe/ieo neiao?e/ieo
caaea/ iaoai?ee aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea, ui iiaeaeththoue i?ioeane
ii/aoeiaiai ?icaeoeo e?eoeiai ? ieanoe/iiai ?oeioaaiiy, ye?
a?aeiia?aeathoue iiaeae? Eioo?aeea ca?iaeaeaiiy o??uei;

2) ?ic?iaeo no?iaiai iaoaiaoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei aeine?aeaeaiiy
iinoaaeaieo caaea/, yeee aaco?oueny ia oi/iiio ?ica’ycaii? a?aeiia?aeieo
e?aeiaeo caaea/ oai??? i?oaeiino?;

3) aeine?aeaeaiiy c canoinoaaiiyi ?ic?iaeaiiai i?aeoiaeo
iai?oaeaiiai noaio a?ey oi/ee ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy oa a?ey e?ioey
o??ueie Eioo?aeea;

4) ?ic?aooiie ieanoe/ii? ciie a?ey oi/ee ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy a
?aieao iiaeae? c aeaiia ieanoe/ieie nioaaie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa a iaoai?oe?
aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea a oiiaao ieinei? aeaoi?iaoe?? aeine?aeaeai?
noaoe/i? neiao?e/i? caaea/?, ye? iiaeaeththoue i?ioeane ii/aoeiaiai
?icaeoeo e?eoeiai ? ieanoe/iiai ?oeioaaiiy, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue iiaeae?
Eioo?aeea ca?iaeaeaiiy o??uei. Iinoaaeai? caaea/? caaaeai? aei e?aeiaeo
caaea/ oai??? i?oaeiino? aeey eeeiiaeaeieo o?e, ui a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae
caaea/ oeueiai eeano, ye? ?icaeyaeaeeny ?ai?oa, oi?ioethaaiiyi oiiae ia
iane?i/aiiino?, ui aeicaiey? a?aooaaoe aieea ciai?oiueiai iiey ia
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai o?ea. Iiaoaeiaai? oi/i? ?ica’ycee iiaeo
caaea/ oai??? i?oaeiino? aeey ieiueie, c oi/ee yei? aeoiaeyoue aea?
e?i?? eiacaiiy ne?i/aiii? aeiaaeeie; aeey ieiueie, c oi/ee yei?
aeoiaeyoue aea? iai?aiane?i/aii? e?i?? eiacaiiy; aeey ieiueie, c oi/ee
yei? aeoiaeyoue aea? iai?aiane?i/aii? e?i?? eiacaiiy oa o??ueia
ne?i/aiii? aeiaaeeie; aeey ieiueie, c /ioe?ia e?i?yie eiacaiiy, ui
aeoiaeyoue c ?? oi/ee, aea? c yeeo iai?aiane?i/aii?, a aea? –
ne?i/aiii? aeiaaeeie. Ia iniia? aeaieo ?ica’yce?a aia?oa i?iaaaeaii
aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeaiiai noaio a?ey oi/ee ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy oa
a?ey o??ueie iaei? aeiaaeeie, ui ooai?eeany i?e ia?aoei? e?i?e eiacaiiy,
cae?eniaii ?ic?aooiie ieanoe/ii? ciie a?ey oi/ee ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy
a ?aieao iiaeae? c aeaiia ieanoe/ieie nioaaie.

Aeinoia??i?noue ? iaa?oioiaai?noue ?acoeueoao?a caaacia/o?oueny oei, ui
iaoai?/i? iiaeae?, ye? aeine?aeaeoaaeeny, aaeaeaaoi? ?aaeueiei o?ce/iei
i?ioeanai; ye aeo?aei? i?e i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeei?enoiaothoueny eeoa eeane/i? iieiaeaiiy, a oaeiae caaaeueiii?eeiyo?
a?iioace iaoai?ee aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea; e?aeia? caaea/?
iinoaaeai? ei?aeoii ? ?ica’ycai? oi/ii no?iaeie iaoaiaoe/ieie iaoiaeaie;
io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ? noi?ioeueiaai? aeniiaee ocaiaeaeothoueny c
?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue c o?ceee ?oeioaaiiy oaa?aeeo o?e.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeai? o aeaeyae? c?o/ieo aeey i?aeoe/iiai ei?enooaaiiy
aiae?oe/ieo ae?ac?a, /eneiaeo oaaeeoeue ? a?ao?e?a, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue
??ciei cia/aiiyi ?icoeeo eooa, ui ooai?th?oueny e?i?yie eiacaiiy, ye?
ia?aoeiathoueny. Cie?aia, io?eiai? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a ?ioaineaiino?
iai?oaeaiue, noaiaiae neiaoey?iino? iai?oaeaiue, eoo?a, ye? aecia/athoue
iai?yi ii/aoeiaiai ?icaeoeo aoi?eiieo e?i?e eiacaiiy. Oe? aeai? iiaeooue
yaeyoe ?ioa?an aeey iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ? aeei?enoiaoaaoeny i?e
?ic?aooieao oa i?iaiicoaaii? oiia ca?iaeaeaiiy aeaoaeo?a a iaoae?/ieo
iiiie?enoaeao, ye? canoiniaothoueny a no/anieo aa?a-eini?/ieo
oaoiieia?yo aeey aeaioiaeaiiy iaea?eueo iai?oaeaieo aeaiaio?a
eiino?oeoe?e.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii iaoeieiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
?inoeoooo iaoai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie ii oai? IAe? ?1.3.1.293 “Aeine?aeaeaiiy
eaac?noaoe/ieo i?ioean?a ?oeioaaiiy ? eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?oaeaiue a
ai?cio?iiieo ? iaiaeii??aeieo iaoa??aeao” (?ae.?. 0197v008131).

