16

AeIIAANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ssAOAe?AIEOeOAA ? A?O?OAEOO?E

Oiaeoi Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 691.16: 662

AeUeIAOUeIAAOIIE C EIIIEAENII-IIAeEO?EIAAIITH I?E?INO?OEOO?ITH

05.23.05 – Aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee oa ae?iae

AAOI?AOA?AOaeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiyeaiaeeaeaoa
oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Iae??aea – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? ae?iaieoeoaa
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e Aeiiaanueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai??
aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?ao/oi Aaea??e
?aaiiae/, Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? ae?iaieoeoaa
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ae?iaee Aaea??e
Ieeieaeiae/, Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e “Ae?iaieoeoai aoae?aaeueieo ae?ia?a ? eiino?oeoe?e”;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iicaiaee Aieiaeeie? Aaneeueiae/,
Oe?a?inueeee o?ainii?oiee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
aei?iaeiuei-aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? o?i?? (i. Ee?a).

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie (eaoaae?a
aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? ae?ia?a).

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “5” aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 12. 085.01 Aeiiaanueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e (Oe?a?ia, 339023,
Aeiiaoeueea iae., i. Iae??aea, aoe. Aea?aeaa?ia, 2, I o/aiaee ei?ion,
cae can?aeaiue).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Aeiiaanueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e (Oe?a?ia, 339023,
Aeiiaoeueea iae., i. Iae??aea, aoe. Aea?aeaa?ia, 2).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “3” ethoiai 1999 a.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Oaiiaaeia N.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. ??aaiue ?icaeoeo ? oaoi?/iiai noaio aei?iaeiuei?
ia?aae? Oe?a?ie ?noioii aieeaa? ia aeiiii?/iee ? nioe?aeueiee ?icaeoie
e?a?ie, oiio ui iaae?ei? o?ainii?oi? ca’ycee ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaiith
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a, o?oaeiaeo ?
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieo ?ano?n?a. Aeiiaoeueea, Eoaainueea ? Caii??cueea
iaeano? iathoue o nai?io ?icii?yaeaeaii? ?icaaeoaeaio iicai?nueeo
ia?aaeo aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a ?c iaaei?noeeie iie?eooyie i?ioyaei?noth
iiiaae aeaaaeoeyoe oeny/ e?eiiao??a, o?aoeia yeeo ? aeueiaoueiaaoiiieie.
I?ioa, oa?i?i neoaeae oaeeo iie?eoo?a aei??aith? 6-8 ?ieai cai?noue 14.
Oea iaoiiaeaii iacaaeia?eueiith cnoaino?ee?noth, aiaeino?ee?noth,
ii?icino?ee?noth e ?ioaineaiei noa??iiyi aeueiaoueiaaoiio.

Aeanoeaino? aeueiaoueiaaoiio aecia/athoueny, o ia?oo /a?ao, ye?noth
iao?eoe?, iiaeaii? eai’yiiaoa?eueiei aeueiaoai ? i?ia?aeueiei ii?ioeii.

I?e ye?nieo eiiiiiaioao ? iioeiaeuei?e no?oeoo?? aeueiaoueiaaoiio
iaea?eueo aeioe?eueiei caniaii ea?oaaiiy no?oeoo?iooai?aiiyi
aeueiaoueiaaoiio ? o?ceei-o?i?/ia iiaeeo?eaoe?y “ia’?iiiai” ?
“no?oeoo?iaaiiai” aeueiaoth iie?ia?ieie aeiaaaeaie (a?aen?a
iie?a?i?eoei?eaeo – AIAO), a oaeiae i?aeaeuaiiy aia?a?? aca?iiae?? ia
iiaa?oi? iiae?eo oac (IIO) “i?aai?/ia a’yaeo/a – i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie,
aeoeaiaaiee ie?aiia?ii, ui i?noeoue ooieoe?iiaeuei? a?oie
(ea?aai?aeioi?iaeueaeaa?aeia niiea (EO-IO), aiieneaei? niiee (AAe) ?
iie?ia?i?noe? a?aeoiaee ae?iaieoeoaa aiieneaeieo niie (IAAN))”.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Iniiai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/iiai oa i?eeeaaeiiai oa?aeoa?o aoee cae?eniai? a
iaaeao aeeiiaiiy aea?aeathaeaeaoii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe
?0197.013 9306 “?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiieia?? eiiieaenii?
ia?a?iaee oaoiiaaiieo ?iaeiaeu aoaeaaeaeiaoaii? i?iieneiaino? o
aenieiye?ni? aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee”. Caiiaiee – I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, 1997-1999 ??.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oai?aoe/ia ? aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy
iaea?aeaiiy o?eaeiai aei?iaeiueiai aeueiaoueiaaoiio aeey aoae?aieoeoaa
iie?eoo?a aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a ia iniia? anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae
oi?ioaaiiy eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaii? i?e?ino?oeoo?e aeueiaoueiaaoiio,
i?aaenoaaeaii? aeueiaoueiiie?a?i?eoei?eaeiei a’yaeo/ei ? i?ia?aeueiei
ii?ioeii, iiaa?oiy yeiai aeoeaiaaia ie?aiia?ii, ui i?noeoue
ooieoe?iiaeuei? a?oie (EO-IO, IAAN, AAe).

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue:

1. ?ic?iaeoe e aiae?oe/ii iienaoe eiioeaiooaeueio o?ceei-o?i?/io
iiaeaeue iioeiaeueii? no?oeoo?e eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaii?
aeueiaoueia’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie, i?aaenoaaeaii?
aeueiaoueiiie?a?i?eoei?eaeiei a’yaeo/ei ? i?ia?aeueiei ii?ioeii,
iiaa?oiy yeiai aeoeaiaaia ie?aiia?ii, ui i?noeoue ooieoe?iiaeuei? a?oie.

2. Aeine?aeeoe i?ioeane no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a nenoai?
“aeueiaoueiiie?a?i?eoei?eaeia a’yaeo/a – iiaeeo?eiaaiee ie?aiia?ii
i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie”.

3. Aecia/eoe iioeiaeuei? oaiia?aoo?i? ?aaeeie oeeaaeaiiy ? ou?eueiaiiy
aeueiaoueiaaoiiieo noi?oae ?c eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith
i?e?ino?oeoo?ith.

4. Aeine?aeeoe o?ce/i? ? aeaoi?iaoe?eii-i?oei?ni? aeanoeaino? aaoii?a,
ui i?noyoue aeueiaoueiiie?a?i?eoei?eaeia a’yaeo/a ? i?ia?aeueiee
ii?ioie, iiaa?oiy yeiai aeoeaiaaia ie?aiia?ii.

5. Aeeiiaoe aeine?aeii-ae?iaie/o ai?iaaoe?th a aei?iaeiueiio
aoae?aieoeoa? aeueiaoueiaaoiiieo noi?oae ?c eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith
i?e?ino?oeoo?ith. Iaaeaoe aeiiii?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy aeioe?eueiino?
canoinoaaiiy aeueiaoueiaaoiiieo noi?oae ?c iiaeeo?eiaaiith
aeueiaoueia’yaeo/ith ?a/iaeiith, ui i?aeaeuo? o?eae?noue
aeueiaoueiaaoiio.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

— oai?aoe/ii e aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaaiee can?a iaea?aeaiiy
o?eaeiai aeueiaoueiaaoiio aeey aoae?aieoeoaa eiino?oeoeaieo oa??a
iie?eoo?a aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a, yeee iieyaa? a eiiieaeni?e
iiaeeo?eaoe?? i?e?ino?oeoo?e aeueiaoueiaaoiio aaaaeaiiyi o
eai’yiiaoa?eueia a’yaeo/a a?aen?ao iie?a?i?eoei?eaeo ? aeoeaaoe??th
iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo ie?aiia?ii (ea?aai?aeioi?iaeueaeaa?aeia
niiea, aiieneaei? niiee e iie?ia?i?noe? a?aeoiaee ae?iaieoeoaa
aiieneaeieo niie);

