AeIIAANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss

AOAe?AIEOeOAA ? A?O?OAEOO?E

Aae?eue ?a?aa?i Iioaiaae Aeue-Oaa Ao?a

OAeE 625.855.3

AeI?IAEI? ANOAEUeOIIIE?IA?N??EIAAOIIE

AeEss ?AA?IIAEUeIEO OIIA ?ANIOAE?EE NOAeAI

05.23.05 – Aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee oa ae?iae

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Iae??aea — 1998

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? ae?iaieoeoaa
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e Aeiiaanueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai??
aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?ao/oi Aaea??e
?aaiiae/, Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? ae?iaieoeoaa
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?
oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Cieioa?ueia A?eoi? Ieaenaiae?iae/, Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaei?e oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e oaoiieia?? aei?iaeiuei-aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee O?eioi Ieeiea
Aeieo?iae/, Aeiiaoeueeee I?iiaoaeIAe?i?iaeo, a?aeae?e o?i?? ? ei?ic??
aaoiio.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa ?
a?o?oaeoo?e.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny « 23 » a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo i 10
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 12.085.01 i?e
Aeiiaanuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e (Oe?a?ia,
339023, Aeiiaoeueea iae., i. Iae??aea, aoe. Aea?aeaa?ia, 2, I o/aiaee
ei?ion, cae can?aeaiue).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Aeiiaanueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e (Oe?a?ia, 339023,
Aeiiaoeueea iae., i. Iae??aea, aoe. Aea?aeaa?ia, 2).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «23» eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Oaiiaaeia N.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. A ?anioae?oe? Noaeai iiaoaeiaaii iiiaae
16 oen. ei aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a c oaa?aeei iie?eooyi, ?c ieo iiiaae
7 oen. ei — c anoaeueoiaaoiiiei. ?ic?aooieiaee oa?i?i neoae?iiy
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a aei na?aaeiueiai (4-5 ?ie?a) ? eai?oaeueiiai
(10-12 ?ie?a) ?aiiio?a a oiiaao aea?eiai (iaeneiaeueia oaiia?aoo?a
iia?o?y ? anoaeueoiaaoiiiiai iie?eooy neeaaea? 43°N ? 76°N a?aeiia?aeii)
? aieiaiai ee?iaoo (a?aeiinia aieia?noue iia?o?y (=80%, na?aaeiuei??/ia
e?euee?noue iiaae?a o aeaeyae? aeiuo — 403 ii) ia aeo?eio?oueny.
Anoaeueoiaaoiii? iie?eooy noeeuei? aei aeaoi?iaoe?e ? ?oeioaaiue, ?c
yeeo iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaieie ? eie?ei?noue oa ooai?aiiy oaeeue ?
aeai?i. I?ney aeaio ?ie?a aenieoaoaoe?? iie?eooy aaea iio?aaothoue
?aiiioo. I?ney /ioe?e??/iiai no?ieo aenieoaoaoe?? aeaoi?iaoe??
aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae oae?, ui i?i?cae o?ainii?oieo cania?a i?aeoe/ii
iaiiaeeeaee.

Oaeei /eiii, oaaao ne?ae i?eae?eyoe i?aeaeuaiith yeino? anoaeueoiaaoiio,
yeee aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey aa?oi?o oa??a aei?iaeiueiai iaeyao, ui
aaciina?aaeiuei ni?eeiathoue ae?yiiy o?ainii?oieo cania?a ?
iiaiaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oaeoi??a.

Aeanoeaino? anoaeueoiaaoiio — eiiiiceoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo c eiaaoeyoe?eiei
oeiii eiioaeo?a — iaoiiaeththoueny, ia?aaeon?i, ye?noth i?aai?/iiai
a’yaeo/iai ? i?ioeanaie aca?iiae?? ia iiaa?oi? ?icae?eo oac «i?aai?/ia
a’yaeo/a — i?ia?aeueiee iaoa??ae». A?ooie, ui canoiniaothoueny a
?anioae?oe? Noaeai (?o iaea?aeothoue ?c Aiiaia, Eoaaeoo ? Naoae?anueei?
A?aa??), ia?ie AIAe 40/60 ? AIAe 60/90 oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaaaeeeeie
oaiia?aoo?aie ?ici’yeoaiiy, a?aenooi?noth aeanoe/iino?, a oaeiae
iacaaeia?eueieie aaeaac?eii-eiaac?eieie aeanoeainoyie. Ioaea, iaiao?aeii
?ic?iaeyoe oae? caniae iai?aaeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy yeino? iaooiaeo a?ooi?a
? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioean?a aca?iiae?? ia iiaa?oi? ?icae?eo oac “a?ooi —
i?ia?aeueiee iaoa??ae”, ye? a aeicaieeee ?aae?coaaoe aeanoeaino?
anoaeueoiaaoiio a iie?eoo?.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oai?aoe/ia ? aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy
iaea?aeaiiy aeiaaia?/ieo anoaeueoiaaoii?a aeey oeaoooaaiiy iie?eoo?a
aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a a oiiaao aea?eiai ? aieiaiai ee?iaoo oeyoii
anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy a ieo eiiieaenii iiaeeo?eiaaii?
i?e?ino?oeoo?e anoaeueoia’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue:

1. Noi?ioethaaoe oai?aoe/i? ia?aaeoiiae ia?aaeaa/oaaieo caeiiii??iinoae
oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e aeiaaia?/iiai anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio c
eiiieaenii iiaeeo?eiaaiith i?e?ino?oeoo?ith.

2. Aeine?aeeoe no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a nenoai? “a?ooi —
aooaae??iiaoeenoe?ieueiee eao/oe — oaoi?/ia n??ea — iiaeeo?eaoi?
iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo”.

3. Anoaiiaeoe iioeiaeuei? oaiia?aoo?i? ?aaeeie oeeaaeaiiy ? ou?eueiaiiy
anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiiieo noi?oae.

4. Aea/eoe o?ce/i? ? aeaoi?iaoe?eii-i?oei?ni? aeanoeaino?
anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio a oiiaao aeeiai?/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy a
oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? aieeao oaiia?aoo?, /anoio ? aiie?ooae, a oaeiae
?oith noaa?euei?noue i?ae ae??th ee?iaoe/ieo /eiiee?a.