Iaea?aeai? o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? a ?inoeooo? iaoai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie ?inoeooo? i?iaeai i?oeiino?
IAI Oe?a?ie, O?ceei-iaoai?/iiio ?inoeooo? IAI Oe?a?ie, Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
aea?aeaaiiio oieaa?neoao? ?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea. ? aeioe?eueiei i?iaeiaaeeoe
iiaeaeueo? aeine?aeaeaiiy o ?inoeooo? iaoai?ee oa ?ioeo iaoeiaeo oa
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?inoeoooao ca iai?yieii aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao a?aeae?eo
iaoai?ee ?oeioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ?inoeoooo iaoai?ee ?i. N.I.Oeiioaiea IAI
Oe?a?ie (1996-1998 ?.?.), ia iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? naeoe?? “Iaoai?ea
?oeioaaiiy oa aoiie iaoa??ae?a” ?inoeoooo iaoai?ee ?i. N.I.Oeiioaiea IAI
Oe?a?ie (1998 ?.), ia II I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? oe?a?inueeeo
?iaeaia??a-iaoai?e?a (i.Euea?a, 1995 ?.), I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea a anoanoaaiiuo iaoeao” (i.
Aeiaoe, 1997 ?.), II I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Eiino?oeoe?ei? oa
ooieoe?iiaeuei? iaoa??aee” (i.Euea?a, 1997 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 8 ?iaioao.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A ?iaioao [1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8] caeiaoaa/o
iaeaaeeoue oi?ioethaaiiy a?aie/ieo oiia e?aeiaeo caaea/, ui
iiaeaeththoue i?ioeane ii/aoeiaiai ?icaeoeo ?oeioaaiiy, ye?
a?aeiia?aeathoue iiaeae? Eioo?aeea ca?iaeaeaiiy o??uei; aeaaaeaiiy
??aiyiiy A?ia?a-Oiioa aeaieo caaea/ oa iiaoaeiaa ?ica’yce?a oeeo
??aiyiue; aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeaiiai noaio a?ey oi/ee ia?aoeio e?i?e
eiacaiiy oa a?ey e?ioey o??ueie Eioo?aeea; ?ic?aooiie ieanoe/ii? ciie
a?ey oi/ee ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy; aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a
?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue a e?ioe? o??ueie Eioo?aeea ? a e?ioeyo e?i?e
eiacaiiy; aecia/aiiy aieiaieo /eai?a ?iceeaaeo iai?oaeaiue a
aneiioioe/i? ?yaee a?ey oi/ee ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy. Ni?aaaoi?ai a
oeeo ?iaioao iaeaaeeoue iinoaiiaea caaaeueii? i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy;
i?iiiceoe?y oi?ioethaaoe oiiao ia iane?i/aiiino? c o?aooaaiiyi
ciai?oiueiai iiey; aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaaae?iee iai?oaeaiue a?ey oi/ee, c
yei? aeoiaeyoue e?i?? eiacaiiy ? o??ueia, a oaeiae a?ey oi/ee, c yei?
aeoiaeyoue /ioe?e e?i?? eiacaiiy.

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i ?iaioe. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, caeeth/aiiy ? nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (142
iaeiaioaaiiy). Ia’?i ?iaioe – 120 noi??iie. Aiia i?noeoue 14 ?enoie?a ?
6 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Ine?eueee iinoaaeai? a ?iaio? caaea/? c aeei?enoaiiyi cai?iiiiiaaiiai a
i?e i?aeoiaeo caiaeyoueny aei caaea/ oai??? i?oaeiino? aeey ieiueie, c
oi/ee yei? aeoiaeyoue iai?aiane?i/aii? e?i?? eiacaiiy ? i?yiie?i?ei?
o??ueie ne?i/aiii? aeiaaeeie, oiaoi aei e?aeiaeo caaea/ aeey
eeeiiaeaeieo o?e, o anooi? iaaaaeaiee ei?ioeee iaeyae ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue ieineeo noaoe/ieo caaea/ oai??? i?oaeiino? aeey
eeeiiaeaeieo o?e, io?eiaieo aei aeaiiai /ano. C iaeyaeo aeaeii, ui
aeacaiiai oeio caaea/? i?i e?i?? eiacaiiy, ui ia?aoeiathoueny, ?ai?oa ia
?icaeyaeaeeny. Ioaea, iiae?ai? caaea/? neeaaeathoue iiaee eean ieineeo
noaoe/ieo caaea/ oai??? i?oaeiino? aeey eeeiiaeaeieo o?e. E??i oiai, o
anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, aeine?aeaeaiith yei?
i?enay/aia ?iaioa, oa oi?ioeth?oueny ?? iaoa; aeaco?oueny, a /iio
iieyaa? iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe oa ?? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, /ei
caaacia/othoueny aeinoia??i?noue ? iaa?oioiaai?noue io?eiaieo a i?e
?acoeueoao?a; ei?ioei aeeeaaea?oueny ci?no ?iaioe.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? ei?ioei i?eaiaeyoueny iaiao?aei? aeey iiaeaeueoiai
aeai? i?i ieine? noaoe/i? neiaoey?i? caaea/? oai??? i?oaeiino? (cie?aia,
aeaye? caaaeuei? iieiaeaiiy i?i iiaaae?ieo iai?oaeaiue a?ey eooiaeo
oi/ie i?oaeieo o?e). Aeieeaaei?oa aeeeaaeaiiy aeaieo ieoaiue i?noeoueny
a eieaao A.C. Ia?oiia, I.?.Ia?e?ia “Iaoiaeu iaoaiaoe/aneie oai?ee
oi?oainoe” ? A.I. *a?aiaiiaa “Iaoaieea o?oieiai ?ac?ooaiey”