— noi?ioeueiaaii aeiiae aei eiiiiiaio?a aeueiaoueia’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie –
aeueiaoueiiie?ia?ii? a’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie oa iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai
ii?ioeo, a oaeiae aei no?oeoo?e eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaii?
aeueiaoueia’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie;

— ca aeiiiiiaith aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy
anoaiiaeaii iioeiaeuei? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a nenoai? “eai’yiiaoa?eueiee
aei?iaei?e aeueiaioue (a’yce?noue wmetafile8? ??u????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??`????u?th??????- aeyaeaii, ui iniiaieie /eiieeaie
iaea?aeaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo aeueiaoueiaaoiiieo noi?oae ? aeueiaoueiaaoii?a
i?aeaeuaii? o?eaeino? i?e eiiieaeni?e iiaeeo?eaoe?? i?e?ino?oeoo?e ?:
oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?iaaiiai oa?o iiaeeo?eaoi?a, i?oeii iia’ycaiiai
i?aeiieaeoey?ieie, aiaeiaaeie ? aeiii?ii-aeoeaioi?ieie ca’yceaie c
iiaa?oiath i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo; iineeaiiy i?aeiieaeoey?ii? aca?iiae??
ia iiaa?oi? iiae?eo oac “aeueiaoueiiie?a?i?eoei?eaeia a’yaeo/a –
aeoeaiaaiee i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie” aiane?aeie ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino?
eiioaeo?a naaiaio?a ieanoeo?eiaaieo iaaeiieaeoey?ieo ooai?aiue
iie?a?i?eoei?eaeo c aeoeaieie oeaio?aie ieaio?eueii? iiaa?oi?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

— ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ae?iaieoeoaa ? canoinoaaiiy
aeueiaoueiaaoiiieo noi?oae ?c eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith
i?e?ino?oeoo?ith;

— iiaoaeiaai? ? niinoa?aaeoaai? ae?eyiee aei?iaei?o iie?eoo?a ?c
aeueiaoueiaaoiio, ui i?noeoue aeueiaoueiiie?a?i?eoei?eaeia a’yaeo/a ?
i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie, aeoeaiaaiee iie?ia?i?noeei a?aeoiaeii ae?iaieoeoaa
aiieneaeieo niie, i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ?aeath i?i aeioe?euei?noue
eiiieaenii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? i?e?ino?oeoo?e aeueiaoueiaaoiio;

— ai?iaaaeaeaii iiaeeo?eiaai? aeueiaoueiaaoiii? noi?o? a ianyc? 8 157 o
o Iiaiacianueeiio ?aeaaoiaei?? Aeiiaoeueeiai ia’?aeiaiiy iaeaaoiaei?;

— ia Aeieo/a?anuee?e oaa?eoe? ?ia?oiiai ieeo iaeio oaoiieia?/io e?i?th
ia?aaaaeaii ia ae?iaieoeoai aeoeaiaaieo ie?aiia?aie i?ia?aeueieo
ii?ioe?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. I?aaeiaoii caoenoo ? aeyaeai? iniaenoi
aaoi?ii:

— caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaii?
aeueiaoueia’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie aeueiaoueiaaoii?a i?aeaeuaii? o?eaeino?;

— iieacieee aeaoi?iaoe?eii-i?oei?nieo aeanoeainoae ? ei?ic?eii?
no?eeino? aeueiaoueiaaoiio c eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith
i?e?ino?oeoo?ith;

— ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ae?iaieoeoaa ? canoinoaaiiy iiaeeo?eiaaieo
aeueiaoueiaaoiiieo noi?oae, ui caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaio o?eae?noue
iie?eoo?a aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ?
iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue aena?oethaaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue: ia
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “No/ani? i?iaeaie
aoae?aieoeoaa” (Aeiiaoeuee, 1997 ?.); ia ia?o?e I?aeia?iaei?e
aenoaaoe?-y?ia?eo oa ?iaanoeoe?eiiio oi?oi? “Aeiiaann-Eiaano-97”
(Aeiiaoeuee, 1997 ?.); ia aeaaeai?/ieo /eoaiiyo aeeeaaea/?a ?
ni?a?ia?oiee?a Aeiiaanueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ?
a?o?oaeoo?e (Iae??aea, 1998 ?.); ia XXXVII i?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? c
i?iaeai iiaeaethaaiiy ? iioei?caoe?? eiiiiceo?a (Iaeana, 1998 ?.); ia
?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoeia?, oaoiieia?/i?
? aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe aeei?enoaiiy a?aeoiae?a ae?iaieoeoaa” (ss?ai/a,
1998 ?.); ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aaoiaei?iaei?e eiiieaen
Oe?a?ie a no/anieo oiiaao: I?iaeaie ? oeyoe ?icaeoeo” (Ee?a, 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 7 noaoae
(2 – o aeo?iaeao ? 5 – o ca??eao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue) ? oace aeiiia?ae?.

No?oeoo?a e ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
i’yoe aeaa, iniiaieo aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e c 188 iaeiaioaaiue ia
16 noi??ieao ? o?ueio aeiaeaoe?a ia 12 noi??ieao. I?noeoue 117 noi??iie
iniiaiiai oaenoo, na?aae ieo 48 iaethie?a (17 noi??iie) ? 18 oaaeeoeue
(4 noi??iee).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo ?
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaaaeaii iniiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, ye?
io?eiaa aaoi?, a?aeca?eaeaii ?oi? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ? noa?e
?aae?caoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aiae?co?oueny noai ieoaiiy ? iaoeia? aeinyaiaiiy
uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy o?eaeino? aei?iaei?o aeueiaoueiaaoii?a o /ioe?ueio
iai?yieao aeine?aeaeaiue: “Iniaeeaino? ?iaioe aeueiaoueiaaoii?a o
iie?eooyo aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a”; “?ieue iao?eoe? aeueiaoueiaaoiio o
oi?ioaaii? eiai aeanoeainoae”; “Caniae ?aaoethaaiiy
aaeaac?eii-eiaac?eieo aeanoeainoae, aeanoe/iino? ? noaa?eueiino?
aeanoeainoae eai’yiiaoa?eueiiai a’yaeo/iai”; “?ieue i?ia?aeueiiai
ii?ioeo (II) ? i?ioean?a aca?iiae?? ia iiaa?oi? iiae?eo oac “II –
a’yaeo/a” o oi?ioaaii? i?e?ino?oeoo?e aaoii?a ia i?aai?/ieo a’yaeo/eo”.

Aiae?c ?ia?o AE. A??aiaeaea, A.A. Aii/aiea, A.A. Aa?aiueea,
A.I. Aaeueia?a, N.?. Aaeueoaiae, I. Aeth?ue?, A.I. Cieioa?ueiaa,
Y.A. ?eue?aa, ss.I. Eiaaeueiaa, A.?. Eiaaey, A.I. Eaaeea?ia,
A.?. Eaooeia, A.?. Eeneo?ii?, A.A. Iicaiaiai, A.A. Inth?ieea,
?.I. ?ea’?aa, A.N. Oeoa?y, A.I. ssoeaae/a, J. Judicki, G.W. Eustage,
L. Heleven oa ?ioeo aeicaieea aeyaeoe: a) iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy aeaoaeo?a,
ui ooai?ththoueny ia aeueiaoueiaaoiii?i iie?eoo? – o??uei, aeai?a,
aee?eooaaiue, eouaiue, cnoa?a, iaieea?a, oaeeue, eie?eiino?; a) e?eoa???
e?eoe/iiai noaio aeueiaoueiaaoiiiiai iie?eooy; iniiai? iai?yiee
oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e o?eaeiai aeueiaoueiaaoiio.

