Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 1(091) (477) *eaeaanueeee

Iiai??eee Aiae??e Ieaenaiae?iae/

Aeieo?i *eaeaanueeee ye ?noi?ee o?einio??.

niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.05 – ?noi??y o?einio??

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo iaoe

Ee?a -1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiei

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe,

aeioeaio Ein?a ?ai? Aaneeueiae/,

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?

Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, aeioeaio

eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? o?einio?? oa eoeueoo?e.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe : aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe,

i?ioani? Aiiaea?/oe ?iia

Aiaoie??aia, Ee?anueeee

e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?einio??.

Eaiaeeoao o?einionueeeo iaoe E?niaee Aaneeue Naiaiiae/, ?inoeooo
o?einio?? ?iai? A?eai??y Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii
?noi??? o?einionueei? aeoiee Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeiia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao “Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea
aeaaeai?y”, eaoaae?a o?einio??.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “21“ /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.27 a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiei ca aae?anith: 252001, Ee?a-1, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 64.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiei ca aae?anith : 252001, Ee?a-1, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 64.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “21” o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae?aeaiei A.O.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?noi??y oe?a?inueei? o?einio?? – oea
iaeia c a?aeiinii iieiaeeo aaeocae ?noi?eei-o?einionueeiai ciaiiy.
Ieoaiiy i?i ?? ia”?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee, aeaea?aea
i?iaeiaaeo? caeeoaoeny aeeneon?eiei. I?ioa nai oaeo ?nioaaiiy oe???
aaeoc? nueiaiaei? aaea iaa?yae /e ooi iinoaaea ae i?ae noii?a. ?iaioe
a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeiee?a inoaii?o aeanyoe??/ a?aeoai?ththoue iniiai?
aoaie o?eaaei?, neeaaeii? ? ae?aiaoe/ii? ?noi??? noaiiaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? o?einionueei? aeoiee ye iaa?ae”?iiiai – oi/a e ia caaaeaee
/?oei a?oeeoeueiaaiiai – neeaaeieea aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e iaoiai ia?iaeo
a?ae /an?a Ee?anueei? ?on? aei no/aniino?. I?aaeiaoii anaa?/iiai aiae?co
noaee, cie?aia, i?iaeaie ii/aoe?a iaoe?iiaeueii? o?einionueei?
o?aaeeoe??, niaoeeo?ee o?einionueei? aeoiee a Oe?a?i? aeiae
na?aaeiueia?//y, o?einionueei? niaaeueie A.Neiai?iaee, o?einio??
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? ? o. ?i.

Aiaeii/an aeine?aeieoeueeo ?iaioo a oeueiio iai?yieo iaa?yae /e iiaeia
aaaaeaoe caaa?oaiith. O i?ioean? iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy,
a?aeiiaeaiiy ?noi?e/ii? iai”yo?, iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? iaaoaa?
caa?iaiiy aei niaaeueie oeo aecia/ieo oe?a?inueeeo
ieneeoae?a-aoiai?oa???a, ?iaia yeeo, aeia?a a?aeii? na?oia?e iaoeia?e
a?iiaaenueeino?, ai?iaeiaae aaaaoueio ?ie?a caiia/oaaeenue ia
aaouee?auei?, aai caaaeoaaeenue eeoa c iaaaoeaieie ?aeaieia?/ieie
ai?oaoaie. Aei oaeeo ieneeoae?a a?aeiineoueny ? Aeieo?i ?aaiiae/
*eaeaanueeee – aeaeaoiee neaa?no, oe?a?i?no, ?noi?ee o?einio?? ? o?einio
eoeueoo?e. Eiai i?aoe?, noaee a?aeii? ia Oe?a?i? eeoa a inoaii? ?iee,
aei oiai ae aeaeaei ia a iiaiiio ianyc?, iaeiae aac ieo iaiiaeeeai
nueiaiaei? oyaeoe a?o/eciyio o?einionueeo iaoeo, eoeueoo?ieia?th oa
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoai.

Iaoeiaee aei?iaie Ae.*eaeaanueeiai aeineoue aaaiiee ? aaaaoia?aiiee. sse
neaa?no a?i aia?oa anaa?/ii aeine?aeea oi?eaeueia yaeua oe?a?inueeiai
e?oa?aoo?iiai aa?iei, noai?ea i?ea?iaeueio “eiiai?aio” (aiae?c oai?/ino?
ssia Aiina Eiiainueeiai). sse ?noi?ee o?einio?? — cae?eniea aeeaiea
aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao Aaaaey ?, caaaeii, i?iaoeueei? o?einionueei?
o?aaeeoe?? ia neia”yinueeee eoeueoo?iee na?o. A?i caii/aoeoaaa
o?einionueea oe?a?iiciaanoai, ?icaeyiooe ?noi??th o?einionueei? aeoiee a
Oe?a?i? ye ie?aiee, naiiaooi?e iai?yi ?icaeoeo na?oiaiai
?noi?eei-o?einionueeiai i?ioeano, iaa?oiooaaoe ?? iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee
? ia??iaeecaoe?th. Eiio iaeaaeeoue oaeiae ooiaeaiaioaeueia
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?i ieneeoaey, c ?iaiai yeiai iia”ycothoue iaeei c
iaeaeueo ceao?a o?einionueei? aeoiee no?aeiineia”yinueeeo ia?iae?a —
A?eai??y Neiai?iaeo, a oaeiae /eneaii? i?aoe? c ?noi??? ?in?enueei?,
/anueei? oa neiaaoeueei? o?einio?? oa eoeueoo?e.

A ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? aoiai?oa?ii? aeoiee OOno. ?i”y Ae.*eaeaanueeiai
noi?oue a iaeiiio ?yaeo c ?iaiaie oaeeo ?? aecia/ieo i?aaenoaaiee?a, ye
I.A?ooaanueeee, N.?o?aiia, A.Eeieinueeee, I.I??oeae oa ?i., aeey yeeo
aeine?aeieoeueea ?iaioa aoea oi?iith neoae?iiy iaoe?iiaeuei?e eoeueoo??,
ianoithaaiiy ?? naiiaooiino?.