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? i?iaiaeeoueny aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeaiiai noaio a?ey
oi/ee ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy. C oe??th iaoith na?aae iane?i/aiii?
iiiaeeie iiaeeeaeo neooaoe?e ?icaeyaea?oueny e?aeiaa caaea/a oai???
i?oaeiino? aeey ieiueie, yea i?noeoue e?i?? eiacaiiy, ui ia?aoeiathoueny
(?en. 1). Ia e?i?? eiacaiiy aeiionea?oueny ?ic?ea eeoa aeioe/iiai
ia?ai?uaiiy, a aeioe/ia iai?oaeaiiy aei??aith? a?aieoe? s oaeo/ino? ia
cnoa. I?e x,y, y, xy0, x0.

Aeey iiaoaeiae oi/iiai ?ica’yceo caaea/? canoiniao?oueny iaoiae
A?ia?a-Oiioa a ii?aeiaii? c aia?aoii ?ioaa?aeueiiai ia?aoai?aiiy
Iaee?ia. Ca aeiiiiiaith ?ioaa?aeueiiai ia?aoai?aiiy Iaee?ia caaea/a
caiaeeoueny aei ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ??aiyiiy A?ia?a-Oiioa a nioc?
eiiieaenii? ieiueie, yea i?noeoue oyaio a?nue. Ia oeyoo ?ica’ycaiiy
??aiyiiy aeieea? caaea/a oaeoi?ecaoe?? ia oyai?e in? eiai
eiao?oe??ioa.Aiia ?ica’yco?oueny oeyoii ?icuaieaiiy inoaiiueiai ia
ooieoe?th, yea aeaiaioa?ii oaeoi?eco?oueny ? iiaea?oueny /a?ac
aaiia-ooieoe??, ? ooieoe?th, yea

Oaaeeoey.1

95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 —
0.1010.1900.2670.3340.3940.4480.4960.540140145150155160165170175-0.6190.
6550.6890.7220.7560.7920.8310.881oaeoi?eco?oueny ii oi?ioe? Aaoiaa. Ca
aeiiiiiaith oeeo oaeoi?ecaoe?e, i?eioeeio aiae?oe/iiai i?iaeiaaeaiiy,
oai?aie E?oa?eey, aneiioioe/ieo ioe?iie aeey iaee?iianueeeo
o?ainoi?iaio, aeayeeo ?ioeo iieiaeaiue oai??? ooieoe?e eiiieaenii?
ci?iii? aoaeo?oueny oi/iee ?ica’ycie ??aiyiiy, yeee ae?aaea?oueny /a?ac
?ioaa?aee oeio Eio? oa aaiia-ooieoe??. Ia iniia? aeaiiai ?ica’yceo
aeaiaeyoueny oi?ioee, ui aecia/athoue iai?oaeaiiy o aeaeyae? ?ioaa?ae?a
a?ae ooieoe?e eiiieaenii? ci?iii?, ? ciaoiaeeoueny eiao?oe??io
?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue a e?ioe? e?i?? eiacaiiy. I?e r0 noie aieiaieo
/eai?a ?iceeaaeo iai?oaeaiue a aneiioioe/i? ?yaee ae?aaeathoueny
oi?ioeaie (0)

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy»yyya??»?? ???&?
?MathType??p????uAth??????(1)=Nrf1(, r(1)=Nrf2(,
r(1)=Nrf3( (2)

wmetafile8? ??I???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy ??°?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-????? a ??? e???u?th??????wmetafile8?
??>??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ?`(???&??yyyy?????Ayyy«yyy (??«?? ???&?
?MathType???? ???u?????????»????-????? 
??? ???? „&??? (???u?th??????aea — ?aeeiee ia ?ioa?aae?
]-1;0[ ei??iue ??aiyiiy

wmetafile8? ??»???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?`9???&??yyyy?????AyyyIyyy 9??L?? ???&? ?MathType??
???u?th??????f1, f2, f3, Q –ooieoe??, ui i?eaiaeyoueny a ?iaio?.
Caeaaei?noue a?ae eooa ye?nii cia?aaeaia ia ?en.2. A oaae. 1
i?eaaaeai? cia/aiiy . Noie ?aooe /eai?a ?iceeaaeo iai?oaeaiue a
aneiioioe/i? ?yaee i?yiothoue aei ioey.

Aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeicaiey? c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee. Oi/ea I
ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy ? iniaeeaith oi/eith e?aeiai? caaea/? oai???
i?oaeiino?, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny. Aiia yaey? niaith eiioeaio?aoi?
iai?oaeaiue. I?e iaaeeaeaii? oi/ee ieiueie aei oi/ee I iai?oaeaiiy
i?yiothoue aei iane?i/aiiino?. Iniaeea?noue iai?oaeaiue a oi/oe? I
noaiaiaaa. Noai?iue neiaoey?iino? iai?oaeaiue caeaaeeoue a?ae eooa i?ae
e?i?yie eiacaiiy ? noaiiaeoue ?aeeiee ia ?ioa?aae? ]-1;0[ ei??iue
o?ainoeaiaeaioiiai ??aiyiiy (4). *ei a?eueoa ooiee eoo , oei neeuei?oee
eiioeaio?aoi? iai?oaeaiue I. I?e oeueiio, yeui ooiee eoo iaioa eooa *,
i?eaeecii ??aiiai 126, oi eiioeaio?aoi? I neaaoee, i?ae e?iaoeue
o??ueie. sseui >*, oi eiioeaio?aoi? I neeuei?oee, i?ae e?iaoeue
o??ueie. Aea * — ?aeeiee ia ?ioa?aae? ][ ei??iue ??aiyiiy -1/2.