Aacoth/enue ia oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo,
aeeiiaieo iaoeiaeie oeieaie i?ae ea??aieoeoaii I.A. ?aa?iaea?a, TH.N.
E?iaoiaa, A.A. Oaoaiaia, A.I. Cieioa?ueiaa, A.I. Ae?iaiai, A. Rene,
J. Shidt, a oaeiae aeine?aeiee?a ss.A. Eaeocueeiai, E.I. Aioiaia,
A.I. Aieiaeueea, A.?. A?ao/oia, A.E. AEaeaithea, I.?. Iiacoia oa ?ioeo,
iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui iaeiei c iaeaoaeoeai?oeo cania?a ?aaoethaaiiy
aeanoeainoae aeueiaoueiaaoiiieo noi?oae, ye? caaacia/othoue
aeanoe/i?noue iao?eoe? ? o?eaeiai ca’yceo ia iiaa?oi? iiae?eo oac
“i?aai?/ia a’yaeo/a – i?ia?aeueiee iaoa??ae”, a oaeiae noaa?euei?noue
aeanoeainoae aeueiaoueiaaoiio, ? eiiieaenia ea?oaaiiy i?e?ino?oeoo?ith
aeueiaoueiaaoiio /a?ac aaaaeaiiy o aeueiaioue ia?aeiiiai a?aeoiaeo
ae?iaieoeoaa iie?a?i?eoei?eaeo – a?aen?ao ? iaoaiiaeoeaaoe?th iiaa?oi?
i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo ie?aiia?ii, ui i?noeoue ooieoe?iiaeuei? a?oie
(ea?aai?aeioi?iaeueaeaa?aeia niiea, aiieneaei? niiee e iie?ia?i?noe?
a?aeoiaee ae?iaieoeoaa aiieneaeieo niie).

I?ioa aeioaia? ia ?ic?iaeai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy ye?noth
aeueiaoueia’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie aei?iaei?o aeueiaoueiaaoii?a, ui
iieyaathoue o ?ic?iaoe? aeiia aei aeueiaoueiiie?ia?ieo a’yaeo/eo ?
ie?aiia??a – aeoeaaoi??a iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueieo ii?ioe?a.

Iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeai? i?ioeane no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a nenoai?
“aeueiaoueiiie?ia?ia a’yaeo/a – iiaeeo?eiaaiee ie?aiia?ii i?ia?aeueiee
ii?ioie”. A?aenooi? aeai? i?i aeaoi?iaoe?eii-i?oei?ni? aeanoeaino? ?
ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue aeueiaoueiaaoii?a ?c eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith
i?e?ino?oeoo?ith, ui ia aeicaiey? aecia/eoe ?aoe?iiaeuei? noa?e ?oiueiai
canoinoaaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? noi?ioeueiaai? oai?aoe/i? ia?aaeoiiae
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieie iiaeeo?eaoi?aie iiaa?oi? /anoie i?ia?aeueiiai
ii?ioeo a aeueiaoueiiie?ia?aaoiiieo noi?oao ? ?ic/eie ie?aiia??a ?c
ooieoe?iiaeueieie a?oiaie CO, COOH, NH2, NO2 ? ?i., oiio ui
no?oeoo?oth/a ni?iiiaei?noue iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo IA? oi?ea?oueny
aeaio-o?ueio iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a a’yaeo/iai, a aeei?enoaiiy iiey?ieo
iie?ia??a iio?aao? ?ic/eiiee?a ? aenieeo oaiia?aoo? ?oiueiai ?ic/eiaiiy.

I?e iaoaiiaeoeaaoe?? ea?aiiaoieo a??nueeeo ii??ae o na?aaeiaeu?
?aaeoe?eiini?iiiaeieo ie?aiia??a (ea?aai?aeioi?iaeueaeaa?aeia niiea,
aiieneaei? niiee ? iie?ia?i?noe? a?aeoiaee ae?iaieoeoaa aiieneaeieo
niie) iiaeeeaa uaieaiiy ie?aiia?a aei iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo.
Aca?iiae?y i?ae eao?iiaie eaeueoe?th e ie?aiia?aie iiaea eoe ca
aeiii?ii-aeoeaioi?iei iaoai?ciii, oiio ui ?iie eaeueoe?th iathoue
a?euei? i?a?oae?, a ie?aiia?e i?noyoue aoiie c iaiiae?eueiith ia?ith
aeaeo?ii?a. Iai?eeeaae, o ea?aai?aeioi?iaeueaeaa?aei?e niie? aeiii?aie
aeaeo?ii?a ? aoiie acioo ? eenith

wmetafile8? ??e???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyya???? ???&? ?MathType??°???u
y??????

Eiioeaio?aoe?y ie?aiia?a aoaea iioeiaeueiith, eiee aaeaac?y eiai aei
iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo ? iaeneiaeueia. Iiaeeo?eaoe?y II
ie?aiia?aie i?eaaaea aei iaeneiaeueiiai caeeaeaiiy ?? ca i?e?iaeith c
aeueiaoueiiie?a?i?eoei?eaeiei a’yaeo/ei, ui caaacia/eoue iiaia
cii/oaaiiy ?? aeueiaoueiiie?ia?iei a’yaeo/ei. A?aeaoaeaoueny
iaeneiaeueia caeeaeaiiy AeIA ? ieaio?eueii? iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai
ii?ioeo (a?aenoaiue neeaaea? iaio ca 5* 10-10 i), ia yeiio iiaeooue
aeyaeoenue on? aeaee i?aeiieaeoey?ieo aca?iiae?e.

No?oeoo?ii-ci?oeiaiee oa? ie?aiia?a i?aeaeueoue aaeaac?th AeIA aei
iiaa?oi? II oiane?aeie ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? eiioaeo?a naaiaio?a
ieanoeo?eiaaieo iaaeiieaeoey?ieo ooai?aiue iie?ia?o c aeoeaieie
oeaio?aie ieaio?eueii? iiaa?oi? ? aeeooc?? iae?iiieaeoe
iie?a?i?eoei?eaeo a oa? ie?aiia?a (?en.1).

Ia aeeeth/ai? i?e oeueiio aeeiieue-aeeiieuei? aca?iiae??
ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?oi ? aiaeiaa? aai aeiii?ii-aeoeaioi?i? aca?iiae??.

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeiia aeieeiooe o?eaea e aeanoe/ia iao?eoey
aeueiaoueiiie?ia?aaoiio c aenieith aaeaac??th aei no?oeoo?iooai?thth/eo
aeaiaio?a iaci- ? iae?ino?oeoo?e. Iniaeeaino? aeanoeainoae
eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaii? i?e?ino?oeoo?e iiaeii? iicia/eoenue ia yeino?
aeueiaoueiiie?ia?aaoiio.

?ENOIIE 1

?en.1. Ia?aaeaa/oaaia noaia oi?ioaaiiy i?aeoaciiai eiioaeoiiai oa?o a
nenoai? “aeueiaoueiiie?a?i?eoei?eaeia a’yaeo/a – aeoeaiaaiee ie?aiia?ii
i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie”: 1 – /anoea i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo; 2, 3, 4 –
no?oeoo?iaaiee, aeeoociee ? ia’?iiee oa?e a’yaeo/iai a?aeiia?aeii; 5 –
iiey?ia ?a/iaeia aeueiaoth; 6 – aeueoa-o?aeoe?y; 7 – aaoa-o?aeoe?y; 8 –
anioe?aoeaiee eiiieaen; 9 – e?enoae iie?oeeee?/iiai aoaeaaiaeith; 10, 11
– o?aaiaioe eiaaoeyoe?eii? ? eiiaeainaoe?eii? no?oeoo?; 12 – i?ioa?ie
ie?aiia?a – aeoeaaoi?a iiaa?oi? II; 13 – ii?a, caiiaiaia ie?aiia?ii; 14
– o?aaiaio iie?ia?ii? n?oee; 15, 16 – o?aaiaioe no?oeoo? c aooiaac?eieie
aca?iiae?yie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?eaaaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo ia’?eo?a ? iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiue.