?noi??y o?einio?? ye iaoea iaeo?ni?oei /eiii iia”ycaia c noa?ith, aea
a?aeoai?th?oueny ?icaeoie aeooiaiino? ia?iaeo, caeiaoaathoue oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy aacia? iaoe?iiaeuei? oe?iiino?. C oeueiai iiaeyaeo iaoeiaa
niaaeueia Ae.*eaeaanueeiai aeooaeueia ua e oiio, ui a?i, ye ?noi?ee
o?einio??, iaeiei ?c ia?oeo caa?ioany aei i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueii?
niaoeeo?ee o?einionueei? aeoiee, aei ieoaiiy i?i ?nioaaiiy o?einionueeeo
?aoeaen?e a aeooiai?e eoeueoo?? oeo ia?iae?a, ye? o?aaeeoe?eii
?icaeyaeaeeny ? ni?eeiaeeny ye “iao?einionuee?”, oae? ui eeoeeeny
inoi?iiue iaa?no?aeueiiai oeyoo ?icaeoeo na?oiai? o?einionueei? aeoiee
(no?aeieo ? cao?aeieo neia”yi). A?i iae?aneea iaoiaeieia?/i? ia?niaeoeae
?ica”ycaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie, ?aeath aaaaoiaa??aioiino? oeyo?a
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo, ia?aeaioe/iino? naieo e?eoa???a
iaoeiaino? aoiai?oa?iiai ciaiiy a iaaeao ??cieo eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e.
Iaaeath/e aaeeei? aaae “aieeaai” a?eueo ?icaeiaii? cao?aeii?
o?einionueei? o?aaeeoe??, a/aiee aiaeii/an canoa??aaa i?ioe
aaniethoecaoe?? oe??? o?aaeeoe?? ye ?aeeii iiaeeeaiai oi?aa?naeueiiai
aoaeiio.

Aea/aiiy ?noi?eei-o?einionueeiai aei?iaeo Ae.*eaeaanueeiai ? aaaeeeaith
ia?aaeoiiaith ?ioaa?aoe?? a?o/eciyii? ?noi?eei-o?einionueei? iaoee a
caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeee ? na?oiaee iaoeiaee i?ino??, iiaeieaiiy oeaieo
oyaeaiue i?i i?ia?ioe?ei?noue ? ?cieueiaai?noue a?o/eciyii?
o?einionueei? o?aaeeoe??. E?eoe/iee aiae?c oeueiai aei?iaeo a no/aniiio
eiioaeno? – aaaeeeaee /eiiee a?aeiiaeaiiy iaoi? aeooiaii? iai”yo?,
iiaeeaeaiiy iaoi? o?einionueei? eoeueoo?e.

I??a iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie. Aei na?aaeeie 90-o ?ie?a
o?einionueea niaaeueia Ae.*eaeaanueeiai aoea i?aaeiaoii aiae?co ?
ioe?iie eeoa a ?iaioao ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a – ia?aaeon?i
i?iaoeueeeo (I.Oania?) oa i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueei? (I.I??oeae,
I.Oaaeaiei) ? ?in?enueei? (A.Caiueeianueeee,) ae?anii?e. O a?o/eciyi?e
?noi?eei-o?einionuee?e oa o?eieia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? a/aiiai caaaeoaaee
eeoa ye “iaoe?iiae?noa”, “?aeaae?noa” ? o.i. Ai?iaeiaae inoaii?o ?ie?a,
caaaeyee iiya? ?yaeo ioae?eaoe?e a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeiee?a noai?aii
ia?aaeoiiae aeey iaoia?aaeaeaiiai ia”?eoeaiiai aiae?co iaoeiaiai
aei?iaeo Ae.*eaeaanueeiai. Aaaeeeao ?ieue a oeueiio a?aeiioaii?
a?ae?a?aee ioae?eaoe?? A.E?niaiai, A.Ai?nueeiai, O.Caeeaeaeuenueeiai,
A.O?ooeueeiai, A.ssinaia, I.I??oeaea, ?.Oaa/aiea, caaaeyee yeei ?i”y
a/aiiai aoei oaeoe/ii iiaa?iaii c iaaoooy, cae?eniaii anaa?/iee
a?oioiaaiee ia cia/iiio ianea? ia?oiaeaea?ae, aiae?c eiai na?oiaeyaeo oa
iaoeiai? niaaeueie (?iaioe A.E?niaiai, A.Ai?nueeiai).

Aiaeii/an aianie Ae.*eaeaanueeiai a oe?a?inueeo oa ca?oa?aeio o?einio?th
oa aeooiaio eoeueoo?o iio?aao? aeaeueoiai, a?eueo eiie?aoiiai aea/aiiy.
Oea noino?oueny ianaiia?aae eiai i?aoeue a aaeoc? ?noi??? a?o/eciyii? oa
ca?oa?aeii? o?einio??, ye? neeaaeathoue cia/io /anoeio eiai iaoeiai?
niaaeueie. Nai?, aeania o?einionuee? ?aea?, a/aiee ia aeeeaa o aeaeyae?
iaaii? caaa?oaii? nenoaie, aiie ?aae?ciaai? ianaiia?aae a eiai
?noi?eei-o?einionueeeo ?iaioao, ye?, a iiaiiio iayc? ia nueiaiaei? ua ia
aeine?aeaeai?.

Ia”?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia”?eoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aoe? Ae.*eaeaanueeiai a aaeoc? ?noi??? o?einio??, oa
eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie, ?in??, Cao?aeii? oa Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie. Oaeiae
aiae?cothoueny ?iaioe oe?a?inueeeo, ?in?enueeeo, cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo
o?einio?a oa eoeueoo?ieia?a, i?enay/ai? aea/aiith ?noi??? o?einio?? oa
eoeueoo?e neia”yinueeeo ia?iae?a. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
?noi?eei-o?einionueea eiioeaioe?y Ae.*eaeaanueeiai ye neeaaeiaa eiai
o?einionueei? oa e?oa?aoo?iciaa/i? niaaeueie, ?? iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee,
iniiai? aeniiaee ? ?acoeueoaoe ?noi?eei-o?einionueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue
a/aiiai.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – cae?enieoe
oai?aoe/iee aiae?c ?noi?eei-o?einionueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue
Ae.*eaeaanueeiai c oi/ee ci?o ?o i?iaeaiaoeee, iaoiaeieia??, ci?noo oa
aeooaeueiino? a no/aniiio eiioaeno?. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? oe??? iaoe ne?ae
?ica”ycaoe ianooii? caaaeaiiy :

I?iaiae?coaaoe na?oiaeyaei? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee, ia yeeo
a?oioothoueny ?noi?eei-o?einionuee? aeine?aeaeaiiy Ae.*eaeaanueeiai;

Aeine?aeeoe aianie a/aiiai o o?einio?th eoeueoo?e, eiai iiaaoi?nueeee
i?aeo?ae aei i?iaeai ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e;

C”ynoaaoe iiaeyaee a/aiiai ia i?iaeaio aca?iica”yceo i?ae aeooiaiith
eoeueoo?ith aiioe ? ?? o?einionueeith aeoieith oa ia i?iaeaio
“iaoe?iiaeueii? o?einio??”;

Aeaoe ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?noi?eei-o?einionueei? eiioeaioe??
Ae.*eaeaanueeiai oa eiioeaioe?e ?in?enueeeo ?noi?ee?a o?einio??;

Ioe?ieoe iaoeiaa cia/aiiy cae?eniaiiai a/aiei “aeie?aieaiiy”
oe?a?inueei? o?einionueei? o?aaeeoe?? c caaaeueii?in?enueeiai eiioaenoo;

I?iaiae?coaaoe eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee Ae.*eaeaanueeiaiaei aea/aiiy
?noi??? ?in?enueei? o?einio?? oa aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e;

Aeine?aeeoe eiai iiaeyaee ia ieoaiiy i?i cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee? aieeae ia
?in?enueeo o?einio?th oa eoeueoo?o, cie?aia, ia ieoaiiy i?i aieea
i?iaoeueei? eeane/ii? o?einio??.

