EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

EICAE CI?ssIA ss?INEAA?AIA

OAeE 349.222

AeIAIA??IA ?AAOETHAAIIss CA

O?OAeIAEI I?AAII OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.05 — o?oaeiaa i?aai;

i?aai nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?oaeiaiai, aa?a?iiai oa aeieia?/iiai i?aaa
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Ieeeiaiei Ieeei Aeaieeiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?oaeiaiai, aa?a?iiai oa aeieia?/iiai i?aaa
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caneoaeaiee th?eno Oe?a?ie,

I?ieiiaiei Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo aeenoeeie?i *a?eanueeiai
?inoeoooo oi?aae?iiy a?cianii

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio,

Aieio?ia I?iaeue Ai?en?aia,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e o?oaeiaiai i?aaa ? i?aaa nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy
Iaeanueei? aea?aeaaii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Oa?e?anueeee oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “16” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 14.00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.06 o Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252017, i.Ee?a,
aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “15” aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio O.A.Aiaeia?

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?eeiyooy iniiaieo aea?aeaaioai?/eo
aeieoiaio?a: Aeaeea?aoe?? i?i aea?aeaaiee noaa?ai?oao Oe?a?ie, Aeoo
i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie, Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, SYMBOL 45 \f
«Symbol» \s 13 — caeeaei canaaee aaiethoe?eiiai oeyoo ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie
a iai?yieo aei i?aaiai? aea?aeaae c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith.
Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy iio?aaothoue nooo?aeo ci?i iaoai?cio
i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy no/anieo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, iiooeo oa
canoinoaaiiy iiaeo i?aaiaeo cania?a, a oiio /ene? ? oeo, ui iia’ycai? ?c
canoinoaaiiyi i?aoe?.

O i?aaiaiio ?aaoethaaii? o?oaeiaeo ? o?nii iia’ycaieo c ieie a?aeiinei
iai?/a?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei caoaeaiiy noa?e oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai ?
a?aeiia?aeii ?icoe?aiiy noa?e aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy. Aea?aeaaa
anoaiiaeth? i?aaia? aa?aio?? caoenoo o?oaeiaeo i?aa i?aoe?aiee?a, iaae?
aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy, aecia/a? i?eioeeie iiooeo ni?eueieo ?ioa?an?a
i?aoe?aiee?a ? ?iaioiaeaaoe?a oa iiia?aaeaeaiiy iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a
?o iaocaiaeaeaiino?.

I?aaiaa caaacia/aiiy o?oaeiaeo ? o?nii iia’ycaieo c ieie a?aeiinei
uiaeae? a?eueoa ia?aiineoueny ia aeiaia??i? canaaee. I?i c?inoaiiy ?ie?
aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy na?ae/aoue ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe, i?eeiyoo?
ca inoaii? ?iee a Oe?a?i?. Cie?aia, ?icoe?aii iiaiiaaaeaiiy noi??i
eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a oa oaiae c ieoaiue ?aaoethaaiiy ?iai/iai /ano,
/ano a?aeii/eieo, iieaoe i?aoe?, iaoa??aeueii? oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? caoe?eaaeaiino? i?aoe?aiee?a, ioi?iie i?aoe?,
anoaiiaeaii ii?yaeie oa oiiae oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeoo ye iniaeeaiai aeaeo
o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o oiui.

C?inoaiiy ?ie? aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy iia’ycaii c ?icaeoeii a Oe?a?i?
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, iaoith yeiai ? ie?ia a?aaoethaaiiy ?ioa?an?a
noa’?eo?a i?aaa, iiooe eiii?ii?nieo oeyo?a ae??oaiiy eieaeoeaieo
o?oaeiaeo nii??a, caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueiiai ie?o oa aa?iii?? a
noni?euenoa?. Aiaeii/an ?icaeoie nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa iio?aao?
iiaeaeueoiai iai?aoethaaiiy ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a, ye? a /?oei
aecia/aee eiai nenoaio, no?oeoo?o ? aeaee, noaoon niaoe?aeueieo
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a ye noa’?eo?a nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, ae??a?noue
?o iiaiiaaaeaiue, ?iciaaeoaaiiy eiiiaoaioe?? aea?aeaaieo i?aaenoaaiee?a
a nenoai? nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa.

Iio?aaothoue iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy ? cae??ieaiiy o ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo
aeoao ieoaiiy uiaei noa?e oeeaaeaiiy eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a ? oaiae oa
?o noi??i; uiaei noa?e canoinoaaiiy eiio?aeo?a, a?aeiia?aeiino? ?o
ci?noo /eiiiio caeiiiaeaanoao, eieaeoeaiei aeiaiai?ai oa oaiaeai. Oaea
iaiao?aei?noue iaoiiaeth?oueny i?aeoeeith aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy
o?oaeiaeo oa o?nii iia’ycaieo c ieie a?aeiinei, yea na?ae/eoue i?i
oi?iaeueiee i?aeo?ae noa’?eo?a i?e oeeaaeaii? eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a,
oaiae, eiio?aeo?a, aecia/aii? ?o ci?noo. A ?acoeueoao? cia/aiiy
aeiaiai??a oa oaiae cieaeo?oueny, ye ? aeoeai?noue, caoe?eaaeai?noue oa
aca?iia?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ?o noi??i.

I?eeiyooy iiaeo ? aaeineiiaeaiiy /eiieo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a, a
a?aeoae ? onoiaiiy aaaaoueio na?eicieo iaaeie?e?a o i?aeoeoe? oeeaaeaiiy
o?oaeiaeo aeiaiai??a, eiio?aeo?a, eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a, oaiae,
iio?aaothoue eiiieaeniiai iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai aeiaia??iiai
?aaoethaaiiy a o?oaeiaiio i?aa? Oe?a?ie, ui ? iaoiiaeei aea?? oaie
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie. Aeine?aeaeaiith o?oaeiaeo
aeiaiai??a, eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a oa oaiae i?eae?eyeany cia/ia oaaaa a
?aaeyinuee?e i?aaia?e iaooe?. Iiiyooy oeeo ?inoeooo?a, noi?iie
eieaeoeaiiai ? o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai??a, noa?a, ci?no, ii?yaeie aianaiiy
ci?i oa i?eieiaiiy ?icaeyaeaeeny a iiiia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo,
iaoeiaeo aeiiia?aeyo, oacao, noaooyo, iaa/aeueieo iin?aieeao,
i?ae?o/ieeao ? aeena?oaoe?yo.

Ie?ai? ieoaiiy aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei aoee
i?aaeiaoii oaaae i?aaenoaaiee?a caaaeueii? oai??? i?aaa (N.N.Aeaen??aa,
N.I.A?aoony, I.I.?aa?iiae/a, I.A.No?eeiaa, E.N.ssae/a) .

C ??ciei nooiaiai aeaoae?caoe?? eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy
o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei ?icaeyaeaeiny o i?aoeyo E.?.Aioiiiai?, I.E.Aa?o,
?.?.Eiiae?aoue?aa, A.?.Iaoa?noieea, A.?.I?ieiiaiea, I.?.I?ioeaanueeiai,
A.A.Oa?aniai?, A.?.Oaaaiiai?.

I?iaeaiai o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o, eiai aeae?a oa ci?noo i?enay/ai? ?iaioe
I.A.Aeaenaiae?iaa, E.ss.A?icao?aa, N.A.?aaiiaa, ?.C.E?aoeoey,
A.?.I?e?o?inueeiai, TH.E.I?eianueeiai, A.?. Neia?ee?ia, A.?.Noaaoeaai?.
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei aoei
i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue N.A.Aa?aeai?ia, I.E.Aac?ii?,
A.A.A?e??aa, A.O.Io?oae?iiai?, Ae.A.Nao?ii?.

I?ioean ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue a Oe?a?i? aeeeeeaa ia’?eoeaio iio?aao
aecia/aiiy iiai? eiioeaioe?? o?oaeiaiai i?aaa, a ye?e cia/ia i?noea
iiaeiia iaeaaeaoe aeiaia??iiio iaoiaeo ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo
i?aaia?aeiinei. Oe?eee ?yae iiaeo iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a uiaei
cacia/aieo oai?aoe/ieo oa caeiiiaeaa/eo i?iaeai ie ciaoiaeeii a i?aoeyo
I.A.Aieio?ii?, A.N.Aaiaaeeeoiaa, A.N.Aii/a?iai?, N.A.Ae??ae/aii?,
A.A.??ueiiaiea, A.A.AEa?iaeiaa, I.?.AEeaaee?ia, ?.A.Coaa,
?.?.Eiiae?aoue?aa, E.?.Eaci?, A.?.Iaoethea, I.O.Iaianthea,
I.Ae.Ieeeiaiea, N.I.I?eeeiea, A.?.I?ieiiaiea, A.I.I?ioeaanueeiai,
A.I.Nethna?a, I.I.Oooi?yi oa ?i. Iaeiae i?iaeaia aeiaia??iiai
?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo oa o?nii iia’ycaieo c ieie noni?eueieo a?aeiinei
a no/ani?e th?eaee/i?e iaooe? Oe?a?ie aei oeueiai /ano ia aoea
i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Caeeoathoueny
iaei aea/aieie oa iio?aaothoue aeiaeaoeiaiai ?icaeyaeo ieoaiiy uiaei:
noo? ? cia/aiiy aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ca o?oaeiaei i?aaii,
anoaiiaeaiiy noa?e ? i?aaiaeo cania?a oaeiai ?aaoethaaiiy; ci?noo
aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy; iniaeeainoae aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy a
?eieiaeo oiiaao; a oaeiae uiaei i?aa ? iaia’yce?a noa’?eo?a oaeiai
?aaoethaaiiy; ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy ii?iaoeaiiai oa aeiaia??iiai
?aaoethaaiiy; ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oiia aeiaiai??a, oaiae c /eiiei
caeiiiaeaanoaii oiui.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? o?oaeia? oa o?nii iia’ycai? c ieie
noni?euei? a?aeiineie, ye? aeieeathoue ia i?aenoaa? oeeaaeaiiy
o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o, eieaeoeaiiai aeiaiai?o, oaiaee oa ?ioeo,
ia?aaeaa/aieo o?oaeiaei caeiiiaeaanoaii, aeiaia??ieo oi?i. O
aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie,
Eiaeaeno caeii?a i?i i?aoeth Oe?a?ie oa ?ioeo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a
Oe?a?ie, ui noinothoueny ieoaiue aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo oa
o?nii iia’ycaieo c ieie a?aeiinei. Aiae?cothoueny ii?iaoeai? iieiaeaiiy
aaia?aeueieo oaiae Oe?a?ie, ??oaiiy Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie,
iinoaiiae Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie oa ie?ai? i?aaia? aeoe
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i c ieoaiue aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo
a?aeiinei.

Iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
? i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaiaeo i?iaeai aeiaia??iiai
?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo oa o?nii iia’ycaieo c ieie noni?eueieo a?aeiinei.
Ia iniia? aiae?co iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a Oe?a?ie, noaeiai? i?aeoeee oa i?aeoeee
oeeaaeaiiy eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a, oaiae ? o?oaeiaeo aeiaiai??a,
eiio?aeo?a noaaeoueny ca iaoo ae?iaeoe iia? i?aeoiaee aei ae??oaiiy
i?iaeai aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy, aeeth/ath/e ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
iiaeaeueoiai oaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa ? i?aaicanoinoaaeueii?
i?aeoeee.

Aeoiaey/e c aecia/aii? iaoe, aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aneaii ianooii?
caaaeaiiy:

?ice?eoe nooi?noue aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo oa o?nii
iia’ycaieo c ieie noni?eueieo a?aeiinei;

iaa?oiooaaoe c?inoath/a cia/aiiy aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?
o?nii iia’ycaieo c ieie noni?eueieo a?aeiinei a oiiaao ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee;

aecia/eoe noa?o aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy oa eiai aeaee;

iaa?oiooaaoe ?ieue aeiaiai?o ye iniiaiiai i?aaiaiai caniao ?aaoethaaiiy
? ia’?eoeaii? oi?ie aca?iia?aeiinei noa’?eo?a o?oaeiaiai i?aaa a oiiaao
?eieo;

c’ynoaaoe nooi?noue nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa oa eiai cia/aiiy aeey
eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy;

aecia/eoe no?oeoo?o eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo
a?aeiinei;

ie?aneeoe noi?iie eieaeoeaiiai aeiaiai?o, oaiaee; aecia/eoe noa?o
oeeaaeaiiy eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a, oaiae;

aeine?aeeoe aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei ia noaae?yo ?o
anoaiiaeaiiy, ci?ie oa i?eieiaiiy;

iaa?oiooaaoe eiio?aeo ye iaeei ?c aeae?a o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o, ui ia?
a?eueo oe?ieo noa?o aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy;

ae?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a
Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy
aaco?oueny ia iaoiaeao ? i?eeiiao iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy, iniiao yeeo
neeaaea? caaaeueiiiaoeiaee ae?aeaeoe/iee iaoiae. O ?iaio?
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oaeiae iaoiaee: oi?iaeueii-eia?/iee,
?noi?eei-i?aaiaee, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee, ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee,
nioe?ieiai-iie?oe/iee, iaoiae nenoaiiiai aiae?co.

O ?iaio? aeei?enoaii iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy c o?einio?? i?aaa,
caaaeueii? oai??? i?aaa, o?oaeiaiai oa aeayeeo ?ioeo aaeocae i?aaa c
ieoaiue aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

Iaoeia? aeniiaee aacothoueny ia iieiaeaiiyo Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie,
Eiaeaeno caeii?a i?i i?aoeth Oe?a?ie oa ?ioeo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a
Oe?a?ie i?i i?aoeth, aeoiaeyoue c ??oaiue Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Noaeo
Oe?a?ie, iinoaiia Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie, i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiaiai??a, eiiaaioe?e I?aeia?iaeii? I?aai?caoe?? I?aoe?, aaia?aeueieo
oaiae Oe?a?ie ia 1993, 1995, 1997-1998 ?iee, i?aeoeee oeeaaeaiiy
eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a, oaiae, o?oaeiaeo aeiaiai??a, eiio?aeo?a. I?e
iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii iaoa??aee aioeeeeiiaaee/iiai,
?ioi?iaoe?eii-noaoenoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o, aeina?ae ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i c
ieoaiue aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeena?oaoe?y ? eiiieaeniei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi oai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ca
o?oaeiaei i?aaii Oe?a?ie. Iaoeiaa iiaecia iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa
i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei a
Oe?a?i?, aeoiaey/e c eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae iaia’yceiaino? aeey
aea?aeaae i?aa ? naiaiae ethaeeie (a oiio /ene? i?aaa ia i?aoeth, ia
o/anoue o i?ioan?eieo ni?eeao, i?aaa i?eaaoii? aeaniino?, i?aaa ia
i?aei?e?iieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue), ye? cae??ieai? a Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie,
oa canaae noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo a iai?yieo ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy ia caoeno
aeiinyoueny ianooii? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, iia’ycai? c iiaeciith:

aecia/aiiy iiiyooy aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ca o?oaeiaei i?aaii a
oiiaao ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe?. Aiii ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
cae?enithaaiee noa’?eoaie o?oaeiaiai i?aaa oe?eani?yiiaaiee i?ioean
anoaiiaeaiiy, ci?ie, i?eieiaiiy o?oaeiaeo ? o?nii iia’ycaieo c ieie
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei ca aeiiiiiaith aeiaiai??a, oaiae;

aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy ii?aeio? o nia? aeaiaioe ye i?aai?aae?coth/i?,
oae ? i?aaioai?/i? ae?yeueiino?, oiio aeiaia??, oaiaea ? ia eeoa aeoaie
?aae?caoe??, aea e aeaea?aeaie o?oaeiaiai i?aaa;

?ieue aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ca o?oaeiaei i?aaii c?inoa? a ?eieiaeo
oiiaao, ine?eueee aeicaiey? cia/ii iiai?oa a?aoiaoaaoe ?ioa?ane noi??i
aeiaiai??a, oaiae, noai?th? oiiae aeey i?aeaeuaiiy nioe?aeueii?
aeoeaiino? noa’?eo?a i?aaa;

aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo oa o?nii iia`ycaieo c ieie noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei aaco?oueny ia caaaeueiiaeica?eueiiio i?eioeei?, ui coiiaeth?
?icoe?aiiy naiaiaee aieaaeyaeaiiy noi??i aeiaiai??a, oaiae c iaoith
eiie?aoecaoe??, ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? ii?i i?aaa, caiiaiaiiy i?iaaeei o
caeiiiaeaanoa?;

noa?a aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy aca?iiiia’ycaia ?c noa?ith ii?iaoeaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy; ?icoe?aiiy noa?e aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue
aei caoaeaiiy noa?e ii?iaoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy;

iaae? aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy o aeiaaeeo eiie?aoecaoe?? oa
?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? caaaeueieo ii?i i?aaa aecia/athoueny inoaii?ie, a o
aeiaaeeo caiiaiaiiy i?iaaeei o i?aa? — i?eioeeiaie i?aaa;

aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy ca o?oaeiaei i?aaii ? aaaaoia?aiiei, oiio a
caeaaeiino? a?ae noa’?eoiiai oa e?euee?niiai neeaaeo noi??i aeiaiai??a,
oaiae iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeaa caaaeueieo aeaee aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy:
eieaeoeaia e ?iaeea?aeoaeueia;

oi?ioaaiiy iiai? eiioeaioe?? o?oaeiaiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie iio?aao?
ooaa?aeaeaiiy aeaniiai iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo o?oaeiaiai i?aaa, a o./. ca
?aooiie a?aeiiae a?ae canoinoaaiiy iiiyoue ?ioeo aaeocae i?aaa.
I?iiiio?oueny aaanoe aei o?oaeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa iiiyooy ?iaioiaeaaoey
cai?noue iiiyooy aeaniee i?aei?e?inoaa, onoaiiae, i?aai?caoe?? aai
oiiaiiaaaeaiee iei i?aai /e o?ce/ia iniaa. ?iaioiaeaaoeyie ? o?ce/i? oa
th?eaee/i? iniae, ye? ia aeeiiaiiy nai?o oe?eae oa caaaeaiue
aeei?enoiaothoue i?aoeth iaeiaieo i?aoe?aiee?a;

eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei o?nii iia’ycaia c
nioe?aeueiei ia?oia?noaii, iaeiae oe? yaeua ia ? oioiaeieie, a
aenooiathoue naiino?eieie aeaiaioaie i?aaiai? nenoaie;

?noi?e/i?, i?aaia? o?aaeeoe?? aeacothoue ia aeioe?euei?noue
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? o?enoi?iiiuei? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa. Iio?aao? aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaia ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a,
ye? aecia/athoue ii?yaeie noai?aiiy, i?aaa e iaia’ycee i?ioan?eieo
ni?eie ? ia’?aeiaiue ?iaioiaeaaoe?a, a oaeiae i?noea ? ?ieue aea?aeaaieo
i?aai?a ye nioe?aeueieo ia?oia??a;

naiaiaea oeeaaeaiiy aeiaiai??a, oaiae ? aaciaei i?eioeeiii aeiaia??iiai
?aaoethaaiiy o o?oaeiaiio i?aa?. Aiia iieyaa? o a?eueiiio aieaaeyaeaii?
noi??i o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o uiaei eiai oeeaaeaiiy, aecia/aiiy oi?ie oa
ci?noo;

aeiaia??iee ii?yaeie anoaiiaeaiiy ci?noo o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o coiiaeth?
? a?aeiia?aeiee ii?yaeie aianaiiy ci?i aei iueiai oa eiai i?eieiaiiy.
Ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae aeiionea?oueny eeoa c iaoith caoenoo noni?eueieo
?ioa?an?a oa caa?aaeaiiy aaeaino o ii?aeiaii? ?ioa?an?a noi??i.
Caeiiiaeaaaoeue iiaeiai ie?aneeoe aeiaaeee, eiee ia aeiionea?oueny /e
iaiaaeo?oueny aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei;

aeioe?euei?noue ? aoaeoeai?noue aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy caeaaeeoue
a?ae oa?aeoa?o ?aaoeueiaaieo o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei. Iaea?eueo iiaii aiii
canoiniao?oueny o aecia/aii? oiia o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o c ieoaiue
?iai/iai /ano, /ano a?aeii/eieo, iieaoe i?aoe?;

iaeiei c aeaiaio?a iiai? eiioeaioe?? o?oaeiaiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie ?
cae??ieaia aaea o caeiiiaeaanoa? i?i i?aoeth iiiyooy eiio?aeoo ye
iniaeeaiai aeaeo o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o, yeee iaea?eueo iiaii oa?aeoa?eco?
?iaeea?aeoaeueia aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy. Aiaeii/an ia cian?i
i?eeiyoiith ? i?aeoeea oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeoo eeoa ia aecia/aiee no?ie.
Inoaii?e ? eeoa iaei??th c oiia eiio?aeoo, ui aecia/athoueny noi?iiaie a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?aeoa?o o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei. Oiio eiio?aeo iaa ae
oeeaaeaoeny ye ia aecia/aiee, oae ? ia iaaecia/aiee oa?i?i;

?ieue aea?aeaae o i?aaiaiio ?aaoethaaii? eiio?aeo?a iiaeiia
iaiaaeoaaoeny anoaiiaeaiiyi noa?e oa caaaeueieo i?eioeei?a oeeaaeaiiy
eiio?aeo?a aeey caaacia/aiiy aa?aio?e i?aa noi??i. An? ?io? ieoaiiy
aecia/aoeiooueny noi?iiaie eiio?aeoo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iathoue oai?aoe/ia oa i?eeeaaeia
cia/aiiy ? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e, iaa/aeuei?e,
i?aaioai?/?e, i?aai?aae?coth/?e, i?aaicanoinia/?e oa i?aaiaeoiai?e
ae?yeueiino?.