sse i?aai?/i? a’yaeo/? i?eeiyoi eai’yiiaoa?euei? aei?iaei? aeueiao?
(AeNO 4641-80), 7 ia’?eo?a ?c a’yce?noth a?ae wmetafile8?
??e???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? `????&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy@???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u?th??????O aeai?e ?iaio?, e??i noaiaea?oieo, i?eeiyoi
ieceo niaoe?aeueieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue: ?aieia?/iee
(ieanoia?neiceiao? IA?-2), eaei?eiao?e/iee (aeeoa?aioe?aeueiee
aaoiiaoe/iee eaei?eiao? AeAE-1-1A), aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/iee (neaioth/ee
i?e?ineii ?N?-60A), ?io?a/a?aiia niaeo?ineii?y (UR-75 “Specord”),
o?iiaoia?ao?/iee (o?iiaoia?ao “Oeaao-100”). Aea/aiiy ou?eueithaaeueiino?
aaoiiieo noi?oae ? aeaoi?iaoe?eii-i?oei?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aeueiaoueiaaoii?a aeeiiaii ia onoaoeoaaiiyo, ?ic?iaeaieo o Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Aeey io?eiaiiy aeinoia??ieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?ae?a ii?aoeueiaoaaeenue iaoiaeaie iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

O?iiaoia?ao?/i? ? aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeee, ui
i?e iioeiaeueiiio ni?aa?aeiioaii? o?e, ui iaethoue, ? cae??aithaaiiai
iaoa??aeo (aaiiye) i?e aeenia?aoaaii? i?ioyaii /ioe?ueio aiaeei o
eoeueiaiio ieei? aeinyaa?oueny iioeiaeueia iiaa?oiy II. Oa?aeoa?ii, ui
cae??aithaaiiy II o na?aaeiaeu? iiaeeo?eaoi?a i?eaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy
eiai ?ioaa?aeueii? iiaa?oi? a ii??aiyii? c iaaeoeaiaaiei i?ia?aeueiei
ii?ioeii. Oea iiaeia iiynieoe eaeueiaoaoe??th ii? ? eai?ey??a /anoie II
iieaeoeaie ie?aiia?a.

Caeaaei?noue iaae? o?eaeino? i?e noeneo aeueiaoueiaaoiio a?ae ianiai?
eiioeaio?aoe?? aeoeaaoi??a i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac iaeneioi. Iioeiaeueia
eiioeaio?aoe?y iiaeeo?eaoi?a ia iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo
caeaaeeoue a?ae o?i?ei-i?ia?aeia?/iiai neeaaeo, no?oeoo?e II ?
ni?iiiaeiino? ie?aiia?a ooai?thaaoe oaiini?aoe?ei? ca’ycee ia iiaa?oi?
iiae?eo oac. Iioeiaeueia ianiaa eiioeaio?aoe?y EO-IO ia iiaa?oi?
aeieii?oiaiai ieeo – 1,0%, a IAAN – 2,0% (?en.2). O oie aea /an,
iioeiaeueia ianiaa eiioeaio?aoe?y ia iiaa?oi? aaiiyeiaiai i?ia?aeueiiai
ii?ioeo aei??aith?: EO-IO – 0,5%, IAAN – 1,0%, YAe-20 – 4,0%.

?ENOIIE 2

?en.2. Caeaaei?noue iaae? i?oeiino? i?e noeneo ae??aiica?ienoiai
aeueiaoueiaaoiio R a?ae ianiai? eiioeaio?aoe?? ia iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai
ii?ioeo (aeieii?oiaee iee) iie?ia?i?noeiai a?aeoiaeo ae?iaieoeoaa
aiieneaeieo niie Cm: 1, 2, 3 – 0°N, 20°N, 50°N a?aeiia?aeii; a’yce?noue
aeueiaoth a aaoii? wmetafile8? ??c????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??`????u?th??????

Aeaeo?iii? i?e?ioioia?ao?? iieacothoue, ui i?e iania?e eiioeaio?aoe??,
iai?eeeaae, EO-IO 0,25% aei II a?aeaoaa?oueny /anoeiaa aeoeaaoe?y
iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo iieaeoeaie ie?aiia?a. Iiaeaeueoa
ca?eueoaiiy oo?eiaiiy aeoeaaoi?a a nenoai? II — EO-IO i?eaiaeeoue ye aei
oi?ioaaiiy ia iiaa?oi? II iiiiiieaeoey?iiai oa?o EO-IO, ni?aiaaiiai ia
a?eueo?e /anoei? iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo, oae ? aei oi?ioaaiiy
iie?iieaeoey?ieo oa??a ie?aiia?a ia iiaa?oi? II (oa?aeoa?i? iaa?oue
iaieeai? ooai?aiiy oa??a ie?aiia?a, yeui eiioeaio?aoe?y EO-IO o a?ia?i?e
noi?o? II – EO-IO neeaaea? 1,25%). Oa?e ie?aiia?o, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny a
“a?eueiiio noai?”, ? ieiueiaie eiacaiiy i?e aeaoi?ioaaii? aaoiio c
eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith i?e?ino?oeoo?ith, ui ? iicia/a?oueny ia
cieaeaii? i?oeiino? aeueiaoueiaaoiio.

I?e iioei?caoe?? neeaae?a eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaii? i?e?ino?oeoo?e
(/eiieee aa??thaaiiy: O1 – a’yce?noue aeueiaoth, wmetafile8?
????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? `a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy ???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u?th??????

wmetafile8? ??B???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A@#???&??yyyy?????Ayyy!yyy?#??a?? ???&?
?MathType??????uthY?????

??aiyiiy ?aa?an?? ia?aa??ai? ia aaeaeaaoi?noue ? caaeiaieueiythoue
e?eoa??th O?oa?a (aeenia?n?y aaeaeaaoiino? aei??aith? 0,018; eiao?oe??io
aa??aoe?? neeaaea? 2,82%; ei?aeyoe?eia a?aeiioaiiy – 0,802).

Anoaiiaeaii, yeui a’yce?noue eai’yiiaoa?eueiiai aei?iaeiueiai aeueiaoth
wmetafile8? ??e????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??`????u?th??????sse aeieeaa? c aeaieo ?en.3,
aeueiaoueiiie?ia?aaoii, ui i?noeoue i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie, aeoeaiaaiee
ie?aiia?ii, ia? yne?aai ae?aaeaio iaaaeeoeai?noue i?oeiino? (e?ea? 1 ?
2).

?ENOIIE 3

?en.3. Ae?aa?aia iaae? i?oeiino? i?e noeneo aeueiaoueiaaoiio (oei A), A,
A, A – a?aeiia?aeii i?e 0°N, 20°N ? 50°N: 1 – a’yaeo/a – aeueiaioue,
wmetafile8? ??a????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??`????u?th??????

Oea iaoiiaeaii oei, ui aeueiaoueiiie?a?i?eoei?eaeia a’yaeo/a,
ciaoiaey/enue o iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? aeoeaiaaiiai i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo,
i?ae ae??th nee aaeaac?? a noeniooiio noai? ci?ith? ?aieia?/i?
aeanoeaino?. *anoee aeoeaiaaiiai ie?aiia?ii i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo
ciaoiaeyoueny a “u?eueieo oiiaao”, ? i?ae ieie ae?thoue cia/i? neee
oyae?iiy, ui aeiaeaoeiai ci?oeiththoue no?oeoo?o aeueiaoueiaaoiio c
eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith i?e?ino?oeoo?ith.

A?aeiia?aeii aei aeaieo, i?eaaaeaieo ia ?en.4, oaiia?aoo?a ?ic/eiaiiy
a?aen?ao iie?a?i?eoei?eaeo a nenoaiao 1, 2, 3 neeaaea? 110-115°N,
125-135°N ? 150-160°N a?aeiia?aeii.