Aeaea?aea ? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeaea?aeiciaa/ith aacith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?, ianaiia?aae,
o?einionuee?, eoeueoo?ieia?/i? oa e?oa?aoo?iciaa/? i?aoe?
Ae.*eaeaanueeiai, cie?aia, eiai iiiia?ao?? “O?einio?y ia Oe?a?i?. Ni?iaa
?noi??ia?ao??”, “Ia?ene c ?noi??? o?einio?? ia Oe?a?i?”, “O?einio?y
A?eai??y Neiai?iaee”, “?in?enueea aeooiaia ?noi??y”, “Aaaaeue a ?in??”,
“?noi??y oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e” oa /eneaii? noaoo?, ia?ene, ?aoeaic??.
?o aiae?c aea? ciiao ?aeiino?othaaoe iiaeyaee a/aiiai ia i?aaeiao
o?einio??, ia??iaee ? aoaie ?? ?icaeoeo, iaoe?iiaeueio niaoeeo?eo,
aca?iica”ycie c aeooiaiith eoeueoo?ith.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia oaeeo
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaaeao ye, i?eioeei ia”?eoeaiino? (
oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee iiaeii? aooe iaa?oioiaai? oaeoaie, o aeaiiio
aeiaaeeo – oaa?aeaeaiiyie ui aeieeaathoue c aiae?co oaeno?a
ia?oiaeaea?ae ? ia ianooue o nia? ?aeaieia?/ieo /e iie?oe/ieo ioe?iie );
i?eioeei ?noi?ecio ( a?aooaaiiy ?noi?e/ieo oiia, ca yeeo oi?ioaaany
na?oiaeyae a/aiiai ); nenoaiiino? ( aea/aiiy ?noi?eei-o?einionueeiai
aei?iaeo a/aiiai ye i?aai?/ii? neeaaeiai? eiai caaaeueiio?einionueeeo,
eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo oa e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue ).

Aaoi? aeine?aeaeaiiy nie?aany ia eeane/io o?aaeeoe?th ?a?iiaenueei?
?noi?eei-o?einionueei? oa o?einionueei-eoeueoo?ii? aeoiee ( A.Aaaaeue,
A.Ae?eueoae, I.Aaaa?, E.ssnia?n, A.Aonna?eue ), i?ae aieeaii yei?
oi?ioaaany na?oiaeyae Ae.*eaeaanueeiai, o?aaeeoe?th ?in?enueei?
?noi?eei-o?einionueei? iaoee ( A.?aaeeia, I.Aaaaeainueeee, A.Oiao,
I.Ein?a, A.Caiueeianueeee, A.Oei?ianueeee ).

Aaaeeeaeie iaoiaeieia?/ieie canaaeaie, ia ye? i???ioo?oueny
aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy, ? aeniiaee, ui ?o i?noyoue ?iaioe
no/anieo a?o/eciyieo a/aieo – aeine?aeiee?a ?noi??? o?einionueei? oa
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? aeoiee ia Oe?a?i? ( A.Oeiea?oea, A.I?/ee,
A.Ai?nueeiai, A.E?niaiai, ss.No?ao?e, I.Eoea, A.Eeoaeiiaa,
?.Iai?iaeieea, I.?oneia, I.Eaooae, I.Aiaoaiea ), oa ca?oa?aeii? ?noi???
o?einio?? ( ?.Ae/ea, TH.Eooaeiaa, A.Eiy, ?.Aiiaea?/oe, A.Oeoieaca ).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui a
aeena?oaoe?? cae?eniaii eiiieaeniee nenoaiaoe/iee aiae?c aeine?aeaeaiue
Ae.*eaeaanueeei ?noi??? o?einionueei? aeoiee neia”yinueeeo ia?iae?a ye
iaa?ae”?iiiai neeaaeieea ?a?iiaenueei? o?einionueei? ? eoeueoo?ii?
o?aaeeoe??. Aeiaaaeaii, ui o niaaeuei? Ae.*eaeaanueeiai o?einionuee?
?aea? aeine?aeaeothoueny o eoeueoo?iiio eiioaeno?, a yaeua eoeueoo?e
inieneththoueny a eiioaeno? o?einionueeeo ?aeae, ui aeaei ciiao
iaa?oiooaaoe naiiaooi?noue neia”yinueeeo o?einionueeeo o?aaeeoe?e ?
iae?aneeoe ia?niaeoeae ?o aea/aiiy. A oiae? aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe, ye? i?aoaiaeothoue ia iiaecio
? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, a naia :

Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?noi?eei-o?einionuee? aeine?aeaeaiiy Ae.*eaeaanueeiai
a?oioothoueny ia na?oiaeyaeieo canaaeao, aeaea?aeaie yeeo ? eeane/ia
iioieia?y a?ae Ieaoiia aei A.Aaaaey (“ae?aeaeoeea”), oaiiiaiieia?y,
iaieaio?ainoai ? i?noeoeeci. A/aiee iaa?oiooaaa i?ea?iaeueiee
iaoiaeieia?/iee i?aeo?ae a ?noi?eei-o?einionueeeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, a
iniiao yeiai iieeaaeaii aea/aiiy aca?iica”yceo i?ae eoeueoo?ith,
na?oiaeyaeieie ?aeayie oa aeania o?einio??th;

A?aoiaioiaaii, ui, aea/ath/e o?einionueeo aeoieo neia”yinueeeo ia?iae?a,
a/aiee ?icaeyaeaa ?? ye iaa?ae”?iio neeaaeiao aioe/ii-?a?iiaenueei?
o?aaeeoe??, i?aee?anethth/e, aiaeii/an, ?? naiiaooi?noue. Aaaeeeaei
iaoiaeieia?/iei cia?yaeaeyi aiae?co o?einio?? neia”yinueeeo ia?iae?a
noaei iaa?oioiaaia aeine?aeieeii iiiyooy “eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ieo aiio” ?
aeeiai?ee aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo a iaaeao eiaeii? c ieo;