Oai?aoe/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy, aeniiaee ? i?iiiceoe??, aeeeaaeai? o
aeena?oaoe??, iiaeooue neoaoaaoe iaoa??aeii aeey iiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ? aeeneon?e c i?iaeai aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ca
o?oaeiaei i?aaii. ?o oaeiae iiaeia canoiniaoaaoe i?e /eoaii? eo?no
“O?oaeiaa i?aai Oe?a?ie”, i?aeaioiaoe? a?aeiia?aeieo iaa/aeueieo
iin?aiee?a, eo?n?a eaeoe?e oa i?ae?o/iee?a.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a c ieoaiue aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo
oa o?nii iia’ycaieo c ieie a?aeiinei, cie?aia, Eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie i?i
i?aoeth, caeii?a Oe?a?ie i?i eieaeoeai? aeiaiai?e ? oaiaee, i?i
nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai, i?i i?ioni?eee a Oe?a?i? oiui.

Cai?iiiiiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ni?eyoeiooue aaeineiiaeaiith i?aeoeee
?ic?iaeaiiy oa oeeaaeaiiy eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a, oaiae, o?oaeiaeo
aeiaiai??a, eiio?aeo?a, a oaeiae i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy i?aaiai? eoeueoo?e
noa`?eo?a i?aaia?aeiinei.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaiaai? i?e iaaiai?aii? aeena?oaoe?? ia eaoaae??
o?oaeiaiai, aa?a?iiai oa aeieia?/iiai i?aaa Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny aaoi?ii ia iaoeiaeo ?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo: III Anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “Noai
eiaeeo?eaoe?eiiai i?ioeano a Oe?a?i?: nenoaii?noue, i??i?eoaoe,
oi?o?eaoe?y” (Euea?a, a?oaeaiue 1995 ?.); I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo th?eno?a “Iaeaooi? i?aaiai?
nenoaie Oe?a?ie” (Ee?a, aa?acaiue 1996 ?.); II, III, IV oa V iaoeiaeo
?aa?iiaeueieo eiioa?aioe?yo “I?iaeaie aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? caoenoo i?aa
ethaeeie” (Euea?a, 1996-1999 ??.).

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? /anoeiai aeeeaaeai? o iaa/aeueiiio iin?aieeo
“Eiio?aeo ca o?oaeiaei i?aaii Oe?a?ie” (Euea?a, 1998 ?.). Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeai? o naie iaoeiaeo noaooyo. Iaeia
iaoeiaa noaooy iaienaia o ni?aaaoi?noa?, a ye?e aeena?oaioii
aeine?aeaeothoueny iiceoe?? iaoeiaoe?a uiaei iiiyooy nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa, i?iaiaeeoueny aiae?c caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue
i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a Oe?a?i?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny aaoi?ii i?e i?iaaaeaii?
eaeoe?eieo ? nai?ia?nueeeo caiyoue c eo?no “O?oaeiaa i?aai Oe?a?ie” aeey
nooaeaio?a th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iiaoaeiaaia a?aeiia?aeii aei
iaoe oa caaaeaiue i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aiia neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, ainueie i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 175 noi??iie, ianya
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae — 229 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaaiaeeoueny caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe, ?ice?eaa?oueny
noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie aeena?oaoe??, iaa?oioiao?oueny ??
aeooaeuei?noue. Aecia/aii iaoo oa caaaeaiiy, i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae eiai i?iaaaeaiiy. Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaoeiaa
iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
iiaeathoueny iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno. Aeacothoueny
a?aeiiino? i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
? i?i e?euee?noue iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?e aaoi?a.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aii iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e ca oaiith aeine?aeaeaiiy. O
iueiio ?icaeyaea?oueny noai oai?aoe/ii? ?ic?iaee oaie aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe o i?aoeyo i?aaenoaaiee?a caaaeueii? oai??? i?aaa (N.N.Aeaen??aa,
A.I.Ai?oai?aa, O.A.Eaoai?ii?, Ae.A.Ea??iiaa, A.A.Eaca??aa, E.A.Iao?iai?,
I.I.?aa?iiae/a, I.A.No?eeiaa, E.N.ssae/a), ye? aeine?aeaeothoue
caaaeuei? i?iaeaie i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy oa ie?aieo eiai aeae?a, a
oaeiae o?oaeiaiai i?aaa (E.?.Aioiiiai?, I.E.Aac?ii?, A.A.A?e??aa,
N.A.?aaiiaa, ?.?.Eiiae?aoue?aa, ?.C.E?aoeoey, A.?.Iaoethea.
TH.E.I?eianueeiai, A.N.Iaoeiaa, A.?.I?ieiiaiea, I.?.I?ioeaanueeiai), ui
noinothoueny ie?aieo aniaeo?a i?aaiaiai oa aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ca
o?oaeiaei i?aaii.

A?eueo?noue iaoeiaoe?a ?icaeyaeathoue i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy ye ae??aee,
aoaeoeaiee, oe?eani?yiiaaiee i?ioean o i?inoi?? ? /an?, ui
a?aeaoaa?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith i?aaiaeo cania?a. Nooo?a? a?aei?iiino?
noinothoueny aecia/aiiy noa’?eo?a i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy oa i?aaiaeo
cania?a, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo aiii cae?enith?oueny.

O caaaeueiioai?aoe/i?e oa aaeocaaeo i?aaiaeo iaoeao /?oei ie?aneth?oueny
aca?iicaeaaei?noue i?ae aeeiai?eith ?icaeoeo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei oa
?ioaineai?noth a?aeiia?aeieo oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Eiinoaoo?oueny
i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioa?ano aei c’ynoaaiiy noo? iiaeo i?aaiaeo yaeu oa ci?ia
i?aeoiae?a aei ?icaeyaeo onoaeaieo i?aaiaeo iiiyoue. Oeae i?ioean ia
iieioa ? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?yae iaoeiaoe?a (N.N.Ae?en??a, O.A.Eaoai?ia, E.A.Iao?iaa, I.A.No?eeia)
cacia/athoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue a?aeoiaeo a?ae aeieo?eie i?i aeeeth/io
?ieue aea?aeaae o cae?eniaii? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei. O oaia??oi?o oiiaao ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa ? aeineoue cia/iith
?ieue ?ioeo noa’?eo?a i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy, a a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao ?
aoaeoeai?oith. Oea iaoiiaeth?oueny, ianaiia?aae, nioe?aeueiith
i?e?iaeith ?aaoeueiaaieo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei.

Uiaei i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo oa o?nii iia’ycaieo c ieie
a?aeiinei a?eueo?noue a/aieo aeneiaeththoueny ca ii?aeiaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo i?aaiaeo cania?a, c iaoith caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino?
i?aaiaiai aieeao. Iaeiei c iniiaieo aeae?a ?aaoethaaiiy ca o?oaeiaei
i?aaii a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? aaaaea?oueny aeiaia??ia, yea ?
aeiaie? aoaeoeaiei i?e ?aoi?ioaaii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie a
Oe?a?i?.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ca
o?oaeiaei i?aaii”, ui neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a, i?enay/aiee
aeine?aeaeaiith iiiyooy aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo oa o?nii
iia’ycaieo c ieie a?aeiinei, aecia/aiith noa?e, iaae oa aeae?a
aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ca o?oaeiaei i?aaii.

O i?ae?icae?e? ia?oiio aaoi? ni?iaoaaa aeaoe iaoeiaa aecia/aiiy iiiyooy
aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo oa o?nii iia’ycaieo c ieie a?aeiinei
oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy eiai ?iaeiaeo oa aeaeiaeo iciae.

sse neeaaeiaa /anoeia ?iaeiaiai iiiyooy i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiaia??ia ? ae??aei i?ioeanii o i?inoi?? ? /an?, yeee a?aeaoaa?oueny ca
aeiiiiiaith i?aaiaeo cania?a, ia? i?aai?ciaaiee, oe?eani?yiiaaiee oa
?acoeueoaoeaiee oa?aeoa?, c iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy, aii?yaeeoaaiiy, ci?ie
oa i?eieiaiiy o?oaeiaeo ? o?nii iia’ycaieo c ieie a?aeiinei. sse aeaeiaa
iiiyooy aiii iaoiiaeth?oueny aeanoeaeie eeoa aeey iueiai i?aaiaeie
i?eioeeiaie, iniaeeaei ii?yaeeii anoaiiaeaiiy i?aa ? iaia’yce?a
noa’?eo?a i?aaa, ?o i?aaiaiai noaoono, canoinoaaiiyi iaaieo i?aaiaeo
cania?a, oiui.

Aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? caaaeueiiaeica?eueiiai
i?eioeeio. Iniiaieie, aecia/aeueieie i?aaiaeie caniaaie aeiaia??iiai
?aaoethaaiiy ? aeiaiai?e, oaiaee, ci?no yeeo ?ice?eaa?oueny /a?ac
naiaiaeo aieaaeyaeaiiy noi??i oa ?o oi?iaeueio ??ai?noue. O ?iaio?
i?iaiaeeoueny aiae?c ?en aeiaiai??a oa oaiae, ui a?ae??ciythoue ?o a?ae
?ioeo i?aaiaeo cania?a. Aiie aenooiathoue ye aeoaie ?aae?caoe?? i?aaa,
oae ? aeoaie ii?iioai?/ino?. ?o ci?no ? ?acoeueoaoii oe?eani?yiiaaiiai
aca?iiaeyaeaiiy noa’?eo?a i?aaa.

Aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i?eioeeiii naiaiaee noi??i, a
iniia? yeiai caeeaaeaia ?o ??ai?noue. Aiia ? oi?iaeueiith, ine?eueee
aecia/a?oueny iaeiaeiaith i??ith naiaiaee ? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, oa
iaiaaeo?oueny aieaaeyaeaiiyi ?ioeo noa’?eo?a i?aaa. ??ai?noue noi??i
ciaoiaeeoue i?iya o oiio, ui anoaiiaeaoe oiiae aeiaiai??a, oaiae,
o/anieee ca caaaeueiei i?aaeeii ia iiaeooue a iaeiinoi?iiiueiio ii?yaeeo
aianoe ci?ie, aeiiiaiaiiy aei ieo aai i?eieieoe ?o ae?th. O oaeeo
aeiaaeeao naiaiaea iaei??? noi?iie iaiaaeo?oueny i?aaii ?ioi?, eiee
iaeia noi?iia aca?iiee iaia’ycie noiniaii ?ioi? noi?iie.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii iaa?oioiao?oueny cia/aiiy
aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy a oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie.
Cie?aia iaaieioo?oueny ia iaiao?aeiino? e?aa?ae?caoe?? i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy, aaciina?aaeiuei o?oaeiaeo oa o?nii iia’ycaieo c ieie
a?aeiinei, oeyoii ia?aoiaeo a?ae aei?noeiai oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai aei
aeiaia??iiai i?aaianoaiiaeaiiy.

Cia/io ?ieue aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy a?ae?a?a? o eiie?aoecaoe?? oa
?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? i?aaiaeo ii?i. Eiie?aoecoth/e caaaeueio ii?io oeyoii
eia?/ii? iia?aoe?? iaiaaeaiiy iiiyoue, aeiaia??iei ?aaoethaaiiyi
anoaiiaeththoueny a?eueo eiie?aoi? ? aecia/ai? ii?ie i?aaa. Oae? ii?ie ?
aoae/eie ca ia’?iii ? a oie aea /an oe?oeie ca ci?noii o ii??aiyii? ?c
caaaeueieie ii?iaie. I?ae /an ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny
?aae?caoe?y caaaeueii? ii?ie i?aaa.

Cia/aiiy ?ie? aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy o o?oaeiaiio i?aa? iieyaa? ia
eeoa a ianeoaiaoaaii? caaaeueii? ii?ie i?aaa oeyoii ?? eiie?aoecaoe?? /e
?iaeea?aeoae?caoe??. Aiii ni?yiiaaia oaeiae ia noai?aiiy iiaeo aeanieo
i?aaee iiaaae?iee aeey caiiaiaiiy i?iaaeei o o?oaeiaiio caeiiiaeaanoa?.
Oiio ci?no aeiaiai??a oa oaiae iiaeooue neeaaeaoe ye i?aai?aae?coth/?,
oae i?aaiooai?thth/? iieiaeaiiy.

Aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy ni?ey? oaeiae i?aeaeuaiith i?aaiai? aeoeaiino?
iniae, ine?eueee /a?ac oeeaaeaiiy aeiaiai?o i?ioiaeeoue ??
naii?aae?caoe?y ye noa’?eoa i?aaia?aeiinei. Aiii ? iaeiei c oeyo?a
?aoe?iiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo ?ioa?an?a, ?o ocaiaeaeaiiy,
iiooeo a?aeiia?aeieo oi?i ao?eaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?? aeaieo ?ioa?an?a a
aeeooy.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? aecia/a?oueny noa?a oa iaae? aeiaia??iiai
?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo oa o?nii iia’ycaieo c ieie a?aeiinei.

Noa?a aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ci?ith?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?/ii?, iie?oe/ii? oa nioe?aeueii? nenoai noni?euenoaa. Ia
no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo o?oaeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie ua ia
caaa?oai? eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee aei ?? aecia/aiiy, i?ioa
iacaia?a/iei ? oaeo, ui aiia aoaea ?icoe?thaaoeny caaaeyee ia’?eoeaiei
iio?aaai ciaioaiiy ?iia?aoeaiino? ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo oa o?nii
iia’ycaieo c ieie a?aeiinei.

Noa?o aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy noaiiaeoue nioe?aeueiee i?ino??, iniiao
yeiai neeaaeathoue o?oaeia? oa o?nii iia’ycai? c ieie a?aeiineie, ye? ca
nai?i ci?noii iio?aaothoue i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? iiaeooue aooe oaeei
a?aaoeueiaai?. Oiio noa?a aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ye aeaeiaiai iiiyooy
iaoiiaeth?oueny noa?ith ii?iaoeaiiai i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy oa
aecia/a?oueny iaaeaie aeioe?eueiino? oa iaiao?aeiino? oaeiai.

Aaaeeeaiai oai?aoe/iiai oa i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy a no/anieo oiiaao
iaaoaa? i?iaeaia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy noa? ii?iaoeaiiai ? aeiaia??iiai
?aaoethaaiiy. Aeai? eaoaai??? ? aca?iicaeaaeieie, ine?eueee ?icoe?aiiy
/e caoaeaiiy iaei??? iaieio/a oyaia ca niaith ci?io ia?aiao??a ?ioi?. O
aeiaaeeo iiaiiai a?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei caaaeueieie ii?iaie i?aaa, ye
i?aaeei, aeeeth/a?oueny iiaeeea?noue ?o i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy
aeiaiai?aie ? oaiaeaie. ? iaaiaee, /anoeiaa aai aaniethoia
iaa?aaoeueiaai?noue noni?eueieo a?aeiinei iio?aao? aeiaia??iiai
?aaoethaaiiy, yea ca oaeeo ianoaaei ? ia eeoa iiaeeeaei, aea e
aeioe?eueiei.

Ca aeiiiiiaith caaaeueieo aeicaie?a aai caai?ii caeiiiaeaaaoeue aecia/a?
nioe?aeueiee i?ino??, yeee iiaea aooe a?aaoeueiaaiei ca aeiiiiiaith
aeiaiai??a oa oaiae. I?e oeueiio aeei?enoiaothoueny a?aeiia?aei?
aeac?aee o caeiiiaeaanoa? i?i iiaeeea?noue cae?eniaiiy aeiaia??iiai
?aaoethaaiiy, aai cacia/athoueny ianoaaeie oa neooaoe??, c ianoaiiyi
yeeo aiii ia aeiionea?oueny. Aaaaea?ii, ui caaaeueiiaeica?eueiee
ii?yaeie aecia/aiiy noa?e aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy a?eueoa a?aeiia?aea?
?nioth/ei aeiiii?/iei oiiaai, ine?eueee aeicaiey? a?aoiaoaaoe naiaiaeo
aeai?o noi?iiaie iaaii? iiaaae?iee.

Aaoi?ii ?icaeyaea?oueny ieoaiiy aecia/aiiy iaae aeiaia??iiai
?aaoethaaiiy. O aeiaaeeo ?aae?caoe?? caaaeueii? ii?ie i?aaa iaaeaie
aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? aeai? ii?ie i?aaa. Eiee ae ca aeiiiiiaith
aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy cae?enith?oueny i?aaioai?/?noue, oi iaaeaie a
aeaiiio aeiaaeeo aenooiathoue i?eioeeie i?aaa.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e no?oeoo?ii-nenoaiiee iaoiae i?ciaiiy, o i?ae?icae?e?
o?aoueiio iiaea?oueny eeaneo?eaoe?y aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

Aiii iiae?ey?oueny ia ie?ai? aeaee a caeaaeiino? a?ae:

a?oie noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, ye? ?aaoeththoueny, ia: aeiaia??ia
?aaoethaaiiy ii?yaeeo oeeaaeaiiy o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o; aeiaia??ia
?aaoethaaiiy ci?ie ?noioieo oiia i?aoe?; aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy
ii?yaeeo i?eieiaiiy o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o; aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy
i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy i?aoe?aiee?a; aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy ?iai/iai /ano ?
/ano a?aeii/eieo; aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy iieaoe i?aoe?, aa?aio?e ?
eiiiainaoe?e; aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiai? aeenoeeie?ie ?
aeenoeeie?ia?ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?; aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy
iaoa??aeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?; aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy ioi?iie
i?aoe?; aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy ?ioeo oiia i?aoe?;

e?euee?niiai neeaaeo noa’?eo?a o?oaeiaiai i?aaa ia: aeainoi?iii?
aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy; aaaaoinoi?iii? aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy;

ye?niiai neeaaeo noa’?eo?a, ye? i?eeiathoue aeiaiai?e oa oaiaee, ia:
aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy, ui cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiaiai??a; aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy, yea cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith
?ioeo aeiaiai??a, ye? oeeaaeathoueny ia iniia? /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

Ia’?aeiaaoe aeacai? e?eoa??? oa aeaee ?aaoeueiaaieo noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei, aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy ca o?oaeiaei i?aaii Oe?a?ie iiaeia
iiae?eeoe ia aea? iniiai? a?oie: eieaeoeaia e ?iaeea?aeoaeueia.

Eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny uiaei a?aeiinei, ye?
o?nii iia’ycai? c o?oaeiaeie a?aeiineiaie. A naia, c i?eaiaeo
anoaiiaeaiiy oiia i?aoe? ia i?aei?e?inoaao, o/ano? i?aoe?aiee?a a
oi?aae?ii? ae?iaieoeoaii, cae?eniaii? aeeoeiai-iiaooiaiai oa
eoeueoo?iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy, oeeaaeaiiy eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a, oaiae,
ae??oaiith eieaeoeaieo o?oaeiaeo nii??a oa ?i. Oeae aeae aeiaia??iiai
?aaoethaaiiy caaacia/o?oueny oiiaiiaaaeaieie i?aaiaie, ye?
i?aaenoaaeythoue ?ioa?ane iaeiaieo i?aoe?aiee?a oa ?iaioiaeaaoe?a,
aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie oeyoii oeeaaeaiiy eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a oa oaiae.
Acyaoe ca iniiao oa?eoi??aeuei? oa aaeocaa? oa?aeoa?enoeee noa’?eoiiai
neeaaeo, iiaeia i?iaanoe iiae?e eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia:
i?aeaaeocaaa, aaeocaaa, ?aa?iiaeueia oa eieaeueia.

?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy cae?enith?oueny c i?eaiaeo
anoaiiaeaiiy, ci?ie /e i?eieiaiiy o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei oeyoii oeeaaeaiiy
o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o, eiio?aeoo. I?aaeiaoii oaeiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?
a?aeiineie c i?eaiaeo canoinoaaiiy i?aoe? ethaeeie, ia i?aenoaa?
oeeaaeaiiy o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o oa eiio?aeoo, ? oaea a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ae
eiie?aoiei i?aoe?aieeii oa ?iaioiaeaaoeai.