?ENOIIE 4

?en.4. Caeaaei?noue oaieiai? iiooaeiino? dQ/dt a’yaeo/iai a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e t (oaeaee?noue neaioaaiiy 1 E/oaee): 1 – aeueiaioue,
wmetafile8? ??a????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
``???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy ???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u?th??????

Aeai? ?en.4 na?ae/aoue i?i aieea iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo ia
e?iaoeeo ?ic/eiaiiy IAO. I?e oeueiio niinoa??aa?oueny iaea?eueo i?oeiee
ca’ycie ia iiaa?oi? iiae?eo oac “aeueiaoueiiie?a?i?eoei?eaeia a’yaeo/a —
iiaeeo?eiaaia IAAN iiaa?oiy aeieii?oiaiai ieeo”. Iaaooue, i?e
oaiia?aoo?iiio aieea? aiieneaei? a?oie iie?ia?i?noeiai a?aeoiaeo
ae?iaieoeoaa aiieneaeieo niie ?ice?eaathoueny ? ?aaaothoue ?c a?oiaie
C-Cl iie?a?i?eoei?eaeo ? oaiieaie aeueiaoth, caaaeyee /iio aeieea?
a?eueo i?oeiee ca’ycie o nenoai? “AeIA – aeoeaiaaiee IAAN II”, i?ae o
aeueiaoueia’yaeo/?e ?a/iaei?, o ye?e i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie ia
aeoeaiaaiee.

Ia ?*-niaeo?ao o nenoai? “aeueiaioue – aeieii?oiaee iee, aeoeaiaaiee 2%
IAAN” a?eueo /?oei aeyaeythoueny nioae iiaeeiaiiy aeueiaoth (a?iiaoeea,
iaoeeuei? a?oie), i?ae o nenoai? “aeueiaioue – aeieii?oiaee iee”. Oea
aeaco? ia oa, ui oa? aeoeaaoi?a IAAN iie?auo? cii/oaaiiy aeieii?oiaiai
ieeo eai’yiiaoa?eueiei aeueiaoai ? ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith no?oeoo?iaaii?
ie?aee a’yaeo/iai ia iiaeeo?eiaai?e iiaa?oi? II. Ia oea aeaco? iineeaiiy
a?aeiiniiai iiaeeiaiiy a iaeano? 1450 ni-1.

O nenoai? “aeueiaioue – 1,5% IAO – aeieii?oiaee iee, iiaeeo?eiaaiee 2%
IAAN” a?aeiinia i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioaineaiino? iiaeeiaiiy a iaaeao
1400-1700 ni-1 (o ii??aiyii? c iaeanoth 1100-1200 ni-1) na?ae/eoue i?i
oi?ioaaiiy a?eueo no?oeoo?iaaii? ie?aee a’yaeo/iai ia iiaa?oi?
iiaeeo?eiaaiiai i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo, i?ae o nenoai? “aeueiaioue – 1,5%
IAO – aeieii?oiaee iee iaaeoeaiaaiee”. Aiaeia?/i? yaeua
niinoa??aathoueny ? a oaeeo nenoaiao: “aeueiaioue – aaiiyeiaee
i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie, aeoeaiaaiee 0,5% ian. EO-IO”; “aeueiaioue – 1,5%
IAO – aaiiyeiaee i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie, aeoeaiaaiee 0,5% ian. EO-IO”.

Oaeei /eiii, eiiieaenia iiaeeo?eoaaiiy i?e?ino?oeoo?e aeueiaoueiaaoiio
i?eaiaeeoue aei oi?ioaaiiy a?eueo ?icaeiooeo aaeni?aoe?eii-nieueaaoieo
oa??a aeueiaoueiiie?a?i?eoei?eaeiiai a’yaeo/iai ia iiaa?oi? aeoeaiaaiiai
i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo, nooe?eueii? aaeni?aoe?eii-nieueaaoii? ie?aee. O
oie aea /an, o nenoai?, aea i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie ia aeoeaiaaiee, ye
aeyaeee aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaa?oiaaee oa?
aeueiaoueiiie?ia?iiai a’yaeo/iai ia ? aaccoieiiei. Niinoa??aathoueny
ae?eyiee iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo, ui ia iie?eo? AeIA.

Aeueiaoueiiie?ia?aaoiii? noi?o? c eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith
i?e?ino?oeoo?ith a?eueo oaoiieia?/i?, i?ae aeueiaoueiaaoiii?.
Iioeiaeueiee oaiia?aoo?iee ?ioa?aae ou?eueiaiiy iiaeeo?eiaaieo
aeueiaoueiaaoiiieo noi?oae aei??aith? 40-100°N, a aa?y/eo
aeueiaoueiaaoiiieo – 55-85°N. I?ioean ou?eueiaiiy
aeueiaoueiiie?ia?aaoiiieo noi?oae o 1,6-2,9 ?ace iaio aia?ai?iiee, i?ae
aeueiaoueiaaoiiieo. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy ii?iaoeaii? u?eueiino?
aeueiaoueiaaoii?a ?c eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith i?e?ino?oeoo?ith aoaea
iio??aia iaioa e?euee?noue i?ioiaeaeaiue eioea.

Iiaeeo?eiaai? aeueiaoueiaaoiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?eueo aenieith
u?euei?noth ? o?eaaeith aiaeino?ee?noth, iaioith oaiia?aoo?iith
/ooeea?noth iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae o ii??aiyii? c aa?y/eie
aeueiaoueiaaoiiaie (oaae.1). Aeey ieo oa?aeoa?ia a?eueo aeniea
o?eae?noue i?e noeneo c oaiia?aoo?ith 50°N ? iaioa – i?e 0°N.

Oaaeeoey 1

O?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? aeueiaoueiaaoiio

? i/iNeeaae aeueiaoueia’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie o ae??aiica?ienoiio aaoii? (oei
A)wmetafile8? ??O????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyyA??7?? ???&? ?MathType??p????u
y??????Aeueiaoueiaaoiie c eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith i?e?ino?oeoo?ith
a?eueo aeiaaia?/i?: eiao?oe??io noa??iiy i?ney 700 aiae i?ia??ao i?e
60°N o ee?iaoe/i?e eaia?? neeaaea? 1,8-2,1, a aeey aeueiaoueiaaoiio –
2,7; eiao?oe??io aiaeino?eeino? i?e o?eaaeiio aiaeiiane/oaaii? (90 ae?a)
neeaaea? 0,87-0,90, i?ioe 0,56 aeey aa?y/iai aeueiaoueiaaoiio;
eiao?oe??io ii?icino?eeino? i?ney 50 oeeee?a iiia?ai?iiiai
caii?iaeoaaiiy-?icii?iaeoaaiiy aei??aith? 0,84-0,88, a aeey
o?aaeeoe?eiiai aeueiaoueiaaoiio – 0,64.

Iiaeeo?eiaai? aeueiaoueiaaoiie a?eueo aeaoi?iaoeai?, i?ae aa?y/ee
aeueiaoueiaaoii. Oaiia?aoo?a iaoai?/iiai neeiaaiiy aeey ieo aei??aith?
0°N, a aeey aa?y/iai aeueiaoueiaaoiio +10°N.

Aeai?, i?eaaaeai? ia ?en.5, na?ae/aoue i?i aaeee? e?eoe/i? iai?oae
aeueiaoueiaaoiio c eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith i?e?ino?oeoo?ith
(se?=0,22-0,36 IIa), i?ae aeueiaoueiaaoiio (se?=0,045 IIa). Ioaea
iiaeeo?eiaai? aeueiaoueiaaoiie iaio noeeuei? aei iaeiie/aiiy caeeoeiaeo
aeaoi?iaoe?e ? a?eueo aeiaaia?/i? i?ae ae??th o?ainii?oieo
iaaaioaaeaiue, i?ae o?aaeeoe?eiee aeueiaoueiaaoii.