A aeine?aeaeaii? aeiaaaeaii, ui Ae.*eaeaanueeee aia?oa aeie?aieaii
aeine?aeea ?noi??th oe?a?inueei? o?einio?? ye aaeocue
?noi?eei-o?einionueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaa?oioiaaii ?? iaoiaeieia?/i?
canaaee, aecia/aii iniiai? aoaie oa iai?yie ?icaeoeo (“o?einio?y
na?oey”), cae?eniaii aiae?c na?oiaeyaeo iaeaecia/i?oeo ?? i?aaenoaaiee?a
– A.Neiai?iaee, I.Eoe?oa, I.TH?eaae/a. Aeiaaaeaii, ui a/aiee aeaa
i?ea?iaeueia oeoia/aiiy na?oiaeyaeieo canaae oai?/ino? I.Aiaiey (iooe?
oea?eae, i?ioanoaione? i?noeee, ?ae?a?eii caei??iaia “aoeea i?aoe?”);

I?iaiae?ciaaii aianie a/aiiai o aea/aiiy ?noi??? ?in?enueei?
o?einionueei? aeoiee oa ?in?enueei? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e a?ae ii/aoe?a
aei OOno.Iieacaii, ui Ae.*eaeaanueeee aaaaeaa ?noioieie /eiieeaie
?icaeoeo ?in?enueei? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e oa o?einio?? na?aaeiueia?/ii?
aeiae ?aea? aneaoecio, ian?yi?cio (“Iineae – o?aoueiai ?eio”), “Nayoi?
?on?” ye iaaiiai iica/aniaiai, iica?noi?e/iiai ?aeaaeo, iiey?ecaoe?th,
i?ioenoiyiiy iai?eie?aiieo iiceoe?e aac ni?ia ?o aa?iii?caoe??,
aeii?ioaaiiy aioecao?aeieoeueeeo iano?i?a aae aei iao?ianueeeo ?aoi?i. C
oeueiai aeieeaaei, cie?aia, ui ci?no, oi?ie ? oaiaeaioe?? aeooiaiiai
?icaeoeo aeaio eoeueoo?ieo ?aa?ii?a — Iineianueei? ?on? ? ?on? – Oe?a?ie
?noioii ??ciyoueny i?ae niaith;

A?aoiaioiaaii, ui aaaeeeaei /eiieeii oi?ioaaiiy ?in?enueeiai aeooiaiiai
?icaeoeo ai?iaeiaae O?Ono. noaa aieea i?iaoeueeiai ?aeaae?cio, cie?aia
o?einio?? A.Aaaaey. Ae.*eaeaanueeee aeaa anaa?/iee aiae?c aoai?a
noaiiaeaiiy ?in?enueeiai aaaaeueyinoaa oa iane?aee?a eiai iioe?aiiy,
cie?aia aeey oi?ioaaiiy ?in?enueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, c
iaeiiai aieo, oa ?icaeoeo aeaaeai?/ii? o?einio?? a ?in?? — c ?ioiai.
A?i aeae?eea o?e aoaie canai?iiy ?aeae i?iaoeueeiai ?aeaae?cio a ?in?? –
“?iiaioe/iee”, “iaioaaiiy i?ina?oieoeoaa”, “iiaiai a?aee?eooy o?einio??.
?in?enuee? aaaaeueyioe? c?iaeee noeioethaaee ?icaeoie i?ioan?eii?
o?einionueei? eoeueoo?e, i?aeaiooaaaoe a?oio aeey iiyae oaeeo ieneeoae?a
ye A.Nieia”eia, I.Aa?aey?a, I.Ein?a;

Iieacaii, ui Ae.*eaeaanueeei cae?eniaii aiae?c aieeao i?iaoeueei?
eeane/ii? o?einio?? oa e?oa?aoo?e ia oai?/?noue O.Aeinoi?anueeiai, ui
aeaei ciiao a?eueo /?oei aecia/eoe ?? ?aeaieia?/i? iioeae.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeiiiiiaeooue a?eueo aeeaieiio ?icoi?iith noo? ?noi?eei-o?einionueeiai
i?ioeano, niaoeeo?ee iaoe?iiaeueieo o?einionueeeo o?aaeeoe?e –
oe?a?inueei? oa ?in?enueei?, ?ie? aca?iiaieea?a a aeooiaiiio aeeoo?
ia?iae?a.

Caeiaoo? ?acoeueoaoe aeathoue iiaeeea?noue a?eueo /?oei
i?iaiae?coaaoe iniaeeaino? noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? oa
?in?enueei? o?einionueei? aeoiee a cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiio eiioaeno?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui
io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ni?eythoue aiae?co no/anieo yaeu eoeueoo?iiai
aeeooy oa ?aeaieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, ona?aeiieaiith iaoe?iiaeueii?
eoeueoo?ii? naiiaooiino?.

Io?eiai? a oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeniiaee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a
i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy eo?n?a “?noi??? oe?a?inueei? o?einio??” oa “?noi???
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e”, i?e iaienaii? o/aiaeo iin?aiee?a aeey
nooaeaio?a, oai?aoe/ieo noaoae c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei?, ?in?enueei?
o?einio?? oa cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? o?einio??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Cae?enithaaeany o aenooiao ? iaaiai?aiiyo ia
iaoeiaeo? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioeeyo: Aenooi ia i?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?ia – iacaeaaei?noue, iaoe?y, aea?aeaaa”
“Ae.?.*eaeaanueeee – ye eoeueoo?ieia” (Euea?a 1992?.), aenooi ia
i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aei

noi??//y c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy Ae.?.*eaeaanueeiai” “?noi?eei-eoeueoo?i?
iiaeyaee Ae.?.*eaeaanueeiai” (Ee?a1994?.), iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioeeyo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ? nooaeaio?a Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, o aeeeaaeaoeuee?e ?iaio?.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? aecia/aia iaoith, caaaeaiiyi, caaaeueiith
eia?eith aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Nienie aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae i?noeoue 71 iaeiaioaaiiy aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe??. Iiaiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? – 157noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/a?oueny nooi?iue
?? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee, iaa?oioiao?oueny no?oeoo?a i?aoe?, oi?ioeththoueny
iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie?aneth?oueny ia”?eo ? i?aaeiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i?