5. ?ic?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ae?iaieoeoaa ? canoinoaaiiy
iiaeeo?eiaaiiai aeiaaia?/iiai anoaeueoiaaoiio. Aeaoe aeiiii?/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy aeioe?eueiino? canoinoaaiiy anoaeueoiaaoiiieo noi?oae c
aeei?enoaiiyi eiiieaenii iiaeeo?eiaaii? anoaeueoia’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie, ui
i?aeaeuo? aeiaaia?/i?noue anoaeueoiaaoiio a oiiaao aea?eiai ? aieiaiai
ee?iaoo ?anioae?ee Noaeai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

— oai?aoe/ii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaia iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy
aeiaaia?/iiai anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio aeey aoae?aieoeoaa aa?oi?o
oa??a aei?iaei?o iaeya?a aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a a oiiaao aea?eiai ?
aieiaiai ee?iaoo ?anioae?ee Noaeai;

— noi?ioeueiaai? aeiiae aei na?aaeiaeua, ui iiaeeo?eo?oueny, — iaooiaei
aei?iaei?i a?ooiai, iiaeeo?eaoi?ai i?aai?/iiai a’yaeo/iai oa iiaa?oi?
i?ia?aeueieo ii?ioe?a — iie?ia??a ? aeoeaieo aeenia?nieo iaiiaithaa/?a;

— aeyaeaii caeiiii??iino? no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a nenoai?
«aooaae??iiaoeenoe?ieueiee eao/oe — oaoi?/ia n??ea — iiaeeo?eaoi?
iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo»;

— aecia/ai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? eiioeaio?aoe?ei? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiiiiiaio?a
eiiieaenii iiaeeo?eiaaii? i?e?ino?oeoo?e anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio;

— iieacaii, ui o ii??aiyii? c aa?y/ei anoaeueoiaaoiiii
anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiie a?ae??ciythoueny o??ueiino?ee?noth,
o?eae?noth aei cnoao, aei ei?ic?? oa oaieiaiai noa??iiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

— ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ae?iaieoeoaa ? canoinoaaiiy
iiaeeo?eiaaiiai aeiaaia?/iiai anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio, ui
I?i?noa?noaii aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a ?anioae?ee Noaeai cai?iiiiiaaii aei
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy;

— aecia/aii aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy aeiaaia?/iiai
iiaeeo?eiaaiiai anoaeueoiaaoiio aeey aoae?aieoeoaa iie?eoo?a
aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a a ?anioae?oe? Noaeai.

Iniaenoee aianie ni?aooea/a iieyaa? a:

— oi?ioethaaii? oai?aoe/ieo ia?aaeoiia aeine?aeaeaiiy;

— aea/aii? caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e aeiaaia?/iiai
anoaeueoiaaoiio;

— ?ic?iaeaii? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei ae?iaieoeoaa ? canoinoaaiiy
iiaeeo?eiaaiiai anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio a ?aa?iiaeueieo oiiaao
?anioae?ee Noaeai.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoei
iia?aeiieaii ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy ? aeieia?y i?iieneiaiai ?aa?iio» (i. Iae??aea,
1995 ?.); ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «?icaeoie
oaoi?/ii? o?i?? a Oe?a?i?» (i. Oa?e?a, 1997 ?.); ia OOOVI i?aeia?iaeiiio
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio nai?ia?? c i?iaeai iiaeaethaaiiy oa iioei?caoe??
eiiiiceo?a (i. Iaeana, 1997 ?.); ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «No/ani? i?iaeaie aoae?aieoeoaa» (i. Aeiiaoeuee, 1997 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 7 noaoae
(iaeia a aeo?iae?, 6 — a ca??eao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue) ? aeai? oac
aeiiia?aeae.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
i’yoe aeaa, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e c 183 iaeiaioaaiue ia 16
noi??ieao. I?noeoue 106 noi??iie iniiaiiai oaenoo, aeeth/ath/e 20
?enoie?a (8 noi??iie) ? 15 oaaeeoeue (3 noi??iee).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ?
caaea/? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaaaeai? iieiaeaiiy iaoeiai?
iiaecie ? i?aeoe/ii? cia/ouino? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aii noaio ieoaiiy c i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino?
anoaeueoiaaoiio aa?oi?o oa??a iie?eoo?a aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a a oiiaao
aea?eiai ? aieiaiai ee?iaoo. A?i aeeth/a? ianooii? i?ae?icae?ee:
“Iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaia iiaaae?iea anoaeueoiaaoiio a oiiaao aeniei?
oaiia?aoo?e”, “Noa??iiy anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a”, “Aieea
aiaeiiane/aiiy ? oaiia?aoo?e ia aeiaaia?/i?noue anoaeueoiaaoiio”,
“Aoaeoeai? caniae oaeineiiaeaiiy yeino? anoaeueoia’yaeo/iai aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? anoaeueoiaaoiio a oiiaao aea?eiai ? aieiaiai
ee?iaoo”.

Aiae?c ?ia?o I.I. ?aaiiaa, I.A. Ai?aeeoaaa, ?.A. ?ea’?aa,
A.?. Eaaeea?ia, E.A. Aacaioeaay, ?.A. Ei?ieueiaa, A.I. Aiaoneaanueeiai,
A.I. Eiiiiiaa, A.I. Cieioa?ueiaa, A.N. ?aaeianueeiai, ss.I. Eiaaeueiaa,
A.A. Aii/aiei, ?.E. ssoeaae/a, AE. A??aiaeae, I. Aeth?uea,
?.?. Aaeiaiaai?, I. East, L. Helevan, I. Livneh oa ?ioeo aeicaieea
?ice?eoe iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy iniiaieo aeaoaeo?a cnoao iie?eooy
aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae o aeaeyae? oaeeue ? eie?e, ?icaeyiooe e?eoa???
cnoaino?eeino? ? aieiai? iai?yiee i?aeaeuaiiy o?eaeino? anoaeueoiaaoiio
aei ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy N.?. Aaeueoaiae, A.N. Eieaaiianei?, A.N. Aao?aoa,
A.A. Aooiai?, A.Ae. Oanouei?e?ia, E.?. Aacaeeia, I.?. Neaaooeueeiai ?
?ioeo iieacaee, ui noa??iiy anoaeueoiaaoiio coiiaeaia ye ciai?oi?ie
/eiieeaie (oaiia?aoo?a, eenaiue iia?o?y, niiy/ia ?aae?aoe?y, aieia?noue
oiui), oae ? aioo??oi?ie (o?i?/iee neeaae i?aai?/ieo a’yaeo/eo,
no?oeoo?iee oei a?ooio, i?ia?aeia?/iee neeaae, no?oeoo?a ? oaenoo?a
i?ia?aeueieo iaoa??ae?a oa ?i.).

Aeyaeaii, ui iaeiaio ?ioaineaii noa??thoue u?euei? anoaeueoiaaoiie, ye?
aoei aeaioiaeaii ia a?ooiao (( no?oeoo?iiai oeio, aeoeaieo ? u?eueieo
i?ia?aeueieo ii?ioeao.

A.A. ?oaeainueeee, Ae.?. Aaaae?y, A.?. Eeneo?ia, I. Diaizy, J. Porubszky
? ?io? aeine?aeieee ia iniia? aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae ci?ie
?ic?aooieiaeo ia?aiao??a anoaeueoiaaoiio i?e o?eaaeiio aieea? aiaee ?
ciaeici?iieo oaiia?aoo? iieacaee, ui iniiai? aioo??oi? /eiieee, ye?
aecia/athoue aiaeino?ee?noue anoaeueoiaaoiiiiai iie?eooy, oae?:
no?oeoo?a ? oa?aeoa? ii?iaiai i?inoi?o anoaeueoiaaoiio, a’yce?noue ? oei
no?oeoo?e a?ooio, aaeaac?y a?ooio aei iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueieo iaoa??ae?a.