?ENOIIE 5

?en.5. Caeaaei?noue i?ae iai?oaith s o ae??aiica?ienoiio
aeueiaoueiaaoii? ? a?aeiiniith aeaoi?iaoe??th e i?e /anoio?
aeaoi?ioaaiiy 0,5 Aoe ? oaiia?aoo?? 20°N: 1 – aaoii, i?eaioiaaiee ia
aeueiao? a’yce?noth wmetafile8? ??a????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy`???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u?th??????

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe a?eueo aenie? cia/aiiy aeeiai?/iiai iiaeoey i?oaeiino?
iiaeeo?eiaaieo aeueiaoueiaaoii?a i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao o ii??aiyii? c
o?aaeeoe?eiei aeueiaoueiaaoiiii (oaae.2). A?aeiinia e?eoe/ia
aeaoi?iaoe?y, ui iaiaaeo? e?i?eio a’yceii?oaeio iaeanoue, iaeneiaeueia
aeey aaoii?a ?c eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith i?e?ino?oeoo?ith ?
i?i?iaeueia aeey aa?y/iai aeueiaoueiaaoiio (aeea. oaae. 2). Oa?aeoa?ii,
ui i?e oaiia?aoo?? 50°N cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa ieanoe/iino? o
iiaeeo?eiaaieo aeueiaoueiaaoii?a cia/ii iaioa, i?ae o aa?y/iai
aeueiaoueiaaoiio (aeea. oaae. 2). Oea na?ae/eoue i?i a?eueoo
aeaoi?iaoe?eio no?ee?noue aeueiaoueiaaoii?a ?c
eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith i?e?ino?oeoo?ith a iaeano? aenieeo
oaiia?aoo?, i?ae ia iiaeeo?eiaaieo aeueiaoueiaaoii?a. O?ceei-iaoai?/i?
aeanoeaino? aeueiaoueiaaoii?a c eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith
i?e?ino?oeoo?ith ? oaieeo anoaeueoiaaoii?a ?aeaioe/i?, ui ? aecia/a?
aaeocue ?o canoinoaaiiy. Iiaeeo?eaoe?y iiaa?oi? II ie?aiia?aie
i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy ia 1,2-1,4% ai?noo i?aai?/iiai a’yaeo/iai a
noi?o?.

O ?icae?e? 5 iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ?aae?caoe?? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
ae?iaieoeoaa ? canoinoaaiiy aeueiaoueiaaoiiieo noi?oae c
eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith i?e?ino?oeoo?ith.

Ia Aeieo/a?anuee?e oaa?eoe? ?ia?oiiai ieeo iaeio oaoiieia?/io e?i?th
ia?aaaaeaii ia ae?iaieoeoai aeoeaiaaieo ie?aiia?aie i?ia?aeueieo
ii?ioe?a.

Oaaeeoey 2

Aeaoi?iaoe?eii-i?oei?ni? aeanoeaino? aeueiaoueiaaoii?a

Iaeiaioaaiiyia?aiao?oOaiia?aoo?a aecia/aiiy, °N*anoioa aecia/aiiy,
AoeNeeaae aeueiaoueia’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie a ae??aiica?ieno?i aaoii? (oei
A)a’yaeo/a – eai’yiiaoa?eueiee aeueiaioue wmetafile8?
??a???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy`???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u?th??????Ia anoaeueoiaaoiiiiio caaiae?
Iiaiacianueeiai ?aeaaoiaei?a Aeiiaoeueeiai ia’?aeiaiiy iaeaaoiaei? o
1998 ?ioe? ae?iaeaii 8 157 oii aeueiaoueiaaoiiieo noi?oae c
eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith i?e?ino?oeoo?ith. Iiaeeo?eiaai?
aeueiaoueiaaoiii? noi?o? oeeaaeaii o aa?oi? oa?e aei?iaeiueiai iaeyao
aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae ?inoia – Iaeana – ?ai?. Aeina?ae aoae?aieoeoaa e
aenieoaoaoe?? aeueiaoueiiie?ia?aaoiiieo iie?eoo?a, iiaoaeiaaieo ?c
canoinoaaiiyi aeoeaiaaieo iie?ia?i?noeei a?aeoiaeii ae?iaieoeoaa
aiieneaeieo niie i?ia?aeueieo ii?ioe?a, na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui:
ii?iaoeaia u?euei?noue iie?eooy aeinyaa?oueny i?e iaio?e e?eueeino?
i?ioiaeaeaiue eioea; a?aenooi? aeaoi?iaoe?? o aeaeyae? cnoa?a ? o??uei;
aiie aaea?/? o?eae?o? ca o?aaeeoe?ei? aeueiaoueiaaoiii?; aeiiii?y
i?aai?/iiai a’yaeo/iai a noi?oao neeaaea? 1,0-1,2%. Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo
a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeueiaoueiaaoiiieo noi?oae c
eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith i?e?ino?oeoo?ith noaiiaea 136 168 a?eaaiue.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?
i?e /eoaii? eaeoe?e ? aeeiiaii? eaai?aoi?ieo ?ia?o c aeenoeeie?i
“Aoae?aaeueia iaoa??aeiciaanoai” ? “O?ceei-o?i?/ia iaoai?ea
aei?iaeiuei-aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a” i?e i?aeaioiaoe? niaoe?ae?no?a ca
oaoii “Aoae?aieoeoai ? aenieoaoaoe?y aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a ?
aa?iae?ii?a”. Nai?oa?ii-o?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeiiai? a Aeiiaoeueeiio
iaoeiaiio oeaio?? a?a??ie i?aoe? oa i?io?eaeoeee o?aaiaoecio, iieacaee,
ui ??aaiue aeae?eaiiy oe?aeeeaeo niieoe (aaicie, oieoie, en?eie,
iaooae?i, oaiie, noe?ie) o i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa ieae/a, i?ae
anoaeueoiaaoiiieo (AeNO 9128-84) oa aeueiaoueiaaoiiieo noi?oae
(AeNO 25877-83), ? i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaee i?e aenieoaoaoe??.

AENIIAEE

1. Oai?aoe/ii e aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii, ui aoaeoeaiei caniaii
?aaoethaaiiy aaeaac?? ? eiaac?? eai’yiiaoa?eueiiai aeueiaoth, ui
caaacia/othoue aeanoe/i?noue aeueiaoueia’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie ? o?eaeee
ca’ycie ia iiaa?oi? ?icae?eo oac “aeueiaoueiiie?ia?ia a’yaeo/a —
i?ia?aeueiee iaoa??ae”, ? eiiieaenia iiaeeo?eoaaiiy i?e?ino?oeoo?e
aeueiaoueiaaoiio aaaaeaiiyi a aeueiao? a?aen?ao iie?a?i?eoei?eaeo ?
aeoeaaoe??th iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo ie?aiia?ii, ui i?noeoue
ooieoe?iiaeuei? a?oie (ea?aai?aeioi?iaeueaeaa?aeia niiea, iie?ia?i?noe?
a?aeoiaee ae?iaieoeoaa aiieneaeieo niie, aiieneaeia niiea).

2. O?iiaoia?ao?/iei, aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/ieie iaoiaeaie, a oaeiae
iaoiaeii ?*-niaeo?ineii?? anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? ie?aiia??a
0,5-2,0% ian. ia iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueieo ii?ioe?a oi?io?oueny
no?oeoo?iaaiee oa? iiaeeo?eaoi?a, i?oeii iia’ycaiee i?aeiieaeoey?ieie,
aiaeiaaeie ? aeiii?ii-aeoeaioi?ieie ca’yceaie c iiaa?oiath ii?ioeo. Oea
iineeth? i?aeiieaeoey?i? aieeae ia iiaa?oi? iiae?eo oac
“aeueiaoueiiie?a?i?eoei?eaeia a’yaeo/a – aeoeaiaaiee i?ia?aeueiee
ii?ioie” aiane?aeie ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? eiioaeo?a naaiaio?a
ieanoeo?eiaaieo iaaeiieaeoey?ieo ooai?aiue iie?ia?o c aeoeaieie
oeaio?aie ieaio?eueii? iiaa?oi?.