canaaee, iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
a oaeiae ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee ?noi?eei-o?einionueeeo
aeine?aeaeaiue Ae.?.*eaeaanueeiai” aea?oueny caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea
na?oiaeyaeo a/aiiai ? oeo oai?aoe/ieo aeaea?ae, i?ae aieeaii yeeo a?i
oi?ioaaany, aena?oeaii iniiai? iai?yie ? canaaee eiai o?einionueeeo,
eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo oa e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ae.*eaeaanueeee ia?iaeeany a 1984?. o i.Ieaenaiae??y ia
?eenaaaoa?aaeuei? ( oaia? E??iaia?aaenueea iae.) o ?iaeei? io?oea?a
?in?enueei? a?i??, yeee iioiaeea c oe?a?inueeiai aeai?yinueeiai ?iaeo ?
i?eeiaa o/anoue o ia?iaeieoeueeiio ?on?, ca ui caciaa ia?ane?aeoaaiue.
Aeuo ina?oo a/aiee caeiaoaaa nii/aoeo a Iaoa?ao?anueeiio, a iio?i a
Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoaoao. Oi?ioaaiiy eiai na?oiaeyaeo i?eiaei ia /an
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ?aaiethoe??,
a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie, eiee Oe?a?ia ia ei?ioeee /an caeiaoea aeanio
aea?aeaai?noue. Aeoiaaiee a o?aaeeoe?yo ?in?enueei? eoeueoo?e,
Ae.*eaeaanueeee iinooiiai aeeth/a?oueny a oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?ia aeeooy,
ii/eia? ona?aeiiethaaoe naaa oe?a?ioeai. A 1921?. a?i ciooaiee
ai?a?oaaoe. A ianooii? ?iee aeea ? i?aoethaaa a iniiaiiio a I?ia//ei?
(aeayeee /an – o *aoineiaa/ei? oa NOA), na?oiaa aeciaiiy a/aiiio
i?eianee eiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a aaeoc? neaa?noeee. Iiia? a/aiee o 1977?.
o i.Aaeaeaeueaa?c? aea ? iioiaaiee.

Noaiiaeaiiy o?einionueeeo iiaeyae?a Ae.*eaeaanueeiai a?aeaoaaeinue i?ae
aieeaii ?aeae eeane/ii? iioieia??, oaiiiaiieia?? A.Aonna?ey,
“ooiaeaiaioaeueii? iioieia??” I.Aaeaeaaaa?a ( o yeeo aaciina?aaeiuei
iaa/aany ? c yeeie a ianooiiiio, ia i?ioyc? cia/iiai ia??iaeo /ano,
ni?eeoaaany oe?a?inueeee a/aiee ), a oaeiae ?aeae iaiaaaaeueyinoaa,
iaieaio?ainoaa oa aoiiineoieia??.

Iaoiaeieia?y, yeith ei?enooaaany aeine?aeiee, a?oiooaaeany ia
ii?aeiaii? ?aeae ae?aeaeoeee ? oaiiiaiieia??, a oaeiae eiie?aoieo
iaoiae?a eoeueoo?iiai-?noi?e/iiai oa ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?iiai aiae?co.
Iaeiei ?c aeaea?ae, i?ae aieeaii yeeo oi?ioaaany na?oiaeyae a/aiiai,
aenooiathoue oaeiae nai???aeii aeoeoia/ai? ?aea? i?noeoeecio ye niiniao
ieneaiiy, yeee i?aaia ioiieoe aoooy a ?aaeueiiio ? o?ainoeaiaeaioiiio
aei??ao. Aoaeo/e iaeno?ii o?einionueeiai oa e?oa?aoo?iciaa/iai
“i?e?iaiae?co”, yeee a?oioo?oueny aeeeth/ii ia eiie?aoieo oaeoao,
Ae.*eaeaanueeee ?icaeyaeaa oe? oaeoe o oe?ieiio ?aeaeiiio oa
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiio eiioaeno?. A?i ia i?aaioa aei noai?aiiy
anacaaaeueii? caaa?oaii? o?einionueei? nenoaie, aiaeii/an, iaeiith c
eeth/iaeo i?iaeai eiai aeine?aeaeaiue aoei ieoaiiy i?i ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
i?ae oi?aa?naeueiei, anacaaaeueiei ? eiie?aoii-?iaeea?aeoaeueiei,
oi?eaeueiei a eoeueoo??. A/aiee iaiaaaany i?e oeueiio oieeiooe
e?aeiiu?a, ii?aeiaaoe aeanoeaee aaaae?anuee?e o?einio??
oi?aa?nae?nonueeee i?aeo?ae c “?iaeea?aeoae?coth/ith” iaoiaeieia??th
iaieaio?ainoaa ? ?aeayie aoiiineoieia?? (A.Aoiaeo, I.Eaoea?on,
A.Ooaeioaeue) i?i naiiaooi?noue iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo? ? na?oiaeyae?a.
Oaeo eoeueoo?ii-na?oiaeyaeiiai ieth?ae?cio a?i ?icaeyaea? ia ye
a?aeoeeaiiy, a ye ii?io eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo.

?noi??y o?einio?? aoea iaeiei c aieiaieo iaoeiaeo caoe?eaaeaiue
Ae.*eaeaanueeiai. Eiai ?iaioe ioiieththoue oe?iea eiei i?iaeai oe???
iaoee: aioe/io o?einio?th aeiieaoii?anueei? aeiae, i?iaoeueeo i?noe/io
o?einio?th aeiae na?aaeiueia?//y, o?einio?th A.Aaaaey oa ?iiaioee?a.
Iaea?eueo aaaiiei noaa aianie Ae.*eaeaanueeiai o aea/aiiy o?einionueei?
aeoiee neia”yinueeeo ia?iae?a – oe?a?inueei?, ?in?enueei?, neiaaoeueei?,
/anueei?. A?i ia?oei iaa?oiooaaa caaaeueio eiioeaiooaeueio noaio ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? o?einio??.