?icae?e o?ao?e “Eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo ? o?nii
iia’ycaieo c ieie a?aeiinei” i?enay/aiee c’ynoaaiith noi??i eieaeoeaiiai
aeiaiai?o, oaiaee, ?o i?aaiaiai noaiiaeua, no?oeoo?e
eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy oa oa?aeoa?enoeoe? eiai ??ai?a,
iiiyooth nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa ? oiiaai eiai ae??aino? a Oe?a?i?.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? ia iniia? aiae?co iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a oa a?aeiia?aeii? i?aeoeee aea?oueny aecia/aiiy
iiiyooy noi??i eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a oa oaiae. Caaaeath/e ia
iaiaeiicia/i? i?aeoiaee aei aeciaiiy noi?iie eieaeoeaiiai aeiaiai?o, yea
i?aaenoaaey? ?ioa?ane iaeiaieo i?aoe?aiee?a, aaoi?ii iaa?oioiao?oueny
oi/ea ci?o, ca?aeii c yeith noi?iiith ne?ae aeciaaaoe i?ioan?ei? ni?eee,
ine?eueee iniiaiith iaoith ?o ae?yeueiino? ? caoeno ?ioa?an?a iaeiaieo
i?aoe?aiee?a. O eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??iiio ?aaoethaaii? i?ioni?eee
ae?aaeathoue eieaeoeaio aieth i?aoe?aiee?a, ye ?o i?aaenoaaieoeuee?
i?aai?caoe??, oa aeanio aieth, iaae? i?iyao yei? o cae?eniaii? i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy, anoaiiaeai? noaoooaie i?ioni?eie oa ae?th/ei
caeiiiaeaanoaii.

I?i oa, ui naia i?ioni?eea iiaeiia aenooiaoe noi?iiith o
eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??iiio ?aaoethaaii? na?ae/aoue ianooii? oaeoe:

ii-ia?oa, oeyoii ia’?aeiaiiy e o/ano? o i?ioni?eeao cae?enith?oueny
nioe?aeueia aeoeai?noue i?aoe?aieea, yeee ?aae?co? eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai
c iaoith caoenoo o?oaeiaeo ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a;

ii-ae?oaa, iniiaiith iaoith ae?yeueiino? i?ioni?eie ? i?aaenoaaieoeoai,
caoeno i?aoe?aiee?a o noa?? ae?iaieoeoaa, i?aoe?, iiaooo ? eoeueoo?e,
o/ano? o ae?iaeaii? ? ?aae?caoe?? ieai?a nioe?aeueiiai oa aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo, anoaiiaeaii? oiia i?aoe? ? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, cae?eniaii?
eiio?ieth ca aeio?eiaiiyi oiia eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a;

ii-o?ao?, i?aainoa’?eoi?noue i?ioni?eee ? niaoe?aeueiith;

ii-/aoaa?oa, i?ioni?eea ? a?iiaaenueeith i?aai?caoe??th, noai?aiith ia
canaaeao aeia?ia?eueiino?, ca?aaee caoenoo a ia?oo /a?ao ?ioa?an?a oa
i?aa eiaeiiai ie?aiiai i?aoe?aieea — /eaia i?ioni?eee oa ?ioa?an?a ?
i?aa an?o i?aoe?aiee?a iacaeaaeii a?ae /eainoaa a i?ioni?eeao;

ii-i’yoa, aeciaiiy noi?iiith eieaeiaiai?o i?ioni?eie iaaea? iiaeeea?noue
i?aoe?aieeai cae?enithaaoe caoeno nai?o o?oaeiaeo i?aa o
eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??ieo a?aeiineiao ye aaciina?aaeiuei, oae ? /a?ac
i?ioni?eeiao i?aai?caoe?th;

ii-oinoa, ca?aeii no. 2 Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i eieaeoeai? aeiaiai?e ?
oaiaee” oeeaaeaiiy aaia?aeueii?, aaeocaai?, ?aa?iiaeueii? (oiaoi ia
aeuiio uaae? eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy) a?aeaoaa?oueny ia
aeainoi?iii?e iniia?, aea i?ioni?eea ? iaei??th c oaeeo noi??i. Ooo
caeiiiaeaaaoeue ia a?aeaiaeeoue inoaii?i eeoa ?ieue aeeiiaaoe?a ?
iina?aaeiee?a eieaeoeaieo oaiae, a iaaiaee aecia? ca ieie noaoon
o/anieea oaiaee;

? inoaii?, caaaeaiiyie i?ioni?eie ia ? eeoa cae?eniaiiy (i?iaaaeaiiy)
eiio?ieth ca aeio?eiaiiyi ? aeeiiaiiyi caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i i?aoeth,
aa?aio?e, anoaiiaeaieo aea?aeaaith. Aiia nai?ie neeaie ? caniaaie (a
oiio /ene? ? a?ioiaeie) iiaeooue anoaiiaethaaoe aeiaeaoeia?, o
ii??aiyii?, aei ae?th/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa i?eueae, a?aoe ia naaa
eiie?aoi? ciaia’ycaiiy noiniaii i?aoe?aiee?a iaaiiai i?aei?e?inoaa, ui
iiaeooue aenooiaoe i?aaeiaoii eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

Aeoiaey/e c aeuaiaaaaeaiiai, a Oe?a?i? iac??ea iio?aaa i?eeiyooy
th?eaee/ieo ii?i, ye? a aecia/eee i?aaiaee noaoon i?ioan?eieo ni?eie. C
i?eeiyooyi Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie anoaiiaeai? iniiai? i?aaa ? naiaiaee
a?iiaaeyieia ? ethaeeie, iaeiei c yeeo ? i?aai a?iiaaeyi ia o/anoue o
i?ioan?eieo ni?eeao c iaoith caoenoo nai?o o?oaeiaeo ?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a. E??i oiai Oe?a?ia
?aoeo?eoaaea ?yae “i?ioni?eeiaeo” eiiaaioe?e, ui anoaiiaeththoue o??aaeo
i?ioni?eeiaeo naiaiae: i?aai ia ia’?aeiaiiy, eieaeoeai? ia?aaiai?e ?
no?aeee (Eiiaaioe?y ?98 1949 ?ieo i?i canoinoaaiiy i?eioeei?a i?aaa ia
ia’?aeiaiiy ? oeeaaeaiiy eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a, Eiiaaioe?y ?154 1981
?ieo i?i ni?eyiiy eieaeoeaiei ia?aaiai?ai). Oiio oe? iieiaeaiiy
iio??aii cae??ieoe o caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie. C iaeyaeo ia aeacaia
nai?/aniei ? i?eeiyooy Caeiio Oe?a?ie i?i i?ioni?eee.

Ui ae noino?oueny ?ioi? noi?iie eieaeoeaiiai aeiaiai?o, oi o iei?
ae?th/iio caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie canoiniaothoueny ??ci? iiiyo?ei?
aecia/aiiy: “i?aei?e?inoai, onoaiiaa, i?aai?caoe?y”, “aaei?i?no?aoe?y”,
“aeaniee”, “oiiaiiaaaeaiee aeanieeii i?aai (iniaa)”, “ea??aiee
i?aei?e?inoaa, onoaiiae, i?aai?caoe??”. A?aenooiy iaeiinoaeia aeoiea c
oeueiai i?eaiaeo ? na?aae iaoeiaoe?a-th?eno?a. Oiio aeena?oaioii
iaa?oioiao?oueny aecia/aiiy iiiyooy oa i?aaiaiai noaoono noi?iie, yea
i?aaenoaaey? ?ioa?ane noa’?eo?a, ui cae?eniththoue iaei ?iai/i? neee.

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? i?aeaea?oueny e?eoeoe? ni?iaa caeiiiaeaaoey
aeia?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iiiyo?eiee aia?ao ?ioeo aaeocae i?aaa (a
ia?oo /a?ao oeea?eueiiai) aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee noa’?eo?a o?oaeiaiai
i?aaa. Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui oi/ a?aeiineie aeaniino?, oi?aae?iiy iaaiei
iaeiii ? aecia/aeueieie i?e canoinoaaii? iaeiaii? i?aoe?, o?oaeia? i?aaa
? iaia’ycee noi??i aeieeathoue c oeeaaeaiiy o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o.
Ci?noii inoaiiueiai ? ia i?aei?e?iieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue, a i?aai
i?aei?e?ioe?a oeeaaeaoe aeiaiai?e c iniaaie ia aeeiiaiiy nai?o noaoooieo
oe?eae. E??i oiai, cae?enithaaoe iaei ?iai/i? neee ai?aa? e iniae, ye?
ia caeiathoueny i?aei?e?iieoeueeith ae?yeuei?noth. Oiio iniiaiith
iciaeith o aecia/aii? ? oa?aeoa?enoeoe? ?iaioiaeaaoey ? cae?eniaiiy iei
iaeio i?aoe?aiee?a ia i?aenoaa? o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o.

I?iiiio?oueny o iaeaooiueiio O?oaeiaiio eiaeaen? Oe?a?ie oa ?ioeo
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeoao i?i i?aoeth /?oei aecia/eoe iiiyooy noi??i
eieaeoeaiiai aeiaiai?o: “?iaioiaeaaoey” ye th?eaee/ii? /e o?ce/ii?
iniae, ui cae?enith? iaei ?iai/i? neee c iaoith caaacia/aiiy aeanieo
?ioa?an?a, oa “i?ioni?eee” ye aeia?ia?eueiiai ia’?aeiaiiy i?aoe?aiee?a
ca i?ioan?eiith iciaeith c iaoith caoenoo nai?o ?ioa?an?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? ae?oaiio iiaea?oueny aiae?c ??ai?a
eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ca o?oaeiaei i?aaii Oe?a?ie oa
?icaeyaeathoueny i?iaeaie ?aae?caoe?? caeiiiaeaanoaa c oeueiai ieoaiiy.

A iniiao aeae?eaiiy ??ai?a eieaeoeaiiai aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy
iieeaaeaii noa’?eoiee neeaae noi??i eieaeoeaiiai aeiaiai?o oa oaiaee,
noa?o ae?? inoaii?o, ci?no oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ieie. O
aeine?aeaeaii? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ae?iaie/ee,
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiee, aaeocaaee oa i?aeaaeocaaee ??ai?.

Iaei??th c i?iaeai, ui aieeaa? ia aoaeoeai?noue eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??iiai
?aaoethaaiiy ? /?oea aecia/aiiy noa’?eo?a a?aeiia?aeieo ??ai?a.
I?iiiio?oueny ia caeiiiaeaa/iio ??ai? anoaiiaeoe aeainoi?iii? oeeaaeaiiy
eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a oa o?enoi?iii? oaiae. C oe??th iaoith iaiao?aeii
i?eeiyoe caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, ye? a aecia/aee i?aaiaee noaoon, iniiai?
canaaee noai?aiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia’?aeiaiue ?iaioiaeaaoe?a.

Aeacaia i?iaeaia ia? i?yiee aeo?ae ia ?icoi?iiy nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa ? eiai ?ie? aeey oi?ioaaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ii?, nioe?aeueii?,
i?aaiai? aea?aeaae, i?i ui eaea iiaa o o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e?.