Oai?aoe/i? ? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy A.N. Eieaaiianueei?,
I.A. Ieoaeeiaa, N.I. Iii/aiea, E.A. Aacaioeaay, E.I. Aioiaia,
O.?. Ai?oai?ii?, A.A. Caoa?iaa, A.A. Aa?aiueei, ?.I. O?aenea?a,
J. Nidak, G. Fiebach oa ?ioeo na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui iaea?eueo
ia?niaeoeaiei caniaii i?aeaeuaiiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
anoaeueoia’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie ? caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiino? aeanoeainoae
anoaeueoiaaoiio ? iiaeeo?eaoe?y a?ooi?a iie?ia?aie, n??eith ? aeoeaaoe?y
iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueieo ii?ioe?a a?ooiaie a ii?aeiaii? c
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieie ?a/iaeiaie, ie?aiia?aie ? iie?ia?aie.

sse aeieeaa? c aiae?co ?ia?o, i?enay/aieo iaea?aeaiith aeiaaia?/iiai
anoaeueoiaaoiio aeey oiia aea?eiai ? aieiaiai ee?iaoo ?anioae?ee Noaeai,
iaea?eueo aeioe?eueii noi?ioaaoe oaeo no?oeoo?o anoaeueoiaaoiio, yea
i?aaenoaaeaia iioeiaeueieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iae?ino?oeoo?e,
i?e?ino?oeoo?e oa ii?iaiai i?inoi?o. A anoaeueoiaaoii? iaiao?aeii
noai?eoe o?eaeee i?inoi?iaee ea?ean, o?eaeo aeaoi?iaoe?eii-?aeaenoth/o c
aenieeie aaeaac?eii-eiaac?eieie aeanoeainoyie anoaeueoia’yaeo/o
?a/iaeio, a ia’?i caeeoeiaeo ii? a no?oeoo?? anoaeueoiaaoiio iiaeiai
aooe i?i?iaeueiei.

I?e oeueiio a?ooi (( no?oeoo?iiai oeio ne?ae iiaeeo?eoaaoe eiiieaeniith
aeiaaaeith, yea neeaaea?oueny c aooaae??iiaoeenoe?ieueiiai eao/oeo ?
oaoi?/ii? n??ee, a iiaa?oith i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo aeoeaoaaoe
oa?iiaeanoiieanoii. Iaeiae aei oaia??oiueiai /ano oai?aoe/i? ?
oaoiieia?/i? iniiae iaea?aeaiiy ? canoinoaaiiy iiaeeo?eiaaieo
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo noi?oae oaeei /eiii ia aea/ai?.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? noi?ioeueiaai? oai?aoe/i? ia?aaeoiiae oi?ioaaiiy
no?oeoo?e aeiaaia?/iiai anoaeueoiaaoiio ia iniia? iioeiaeueiiai
ii?aeiaiiy a?aioeiiao??? i?ia?aeueiiai e?noyea ? eiiieaenii
iiaeeo?eiaaii? i?e?ino?oeoo?e.

Aeey iaea?aeaiiy cnoaio?eaeiai anoaeueoiaaoiio ne?ae i?iaeooaaoe (( oei
iae?ino?oeoo?e anoaeueoiaaoiio, ui aeicaiey? aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
aeanoeaino? ye ie?aie a?ooio, ye? iiae?eythoue i?ia?aeuei? /anoee, oae ?
i?inoi?iaiai ea?eano, ooai?aiiai ca?iaie uaaaith, ui ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith
cnoaio?eaeino? ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy aeiaaeeie ieiuei ieeio oa ?o
aei?noeino? (aeinyaathoueny iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy iiaeoey aeaoi?iaoe??,
iaae? o?eaeino?, aioo??oiueiai oa?oy ? ca/aieaiiy — niieoee i?ioani?a
A.I. Cieioa?ueiaa).

Iiaeeo?eaoe?th a?ooio aooaae??iiaoeenoe?ieueiei eao/oeii NEIN-30 ne?ae
aanoe c ?ic/eio o aoaeaaiaeiaaeo o?aeoe?yo. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo i?e
eiioeaio?aoe?? NEIN-30 2-3% ian. a i?aai?/iiio a’yaeo/iio a iaeano?
aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaiia?aoo? noi?io?oueny oa?iioeoeooaoe?eia i?inoi?iaa
iie?ia?ia n?oea (aeine?aeaeaiiy E.I. Aioiaia). Aoceaie eaioetha?a c
iae?iiieaeoe ? iaaeiieaeoey?ieo ooai?aiue NEIN-30 ? (-iaoeenoe?ieuei?
aeiee, ui ia’?aeiothoueny i?ae niaith c? cieaeaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e aei
oi/ee ia?aoiaeo iie?noe?ieo a neeiiiae?aiee noai.

I?oei?noue oa?iioeoeooaoe?eii? i?inoi?iai? iie?ia?ii? n?oee aoaea
aecia/aoeny e?euee?noth aoce?a ? aia?a??th aca?iiae?? a ieo, a
aeanoe/i?noue — e?iaoe/iith aio/e?noth eaioetha?a i?ae aoceaie n?oee.

). Aei 10% ian. n??ee anooieoue a o?i?/io aca?iiae?th c aoaeaaiaeaie
a?ooio. A?aeaoaeaoueny -S-aeaa?ae?oaaiiy ? ooai?aiiy
anoaeueoaiiiiae?aieo ?a/iaei. *anoeia n??ee ?ic/eieoueny (20-26% ian.).
?ioa aeenia?ao?oueny a a?ooi? aei eiei?aeiiai noaio. Oea i?eaaaea aei
i?aeneeaiiy eiaaoeyoe?eiiai no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a a?ooiiiie?ia?n??eiaiio
a’yaeo/iio ca ?aooiie aca?iiae?? /anoie n??ee /a?ac i?ioa?ee iie?ia?o. A
a?ooiiiie?ia?n??eiaiio a’yaeo/iio aeieeia o?ei??ia ni?yaeaia n?oea,
aoceaie yei? ? anoaeueoaie, o?i?/ii ca’ycaia n??ea, e?enoaee n??ee ?
eiei?aeii-aeenia?aiaaia n??ea.