I?eioeeiiaith iaoiaeieia?/iith canaaeith aeine?aeaeaiue
Ae.*eaeaanueeiai a aaeoc? ?noi??? o?einio?? aenooia? oaca i?i
i?eiaeaaei?noue neia”yinueeeo eoeueoo? aei aioe/ii-?a?iiaenueei?
eoeueoo?ii? o?aaeeoe??. Oeth oaco a?i eiie?aoeco? o iiiyoo?
“iaoe?iiaeueii? o?einio??” ye niaoeeo?/ii?, coiiaeaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iei eiioaenoii oi?ie inieneaiiy “a?/ieo”
o?einionueeeo ieoaiue. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai a?i aeine?aeaeo? aieeae
cao?aeii? o?einio?? o neia”yinueeiio eoeueoo?iiio na?o?, a oaeiae ( ye
oea iaei i?noea o aeiaaeeo ss.A.Eiiainueeiai) aieeae neia”yinueeeo
ieneeoae?a ia cao?aeio o?einio?th oa eoeueoo?o (iaoeiaee aei?iaie
ss.Ooo?a). Aaaeeeaa iaoiaeieia?/ia cia/aiiy i?e oeueiio a?ae?a?a?
iiiyooy “eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? aiioe” ye iaaiiai ?aeaaeueiiai oeio,
ci?no yeiai a?aeaeca?eaeth? oa?aeoa?i? iciaee aeooiaiiai noeeth aiioe ye
oi?eaeueii? oe?e?niino?. A ?noi??? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e a/aiee aeae?eya
aiioe ?iiainueei? eoeueoo?e, aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e, ?aianaino, aa?iei,
i?ina?oieoeoaa, eeaneoeecio, ?iiaioeee, ?aae?cio oa iai?iiaioeee. A?i
ia?ai?n eoeueoo?ii-noeeueiaee iaoiae aiae?co o ieiueio ?noi?eei-
o?einionueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeaei ciiao aeaoaeoaaoe ?aeaaeuei? oeie
— “o?einio?y aeiae aa?iei” (yeee a/aiee aeei?enoaa ye iaoiaeieia?/ia
cia?yaeaey i?e aeine?aeaeaii? o?einionueei? niaaeueie ss.A.Eiiainueeiai
oa A.Neiai?iaee), “o?einio?y aeiae i?ina?oieoeoaa”, “o?einio?y aeiae
?iiaioecio” oa ?i. Oeei naiei a/aiee iae?aneea ia?niaeoeao no/anieo
eiiia?aoea?nonueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue a ?noi??? o?einio??.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e?: “Iaa?oiooaaiiy Ae.?.*eaeaanueeei eiioeaioe??
?noi??? oe?a?inueei? o?einio??” aiae?cothoueny i?aoe? a/aiiai,
i?enay/ai? ?noi??? a?o/eciyii? o?einionueei? aeoiee. Iieacaii, ui
a?oiooth/enue ia ?aea? ?a?iiaenueei? i?eiaeaaeiino? oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e oa ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueii? o?einio?? aeine?aeiee iinoaaea
i?iaeaio noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? o?einionueei? o?aaeeoe??
ia Oe?a?i?. A?i oaeoe/ii aoa ia?oei, ooi aeie?aiea oeth o?aaeeoe?th ?c
caaaeueii?in?enueeiai eiioaenoo. O ?icae?e? cae?eniaii ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c eiioeaioe?? Ae.*eaeaanueeiai ? iiaeyae?a a?aeiieo aeine?aeiee?a
?noi??? ?in?enueei? o?einio?? O?O- ii/aoeo OOno.: I.Aaaaeainueeiai,
A.?aaeeiaa, A.Oiaoa, I.Ein?aa, ni?eueiith ?enith yeeo aoei oaeoe/ia
?aii?oaaiiy oe?a?inueei? o?einionueei? aeoiee ye oaei?. Ia anooiath/e c
oeeie aaoi?aie o i?yio iieai?eo a/aiee a?aeeeioa oeae iioe?aiee
noa?aioei. A?i aoa i?aeoe/ii ia?oei, ooi iieacaa ?nioaaiiy aeaiaio?a
o?einionueeiai ciaiiy a eoeueoo?? “noa?i? Oe?a?ie” – eoeueoo?? aeiae
Ee?anueei? ?on?, oaiaeaeueii? ?icae??aeaiino? oa Eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae,
iinoaaea ieoaiiy i?i ca”ycie i?ae oeeie aeaiaioaie oa ia?iaeiei
na?oiaeyaeii ye iaeiith ?c i?aeaaeei iaoe?iiaeueii? o?einio??. O naith
/a?ao ia?iaeiee na?oiaeyae o?nii iia”ycaiee c ia?iaeiei oa?aeoa?ii.
Iciaeaie oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeiiai oa?aeoa?o a/aiee aaaaeaa
aiioe?iiae?ci, naioeiaioae?ci, /ooeea?noue oa e??eci, a oaeiae i?aaiaiiy
aioo??oiuei? aa?iii?? oa a?ae?aco aei e?aeiiu?a.

Iiaooi?i iiooiaoii aeey i?iaoaeaeaiiy o noa??e Oe?a?i? “o?einio?/ieo
?ioa?an?a”, ye iieacaa Ae.*eaeaanueeee, aoei i?eeiyooy o?enoeyinoaa.
I?iieeiaiiy ? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia Oe?a?i? ca??iee?a o?enoeyinueei?
?ae?a?eii-iia/aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e noai?eei ni?eyoeea? i?aaeoiiae aeey
ciaeiinoaa c ?aeayie aioe/ieo o?einio?a. Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iaea
ae?yeuei?noue i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ooo “iaeeaeia?eeo”, ye? iioe?thaaee ia?o?
i?ioan?ei? o?einionuee? ca??ieee. Caaaeii aea onth aeiao a?ae Ee?anueei?
?on? aei OO??no. aeine?aeiee iaceaa? aiioith “o?einio?/iiai iaa/aiiy”.
Iniaeeai ?ioaineaiei noa? aiii ii/eiath/e c OO?no., eiee ia Oe?a?i?
iinoathoue ia?o? aeani? iaoeia? ina?aaeee – oaieia?/i? oeiee Ino?icueea
? Ee?anueea. A aeaaeai?/ieo eo?nao aeeeaaea/?a Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueei?
aeaaeai?? aoea iaa?oioiaaia nai???aeia nenoaia o?einionueeiai ciaiiy, o
ye?e aeaiaioe na?aaeiueia?/ii? noieanoeee o?ainoi?ioaaeeny o iiaee
??ciiaeae “aa?ieiai? noieanoeee” — o?einio?? iiaiai aeooiaiiai noeeth.
A/aiee ?icaeyaeaa ae?yeuei?noue Aeaaeai?? ianaiia?aae a eiioaeno?
aoiai?noe/ieo ? ?aoi?iaoe?eieo aieea?a ? aaaaeaa iai?eionoeiei aaeeaaoe
ooo ae?aco “noieanoeea” o iaaaoeaiiio cia/aii?.

Naiai iaeaeuiai ?icaeoeo aa?ieiaee noeeue o?einionueeiai ieneaiiy
aeinyaa? o oai?/ino? A?eai??y Neiai?iaee – ooiaeaoi?a ye oe?a?inueei?
oae ? ?in?enueei? o?einio?? o aeaniiio cia/aii? oeueiai neiaa, ?,
cie?aia, naiiaooiuei? eiioeaioe?? “o?einio?? na?oey”.Aianie
Ae.*eaeaanueeiai o aea/aii? o?einio?? A?eai??y Neiai?iaee ? aeineoue
aaaiiei ? cia/iei. A?i i?enayoea oeueiio ieneeoaeth ie?aia iiiia?ao?/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aeaei ciiao i?aeianoe a?o/eciyia “neiai?iaeiciaanoai”
ia ye?nii iiaee ??aaiue. Oeyoii ?aoaeueiiai oaenoieia?/iiai aiae?co
aaoi? “O?einio?? A?eai??y Neiai?iaee” aeyaea aeeaeiio nii??aeiaii?noue
na?oiaa/aiiy A.Neiai?iaee c ?aeayie o?enoeyinueeiai i?noeoeecio a eiai
i?iaoeueeiio aa??aio?. Anoaiiaeaiiy oaeoo aieea?a i?iaoeueei?
o?enoeyinueei? i?noeee aeaei ciiao aeoeoia/eoe ?yae “oaiieo” i?noeue o
oaenoao oe?a?inueeiai o?einioa, cie?aia iiynieoe eiai neiaie?/io
nenoaio. Aiaeii/an aeine?aeiee ia ci?a oieeiooe ooo ? aeayeeo ni?iuaiue,
aiane?aeie /iai ia caeiaoa iaeaaeiiai aena?oeaiiy ?noi?e/iee oa
eoeueoo?iee eiioaeno ?aeae A.Neiai?iaee.