Ci?ia no?oeoo?ieo nenoai aea?aeaae, ?o ?icaeoie ? iaei??th c i?e/ei
ca?eueoaiiy nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a /e ?o caaino?aiiy. Na?oiaee aeina?ae
iieaco?, ui iaeiei c iaeaoaeoeai?oeo /eiiee?a a?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueieo
i?ioe??/, ? nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai, iniiaia iaoa yeiai iieyaa? o
a?aaoethaaii? oa ae??oaii? eiioe?eo?a, caaeainoaaii?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a noa’?eo?a o?oaeiaiai i?aaa.
I?ine?aeeiaoth/e i?ioean aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae ieie, iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?e
a?oie ?ioa?an?a, ye? iio?aaothoue a?aaoethaaiiy, a naia: ?ioa?ane
iaeiaii? i?aoe?, ?ioa?ane eai?oaeo, ?ioa?ane noni?euenoaa.

O ?iaio? iaa?oioiao?oueny iiiyooy nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa ye eiiieaeno
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, iniiao yeeo neeaaeathoue a?aeiineie, o?nii
iia’ycai? c o?oaeiaeie, oa a?aeiineie, ui iinyoue nioe?aeueiee,
aeiiii?/iee, eoeueoo?iee, i?aaiaee oa?aeoa? o i?ioean? aca?iiae??
noa’?eo?a i?aaa c i?eaiaeo iiooeo eiii?ii?n?a ? ae??oaiiy eieaeoeaieo,
o?oaeiaeo oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ieoaiue, canoinoaaiiy ie?ieo oeyo?a
a?aaoethaaiiy ni??ieo ?ioa?an?a.

Aoaeoeaiiio noaiiaeaiith nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a Oe?a?i? ni?eyoeia
aeoeaia iiceoe?y aea?aeaae uiaei aecia/aiiy a caeiiiaeaanoa? iaoai?cio
eiai cai?iaaaeaeaiiy. A Oe?a?i? iinooiiai oi?io?oueny i?aaiaa iniiaa
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, i?ioa ?nio? iio?aaa a i?eeiyoo? ii?iaoeaieo
aeo?a, ye? a aecia/eee iiiyooy, i?eioeeie, nenoaio, oi?ie ? aeaee
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa, noaoon niaoe?aeueieo aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a,
iineeeaoe ?o eiiiaoaioe?th uiaei canoinoaaiiy ocaiaeaeoaaeueieo
i?ioeaaeo? ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueieo eiii?ii?n?a oa ?i.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy
o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei” ?icaeyaea?oueny aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo
a?aeiinei ia noaae?yo ?o oeeaaeaiiy, ci?ie oa i?eieiaiiy.

O i?ae?icae?e? ia?oiio ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny caaaeueiiaeica?eueiei i?eioeeiii i?aaa, yeee
ia?aaeaa/a? naiaiaeo aieaaeyaeaiiy noa’?eo?a, ? o?oaeiaei aeiaiai?ii ye
eiai iniiaiei i?aaiaei caniaii. I?e oeueiio naiaiaea aieaaeyaeaiiy
noi??i o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o iieyaa? o naiaiae? oeeaaeaiiy, anoaiiaeaiiy,
ci?ie ? i?eieiaiiy oiia o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o, aeai?o eiai oi?ie. Aiia
aaco?oueny ia caaacia/aii? aea?aeaaith a?eueiiai aeai?o iniaith aeaeo
o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? a?aeiia?aeii aei nai?o aaaeaiue oa i?ioan?eieo
cae?aiinoae, eiee i?ooi ia iiaea aooe i?eiooaiei i?aoethaaoe anoia?a/
nai?e aie?. I?aai ia i?aoeth a no/anieo oiiaao ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ae?ac
iniaenoiai ?ioa?ano, oiio ethaeeia ia iiaea i?eoyaoaaoeny aei
th?eaee/ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca a?aeiiao a?ae eiai ?aae?caoe??.
Aiaeii/an ?iaioiaeaaaoeue ai?aa? i?eeiyoe ia ?iaioo iniao aai
aiioeaiaaii a?aeiiaeoe ?e. Inoaii? ia iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye
aeene?ei?iaoe?th, ine?eueee iaai? ia?aaaae e iaiaaeaiiy
anoaiiaeththoueny c a?aooaaiiyi ia’?eoeaieo ianoaaei: iniaeeainoae aeaeo
i?aoe?, iniaeeainoyie in?a, ui iio?aaothoue i?aeaeuaiiai nioe?aeueiiai ?
i?aaiaiai caoenoo, iaiao?aei?noth caoenoo ?ioa?an?a ?ioeo noa’?eo?a
i?aaa. Naiaiaea aieaaeyaeaiiy iaio noi??i o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o ia iiaea
cae?enithaaoeny aac a?aooaaiiy oaeiae ye ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo, oae ?
ei?ii?aoeaieo oa caaaeueiinoni?eueieo ?ioa?an?a. Oiio
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy ii?aeio?oueny c
eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??iei.

Aaoi?ii iaa?oioiao?oueny iiceoe?y, ui aeiaia??iee ii?yaeie anoaiiaeaiiy
o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei, aecia/aiiy ci?noo o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o iiaeiai
iioe?thaaoeny ? iaoe ae??oaeueiee aieea ia ii?yaeie aianaiiy ci?i aei
iueiai oa eiai i?eieiaiiy. Aoaeue-ye? ci?ie ? aeiiiaiaiiy o o?oaeiaee
aeiaia?? aiinyoueny, ye i?aaeei, ca oaiaeith noi??i, a aeiaaeee, eiee
canoiniao?oueny eeoa ii?iaoeaia i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo
a?aeiinei, /?oei aecia/athoueny aea?aeaaith. Iiaiioa aeiaia??iiai
?aaoethaaiiy caeaaeeoue oaeiae a?ae aeaeo ?aaoeueiaaieo a?aeiinei ?
iaea?eueoa i?iyaey?oueny o oaeeo ?inoeoooao, ye ?iai/ee /an, /an
a?aeii/eieo, iieaoa i?aoe?, ioi?iia i?aoe?.

Noa?a aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia ??cieo noaae?yo ia iaeiaeiaa. Iaeiaio
aeiionoeiith aiia ? ia noaae?? i?eieiaiiy o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei, ui
iaoiiaeth?oueny iaiao?aei?noth caiia?aoe ii?ooaiith i?aa i?aoe?aiee?a
a?ae iaiaa?oioiaaieo ? iacaeiiieo ca?eueiaiue. Ia noaae?? i?eieiaiiy
o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei aeiionea?oueny canoinoaaiiy aeiiiaeaiinoae, oaiae.
Aiie iiaeooue aenooiaoe ye naiino?eieie i?aenoaaaie i?eieiaiiy, oae ?
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny noiniaii ?ioeo i?aenoaa i?eieiaiiy o?oaeiaiai
aeiaiai?o (iai?eeeaae, i?e ca?eueiaii? i?aoe?aieea c aeanii?
?i?oe?aoeae, i?e ia?aaaaeaii? ia ?ioa i?aei?e?inoai, a onoaiiao,
i?aai?caoe?th).

Iaea?eueo iiaii cae?enith?oueny ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aeiaia??ia
?aaoethaaiiy, iacaeaaeii a?ae noaae?? o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei, i?e
oeeaaeaii? eiio?aeoo. Aeine?aeaeaiith oeueiai aeaeo o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o
i?enay/aiee i?ae?icae?e ae?oaee, ui neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio i?aeioieo?a,
o yeeo ?icaeyaea?oueny iiiyooy, noa?a oa ci?no eiio?aeoo .

Cae??ieaiiy a caeiiiaeaanoa? iiiyooy eiio?aeoo noaei ?acoeueoaoii
ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaae uiaei i?eaaaeaiiy o a?aeiia?aei?noue ii?i i?aaa
aei ?nioth/eo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei. Oae? ci?ie i?eaaee aei iiaeaaaeaiiy
?ioa?ano iaoeiaoe?a ? c?inoaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue eiio?aeoo, eiai
a?aei?iiinoae a?ae o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o ye ?iaeiaiai iiiyooy, noa?e
canoinoaaiiy oa aecia/aiiy eiai ci?noo. Ia iniia? aiae?co niaoe?aeueii?
iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e aaoi?ii iaa?oioiao?oueny iiiyooy eiio?aeoo oa eiai
niaoeeo?/i? ?ene. Eiio?aeo ?icaeyaea?oueny oaeei i?aaiaei caniaii, ci?no
yeiai aecia/a?oueny oaiaeith noi??i. Aea?aeaaa aieeaa? ia aecia/aiiy
eiai ci?noo eeoa anoaiiaethth/e i?i?iaeuei? aa?aio?? o?oaeiaeo i?aa, ye?
ia iiaeooue aooe ci?iai? /e i?i?aii?iaai? noi?iiaie eiio?aeoo.

O oeueiio ca’yceo iaa?oioiao?oueny iaaia ia?ainieneaiiy iaeiiai c
iniiaieo i?eioeei?a o?oaeiaiai i?aaa SYMBOL 150 \f «PragmaticaCTT» \s
13 – iaiia??oaiiy i?aaiaiai noaiiaeua i?aoe?aiee?a o ii??aiyii? c
ae?th/ei caeiiiaeaanoaii – cie?aia, eiee oaea iia??oaiiy ie?aieo oiia
aeiaiai?o ii??aiyii ?c caeiiiaeaanoaii eiiiaino?oueny anoaiiaeaiiyi
aeiaeaoeiaeo i?euea oa aa?aio?e. I?ioa o aoaeue-yeiio aeiaaeeo noi?iie
eiio?aeoo ia iiaeooue ciaaaaeaoe eiinoeoooe?ei? i?aaa a?iiaaeyi.

A Oe?a?i? i?eeiyoi ?yae ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a, oeeaaeaii
aeiiiaeaiino? nioe?aeueieo ia?oia??a ia i?aeaaeocaaiio ??ai?, aeianaii
??oaiiy aeueo noaeiaeo i?aai?a uiaei aecia/aiiy noa?e canoinoaaiiy
eiio?aeoo. I?ioa ia i?aeoeoe? iaiaa?oioiaaii ca?eueoeeany e?euee?noue
aeiaaee?a oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeoo iica noa?ith ?o canoinoaaiiy, ui
ni?e/eiy? ii?ooaiiy o?oaeiaeo i?aa. C a?aooaaiiyi oeueiai aaoi?ii
ianoith?oueny aeoiea i?i iaiao?aei?noue aecia/aiiy noa?e canoinoaaiiy
eiio?aeoo eeoa a caeiiao. I?e/iio eaeaoueny i?i caeiiiaeaa/o ii?io,
yeith anoaiiaeth?oueny eeoa iaia’yceiaa noa?a oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeoo.