Caaea/a, ui aeine?aeaeaia, ? iaeiei ?c iiaeeeaeo aeiaaee?a caaaeueii?
ieinei? noaoe/ii? caaea/? aeey ?cio?iiiiai i?oaeiiai o?ea aeia?eueii?
oi?ie, yea i?noeoue e?i?? eiacaiiy, ui ia?aoeiathoueny, c aeia?eueieie
a?aie/ieie oiiaaie, neiao?e/ii? a?aeiinii a?naeo?ene eooa i?ae e?i?yie
eiacaiiy, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny – aeiaaeeii, eiee aaea?oueny iiaoaeoaaoe
oi/iee ?ica’ycie. Aea e o aeacaiiio caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo iaea?aeai?
?acoeueoaoe ? c?iaeai? aeniiaee caa??aathoue neeo c o??th eeoa
??cieoeath, ui noae? N ? N0 onyeee ?ac aoaeooue iaoe ?io? cia/aiiy, ye?
a?aeiia?aeathoue eiaei?e eiie?aoi?e caaea/?. Oeae aeniiaie c?iaeaii c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaaaaeaieo a ia?oiio ?icae?e? caaaeueieo iieiaeaiue i?i
iiaaae?ieo iai?oaeaiue a?ey eooiaeo oi/ie i?oaeieo o?e ia iniia?
iiaoaeiaaiiai a ?iaio? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c aeaieie iieiaeaiiyie
?ica’yceo caaea/?, yea aiaeia?/ia o?e, ui aeine?aeaeaia, c
iai?aiane?i/aiieie e?i?yie eiacaiiy. Oaeei /eiii, o aeacai?e aeua
caaaeuei?e caaea/? i?i e?i?? eiacaiiy, ui ia?aoeiathoueny a oi/oe? I,
neiao?e/i?e a?aeiinii a?naeo?ene eooa i?ae ieie, i?e r0 noie aieiaieo
/eai?a ?iceeaaeo iai?oaeaiue a aneiioioe/i? ?yaee ae?aaeathoueny
oi?ioeaie (1), (2). Noie ?aooe /eai?a ?iceeaaeo iai?oaeaiue a
aneiioioe/i? ?yaee i?yiothoue aei ioey. Iaa?aeii? noae? N ? N0
aecia/athoueny c ?ica’yceo eiaeii? eiie?aoii? caaea/?.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaea?oueny caaea/a, yea aaciina?aaeiuei
a?aeiia?aea? iiaeae? Eioo?aeea. Aiane?aeie eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?oaeaiue a
oi/oe? I ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy iiaeeea? ?ic?ea nooe?eueiino? a?ey ia?
? ooai?aiiy aeo?aeieo c ia? o??uei, aeiaaeeie yeeo cia/ii iaio?
aeiaaeeie e?i?e eiacaiiy oa an?o ?ioeo ?ici???a o?ea. Iiaeeeai
i?eionoeoe ?nioaaiiy aeae?eueeio o??uei, ui aeoiaeyoue c oi/ee I, ye?
ooai?eeeny iaeii/anii. Aea a ?iaio? iieacaii ?aeei?noue ooai?aii?
o??ueie, ui ocaiaeaeo?oueny c iiaeaeeth Eioo?aeea. E??i oiai,
anoaiiaeth?oueny iai?yi ?icaeoeo aeaii? o??ueie. Oea cae?enith?oueny c
aeei?enoaiiyi a?aeiiiai a iaoai?oe? ?oeioaaiiy e?eoa??th iaeneiaeueieo
?icoyaoth/eo iai?oaeaiue oeyoii aiae?co (1) a (2).

Iaoae i?e ia?aoei? e?i?e eiacaiiy ooai?eeany o??ueia Eioo?aeea.
Noaaeoueny caaea/a aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeaiiai noaio a?ey e?ioey
o??ueie.

Ine?eueee aeiaaeeia o??ueie cia/ii iaioa aeiaaeeie e?i?e eiacaiiy oa
an?o ?ioeo ?ici???a o?ea, a iai?oaeaiee noai aeine?aeaeo?oueny eeoa a?ey
o??ueie, a yeino? ?ica’yceo a?aeiia?aeii? e?aeiai? caaea/? i?i o??ueio
aeiaaeeiith l ii?iaeueiiai ?ic?eao, yea aeoiaeeoue c oi/ee ia?aoeio
e?i?e eiacaiiy aeiaaeeiith L, (caaea/a A) aeei?enoiao?oueny ?ica’ycie
ieinei? noaoe/ii? neiao?e/ii? caaea/? oai??? i?oaeiino? aeey ieiueie, c
oi/ee yei? aeoiaeyoue aea? iai?aiane?i/aii? e?i?? eiacaiiy ? o??ueia
aeiaaeeiith l (?en.3).