Aeoeaaoe?y iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo NEIN-30 i?eaaaea aei
oi?ioaaiiy ia iiaa?oi? ii?ioeo no?oeoo?ii-ci?oeiaiiai oa?o iie?ia?o, ui
i?aeaeueoue aaeaac?th a?ooiiiie?ia?n??eiaiai a’yaeo/iai aei iiaa?oi?
i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo aiane?aeie ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? eiioaeo?a
naaiaio?a iaaeiieaeoey?ieo ooai?aiue niiie?ia?a NEIN-30 c aeoeaieie
oeaio?aie ieaio?eueii? iiaa?oi?, aooiaac?? iae?iiieaeoe NEIN-30. Oea
noai?eoue o?eaeo ? aeanoe/io i?inoi?iao iao?eoeth
anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio c aenieith aaeaac??th ? eiaac??th, ui ?
aecia/eoue aeiaaia?/i?noue iiaeeo?eiaaiiai anoaeueoiaaoiio a oiiaao
aieiaiai ? aea?eiai ee?iaoo ?anioae?ee Noaeai.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoa??ae?a, i?eeiyoeo aeey
aeine?aeaeaiue, ? caniae aeine?aeaeaiue. A?ooi i?eeiyoi AIAe 40/60 c
oaeeie iieacieeaie yeino?: aeeaeia i?ioiaeaeaiiy aieee iaiao?iiao?a i?e
25°N, I25=59 a?aae; oaiia?aoo?a ?ici’yeoaiiy 51,5°N; ?icoyaei?noue i?e
25°N, Ae25>1 i; oaiia?aoo?a e?eoeino? Oe?=(17°N; eiao?oe??io
noaiaea?oieo aeanoeainoae 0,685 (II no?oeoo?iee oei). sse iiaeeo?eaoi?e
eiiiiiaio?a anoaeueoia’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie aeei?enoai?: eao/oe —
aooaae??iiaoeenoe?ieueiee NEIN-30 A?EI-15 AeNO 11138-78; oaoi?/ia n??ea
(AeNO 127-76). I?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie i?eeiyoi aaiiyeiaee (AeNO 16557-78).
Aeey i?eaiooaaiiy o?aeoe?e i?ia?aeueii? /anoeie ae??aiica?ienoiai
anoaeueoiaaoiio (oei A) aeei?enoiaoaaany a?ai?oiee uaa?iue ia?ee 1200
Ea?aiuenueeiai ?iaeiaeua.

A ?iaio?, ie??i noaiaea?oieo, i?eeiyoi ieceo niaoe?aeueieo cania?a
aeine?aeaeaiue. I?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a nenoai? “a?ooi — NEIN-30
— oaoi?/ia n??ea — i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie, aeoeaiaaiee
aooaae??iiaoeenoe?ieueiei eao/oeii”, aea/aee aea?eaaoia?ao?/iei caniaii
? ?*-niaeo?ineii??th. Aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo oaiia?aoo? ou?eueiaiiy
anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiiieo noi?oae cae?enithaaee ye caniaii, yeee
iiaeaethaaa ou?eueiaiiy anoaeueoiaaoiiieo noi?oae eaoeaie c
aei?noeiaa?aaaiieie aaeueoeyie, oae ? aia?aaoe/iei caniaii. Aea/aiiy
?aieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae ? i?ioean?a ?oeioaaiiy
anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoii?a cae?eniaii ia onoaiiaeao, ?ic?iaeaieo a
Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao?. O?eae?noue, oiiaio ieanoe/i?noue ? oiiaio aei?noe?noue
anoaeueoiaaoiio a iaeano? aenieeo oaiia?aoo? (60°N) aecia/aee ia
aei?iai?e iaoei? ca Ia?oaeeii.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeeiiaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ni?yiiaai? ia iaea?aeaiiy aeiaaia?/iiai anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio.

Aeai?, ye? iaaaaeaii ia ?enoieo 1, iieacothoue, ui aeoeaaoe?y iiaa?oi?
i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo aooaae??iiaoeenoe?ieueiei eao/oeii NEIN-30 ?c
?ic/eio a aaicei? i?eaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai ci?oeiaiiy i?aeoaciiai
eiioaeoo “a?ooiiiie?ia?n??eiaa a’yaeo/a — iiaa?oiy i?ia?aeueiiai
ii?ioeo”.

?en.1. Ae?aa?aia ?iciiae?eo i?oeiino? i?ae /an noeneo i?e 75°N R75
ae??aiica?ienoiai anoaeueoiaaoiio (oei A), ui a?ae??ciy?oueny neeaaeii
anoaeueoia’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie: 1 — a’yaeo/a — a?ooi (A), I25=59 a?aae.
oeaee iaiao?iiao?a, aaiiyeiaee i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie (AII) ia
aeoeaiaaiee; 2 — a’yaeo/a — A, I25=59 a?aae. c 2%
aooaae??iiaoeenoe?ieueiiai eao/oeo NEIN-30, AII ia aeoeaiaaiee; 3 —
a’yaeo/a — A, I25=59 a?aae. c 30% oaoi?/ii? n??ee (S), AII ia
aeoeaiaaiee; 4 — a’yaeo/a — A, I25= 59 a?aae. c 2% NEIN-30 ? 30% S, AII
ia aeoeaiaaiee; 5, 6, 7, 8 — a’yaeo/a A, I25=59 a?aae. c 2% NEIN-30 ?
30% S, AII aeoeaiaaiee 0,5%, 1,0%, 1,5% ? 2,0% NEIN-30 a?aeiia?aeii.

Caeaaei?noue iaae? i?oeiino? i?e noeneo anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio ia?
iaeneioi i?e 0,5% ian. NEIN-30 ia iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo. I?e
aeai?e eiioeaio?aoe?? oa?iiaeanoiieanoo ia iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai
ii?ioeo oi?io?oueny ieaio?eueiee no?oeoo?iaaiee oa? NEIN-30, ui ni?ey?
i?aeneeaiith eiaaoeyoe?eiiai no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a anoaeueoia’yaeo/?e
?a/iaei?.

Neeaaee anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaiai a’yaeo/iai iioei?ciaai?. *eiieee
aa??thaaiiy — ianiaa eiioeaio?aoe?y a a?ooi? NEIN-30 O1=1-5% ? oaoi?/ii?
n??ee O2=20-60%. Ia?aiao?e iioei?caoe?? anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio,
yeee i?eaioiaeaii ia aaiiyeiaiio i?ia?aeueiiio ii?ioeo, aeoeaiaaiiio
0,5% ian. NEIN-30: iaaea i?oeiino? i?ae /an noeneo i?e 0°N R0 (Y1) – ia
a?eueo 12 IIa, i?e 75°N R75 (Y2) – ia iaioa 1,2 IIA, a oaeiae
eiao?oe??io aiaeino?eeino? i?e o?eaaeiio aiaeiiane/aii? Eaae (Y3) – ia
iaioa 0,8. ?aa?an?eiee aiae?c aeeiiaii c aeiiiiiaith AII ii i?ia?ai?,
iaienai?e ia iia? MathCAD. Y1 (1) ? Y2 (2) ai?ieneiiaai? iie?iiiaie
ae?oai? i??e, a Y3 (3) ia?oi?:

(1)

(2)

(3)

Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? – 0,97, 0,98 ? 0,94, eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? –
0,034, 0,028 ? 0,043 a?aeiia?aeii. ?ioi?iaoe?eia ni?iiiaei?noue iiaeaeae
1, 2, 3 ia?aa??aia ca aeiiiiiaith e?eoa??th O?oa?a. Aecia/aii aeia??/?
?ioa?aaee cia/aiue aeey ooieoe?e a?aeaoeo. Aeae?eaia iaeanoue
iioeiaeueieo cia/aiue /eiiee?a nenoaie “a?ooi – aeea?i?enoe?ieueiee
eao/oe — oaoi?/ia n??ea”, ui caaacia/othoue caaeai? ia?aiao?e
iioei?caoe?? iiaeeo?eiaaii? anoaeueoia’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie (?en.2,
Optimal).