O ?iaio? ?icaeyaea?oueny ieoaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ii?iaoeaiiai ?
aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy o aecia/aii? ci?noo eiio?aeoo, yea caeaaeeoue
oaeiae a?ae iniaeeainoae aeeiioaaieo ?ia?o oa eaoaai??e i?aoe?aiee?a.

AENIIAEE

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c?iaeai? ianooii?
aeniiaee:

1. Ia?ao?ae Oe?a?ie aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, i?eeiyooy Eiinoeoooe??, yea
i?iaieineea ethaeeio, ?? i?aaa, naiaiaee oa ?ioa?ane iaeaeuith
nioe?aeueiith oe?ii?noth, iio?aaothoue ?icaeoeo iiai? eiioeaioe??
o?oaeiaiai i?aaa.

2. Aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy iaea?eueoa a?aeiia?aea? ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?,
aeicaiey? iiai?oa a?aoiaoaaoe iniaeeaino? eiie?aoieo a?aeiinei, oiio
iaeiei ?c aoaeoeaieo iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo o?oaeiaiai i?aaa iiaeia aaaaeaoe
?icoe?aiiy noa?e aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ca ?aooiie caoaeaiiy
ii?iaoeaiiai. ?ieue aea?aeaae iieyaa? o a?aaoethaaii? iaea?eueo
aaaeeeaeo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, anoaiiaeaii? i?i?iaeueieo o?oaeiaeo
i?aa, noai?aii? ae??ai? nenoaie ?o aa?aio?e, caaacia/aii? caoenoo
ii?ooaieo o?oaeiaeo i?aa, o iina?aaeieoeoa? ? i?eie?aii?
eiio?iioaoe?eieo ?ioa?an?a i?aoe?aiee?a, ?iaioiaeaaoe?a oa noni?euenoaa
a oe?eiio.

3. Aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo oa o?nii iia’ycaieo c ieie
a?aeiinei aecia/a?oueny ye cae?enithaaiee noa’?eoaie o?oaeiaiai i?aaa
oe?eani?yiiaaiee i?ioean anoaiiaeaiiy, ci?ie oa i?eieiaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?
o?nii iia’ycaieo c ieie a?aeiinei ca aeiiiiiaith aeiaiai??a ? oaiae.

4. Cia/aiiy aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ca o?oaeiaei i?aaii Oe?a?ie
iieyaa? ia eeoa o ?aae?caoe?? caaaeueieo ii?i i?aaa oeyoii ?o
eiie?aoecaoe?? e ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe??, aea e anoaiiaeaii? iiaeo ii?i
i?aaa, ye? caiiaiththoue i?iaaeeie a i?aaiaiio caaacia/aii?.

Aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith i?aaiai? aeoeaiino? oa
i?aaiai? eoeueoo?e noa’?eo?a o?oaeiaiai i?aaa.

Aaaeeeaith ooieoe??th aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? ocaiaeaeaiiy
iniaenoeo, ei?ii?aoeaieo ? noni?eueieo ?ioa?an?a ia canaaeao ??aiino? ?
aca?iiiiaaae eiai o/aniee?a, iiooeo ieie i?eeiyoieo eiii?ii?n?a ca
iayaiino? i?ioeeaaeieo ?ioa?an?a.

5. Noa?a aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ca o?oaeiaei i?aaii Oe?a?ie
aca?iicaeaaeia a?ae noa?e ii?iaoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy. Ca caaaeueiei
i?aaeeii aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy aeeeth/a?oueny oiae?, eiee iaai?
a?aeiineie iiai?noth a?aaoeueiaai? caaaeueieie ii?iaie i?aaa. Eiee ae
?niothoue a?aeiineie, a?aaoeueiaai? ieie /anoeiai aai iaa?aaoeueiaai?
cian?i, aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy ia o?eueee iiaeeeaa, a e aaaeaia.

O caeiiiaeaanoa? iiaeooue ia?aaeaa/aoeny ??ciiiai?oi? oeyoe canoinoaaiiy
aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy (iai?eeeaae, anoaiiaeaiiy caaaeueieo aeicaie?a
? caai?ii). Iaaeath eiie?aoecaoe?? oa ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? caaaeueii?
ii?ie i?aaa a aeiaiai?? ? naia ii?ia, iaaeath ii?iioai?/ino? SYMBOL 150
\f «PragmaticaCTT» \s 13 – i?eioeeie i?aaa.

O o?oaeiaiio i?aa? Oe?a?ie ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiionea?oueny ? i?e iiaiiio a?aaoethaaii? o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei ii?iaie
i?aaa. Oea ia? i?noea o aeiaaeeo oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeoo, ci?no yeiai
aecia/a?oueny eeoa ca aeiiiaeai?noth noi??i, a iaaeaie ?o aieaaeyaeaiiy
? i?eioeeie i?aaa.

6. Aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy ca o?oaeiaei i?aaii ca ocaaaeueiaieie
eeaneo?eaoe?eieie i?aenoaaaie iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aeiaia??ia oa eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy.

7. Iniiaieie i?aaiaeie caniaaie aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ca o?oaeiaei
i?aaii ? eieaeoeaiee aeiaia??, oaiaea oa o?oaeiaee aeiaia??, eiio?aeo.
Oi/a oe? i?aaia? caniae iathoue ni?euei? ?ene aeiaiai?o (oaiaee), i?ioa
ii?iaeaeothoue ??ci? i?aaia? iane?aeee. Aiie a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae
niaith aeaeaie ?aaoeueiaaieo ieie noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, a oaeiae ca
ci?noii ? noa’?eoaie oeeo a?aeiinei. Eieaeoeaiee aeiaia?? oa oaiaea ?
oa?aeoa?ieie i?aaiaeie caniaaie eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy,
o?oaeiaee aeiaia?? ? eiio?aeo – ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aeiaia??iiai.

8. Aei iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo o?oaeiaiai i?aaa iaiao?aeii aaanoe iiiyooy
?iaioiaeaaoey ye noa’?eoa i?aaa, yeee c iaoith ?aae?caoe?? aeanieo
oe?eae cae?enith? iaei i?aoe?aiee?a ia iniia? oeeaaeaiiai o?oaeiaiai
aeiaiai?o, eiio?aeoo. Iei iiaeooue aenooiaoe o?ce/i? oa th?eaee/i?
iniae, iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai, caeiathoueny aiie i?aei?e?iieoeueeith
ae?yeuei?noth /e i?.

9. Noa?a oeeaaeaiiy eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a aecia/a?oueny aeaiia
ianoaaeiaie: iayai?noth i?aa th?eaee/ii? iniae ? cae?eniaiiy iaeio
?iai/i? neee, ui iaiaaeo? i?aai i?aoe?aiee?a, ye? i?aoeththoue o
o?ce/ii? iniae, ia eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy ?o o?oaeiaeo ?
o?nii iia’ycaieo c ieie a?aeiinei. Oiio caeiiiaeaa/a aecia/aiiy noa?e
oeeaaeaiiy eieaeoeaiiai aeiaiai?o iaiao?aeii iaoiiaethaaoe eeoa
cae?eniaiiyi iaeio i?aoe?. O aeiaaeeo iaaeioe?eueiino? (/a?ac iacia/io
e?euee?noue i?aoe?aiee?a) uiaei eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia
ae?iaie/iio ??ai? iieeanoe ia ?iaioiaeaaoe?a iaia’ycie oeeaaeaoe oaiaee
ia oa?eoi??aeueiiio /e aaeocaaiio ??ai?.

10. Nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai ? aaaeeeaei /eiieeii o
eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??iiio ?aaoethaaii? o?oaeiaeo oa o?nii iia’ycaieo c
ieie noni?eueieo a?aeiinei. A?aoiaoth/e ?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie iaoi?
aea?aeaae, i?eeiyoiei aeey i?aaiai? nenoaie Oe?a?ie aoaea
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy o?eia?oecio. Iii?e i?eeiyooy ?yaeo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo
aeo?a, ye? ?aaoeththoue nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai, ?nio? iio?aaa a
niaoe?aeueiiio caeii?, yeee aecia/eoue iiiyooy nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa, eiai i?eioeeie ? oi?ie, nenoaio oa i?aaiaee noaoon
niaoe?aeueieo aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a ye noa’?eo?a i?eie?ieo ?
iina?aaeieoeueeeo i?ioeaaeo? o eieaeoeaieo o?oaeiaeo nii?ao oiui.

11. Iniiaiee i?aaiaee can?a ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy —
o?oaeiaee aeiaia?? — aaco?oueny ia naiaiae? aieaaeyaeaiiy noi??i uiaei
eiai oeeaaeaiiy, aecia/aii? eiai ci?noo oa oi?ie, anoaiiaeaii?, ci?i?,
i?eieiaii? o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei. I?ioa aea?aeaaa c iaoith caoenoo
iniaenoeo, ei?ii?aoeaieo /e noni?eueieo ?ioa?an?a anoaiiaeth? aeiyoee c
oeueiai ii?yaeeo. Iaea?eueo iiaii aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy i?iyaey?oueny
uiaei aecia/aiiy o?oaeiai? ooieoe?? i?aoe?aieea, ?iai/iai /ano oa /ano
a?aeii/eieo, iieaoe i?aoe?, ioi?iie i?aoe?.

12. Iniaeeaei aeaeii o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o ? eiio?aeo. A?i
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioeo aeiaiai??a o o?oaeiaiio i?aa? oei, ui,
ii-ia?oa, eiai ci?no (i?aaa, iaia’ycee ? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue noi??i,
iaoa??aeueia caaacia/aiiy oa i?aai?caoe?y i?aoe? i?aoe?aieea, i?aenoaae
?ic??aaiiy aeiaiai?o oa ?io? oiiae) anoaiiaeth?oueny ca aeiiiaeai?noth
noi??i; ii-ae?oaa, a?i oeeaaea?oueny eeoa o ienueiia?e oi?i?; ii-o?ao?,
eiai ci?no iaia’yceiai iiaeiai aeeth/aoe ye iaiao?aei?, oae aeiaeaoeia?
oiiae; ii-/aoaa?oa, eiio?aeo ?aaoeth? oe?oee eiiieaen a?aeiinei, i?ae
o?oaeiaee aeiaia??.