3. A nenoai? “aeueiaioue (wmetafile8? ??u????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyya ???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u?th??????4. Aeueiaoueiiie?ia?aaoiii? noi?o? c
eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith i?e?ino?oeoo?ith a?aecia/athoueny
i?aeaeuaiith ou?eueithaaeuei?noth i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 40-100°N, a aaoiie –
i?aeaeuaiei cia/aiiyi iiaeoey i?oaeiino? i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao;
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?eueo oe?ieith ciiith a’yceii?oaeii? iiaaae?iee ?
iaioei iieacieeii oaiia?aoo?ii? /ooeeaino?. Aiie a?eueo no?ee? aei
noa??iiy, aiaei- ? ii?icino?ee?, i?ae o?aaeeoe?ei? aeueiaoueiaaoiie.

5. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeai? a Iiaiacianueeiio
?aeaaoiaei?? Aeiiaoeueeiai ia’?aeiaiiy iaeaaoiaei?. C?iaeaii 8 157 o
aeueiaoueiaaoiiieo noi?oae ?c eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith
i?e?ino?oeoo?ith. ?o oeeaaeaii o aa?oi? oa?e aei?iaei?o iaeya?a
aaoiiia?eueii? aei?iae ?inoia – Iaeana – ?ai?. Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy anoaiiaea 136 168 a?eaaiue. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
niaoe?ae?no?a ca oaoii “Aoae?aieoeoai ? aenieoaoaoe?y aaoiiia?eueieo
aei??a ? aa?iae?ii?a”.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii a ianooiieo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. A?ao/oi A.E., Oiaeoi A.I., Aeiey A.A. Aeaaoaaaoiiu n
eiiieaenii-iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie iee?ino?oeoo?ie // Aaoioeyoiaee Oe?a?ie. –
1997. – ?4. – N.27-29.

2. Oiaeoi A.I. Iniaaiiinoe oaiia?aoo?iuo ?aaeeiia oeeaaeee e oieioiaiey
aeaaoaaaoiiiuo nianae n eiiieaenii-iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie iee?ino?oeoo?ie //
Aaoioeyoiaee Oe?a?ie. – 1997. – ?4. – N.30-31.

3. A?ao/oi A.E., Oiaeoi A.I., Ei?iaeei A.O. Aeaaoaiieeia?aaoiiu
iiauoaiiie naeaeaionoie/eainoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe // Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu
no?ieoaeuenoaa. – Aeiiaoee: Oe?aeineay ainoaea?noaaiiay no?ieoaeueiay
ei?ii?aoeey “Oe?no?ie”, 1997. – N.111-113.

4. A?ao/oi A.E., Iiacoi A.E., Oiaeoi A.I., Iieeuoe A.A., Aaniaeia A.E.
Iooiaeu i?iecaiaenoa Aeiiaanna – yooaeoeaiua iiaeeoeeaoi?u aei?iaeiiai
aeaaoaaaoiia // Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu no?ieoaeuenoaa. – Aeiiaoee:
Oe?aeineay ainoaea?noaaiiay no?ieoaeueiay ei?ii?aoeey “Oe?no?ie”, 1997.
– N.117-119.

5. A?ao/oi A.E., Oiaeoi A.I., Aeiey A.A. Iooiaeu i?iecaiaenoa –
yooaeoeaiua eiiiiiaiou aei?iaeiuo aaoiiia // Iao/iua, oaoiieiae/aneea e
yeiiiie/aneea aniaeou eniieueciaaiey iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa, 1998. – E.:
Ieienoa?noai i?iiuoeaiiie iieeoeee Oe?aeiu. – *.II. – N.19-20.

6. Oiaeoi A.I. Ia iioeiaeueiuo eiioeaio?aoeeiiiuo niioiioaieyo a nenoaia
eaiaiiioaieueiue aeaaioue – ionaa iieeaeieeoei?eaea – iiaeeoeeaoi?
iiaa?oiinoe ieia?aeueiiai ii?ioea // Aanoiee Aeiiaanneie
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeaaeaiee no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u. – Iaeaaaea. –
1998. – aui.?1(9). – N.31-35.

7. Oiaeoi A.I., Aeiey A.A., Aii/a?aiei A.A., Eaa/aiei Ae.A.,
Aaniaeia A.E., ?uaaeei E.O. Ia iniaaiiinoyo ?aaiou aeaaoaaaoiia a
iaaeanoeeo aei?iaeiuo iie?uoeyo // Aanoiee Aeiiaanneie ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeaaeaiee no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u. – Iaeaaaea. – 1998. – aui.?1(9).
– N.35-39.

8. A?ao/oi A.E., Oiaeoi A.I., Aeiey A.A. Iiauoaiea aeieaiaa/iinoe
aeaaoaaaoiiiuo iie?uoee // Aaoiaei?iaei?e eiiieaen Oe?a?ie a no/anieo
oiiaao: I?iaeaie ? oeyoe ?icaeoeo. – E.: IAEI “Oe?oeii?iaeo”, 1998. –
N.161-163.

Iniaenoa o/anoue caeiaoaa/a a oeeo ?iaioao. An? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe io?eiai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii. O ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?ii aeeiiaii: iaa?oiooaaiiy aeae?a aeoeaaoi??a iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueieo
ii?ioe?a; aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeueiaoueiaaoii?a c
eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith i?e?ino?oeoo?ith [1]; iioei?caoe?y nenoaie
“aeueiaoueiiie?a?i?eoei?eaeia a’yaeo/a – aeoeaiaaiee
ea?aai?aeioi?iaeueaeaa?aeiith niieith i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie” [3];
aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeueiaoueiiie?ia?aaoii?a, ui i?noyoue
aeoeaiaai? ie?aiia?aie i?ia?aeuei? ii?ioee [4]; aenia?eiaioaeueia
aea/aiiy iieaciee?a yeino? a?aeoiae?a ae?iaieoeoa iie?ia?ii?
i?iieneiaino? [5]; oai?aoeei-aenia?eiaioaeueiee aiae?c ?iaioe
iaaei?noeeo iie?eoo?a i?ae ae??th o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue a
ii?aeiaii? c ee?iaoe/ieie /eiieeaie [7]; aenia?eiaioaeueia aea/aiiy
aeaoi?iaoe?eii-i?oei?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeueiaoueiiie?ia?aaoii?a [8].

AIIOAOe?ss

Oiaeoi A.I. Aeueiaoueiaaoiie c eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith
i?e?ino?oeoo?ith. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.23.05 – Aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee oa ae?iae. –
Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e, Iae??aea,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii oai?aoe/iiio ? aenia?eiaioaeueiiio
iaa?oiooaaiith caeiaoooy aeiaaia?/iiai aei?iaeiueiai aeueiaoueiaaoiio ia
iniia? onoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaii?
i?e?ino?oeoo?e aeueiaoueiaaoiio, i?aaenoaaeaii?
aeueiaoueiiie?a?i?eoei?eaeiei a’yaeo/ei ? i?ia?aeueiei ii?ioeii,
iiaa?oiy yeiai aeoeaiaaia ie?aiia?ii, ui i?noeoue ooieoe?iiaeuei? a?oie
(ea?aai?aeioi?iaeueaeaa?aeia niiea EO-IO, aiieneaei? niiee,
iie?ia?i?noe? a?aeoiaee ae?iaieoeoaa aiieneaeieo niie). Aea/ai? i?ioeane
no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy o nenoai? “aeueiaoueiiie?a?i?eoei?eaeia a’yaeo/a ?
i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie, iiaa?oiy yeiai aeoeaiaaia ie?aiia?ii”.
Aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/iei iiaeaethaaiiyi anoaiiaeai? iioeiaeuei?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a nenoai? “eai’yiiaoa?eueiee aeueiaioue – a?aen?a
iie?a?i?eoei?eaeo – aeoeaaoi? iiaa?oi? i?ia?aeueiiai ii?ioeo”. Aea/aii
o?ce/i? oa aeaoi?iaoe?eii-i?oei?ni? aeanoeaino? aeueiaoueiaaoii?a c
eiiieaenii-iiaeeo?eiaaiith i?e?ino?oeoo?ith. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
?aae?ciaaii i?ae /an i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa aeueiaoueiiie?ia?aaoiiieo
noi?oae, ye? i?noyoue o nai?io neeaae? i?ia?aeueiee ii?ioie, aeoeaiaaiee
iie?ia?i?noeeie a?aeoiaeaie ae?iaieoeoaa aiieneaeieo niie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeueiaoueiiie?a?i?eoei?eaeia a’yaeo/a, aeoeaiaai?
i?ia?aeuei? ii?ioee, iiaeeo?eiaaiee aeueiaoueiaaoii, o?ce/i? ?
aeaoi?iaoe?eii-i?oei?ni? aeanoeaino?.