Oae ye o?ei a caaea/?, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny, iane?i/aiia, aeieea? ieoaiiy
i?i oi?ioethaaiiy oiiae ia iane?i/aiiino?. Oey oiiaa oi?ioeth?oueny c
o?aooaaiiyi aieeao ciai?oiueiai iiey ia iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai
iane?i/aiiiai o?ea. Caaea/o A aoaeaii ?icaeyaeaoe ye caaea/o a oe?eiio.
I?eeeaaeii oaei? caaea/? iiaea neoaeeoe caaea/a, yea cia?aaeaia ia ?en.
4. A?aoiaoth/e iae?noue o??ueie, i?e r, ni?a?ici??ieo c L, ? l<, oi /ei iaioith aeyaeoueny aeiaaeeia ooai?aii? o??ueie Eioo?aeea,
oei a?eueoei aoaea eiao?oe??io ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue a ?? e?ioe?.
Aea yaey? niaith ?aeeiee ei??iue ??aiyiiy ()=-1/2 ia ?ioa?aae? . Oaeei
/eiii, yeui eoo a?eueoa 126, oi a?ey e?ioey ooai?aii? o??ueie Eioo?aeea
ia ?? i?iaeiaaeaii? ii?iaeuei? ?icoyaoth/? iai?oaeaiiy aoaeooue oei
a?eueo?, /ei iaioith aeyaeoueny oey o??ueia. I?e ??aiiaaaa o??ueie
Eioo?aeea iano?eea, a i?e — no?eea.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaiaeeoueny ?ic?aooiie ii/aoeiai? ieanoe/ii?
ciie a?ey oi/ee ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy aeiaaeeiith L. Oey ieanoe/ia
ciia iiaeaeth?oueny aeaiia aocueeeie i?yiie?i?eieie ieanoe/ieie nioaaie,
ye? aeoiaeyoue c aeaii? oi/ee ? yaeythoue niaith aoi?eii? e?i??
eiacaiiy. Aeiaaeeia aoi?eiieo e?i?e eiacaiiy cia/ii iaioa L oa on?o
?ioeo ?ici???a o?ea.

Noaaeoueny caaea/a aecia/aiiy aeiaaeeie aoi?eiieo e?i?e eiacaiiy ?
iai?yio ?o ?icaeoeo.

*a?ac oa, ui aeiaaeeia aoi?eiieo e?i?e eiacaiiy cia/ii iaioa L ? an?o
?ioeo ?ici???a o?ea, a iai?oaeaiee noai aeine?aeaeo?oueny eeoa a?ey
aoi?eiieo e?i?e eiacaiiy, a yeino? ?ica’yceo a?aeiia?aeii? e?aeiai?
caaea/? aeei?enoiao?oueny ?ica’ycie caaea/? oai??? i?oaeiino? aeey
ieiueie c /ioe?ia e?i?yie eiacaiiy, ui aeoiaeyoue c ?? oi/ee, aea? c
yeeo iai?aiane?i/aii? (?en. 6). Oiiaa ia iane?i/aiiino? oi?ioeth?oueny
oae naii, ye ? a iiia?aaeiueiio ?icae?e?.

Iiaoaeiaaii oi/iee ?ica’ycie caaea/? ? ia eiai iniia? aeaaaeaia oi?ioea,
yea neoaeeoue aeey aecia/aiiy aeiaaeeie aoi?eiieo e?i?e eiacaiiy. Iai?yi
?o ?icaeoeo anoaiiaeth?oueny c aeei?enoaiiyi a?aeiiiai e?eoa??th
iaeneiaeueieo aeioe/ieo iai?oaeaiue.

Iieacaii, ui aoi?eii? e?i?? eiacaiiy, ye? ?icaeaathoueny c
eiioeaio?aoi?a iai?oaeaiue I, ?ici?uai? ona?aaeei? a?eueoiai eooa i?ae
ia?aeiieie e?i?yie eiacaiiy. C ?inoii oeueiai eooa a?ae cia/aiue,
aeecueeeo aei 180, aei cia/aiue, aeecueeeo aei 360, eoo i?ae ia?aeiiith
? aoi?eiiith e?i?yie eiacaiiy ca?eueoo?oueny a?ae cia/aiue, aeecueeeo
aei 45, aei cia/aiue, aeecueeeo aei 90. I?e oeueiio aeyaey?ouey, ui eiee
ooiee eoo iaioa eooa, i?eaeecii ??aiiai 117, oi aoi?eii? e?i?? eiacaiiy
?icaeaathoueny iaeaea ii a?naeo?en? eooa . A oaae. 3 i?eaaaeai? cia/aiiy
eooa .

Oaaeeoey 3.

951001051101151201251301354850535558616366691401451501551601651701757274
778082868789Oaeei /eiii, a ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?/ieo iiaeaeae i?ioean?a ii/aoeiaiai ?icaeoeo
e?eoeiai ? ieanoe/iiai ?oeioaaiiy, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue iiaeae?
Eioo?aeea ca?iaeaeaiiy o??uei, ? a ?aieao aeaiiai i?aeoiaeo oea
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii. A ia?niaeoea? c aeei?enoaiiyi cai?iiiiiaaiiai
i?aeoiaeo iiaea aooe aeine?aeaeaiee oe?ieee eean caaea/ i?i o??ueie, ye?
aeoiaeyoue c oi/ee ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy.

O caeeth/aii? i?eaaaeai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe oa aeniiaee.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE OA AENIIAEE

A aeai?e ?iaio? aia?oa a iaoai?oe? aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea ia
iniia? no?iaeo iaoaiaoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui
a?aeiineoueny aei iaeiiai c iniiaieo iaoai?ci?a ca?iaeaeaiiy o??uei –
iaoai?cio Eioo?aeea, ca?aeii yeiio o??ueia ooai?th?oueny i?e ia?aoei?
ieiuei eiacaiiy.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe oae?.