O O?Ono. o ?icaeoeo o?einionueei? aeoiee ia Oe?a?i?, ye aeiaiaeeoue
Ae.*eaeaanueeee, ianoa? ye?nii iiaee ia??iae. Cia/iiai aieeao
iaaoaathoue a oeae /an ?aea? i?iaoeueei? eeane/ii? o?einio??, cie?aia
?.Eaioa, E.O?ooa, A.Aaaaey, O.Oae?iaa oa ?iiaioee?a. ?iiaioe/iee
na?oiaeyae, i?aee?aneth? aeine?aeiee, iaa ia Oe?a?i?, ye ? a ?ioeo
neia”yi, iaeiia??ii iiaooi?e ? oe?ieee aieea. Aiane?aeie oeueiai a
Oe?a?i?, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?in?? ia iaaoa oe?ieiai iioe?aiiy
i?ina?oieoeueeee ?aaeeeae?ci oa iiceoea?ci. Iaoii?noue ooo iaaoaa?
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo ?ae?a?eii oa ?iiaioe/ii caoa?aiaaia “o?einio?y
na?oey”, aieeae yei? a?ae/ooi? a oai?/ino? Ieeiee Aiaiey ? Iaioaeaeiiia
Eoe?oa, oiae? ye nenoaiaoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy – a ?iaioao Iaioeea
TH?eaae/a.

Aaaeeeaei aianeii Ae.*eaeaanueeiai a ?noi??th oe?a?inueei? o?einio??
aoei eiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aeaeii-na?oiaeyaeieo canaae oai?/ino?
I.Aiaiey. A/aiee aeacaa ia nooo?a? iniaeeaino? na?oiaeyaeo ienueiaiieea,
ye? eeoeeeny iaiii?/aieie aeine?aeieeaie eiai oai?/ino?, eio?? aeaaaee
?e ae?aiao?aeueii i?ioeeaaei? ioe?iee (“?aae?no”, “neiaie?no”,
“?aaeoe?iia?”, “?aaeeeae” ? o.?i.). Ieth?ae?ci oeeo ?aeaieia?/ieo
ioe?iie iaiiaeeeai iiynieoe aac a?aooaaiiy iino?eiiai i?aaiaiiy I.Aiaiey
aei naiinoee?caoe??, ca yeith e?ethoueny na?eici? ?aeaieia?/i? iioeae.
Iniiaith aiaie?anueei? naiinoee?caoe??, yea oa?eoea o naio aeeaeio eiai
iniaenoino?, aoei a?ae/oooy naaa ye “/oaeeioey aeey an?o”, “a?/iiai
iiaei?iaeiueiai”, ethaeeie “i?eoiaaiiai aeeooy”. O oeueiio eiioaeno?
ienueiaiiee aenooia? iine?aeiaieeii iaeneie “aoa/? a?ae na?oo” A?eai??y
Neiai?iaee. A eiai oai?/ino? oey iaeneia iaaoaa? aeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo ye
i?ioenoaaeaiiy aeaio ieai?a aoooy – ciai?oiueiai, aea ca iic??iith
aaee//th e?e?oueny ia?iioa, ? aeeaeiiiai, aea ca iic??iith
iaiieaci?nooth e?e?oueny aeeaeia. Oey iiiceoe?y eiie?aoeco?oueny
Aiaieai o i?ioenoaaeaii? aeeiai?/iiai ?, aiaeii/an, iiaa?oiaiai Ia?eaeo
caiaaeaaiiio, i?ioa aaee/iiio ?eiia?, io?oe?eiiai ? aeeiai?/iiai
Iaoa?ao?ao – ae??iioi?e oa ?aeee?/i?e Iinea?, Aaeeei?in?? –
oooi?yinueeiio oe?a?inueeiio aeeooth. O ?in?enueeiio e?oa?aoo?iiio
na?aaeiaeu? I.Aiaieue aoa ethaeeiith ia eeoa c ?ioiai eoeueoo?iai
i?inoi?o, a e c ?ioiai eoeueoo?iiai /ano – “ieaenaiae??anueei? aiioe”. O
oaeiai ?iaeo “a?aenoaeino?” ienueiaiieea a?ae naiai /ano e?e?oueny
i?e/eia eiai ?aeaieia?/ieo i?ic??iue, i?aaeaa/aiiy iei aeayeeo ?aeae
O.Aeinoi?anueeiai oa anoaoeee neiaie?cio.

Ae.*eaeaanueeee i?iaiae?coaaa ?ieue ?ae?a?eieo iioea?a o oai?/ino?
I.Aiaiey. A?i iieacaa, cie?aia, ui aeeaiea ?ae?a?ei?noue aeanoeaa aoea
ienueiaiieeo ai?iaeiaae onueiai eiai aeeooy, a ia eeoa a eiai inoaii?e
ia??iae. I.Aiaieue caciaa na?eiciiai aieeao o?enoeyyinueei? i?noe/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e a ?? eaoieeoeueeiio oa i?ioanoaionueeiio aa??aioao
(O.Eaii?enueeee, A.THia-Ooeee?ia oa ?i.). Oe? aieeae iniaeeai a?ae/ooi?
o a?aeii?e ?iaio? “Aea?ai? i?noey ?c eenooaaiiy c ae?ocyie”, yea
aeeeeeaea oaea iao?aiiy c aieo A.A?e?inueeiai. Aeine?aeiee iieaco?, ui
e?eoeee I.Aiaiey ia caa?ioee oaaae ia iniiaia – oa, ui ienueiaiiee
i?aaioa caeeceoe i?iaeaie ?ae?a?ei? oa aeiiii?/i?, iaa?oioiaoth/e, ye
oea ?iaeee naiai /ano ?aeaieiae ?aoi?iaoe??, ?ae?a?eio “aoeeo i?aoe?”.
Ia aeaeue, no/ania I.Aiaieth ?in?enueea ?ioae?aaioe?y, oae naii ye ?
io?oe?eia oea?eaa, eeoaeeny aeeaiei aaeaeoaeeie aei oeeo ieoaiue.