Oaeei /eiii, eiioeaio?aoe?th NEIN-30 a a?ooi? ne?ae i?ecia/aoe 2-3% ian,
a oaoi?/ii? n??ee — 30-40% ian. A?eueo aenie? eiioeaio?aoe??
aooaae??iiaoeenoe?ieueiiai eao/oeo ? oaoi?/ii? n??ee noeioeththoue
c?inoaiiy eiaac?? a?ooiiiie?ia?n??eiaiai a’yaeo/iai, ui a oiiaao
o?eaaeiai aiaeiiane/aiiy i?ecaaaea aei a?ae?eao ie?aie iiaeeo?eiaaiiai
a?ooio a?ae iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? cieaeaiith aiaeino?eeino?
iiaeeo?eiaaiiai anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio.

Oa?iia?aie AeOA, ye ? aeai? ?*-niaeo?ineii??, na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui
o?i?/ia aca?iiae?y ia iiaa?oi? ?iciiae?eo oac “a?ooiiiie?ia?n??eiaa
a’yaeo/a — aeoeaiaaiee NEIN-30 i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie” a?aenooiy. A oie
aea /an, a nenoai? “a?ooiiiie?ia?n??eiaa a’yaeo/a — i?ia?aeueiee
ii?ioie, aeoeaiaaiee 0,5% NEIN-30”, nioae aaeni?aoe?? a?ooio (a?iiaoeea,
iaoeeuei? a?oie) aeyaeythoueny a?eueo /?oei, i?ae a nenoai?
“a?ooiiiie?ia?n??eiaa a’yaeo/a — ia aeoeaiaaiee i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie”.
Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui oa? no?oeoo?iaaiiai aooaae??iiaoeenoe?ieueiiai
eao/oeo iie?auo? cii/oaaiiy eiai a’yaeo/ei ? caaacia/o? ia iiaa?oi?
?iciiae?eo oac a?eueo neeueio i?aeiieaeoey?io aca?iiae?th.

?en.2.  Caeaaei?noue iaae? i?oeiino? i?ae /an noeneo, IIa i?e 0°N R0,
75°C R75, eiao?oe??ioa aiaeino?eeino? i?e o?eaaeiio aiaeiiane/oaaii?
Eaae ? iaeano? iioeiaeueieo neeaae?a Optimal anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio
a?ae ianiai? eiioeaio?aoe?? a a?ooi? NEIN-30 O1 ? oaoi?/ii? n??ee O2.

Oi?ioee ia?aoiaeo a?ae oaeoi??a, cia/aiiy yeeo eiaeoaaeeny, aei
iaoo?ieo:

O1=o1*2+3 (4)

O2=o2*20+40 (5)

Iiaeeo?eiaai? anoaeueoiaaoiii? noi?o? a?eueo oaoiieia?/i?, i?ae
o?aaeeoe?ei? aa?y/? anoaeueoiaaoiii? (oaae.1). Iioeiaeueiee ?ioa?aae
oaiia?aoo? ou?eueiaiiy anoaeueoiaaoiiieo noi?oae c eiiieaenii
iiaeeo?eiaaiith i?e?ino?oeoo?ith – 60-130°N, a aeey aa?y/eo
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo noi?oae, i?eaioiaeaieo ia a?ooi? AIAe 40/60, –
90-130°N. Oea aeicaiey? i?iaeiaaeeoe aoae?aaeueiee nacii ? ca?eueoeoe
aeaeae?noue o?ainii?ooaaiiy anoaeueoiaaoiiieo noi?oae, ca?eueoeoe
aoaeoeaiee /an ou?eueiaiiy.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aeanoeaino? anoaeueoiaaoiiieo noi?oae i?e ou?eueiaii?

?iaeaen aaoiio Neeaae anoaeueoiaaoiiii? noi?o? Eiao?oe??io

1. Ae??aiica?ienoa (oei A), yeo i?eaioiaaii ia a?ooi? AIAe 40/60
(I25=59 a?aae.); i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie ia aeoeaiaaiee 1.27 509

2. Ae??aiica?ienoa (oei A), yeo i?eaioiaaii ia a?ooiiiie?ia?n??eiaiio
a’yaeo/iio (a?ooi I25=59 a?aae c 2% NEIN-30 ? 40% oaoi?/ii? n??ee.);
i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie aeoeaiaaiee 0,5% ian NEIN-30 0.81 620

Anoaeueoiaaoiie c eiiieaenii iiaeeo?eiaaiith i?e?ino?oeoo?ith
iioeiaeueieo neeaae?a oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ianooiieie iieacieeaie yeino?:
iaaea i?oeiino? i?ae /an noeneo, IIa, i?e 0°N R0=8-10, i?e 20°N
R20=5,0-6,5, i?e 75°N R75=1,2-1,4; iaaooaiiy, % a?ae ia’?io — 0;
aiaeiiane/aiiy, % a?ae ia’?io 1,5-2,0.

Aeai?, iaaaaeai? a oaae.2, iieacothoue, ui eoo iaoeeo caeaaeiino?
Raea=f(t) a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 0-60°N aeey iiaeeo?eiaaiiai
anoaeueoiaaoiio a?eueo iieiaee, i?ae aeey aa?y/iai anoaeueoiaaoiio.

Oaaeeoey 2

Cia/aiiy iaae? i?oeiino? anoaeueoiaaoiio ia caeiaiiy i?e ?icoyc?, Raea,
IIa

?iaeaen aaoiio Neeaae anoaeueoia’yaeo/iai a ae??aiica?ienoiio
anoaeueoiaaoii? (oei A) Oaiia?aoo?a, °N

0 20 40 60

1 A’yaeo/a a?ooi, I25=59 a?aae. oeaee iaiao?iiao?a; i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie
ia aeoeaiaaiee 7,47 0,45 0,24 0,039

2 A’yaeo/a — a?ooi, I25=59 a?aae. oeaee iaiao?iiao?a, iiaeeo?eiaaiee
2% ian. NEIN-30 ? 40% oaoi?/ii? n??ee; i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie aeoeaiaaiee
0,5% ian. NEIN-30 3,48 1,58 0,68 0,164

I?e oeueiio iaaea i?oeiino? i?e caeiaii? a iaeano? iiceoeaieo oaiia?aoo?
aeey anoaeueoiaaoiio c eiiieaenii iiaeeo?eiaaiith anoaeueoia’yaeo/ith
?a/iaeiith oa?aeoa?eco?oueny a?eueo aenieei cia/aiiyi, i?ae aeey
o?aaeeoe?eiiai aa?y/iai anoaeueoiaaoiio. Oea caaacia/eoue a?eueo aenieo
ni?iiiaei?noue anoaeueoiaaoiiiiai iie?eooy i?e canoinoaaii?
iiaeeo?eiaaieo anoaeueoiaaoii?a.

Anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?eueoeie e?eoe/ieie
iai?oaeaiiyie ((e?=0,095 IIa), i?ae aa?y/ee anoaeueoiaaoii (0,045 IIa)
(?en.3).

?en.3. Caeaaei?noue i?ae iai?oaith ( a ae??aiica?ienoiio anoaeueoiaaoii?
? a?aeiiniith aeaoi?iaoe??th ( i?e /anoio? aeaoi?ioaaiiy 0,5 Aoe ?
oaiia?aoo?? 20°N: iicia/ee e?eaeo a?aeiia?aeathoue ?iaeaenai
anoaeueoiaaoii?a oaaeeoeue 1, 2.

Ioaea, iie?eooy, nii?oaeaeai? c aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeeo?eiaaiiai
anoaeueoiaaoiio, i?ae ae??th o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue aoaeooue a?eueo
aeiaaia?/ieie, i?ae o?aaeeoe?ei? anoaeueoiaaoiii? iie?eooy.

aeey anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio i?e /anoioao aeaoi?ioaaiiy=0,5 Aoe
aei??aith? 0,011, a aeey o?aaeeoe?eiiai anoaeueoiaaoiio EO=0,025.

?en.4. Oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue eiiieaeniiai iiaeoey i?oaeiino? A*
anoaeueoiaaoiio i?e /anoio? aeaoi?ioaaiiy 0,05 Aoe: iicia/ee e?eaeo
a?aeiia?aeathoue ?iaeaenai anoaeueoiaaoii?a oaaeeoeue 1, 2.

Aeai?, iaaaaeai? a oaae. 3, na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui
anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiie a?eueo cnoaio?eae?, i?ae o?aaeeoe?ei? aa?y/?
anoaeueoiaaoiie.

Oaaeeoey 3

Cia/aiiy iieaciee?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue cnoaio?eae?noue
anoaeueoiaaoii?a ca Ia?oaeeii

(oaiia?aoo?a aei?iaoaaiiy – 60N()

?iaeaen aaoiio Neeaae anoaeueoia’yaeo/iai a ae??aiica?ienoiio
anoaeueoiaaoii? (oei A) Oiiaia ieanoe/i?noue, 1/10 ii Iieaciee oiiaii?
aei?noeino?, A, I/ii O?eae?noue, ?, I

1 A’yaeo/a a?ooi, I25=59 a?aae. oeaee iaiao?iiao?a; i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie
ia aeoeaiaaiee 46 3316 15256

2 A’yaeo/a — a?ooi, I25=59 a?aae. oeaee iaiao?iiao?a, iiaeeo?eiaaiee
2% ian. NEIN-30 ? 40% oaoi?/ii? n??ee; i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie aeoeaiaaiee
0,5% ian. NEIN-30 39 5892 22981

Iiaeeo?eiaai? anoaeueoiaaoiie – a?eueo aeiaaia?/i?. Oae, eiao?oe??io
noa??iiy (oaieiaa i?ia??aaiiy aeeiiaii i?e oaiia?aoo?? 75°N ?
oeueo?ao?ieaoiaiio ii?ii?ithaaii? a ee?iaoe/i?e eaia?? OI-1) i?ney
1200 aiaeei i?ia??aaiiy Eno=1,25, a aeey aa?y/iai anoaeueoiaaoiio
Eno=1,5. Eiao?oe??io aiaeino?eeino? i?e aiaeiiane/oaaii? i?ioyaii
90 ae?a aeey anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio neeaaea? Eaae=0,75, a aeey
o?aaeeoe?eiiai anoaeueoiaaoiio — Eaae=0,57.

I’yoee ?icae?e i?enay/aii i?aeoe/i?e ?aae?caoe?? ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue.

?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ae?iaieoeoaa ? canoinoaaiiy
iiaeeo?eiaaiiai anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio. Anoaeueoiaaoiiiee caaiae
aeiaeaoeiai iniauothoue oaoiieia?/ieie e?i?yie ii ae?iaieoeoao
aeoeaiaaiiai NEIN-30 i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo ? a?ooiiiie?ia?n??eiaiai
a’yaeo/iai.

?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aoee ?icaeyioo? ia oaoi?/i?e ?aae? I?i?noa?noaa
aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a ?anioae?ee Noaeai ? cai?iiiiiaai? aei
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/i? ? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeai? a o/aiaee i?ioean.

Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiiieo
noi?oae (i?e ??/iiio ianyc? ae?iaieoeoaa 50 oen. o.) neeaaea a?ey
500 oen. aia?eeainueeeo aeiea??a ? ni?eyoeia cieaeaiith nia?aa?oino?
ae?iaieoeoaa ? cia/iiio i?aeaeuaiith aeiaaia?/iino? iie?eoo?a
aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a.

Anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiii? noi?o? iaiao?aeii canoiniaoaaoe aeey
oeaoooaaiiy aa?oi?o oa??a aei?iaei?o iaeya?a ? ? ?? eaoaai??e a oiiaao
aea?eiai ? aieiaiai ee?iaoo ?anioae?ee Noaeai.

AENIIAEE

1. Oai?aoe/ii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii, ui aoaeoeaiei caniaii
i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a a ?aa?iiaeueieo
oiiaao ?anioae?ee Noaeai ? iioeiaeueia ii?aeiaiiy a?aioeiiao???
i?ia?aeueiiai e?noyea anoaeueoiaaoiio (?? no?oeoo?iee oei
iae?ino?oeoo?e) ? eiiieaenii iiaeeo?eiaaii? i?e?ino?oeoo?e
anoaeueoia’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie iiaeeo?eaoe??th a?ooio eiiieaeniith
aeiaaaeith, ui neeaaea?oueny c aooaae??iiaoeenoe?ieueiiai eao/oeo
NEIN-30 ? oaoi?/ii? n??ee c iaeii/aniith aeoeaaoe??th iiaa?oi?
i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo NEIN-30.

2. Aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/iei iiaeaethaaiiyi anoaiiaeaii, ui
?aoe?iiaeueia ianiaa eiioeaio?aoe?y aooaae??iiaoeenoe?ieueiiai eao/oeo
NEIN-30 a a?ooi? ?? no?oeoo?iiai oeio AIAe 40/60 iiaeiia neeaaeaoe
2-3% ian., a oaoi?/ii? n??ee — 20-40% ian.