1. Aeaia iinoaiiaea ieineeo (ieinea aeaoi?iaoe?y) noaoe/ieo neiao?e/ieo
caaea/ iaoai?ee aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea, ui iiaeaeththoue i?ioeane
ii/aoeiaiai ?icaeoeo e?eoeiai ? ieanoe/iiai ?oeioaaiiy, ye?
a?aeiia?aeathoue iiaeae? Eioo?aeea ca?iaeaeaiiy o??uei.

2. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?aeo?ae aei aeine?aeaeaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaea/, nooue
yeiai iieyaa? o caaaeaii? caaea/?, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny, aei e?aeiai?
caaea/? oai??? i?oaeiino? aeey eeeiiaeaeiiai o?ea c iaeeane/iith
oiiaith ia iane?i/aiiino?, yea aeicaiey? a?aooaaoe aieea ciai?oiueiai
iiey ia eiai iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai; iiaoaeia? iaoiaeii
A?ia?a-Oiioa a ii?aeiaii? c aia?aoii ?ioaa?aeueiiai ia?aoai?aiiy Iaee?ia
oi/iiai ?ica’yceo oe??? e?aeiai? caaea/? ? oi?ioethaaii? ia iniia?
?acoeueoao?a aiae?co io?eiaiiai ?ica’yceo aeniiae?a, ui a?aeiinyoueny
aei ieoaiiy, yea aeine?aeaeo?oueny.

3. Ne?aeoth/e cai?iiiiiaaiiio i?aeoiaeo, ?icaeyioo? oae? neiao?e/i?
caaea/? oai??? i?oaeiino?: caaea/a aeey ieiueie, c oi/ee yei? aeoiaeyoue
aea? e?i?? eiacaiiy ne?i/aiii? aeiaaeeie; caaea/a aeey ieiueie, c oi/ee
yei? aeoiaeyoue aea? iai?aiane?i/aii? e?i?? eiacaiiy; caaea/a aeey
ieiueie, c oi/ee yei? aeoiaeyoue aea? iai?aiane?i/aii? e?i?? eiacaiiy ?
o??ueia ne?i/aiii? aeiaaeeie; caaea/a aeey ieiueie, c /ioe?ia e?i?yie
eiacaiiy, ui aeoiaeyoue c ?? oi/ee, aea? c yeeo iai?aiane?i/aii?, a aea?
– ne?i/aiii? aeiaaeeie.

4. Aeaaaeai? ooieoe?iiaeuei? ??aiyiiy A?ia?a-Oiioa caaea/, ye?
?icaeyaeathoueny, ? iiaoaeiaai? oi/i? ?ica’ycee oeeo ??aiyiue, ui
ae?aaeathoueny /a?ac ?ioaa?aee oeio Eio? ? aaiia-ooieoe??.

5. Ia iniia? iiaoaeiaaieo ?ica’yce?a ??aiyiue A?ia?a-Oiioa io?eiaii
c?o/i? aeey i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy oi?ioee aeey eiao?oe??io?a
?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue a e?ioeyo e?i?e eiacaiiy ? aeey eiao?oe??ioa
?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue a e?ioe? o??ueie Eioo?aeea.

6. A caaea/? i?i aea? e?i?? eiacaiiy ne?i/aiii? aeiaaeeie, ye?
ia?aoeiathoueny, aeaaaeai? oi?ioee, ui aecia/athoue iai?oaeaiiy o
aeaeyae? ?ioaa?ae?a a?ae ooieoe?e eiiieaenii? ci?iii?, ? ciaeaeai?
ae?ace aeey aieiaieo /eai?a ?iceeaaeo iai?oaeaiue a aneiioioe/i? ?yaee
a?ey oi/ee ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy.

7. Ia iniia? io?eiaiiai ?ica’yceo caaea/? i?i /ioe?e e?i?? eiacaiiy, ye?
aeoiaeyoue c oi/ee ieiueie, i?iaaaeaiee ?ic?aooiie ii/aoeiai? ieanoe/ii?
ciie a?ey oi/ee ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy a ?aieao iiaeae? c aeaiia
ieanoe/ieie nioaaie: aeaaaeaia oi?ioea, yea neoaeeoue aeey aecia/aiiy
aeiaaeeie aoi?eiieo e?i?e eiacaiiy, ? anoaiiaeaii iai?yi ?o ii/aoeiaiai
?icaeoeo.

8. Aeine?aeaeaii iiaaae?ieo iai?oaeaiue a?ey oi/ee e?aeiai? caaea/?, c
yei? aeoiaeyoue e?i?? eiacaiiy ? o??ueia Eioo?aeea, a oaeiae a?ey oi/ee,
c yei? aeoiaeyoue /ioe?e e?i?? eiacaiiy.

Aiae?c iaea?aeaieo a ?iaio? ?acoeueoao?a aeicaieea c?iaeoe oae? iniiai?
aeniiaee.

1. Oi/ea I ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy yaey? niaith eiioeaio?aoi?
iai?oaeaiue c? noaiaiaaith iniaeea?noth. Noai?iue neiaoey?iino?
iai?oaeaiue caeaaeeoue a?ae eooa 2 i?ae e?i?yie eiacaiiy ? aecia/aia a
?iaio?. *ei a?eueoa ooiee eoo >90, oei neeuei?oee eiioeaio?aoi? I. I?e
<126 a?i neaaoee, a i?e >126 — neeuei?oee, i?ae e?iaoeue o??ueie.