AIIIOAOeEss

Oiaeoi A.I. Aeaaoaaaoiiu n eiiieaenii-iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie
iee?ino?oeoo?ie. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.23.05 – No?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu e ecaeaeey. –
Aeiiaanneay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u,
Iaeaaaea, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia oai?aoe/aneiio e yenia?eiaioaeueiiio
iainiiaaieth iieo/aiey aeieaiaa/iiai aei?iaeiiai aeaaoaaaoiia ia iniiaa
onoaiiaeaiey caeiiiia?iinoae oi?ie?iaaiey eiiieaenii-iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie
iee?ino?oeoo?u aeaaoaaaoiia, i?aaenoaaeaiiie aeaaoaiieeaeieeoei?eaeiui
ayaeouei e ieia?aeueiui ii?ioeii, iiaa?oiinoue eioi?iai aeoeae?iaaia
ieeaiia?ii, niaea?aeauei ooieoeeiiaeueiua a?oiiu
(ea?aaieaeioi?iaeueaeaaeaeiay niiea EO-IO, yiieneaeiua niieu,
iieeia?niaea?aeauea iooiaeu i?iecaiaenoaa yiieneaeiuo niie). ?ac?aaioaia
e aiaeeoe/anee iienaia eiioeaiooaeueiay oeceei-oeie/aneay iiaeaeue
iioeiaeueiie no?oeoo?u eiiieaenii-iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai aeaaoaayaeouaai.
Noi?ioee?iaaiu o?aaiaaiey e eiiiiiaioai aeaaoaayaeouaai aauanoaa –
aeaaoaiieeia?iiio ayaeouaio aauanoao e aeoeaaoi?ai iiaa?oiinoe
ieia?aeueiiai ii?ioea, a oaeaea no?oeoo?a eiiieaenii-iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai
aeaaoaayaeouaai aauanoaa. O?iiaoia?aoe/aneeie,
yeaeo?iiii-iee?ineiie/aneeie iaoiaeaie, a oaeaea iaoiaeii
EE-niaeo?ineiiee, onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e eiioeaio?aoeee ieeaiia?ia
0,5-2,0% ian. ia iiaa?oiinoe ieia?aeueiiai ii?ioea oi?ie?oaony
no?oeoo?e?iaaiiue neie iiaeeoeeaoi?a, i?i/ii naycaiiue
iaaeiieaeoey?iuie, aiaei?iaeiuie e aeiii?ii-aeoeaioi?iuie naycyie n
iiaa?oiinoueth ii?ioea. Yoi oneeeaaao iaaeiieaeoey?iua acaeiiaeaenoaey
ia iiaa?oiinoe ?acaeaea oac “aeaaoaiieeaeieeoei?eaeiia ayaeouaa –
aeoeae?iaaiiue ieia?aeueiue ii?ioie” aneaaenoaea oaaee/aiey eiee/anoaa
eiioaeoia naaiaioia ieanoeoeoee?iaaiiuo iaaeiieaeoey?iuo ia?aciaaiee
iieeia?a n aeoeaiuie oeaio?aie ieaioeeueiie iiaa?oiinoe.
Yenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/aneei iiaeaee?iaaieai onoaiiaeaiu
iioeiaeueiua eiioeaio?aoeeiiiua niioiioaiey a nenoaia “aeaaioue
(wmetafile8? ??o????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `@
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy? ???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u?th??????Aeaaoaaaoiiu n eiiieaenii-iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie
iee?ino?oeoo?ie aieaa aeieaiaa/iu: eiyooeoeeaio noa?aiey iinea 700 /ania
i?ia?aaa i?e 60°N a eeeiaoe/aneie eaia?a ninoaaeyao 1,8-2,1, a aeey
aeaaoaaaoiia – 2,7; eiyooeoeeaio aiaeinoieeinoe i?e aeeeoaeueiii
aiaeiianuuaiee (90 nooie) ninoaaeyao 0,87-0,90 i?ioea 0,56 aeey ai?y/aai
aeaaoaaaoiia; eiyooeoeeaio ii?icinoieeinoe iinea 50 oeeeeia
iiia?aiaiiiai caii?aaeeaaiey-iooaeaaiey ?aaai 0,84-0,88, a aeey
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai aeaaoaaaoiia – 0,64. Iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiua aeaaoaaaoiiu
aieaa aeaoi?iaoeaiu e naeaeaionoie/eau, /ai ai?y/ee aeaaoaaaoii.
?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee aiaae?aiu a Iiaiacianeii ?aeaaoiaei?a
Aeiiaoeeiai iauaaeeiaiey iaeaaoiaei?. I?iecaaaeaii 8 157 o
aeaaoaaaoiiiuo nianae n eiiieaenii-iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie iee?ino?oeoo?ie,
eioi?ua oeiaeaiu a aa?oiea neie aei?iaeiiai iie?uoey aaoiiiaeeueiie
aei?iae ?inoia – Iaeanna – ?aie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeaaoaiieeaeieeoei?eaeiia ayaeouaa, aeoeae?iaaiiua
ieia?aeueiua ii?ioee, iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiue aeaaoaaaoii, oece/aneea e
aeaoi?iaoeeiiii-i?i/iinoiua naienoaa.

THE SUMMARY

Khodun V.N. Tar-Macadams Possessing Combined Modified Microstructure. –
Manuscript.

The material of the dissertation is aimed at obtaining a scientific
degree of a candidate of engineering sciences, code of the speciality
05.23.05 – Building Materials and Products. Donbass State Academy of
Construction and Architecture, Makeyevka, 1999.

The dissertation concerns the theoretical and experimental feasibility
study of obtaining long-service life road tar-macadams on the basis of
the established mechanism of formation of jointly modified
microstructure of tar-macadams. The microstructure consists of a
tarpolyvinylchloride binder and mineral powder whose surface is
activated with olygomer, containing the functional groups, i.e.
carbamidoformaldehyde resins of KF-MT type, epoxy resins,
polymer-containing wastes of epoxy resin production. The dissertation
material describes the investigated processes of the structure formation
within the combined system of the tarpolyvinylchloride binder v.s. the
mineral powder whose surface is activated with olygomer. By means of
experimental-statistics simulation the optimum relations in the system
of coal road tar – polyvinylchloride wastes (riddlings), and the mineral
powder surface activator. The author of the given thesis has also
fulfilled the investigations of the physical and deformation-strength
characteristics of tar-macadams with the jointly modified
microstructure. The results of research have been put into service in
productional making of tarpolymer-concrete mixes made up of the mineral
powder, activated by means of polymer-containing wastes of epoxy resins
production.

Key words: tarpolyvinylchloride binder, combined modified, activated
mineral powders, modified tar-macadam, physical and deformation-strength
characteristics (properties).

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