3. Aeiaaaeaii, ui aoaeoeaiei caniaii i?aeaeuaiiy aaeaac?? ? eiaac??
a?ooiiiie?ia?n??eiaiai a’yaeo/iai, yeee caaacia/o? aeanoe/i?noue
anoaeueoia’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie ? o?eaeee ca’ycie ia iiaa?oi? ?icae?eaiiy
oac “iiaeeo?eiaaiee a?ooi — i?ia?aeueiee iaoa??ae”, ? aeoeaaoe?y
iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo aooaae??iiaoeenoe?ieueiei eao/oeii
NEIN-30. I?e eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,5-1,0% ian. NEIN-30 ia iiaa?oi?
i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo oi?io?oueny no?oeoo?iaaiee oa? iiaeeo?eaoi?a, yeee
i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeneeaiiy i?aeiieaeoey?ii? aca?iiae?? ia iiaa?oi?
?icae?eo oac «a?ooiiiie?ia?n??eiaa a’yaeo/a — i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie».

4. Anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiii? noi?o? c eiiieaenii iiaeeo?eiaaiith
i?e?ino?oeoo?ith a?ae??ciythoueny i?aeaeuaiith eaaeioeeaaeaeuei?noth ?
ou?eueithaaeuei?noth a a?eueo oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? (60-130°N)
o ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eieie aa?y/eie anoaeueoiaaoiiieie noi?oaie
(90-130°N). Oeueiio ni?eythoue oeenio?iii? aeanoeaino? iiaeeo?eiaaii?
anoaeueoia’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie ? a?eueo ?icaeiai? aaeni?aoe?eii-nieueaaoi?
oa?e a?ooiiiie?ia?n??eiaiai a’yaeo/iai ia iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueieo
iaoa??ae?a. Ana oea aeicaiey? ca?eueoeoe aeaeae?noue o?ainii?ooaaiiy
anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiiieo noi?oae ? iioe?eoe aoae?aaeueiee nacii.

5. Anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiie a?ae??ciythoueny oe?ieei ?ioa?aaeii
a’yceii?oaeii? iiaaae?iee a iie?eoo? aei?iaeiueiai iaeyao (oaiia?aoo?a
iaoai?/iiai neeiaaiiy – i?ion 32,5°N, a oaiia?aoo?a ia?aoiaeo a
a’yceioaeo/ee noai – 75°N) ? i?aeaeuaiei iii?ii cnoao, a oaeiae
aeeiai?/iei iiaeoeai i?oaeiino? a iaeano? iiceoeaieo oaiia?aoo?. Aiie
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaioei iieacieeii oaiia?aoo?ii? /ooeeaino? (EO=0,011)
o ii??aiyii? c aa?y/ei anoaeueoiaaoiiii (EO=0,025). Aiie cia/ii a?eueo
no?ee? aei noa??iiy ? a?eueo aiaeio?eae?, i?ae o?aaeeoe?ei? aa?y/?
anoaeueoiaaoiie, ui canoiniaothoueny a ?anioae?oe? Noaeai.

6. Aeey oiia aea?eiai ? aieiaiai ee?iaoo ?anioae?ee Noaeai ?ic?iaeai?
“?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ae?iaieoeoaa ? canoinoaaiiy iiaeeo?eiaaiiai
anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio”.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeaiee a ianooiieo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

Yeue-Oaa Aaeeeue Ea?aaei. E auai?o e?eoa?eaa noa?aiey anoaeueoiaaoiiia a
?aaeiiaeueiuo oneiaeyo ?anioaeeee Noaeai (( Aanoiee AeAANA, 1995 — ?1 —
N.116-120.

Yeue-Oaa Aaeeeue Ea?aaei. Niinia iieo/aiey naeaeaionoie/eaiai
anoaeueoiaaoiia (( ?ano?ninaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee a i?iecaiaenoaa
no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia. — Aeaaeaiey no?ieoaeuenoaa Oe?aeiu, 1995a. —
Iaeaaaea — o.1 — N.153.

Yeue-Oaa Aaeeeue Ea?aaei. Ia oneiaeyo ?aaiou aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia n
anoaeueoiaaoiiiuie iie?uoeyie a ?anioaeeea Noaeai ((Aanoiee AeAANA,
1996.- ?3 (4). — N.105-106.

A?ao/oi A.E., Yeue-Oaa Aaeeeue Ea?aaei, Iieeaoeaa N.N., Iieeuoe A.A.
Iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiua anoaeueoiaaoiiu iiauoaiiie aeieaiaa/iinoe ((Nai?iee
o?oaeia ii oaoie/aneie oeiee. — E.: Oe?aeineia oeie/aneia iauanoai,
1997. — N.390-391.

A?ao/oi A.E., Yeue-Oaa Aaeeeue Ea?aaei, Oa?aeoiee I.I. Anoaeueoiaaoiiu
iiauoaiiie aeieaiaa/iinoe (( Iaoa?eaeu XXXVI iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai naieia?a
ii i?iaeaiai iiaeaee?iaaiey e iioeiecaoeee eiiiiceoia. — Iaeanna: 1997.
— N.123.

A?ao/oi A.E., Yeue-Oaa Aaeeeue Ea?aaei, Aeiey A.A.
Anoaeueoiiieeia?aaoiiu iiauoaiiie aeieaiaa/iinoe (( Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu
no?ieoaeuenoaa. — Aeiiaoee: Oe?aeineay ainoaea?noaaiiay no?ieoaeueiay
ei?ii?aoeey «Oe?no?ie», 1997.- N.110-111.

Yeue-Oaa Aaeeeue Ea?aaei. Anoaeueoiiieeia?na?iaaoiiu iiauoaiiie
naeaeaionoie/eainoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe (( Aanoiee AeAANA. — 1998.- ?1
(9).-N. 17-20.

A?ao/oi A.E., Yeue-Oaa Aaeeeue Ea?aaei. Iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiua
anoaeueoiaaoiiu iiauoaiiie naeaeaionoie/eainoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe //
Aaoioeyoiaee Oe?a?ie. – 1998. — ?2. – N. 51-52.

A?ao/oi A.E., Yeue-Oaa Aaeeeue Ea?aaei. Aei?iaeiua
anoaeueoiiieeia?na?iaaoiiu aeey ono?ienoaa iie?uoee aei?iaeiuo iaeaaeae
n aunieie eioaineaiinoueth e a?ociiai?yae?iiinoueth aeaeaeaiey //
Aaoiaei?iaei?e eiiieaen Oe?a?ie a no/anieo oiiaao: I?iaeaie ? oeyoe
?icaeoeo. – E.: IAEI “Oe?oeii?iaeo”, 1998. – N.163-166.

Iniaenoa o/anoue aaoi?a. An? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
io?eiai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii. A ioae?eaoe?yo iniaenoi aaoi?ii aeeiiaii:
aiae?c aenieoaoaoe?? anoaeueoiaaoiiieo iie?eoo?a aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a a
oiiaao ?anioae?ee Noaeai(4(; aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/ia iiaeaeue
nenoaie «a?ooiiiie?ia?n??eiaa a’yaeo/a — aeoeaiaaiee i?ia?aeueiee
ii?ioie»(5(; aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae
anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio(6(; aecia/aiiy aeaoi?iaoe?eii-i?oei?nieo
oa?aeoa?enoee anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio [8]; aeine?aeaeaiiy ei?ic?eii?
no?eeino? anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiio [9].