2. O??ueia, ooai?aiiy yei? i?e ia?aoei? e?i?e eiacaiiy ne?ae i/?eoaaoe a
neeo iiaeae? Eioo?aeea, aoaea ?aeeiith, ?ioeo o??uei, ye? a aeoiaeeee c
oi/ee I ? ooai?eeenue c aeaiith o??ueiith iaeii/anii, ia ?nio?. Aeacaia
o??ueia aoaea ?icoaoiaaia ona?aaeei? a?eueoiai eooa i?ae e?i?yie
eiacaiiy. Oe? aeniiaee ocaiaeaeothoueny c iiaeaeeth Eioo?aeea.

3. sseui <126, oi /ei iaioith aeyaeoueny o??ueia Eioo?aeea, oi oei iaioei aoaea eiao?oe??io KI ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue a ?? e?ioe?. sseui >126, oi /ei iaioith aeyaeoueny o??ueia, oei a?eueoei aoaea eiao?oe??io
KI. sseui >126, oi a?ey e?ioey o??ueie ia ?? i?iaeiaaeaii? ii?iaeuei?
?icoyaoth/? iai?oaeaiiy aoaeooue oei a?eueo?, /ei iaioith aeyaeoueny
o??ueia. I?e >126 ??aiiaaaa o??ueie Eioo?aeea no?eea, a i?e >126 —
iano?eea.