C iaoith aii?yaeeoaaiiy i?aeoeee oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeo?a a caeiiiaeaanoa?
Oe?a?ie i?i i?aoeth iaiao?aeii /?oei ie?aneeoe noa?o iaia’yceiaiai
oeeaaeaiiy eiio?aeoo, ciyoe no?ieiaee oa?aeoa? ye iaeio ?c oa?aeoa?ieo
?en, anoaiiaeoe iaiaei?ii?noue aeinoaoiuei? eiiiainaoe?? aeiaeaoeiaeie
i?eueaaie oa i?aeaeuaieie aa?aio?yie aoaeue-yeeo iia??oaiue i?aaiaiai
noaiiaeua i?aoe?aiee?a ii??aiyii c ae?th/ei caeiiiaeaanoaii.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a ianooiieo ioae?eaoe?yo:

Eicae C.ss. Eiio?aeo ca o?oaeiaei i?aaii Oe?a?ie: Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee.
– Euea?a: th?eaee/iee oaeoeueoao Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i.?aaia O?aiea, 1998. – 28 n.

Eicae C.ss. I?ioan?eia ni?eea –noi?iia eieaeoeaiiai aeiaiai?o?! //
Aea?aeaaa ? i?aai: Ui??/iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue iieiaeeo a/aieo. – Ee?a:
?iTH?A, 1998-1999. – N.257-267.

Eicae C.ss. Noa?a canoinoaaiiy eiio?aeoo // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
aaeineiiaeaiiy /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae
aeeeaaea/?a th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo. Aeione II. – ?aaii-O?aie?anuee,
1998. – N. 101-107.

Eicae C.ss. Eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??i? canaaee nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
i?aoe?aiee?a: aeina?ae O?aioe?? // I?iaeaie ooaa?aeaeaiiy i?aaiai?
aea?aeaae ? caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?. A?niee Euea?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y th?eaee/ia. – 1996. – Aeione 33. – N. 32-34.

Eicae C.ss., Ieeeiaiei I.Ae. I?aaia? canaaee nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa
// Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aaeineiiaeaiiy /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie.
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae aeeeaaea/?a th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo. Aeione II.
– ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1998. – N126-131.

Eicae C.ss. Nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai ? eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy
// Iaoa??aee II ?aa?iiaeueii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? (ethoee 1996 ?ieo)
“I?iaeaie aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?”. –
Euea?a, 1996. – N. 119-122.

Eicae C.ss. Aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy aeioneiee?a aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a // Iaoa??aee III ?aa?iiaeueii? iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe?? (ethoee 1997 ?ieo) “I?iaeaie aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? caoenoo
i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?”. – Euea?a, 1997. – N. 187-192.

Eicae C.ss. I?i ??ai? eieaeoeaii-aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo
a?aeiinei // A?niee Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y th?eaee/ia. –
Aeione 34. – Euea?a, 1999. – N. 120-124.

Aiioaoe?y

Eicae C.ss. Aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy ca o?oaeiaei i?aaii Oe?a?ie. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.05 – o?oaeiaa i?aai, i?aai nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy. – Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ca o?oaeiaei
i?aaii Oe?a?ie. A ?iaio? aeine?aeaeothoueny iiiyooy, noa?a oa aeaee
aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy, eiai cia/aiiy a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee; iiaea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea eieaeoeaiiai oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy; aiae?cothoueny no?oeoo?a, ??ai? oa noa’?eoe
(noi?iie) eieaeoeaiiai aeiaia??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy; aecia/athoueny i?aaia?
canaaee nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a Oe?a?i?; ?icaeyaea?oueny
?iaeea?aeoaeueia aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei ia noaae?yo
?o anoaiiaeaiiy, ci?ie ? i?eieiaiiy; ?ice?eaathoueny iiiyooy eiio?aeoo
ye iniaeeaiai aeaeo o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?o oa eiai niaoeeo?/i? ?ene. Ia
iniia? aiae?co niaoe?aeueii? iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e, ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo
aeo?a Oe?a?ie oa i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo aeiaiai??a, ??oaiue aeueo
noaeiaeo i?aai?a aea?aeaae, i?aeoeee ?aae?caoe?? ii?i i?aaa, oeeaaeaiiy
eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a, oaiae, o?oaeiaeo aeiaiai??a, eiio?aeo?a oa
aeina?aeo ca?oa?aeieo aea?aeaa ie?aneththoueny i?iaeaie oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa oi?iothoueny aeniiaee ? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
oaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeiaia??ia ?aaoethaaiiy, eieaeoeaiee aeiaia??, oaiaea,
nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai, o?oaeiaee aeiaia??, eiio?aeo.

Aiiioaoeey

Eicae C.ss. Aeiaiai?iia ?aaoee?iaaiea a o?oaeiaii i?aaa Oe?aeiu. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.05. – o?oaeiaia i?aai, i?aai nioeeaeueiiai
iaania/aiey. – Iaoeeiiaeueiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai aeiaiai?iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a o?oaeiaii
i?aaa Oe?aeiu. A ?aaioa enneaaeothony iiiyoea, noa?a e aeaeu
aeiaiai?iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, aai ?ieue a oneiaeyo noaiiaeaiey ?uieiaie
yeiiiieee; i?eaiaeeony oa?aeoa?enoeea eieeaeoeaiiai e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
aeiaiai?iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey; aiaeece?oaony no?oeoo?a, o?iaie e noauaeou
(noi?iiu) eieeaeoeaiiai aeiaiai?iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey; ii?aaeaeythony
i?aaiaua iniiau aiaae?aiey nioeeaeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a Oe?aeia;
?anniao?eaaaony eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia aeiaiai?iia ?aaoee?iaaiea o?oaeiauo
ioiioaiee ia noaaeeyo eo aicieeiiaaiey, eciaiaiey e i?ae?auaiey;
?ane?uaathony iiiyoea eiio?aeoa eae iniaaiiiai aeaea o?oaeiaiai
aeiaiai?a e aai niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou.

A ?aaioa aeiaiai?iia ?aaoee?iaaiea ?anniao?eaaaony eae iauaeoeaiay
eaoaai?ey, eioi?ay iaoneaaeeaaaony nouanoaothueie iauanoaaiiuie
ioiioaieyie. Iineaaeiea ii?aaeaeytho i?eiaiaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaiauo
n?aaenoa e ?ieue noauaeoia i?aaa a inouanoaeaiee i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey. Ii yoiio ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a oneiaeyo eciaiaiey
yeiiiie/aneie, nioeeaeueiie, iieeoe/aneeo nenoai o?ainoi?ie?oaony. A
Oe?aeia /aoei iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey ?anoe?aiey noa?u aeiaiai?iiai
?aaoee?iaaiey. A iineaaenoaee iaeiei ec iai?aaeaiee enneaaeiaaiey a
aeenna?oaoeee yaeyeinue iainiiaaiea cia/aiey aeiaiai?ia e niaeaoaiee a
i?aaiaii ?aaoee?iaaiee, niioiioaiea noa? aeiaiai?iiai e ii?iaoeaiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey, ii?aaeaeaiea i?aaeaeia aeiaiai?iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey.

Neaaeothuaa iai?aaeaiea a aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee naycaii n
oa?aeoa?enoeeie eieeaeoeaiiai aeiaiai?iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e ?anniio?aieai
nioeeaeueiiai ia?oia?noaa enoiaeiui ia/aeii oaeiaiai, iainiiauaaaony eo
acaeiinaycue; aiaeece?othony i?eioeeiu e oi?iu nioeeaeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa, aai noauaeou. I?aaeiieaaaaony i?eaieaiui aeey i?aaiaie
nenoaiu Oe?aeiu aiaae?aiea o?enoi?iiiae oi?iu nioeeaeueiiai ia?oia?noaa,
/oi i?aaeoniao?eaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoeeiiai aiia?aoa
o?oaeiaiai i?aaa, i?eiyoey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i i?aaenoaaeoaeyo iaeiiiuo
?aaioieeia, iauaaeeiaieyo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae aeey o/anoey a
eieeaeoeaii-aeiaiai?iii i?ioeanna, niaoeeaeueiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaiia a nenoaia nioeeaeueiiai ia?oia?noaa.

Iineaaeothuea iai?aaeaiey enneaaeiaaiey ioiinyony e ?ane?uoeth nouiinoe
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai aeiaiai?iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e ?anniio?aieth o?oaeiaiai
aeiaiai?a eae iniiaiiai i?aaiaiai n?aaenoaa, oa?aeoa?ecothuaainy
i?eioeeiii naiaiaeu aieaeceayiey aai noi?ii ioiineoaeueii onoaiiaeaiey,
eciaiaiey e i?ae?auaiey o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeothony e n?aaieaathony iiiyoey eiio?aeoa e
o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?a, ii?aaeaeythony iauea e niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou
eiio?aeoa, oaeaeyaony aieiaiea noa?a aai caeeth/aiey, onoaiiaeaiey
noi?iiaie oneiaee o?oaea e aa?aioee eo o?oaeiauo i?aa.

Ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca niaoeeaeueiie iao/iie eeoa?aoo?u,
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiauo aeoia Oe?aeiu e iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiauo aeiaiai?ia,
?aoaiee aunoeo noaeaaiuo i?aaiia ainoaea?noaa, i?aeoeee ?aaeecaoeee ii?i
i?aaa, caeeth/aiey eieeaeoeaiuo aeiaiai?ia, niaeaoaiee, o?oaeiauo
aeiaiai?ia, eiio?aeoia e iiuoa eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa i/a?ouaathony
i?iaeaiu oaiu enneaaeiaaiey e oi?ie?othony ?yae auaiaeia e i?aaeeiaeaiee
ioiineoaeueii oniaa?oainoaiaaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeiaiai?iia ?aaoee?iaaiea, eieeaeoeaiue aeiaiai?,
niaeaoaiea, nioeeaeueiia ia?oia?noai, o?oaeiaie aeiaiai?, eiio?aeo.

Annotation

Kozak Z.Ya. Covenantal Regulation in Ukrainian Labour Law.- Manuscript.

Dissertation for the academic degree of Candidate of Legal Sciences
with specialisation in 12.00.05 — Labour Law; Social Insurance Law.-
National University named after Taras Shevchenko, Kiev, 1999.

The dissertation studies the issues of the regulation based on a
contract in labour law of Ukraine. The definition, sphere, types and the
importance of such kind of regulation is examined. The characteristics
the regulation based on collective as well as individual agreement are
presented. The structure, the levels and the parties of the collective
agreement are analysed. The author defines the legal grounds of social
partnership in Ukraine; examines an individual labour agreement on its
different procedural stages. The definition and the features of the
contract as of a specific kind of labour agreement are analysed. Using
the special scientific literature and the sources of present legislation
of Ukraine and international treatments, court practice, enforcement and
implementation examples and foreign legal experience the author outlines
the problems of her research and the main conclusions and proposals as
for the improvement of Ukrainian legislation.

Key words: covenantal regulation; collective agreement; agreement;
social partnership; labour agreement; contract.

A?aeiiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie. – 1990. – ? 31. – No. 429.

A?aeiiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie. – 1991. – ? 38. – NO. 502.

A?aeiiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie. – 1996. – ? 30. – No. 141.

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