AIIOAOe?ss

Aae?eue ?a?aa?i Iioaiaae Aeue-Oaa Ao?a. Aei?iaei?
anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiie aeey ?aa?iiaeueieo oiia ?anioae?ee Noaeai. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.23.05 – Aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee ? ae?iae. –
Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e, Iae??aea,
1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa
anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiiieo noi?oae c iie?ioaieie o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie
aeanoeainoyie ? i?ecia/aieo aeey oeaoooaaiiy aa?oi?o oa??a aei?iaeiueiai
iaeyao aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a aeey ?iaioe a oiiaao aea?eiai ? aieiaiai
ee?iaoo ?anioae?ee Noaeai. Aecia/aii eiioeaio?aoe?ei? ni?aa?aeiineie o
nenoai? “a?ooi – aooaae??iiaoeenoe?ieueiee eao/oe – oaoi?/ia n??ea –
iiaeeo?eaoi? iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo”. Aea/ai? oaoiieia?/i?
aeanoeaino? anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoiiieo noi?oae. Aecia/ai?
aeaoi?iaoe?eii-i?oei?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa ei?ic?eia no?ee?noue
iiaeeo?eiaaiiai anoaeueoiaaoiio. I?enei?aiei iaoiaeii aeiaaaeaii, ui
anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoii o 3-4 ?ace aeiaaia?/iee, i?ae o?aaeeoe?eiee
aa?y/ee anoaeueoiaaoii.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: anoaeueoiiie?ia?n??eiaaoii, iiaeeo?eaoe?y, aeanoeaino?,
aeiaaia?/i?noue.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aaeeeue Ea?aaei Iioaiaae Yeue-Oaa Aoea. Aei?iaeiua
anoaeueoiiieeia?na?iaaoiiu aeey ?aaeiiaeueiuo oneiaee ?anioaeeee Noaeai.
— ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.23.05. — No?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu e ecaeaeey.
Aeiiaanneay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u,
Iaeaaaea,1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa
anoaeueoiiieeia?na?iaaoiiiuo nianae n oeo/oaiiuie oeceei-iaoaie/aneeie
naienoaaie e i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ono?ienoaa aa?oieo neiaa aei?iaeiuo
iaeaaeae aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia aeey ?aaiou a oneiaeyo aea?eiai e
aeaaeiiai eeeiaoa ?anioaeeee Noaeai. Iieacaii, /oi aeey iieo/aiey
naeaeaionoie/eaiai anoaeueoiaaoiia neaaeoao i?iaeoe?iaaoue II oei
iae?ino?oeoo?u anoaeueoiaaoiia, eioi?ue iicaieeo yooaeoeaii
eniieueciaaoue eae naienoaa ieaiie aeooia, ?acaeaeythueo ieia?aeueiua
/anoeoeu, oae e i?ino?ainoaaiiiai ea?eana, ia?aciaaiiiai ca?iaie uaaiy,
niinianoaothuaai iiauoaieth naeaeaionoie/eainoe ca n/ao oaaee/aiey
i?ioyaeaiiinoe ieineinoae neieueaeaiey e eo oa?ioiaaoinoe (aeinoeaathony
iaeneiaeueiua cia/aiey iiaeoey aeaoi?iaoeee, i?aaeaea i?i/iinoe,
aioo?aiiaai o?aiey e caoeaieaiey). Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?aoeeiiaeueiay
ianniaay eiioeaio?aoeey aooaaeeaiiaoeenoe?ieueiiai eao/oea NEIN-30 a
aeooia aoi?iai no?oeoo?iiai oeia aeieaeia ninoaaeyoue 2-3% ian.,
oaoie/aneie na?u 20-40% ian., a iioeiaeueiay eiioeaio?aoeey ia
iiaa?oiinoe ieia?aeueiiai ii?ioea oa?iiyeanoiieanoa NEIN-30
0,5-1,0% ian. Oa?iia?aiiu AeOA, eae e aeaiiua EE-niaeo?ineiiee,
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi oeie/aneia acaeiiaeaenoaea ia iiaa?oiinoe
?acaeaea oac aeooiiiieeia?iia ayaeouaa – aeoeae?iaaiiue NEIN-30
ieia?aeueiue ii?ioie ionoonoaoao. Aaeni?aoeeiiii-nieueaaoiue neie
aooaaeeaiiaoeenoe?ieueiiai eao/oea oeo/oaao nia/eaaiea aeoeae?iaaiiiai
ieia?aeueiiai ii?ioea aeooiiiieeia?na?iui ayaeouei

. Eiyooeoeeaio oaieiaiai noa?aiey (oaiia?aoo?a i?ia?aaa 75°N a oa/aiea
1200 /ania) Eno=1,25. Eiyooeoeeaio aiaeinoieeinoe i?e aiaeiianuuaiee a
oa/aiea 90 nooie aeey anoaeueoiiieeia?na?iaaoiia ?aaai Eaae=0,75.
?ac?aaioaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i?iecaiaenoao e i?eiaiaieth
anoaeueoiiieeia?na?iaaoiiiuo nianae, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii i?eiaiyoue aeey
ono?ienoaa aa?oieo neiaa aei?iaeiuo iaeaaeae I e II eaoaai?ee a oneiaeyo
aea?eiai e aeaaeiiai eeeiaoa ?anioaeeee Noaeai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: anoaeueoiiieeia?na?iaaoii, iiaeeoeeaoeey, naienoaa,
aeieaiaa/iinoue.

THE SUMMARY

Adil Ibrahim Mohamed Elhag Atig. Asphalt-concrete from bitumen, polymer
and sulfur for road for the regional conditions of Sudan Republic. —
Manuscript.

The thesis for competing the candidates degree on the specialty
05.23.05. “ Building materials and units” ,the Donbass State Academy of
Civil Engineering and Architecture, Iakeevka, 1998.

The thesis is devoted to development the mixes of asphalt-concrete
from bitumen, polymer and sulfur with the improved physicals and
mechanical properties, intended for the building the top layers of the
highways for work in a hot and damp climate of republic Sudan. Are
certain the optimum concentration parities in system bitumen —
butadiene methyl styrene rubber — technical sulfur — modifier a surface
of a mineral powder . The technological properties of mixes
asphalt-concrete are investigated. Are certain deformational and
strangles of the characteristic and corrosion stability modified
asphalt-concrete. The accelerated method is proved, that
asphalt-concrete from bitumen, polymer and sulfur in 3-4 times is more
durable, than traditional hot asphalt-concrete .

Key words: asphalt-concrete from bitumen, polymer and sulfur, updating,
properties, durability.

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