4. Aoi?eii? e?i?? eiacaiiy aoaeooue ?icaeaaoeny ?c eiioeaio?aoi?a
iai?oaeaiue I ona?aaeei? a?eueoiai eooa i?ae ia?aeiieie e?i?yie
eiacaiiy. C ?inoii oeueiai eooa a?ae cia/aiue, aeecueeeo aei 180, aei
cia/aiue, aeecueeeo aei 360, eoo i?ae ia?aeiiith ? aoi?eiiith e?i?yie
eiacaiiy ca?eueoo?oueny a?ae cia/aiue, aeecueeeo aei 45, aei cia/aiue,
aeecueeeo aei 90. I?e <117 aoi?eii? e?i?? eiacaiiy aoaeooue ?icaeaaoeny iaeaea ii a?naeo?en? eooa . IOAE?EAOe?? CA IAOA??AEAIE ?IAIOE 1. Eaieineee A.A., Eeiien E.A., Aeyeii A.I. Ia eioaineaiinoe iai?yaeaiee aaeece eiioea o?aueiu, ia?aciaaaoaeny i?e ia?ana/aiee eeiee neieueaeaiey// I?eeeaaeiay iaoaieea.-1996.-O.32, ?12.-N.90-95. 2. Aeyeii A.I., Eaieineee A.A., Eeiien E.A. Ia/aeueiua iieinu ieanoe/iinoe a oi/ea noieeiiaaiey eeiee neieueaeaiey// Eca. ?AI. Iaoaieea oaa?aeiai oaea.-1997.-?3.-N.100-105. 3. Aeyeii A.I. Aiaeec ieineiai iai?yaeaiiiai ninoiyiey aaeece oi/ee ia?ana/aiey eeiee neieueaeaiey //I?eeeaaeiay iaoaieea.-1998.-O.34, ?2.-N.74-77. 4. Oi?oaay ieineinoue n eeieyie neieueaeaiey, enoiaeyueie ec aa oi/ee/ Aeyeii A.I., Eeiien E.A.; Oiai. ain. iaae. ei-o. – Oiaiue, 1996.- 7 n.- ?on.- Aeai. a AIOA Oe?aeiu 4.04.96, ?909-Oe96. 5. Aeyeii A.I. Caaea/e i o?aueiao e ieanoe/aneeo iieinao ia?aciaaaoeony i?e ia?ana/aiee eeiee neieueaeaiey// ?aae. ae. I?eeeaaeiay iaoaieea. – Eeaa, 1997.- 20 n. Aeai. a AIOA Oe?aeiu 8.12.97, ?597-Oe97. 6. E?ii?n E.A., Aeyeii A.I., Eieiaeiaa A.I. Ii/aoeiaee ?icaeoie e?i?e eiacaiiy c eooiaeo oi/ie // Oace II I?aeia?iaeiiai neiiic?oio oe?a?inueeeo iaoai?e?a, Euea?a. – 1995.- N.14-15. 7. Eeiien E.A., Aeyeii A.I., Eieiaeiaa A.A., Oacei A.A. Iaoiae ?an/aoa ieanoe/aneeo cii aaeece eiioeaio?aoi?ia iai?yaeaiee a ?aieao iiaeaeae n ieanoe/aneeie iieinaie // Oacenu Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee “Iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea a anoanoaaiiuo iaoeao”, Aeiaou. – 1997. – n.143. 8. E?ii?n E.A., Aeyeii A.I., Eieiaeiaa A.I., Oac?i A.A. Aiae?c iai?oaeaiiai noaio a?ey o??uei o iaoaeao, ui ooai?eeeny ca iaoai?ciii Eioo?aeea a ?aieao iaoai?ee aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea // Iaoa??aee 2-i? I?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe?? “Eiino?oeoe?ei? oa ooieoe?iiaeuei? iaoa??aee”, Euea?a.-1997.-N.265-266. Aeyeii A.I. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?/ieo iiaeaeae i?ioean?a ii/aoeiaiai ?icaeoeo e?eoeiai ? ieanoe/iiai ?oeioaaiiy. – ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.02.04. – iaoai?ea aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea. – ?inoeooo iaoai?ee ?i. N.I. Oeiioaiea IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998. A oiiaao ieinei? aeaoi?iaoe?? aeaia iinoaiiaea noaoe/ieo neiao?e/ieo caaea/ iaoai?ee aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea, ui iiaeaeththoue i?ioeane ii/aoeiaiai ?icaeoeo e?eoeiai ? ieanoe/iiai ?oeioaaiiy, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue iiaeae? Eioo?aeea ca?iaeaeaiiy o??uei. Ca?aeii oe?e iiaeae? o??ueia ooai?th?oueny i?e ia?aoei? e?i?e eiacaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?aeo?ae aei aeine?aeaeaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaea/, yeee aaco?oueny ia ?o caaaeaii? aei caaea/ oai??? i?oaeiino? aeey eeeiiaeaeieo o?e c iaeeane/iith oiiaith ia iane?i/aiiino?, ui aeicaiey? a?aooaaoe aieea ciai?oiueiai iiey. Ne?aeoth/e cai?iiiiiaaiiio i?aeoiaeo, c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo A?ia?a-Oiioa iiaoaeiaai? oi/i? ?ica’ycee ?yaeo iiaeo caaea/ oai??? i?oaeiino? aeey eeeiiaeaeieo o?e ? ia ?o iniia? aeine?aeaeaii iai?oaeaiee noai a?ey oi/ee ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy ? a?ey o??ueie, yea ooai?eeany i?e ia?aoei? e?i?e eiacaiiy, cae?eniaii ?ic?aooiie ieanoe/ii? ciie a?ey oi/ee ia?aoeio e?i?e eiacaiiy a ?aieao iiaeae? c aeaiia ieanoe/ieie nioaaie. Eeth/ia? neiaa: o??ueia, e?i?y eiacaiiy, iiaeaeue Eioo?aeea, caaea/a oai??? i?oaeiino?, eeeiiaeaeia o?ei, iaoiae A?ia?a-Oiioa, iai?oaeaiee noai, ieanoe/ia nioaa. Aeyeii A.I. Enneaaeiaaiea iaoaie/aneeo iiaeaeae i?ioeannia ia/aeueiiai ?acaeoey o?oieiai e ieanoe/aneiai ?ac?ooaiey. – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.02.04 – iaoaieea aeaoi?ie?oaiiai oaa?aeiai oaea. – Einoeooo iaoaieee ei. N.I.Oeiioaiei IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998. A oneiaeyo ieineie aeaoi?iaoeee aeaia iinoaiiaea noaoe/aneeo neiiao?e/iuo caaea/ iaoaieee aeaoi?ie?oaiiai oaa?aeiai oaea, iiaeaee?othueo i?ioeannu ia/aeueiiai ?acaeoey o?oieiai e ieanoe/aneiai ?ac?ooaiey, niioaaonoaothuea iiaeaee Eioo?aeea ca?iaeaeaiey o?auei. Niaeanii yoie iiaeaee o?aueia ia?acoaony i?e ia?ana/aiee eeiee neieueaeaiey. I?aaeeiaeai iiaeoiae e enneaaeiaaieth iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/, iniiaaiiue ia eo naaaeaiee e caaea/ai oai?ee oi?oainoe aeey eeeiiaeaeiuo oae n iaeeanne/aneei oneiaeai ia aaneiia/iinoe, iicaieythuei o/anoue aeeyiea aiaoiaai iiey. Neaaeoy i?aaeeiaeaiiiio iiaeoiaeo, n eniieueciaaieai iaoiaea Aeia?a-Oiioa iino?iaiu oi/iua ?aoaiey ?yaea iiauo caaea/ oai?ee oi?oainoe aeey eeeiiaeaeiuo oae e ia eo iniiaa enneaaeiaaii iai?yaeaiiia ninoiyiea aaeece oi/ee ia?ana/aiey eeiee neieueaeaiey e aaeece o?aueiu, ia?aciaaaoaeny i?e ia?ana/aiee eeiee neieueaeaiey, inouanoaeai ?an/ao ieanoe/aneie ciiu aaeece oi/ee ia?ana/aiey eeiee neieueaeaiey a ?aieao iiaeaee n aeaoiy ieanoe/aneeie iieinaie. Eeth/aaua neiaa: o?aueia, eeiey neieueaeaiey, iiaeaeue Eioo?aeea, caaea/a oai?ee oi?oainoe, eeeiiaeaeiia oaei, iaoiae Aeia?a-Oiioa, iai?yaeaiiia ninoiyiea, ieanoe/aneay iieina. Dyakon V.I. Investigation of models of processes of emergence of brittle and plastic fracture. – The manuscript. Dissertation for the Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Degree in Speciality 01.02.04 – mechanics of a deformable solid. – The S.P.Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1998. Under plane strain condition the static symmetrical problems of mechanics of a deformable solid modulating the Cottrell mechanism of crack formaton are formulated. According to this mechahism a crack is formed at the intersection of slip lines. The suggested approach to the investigation of the problems is based on their reduction to the problems of the theory of elasticity for wedge-shaped bodies with nonclassical condition at infinity, which allows to take into account the influence of external field. According to the suggested approach with the application of the Wiener-Hopf method the exact solutions of a number of new problems of the theory of elasticity for wedge-shaped bodies are constructed; and on their basis the stress state near the crack, formed accoding to the Cottrell mechanism is investigated. The plastic zone near the intersection point of slip lines in the limits of the models with two plastic strips is calculated. Key words: crack, slip line, Cottrell mechanism, problem of the theory of elasticity, wedge-shaped body, the Wiener-Hopf method, stress state, plastic strip.

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