Iai?ee?ioe? O?Ono. oe?a?inueea o?einionueea aeoiea, ye iieaco?
Ae.*eaeaanueeee, uiaeae? a?eueoa i?aeaea?oueny “a?yiiyi /ano” – a i?e
iineeththoueny aieeae iiceoea?cio, yeee i?aaioa i?aeii?yaeeoaaoe
o?einio?th e?eoa??yi niaoe?aeueii-iaoeiaiai ciaiiy (A.Eanaae/, I.No?iiei
oa ?i.), oaeiae noathoue a?eueo a?ae/ooieie i?aaiaiiy iia»ycaoe
o?einionuee? iiooee c ?aeaieia?/ieie, iie?oe/ieie ?ioa?anaie. Aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy aeey aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? o?einionueei?
aeoiee OOno. iaa aiae?c aeine?aeieeii o?einionueei? niaaeueie
A.Eeieinueeiai. Ae.*eaeaanueeee aeia?a, ui iie?oe/i? ?aea? oeueiai
ieneeoaey a?oioothoueny ia iaaieo o?einionueeeo canaaeao. A.Eeieinueeee
noai?ea i?ea?iaeueio eiioeaioe?th o?einio?? oe?a?inueei? ?noi???,
eeth/iaeie eaoaai??yie yei? ? iiiyooy “o?aaeeoe??”, “a?enoie?eo??” ?
“iaoe??”. Aecia/ath/e iaoe?th ye ?aei?noue yea coiiaeaia ni?euei?nooth
“oa?eoi???”, “caie?” a?i aoa a?eueo ?aaeeeaeueiei ? iine?aeaiiei i?ae
?in?enuee? ?a?ac?eoe?. Aeeiai?/i? iiiaioe o?einio?? ?noi???
A.Eeieinueeiai iia”ycai? c eaoaai??yie “?aea?”, “neiaa”, “ii?ae?”,
“aeie?”. Ia i?ioeaaao ianei?noe/iei iano?iyi, aeanoeaei oiai/ania?e
cao?aei?e o?einio?? ?noi???, eiioeaioe?y A.Eeieinueeiai ?
iioei?noe/iith, ? a oeueiio, ye aeiaiaeeoueAe.*eaeaanueeee, ?? cia/aiiy
aeey oe?a?inueeiai aeooiaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy OOno.

I?aeaiaey/e i?aenoiie, ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui cae?eniaiee aeine?aeieeii
nenoaiaoe/iee iaeyae ?noi??? o?einionueei? aeoiee ia Oe?a?i? aoa
i?aeoe/ii ia?oith ni?iaith oaeiai ?iaeo. sse ? onyea ia?oa ni?iaa, a?i
ia ioiiethaaa anueiai oiai iaoa??aeo, yeee noino?oueny oe???
i?iaeaiaoeee, aea iae?anethaaa eiai ”caaaeuei? eiioo?e”. Aeeneon?eiei
aoei ? i?iaeiaaeo? caeeoaoeny iaeia c eeth/iaeo iiiyoue, ia yeiio
aeania a?oioo?oueny oeae iaeyae – iiiyooy “iaoe?iiaeueii? o?einio??”.
Aiaeii/an aacnoii?aia oe?ii?noue aeine?aeaeaiue Ae.*eaeaanueeiai a
aaeoc? ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? o?einionueei? aeoiee iieyaa?, ianaiia?aae, o
nai?e iinoaiiaoe? i?iaeaie ?? ?nioaaiiy ye ie?aii? a?eee ?a?iiaenueei?
o?einionueei? o?aaeeoe?? ? iaa?oiooaaiiy ?? caaaeueii? eiioeaiooaeueii?
noaie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “Ae.?.*eaeaanueeee ye ?noi?ee ?in?enueei?
o?einio??” – i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooia? aianie a/aiiai o
aea/aiiy ?noi?e/ieo iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo ?in?enueei? o?einionueei?
aeoiee a?ae O aei ii/aoeo OOno. sse ? a ?iaioao c ?noi??? o?einio?? ia
Oe?a?i?, aaoi? ?icaeyaea? o?einionuee? ?aea? ? eiioeaioe?? ye oae?, ui
u?eueii aienai? a oe?e?ni?noue aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e ? iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino?. Iniiaieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie oeueiai iai?yieo ? aeaioiiia
iiiia?ao?y Ae.*eaeaanueeiai “?in?enueea aeooiaia ?noi??y”, iiiia?ao?y
“Aaaaeue a ?in??” oa iecea noaoae a /aniienao, neiaieeao ? o.?i. sse
ia?oiaeaea?aea aeey ?aeiino?oeoe?? ?noi??? ?in?enueei? o?einionueei?
aeoiee a/aiee aeei?enoiao? ia eeoa oaenoe aeaaeai?/ieo o?einio?a, a e
oai?e aecia/ieo ?in?enueeeo ienueiaiiee?a oa

ioae?oeeno?a – O.Aeinoi?anueeiai, O.Otho/?aa, E.Oienoiai, A.Oe?ai?eiaa,
?ioeo aeaeaoieo ae?y/?a ?in?enueei? eoeueoo?e. Cae/aeii, aeine?aeiee ia
noaaea ca iaoo ?ic?iaeo nenoaiaoe/ii? ?noi??? ?in?enueei? o?einio??.
Eiai aieiaia oaaaa cina?aaeaeaia ia aoceiaeo, iaea?eueo cia/eieo
ia??iaeao ? iiiaioao oeueiai i?ioeano.

?in?enueeo o?einionueeo aeoieo Ae.*eaeanueeee i?aaia /eoaoe ianaiia?aae
a eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiio eiioaeno?, ye iaeei ?c neeaaeiee?a ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueii? “aeooiaii? ?noi???”. A?i aeae?ey? oae? aeaa iniiai?
ia??iaee oe??? ?noi???: ia?oee – a?ae Ee?anueei? ?on? aei aiioe Iao?a ?
? ae?oaee – a?ae aiioe Iao?a ? aei ii/aoeo OOno. Ia?oee ia??iae ia? oaeo
o?iiieia?/io no?oeoo?o: 1. Ia??iae o?enoeyi?caoe?? no?aeieo neia”yi
(Ono.); 2. Aeooiaia aeeooy ia??iaeo iineeaiiy oaiaeaeueii?
?icae??aeaiino? (O? – O???no.); 3. Aeooiaia e?eca O?O – OOno.; 4.
Ia??iae iineianueeiai aaniethoecio (OO – ii/aoie OO??no.); 5. Aeooiaia
e?eca OO??no. A aeooiaiiio aeeoo? aeiae Ee?anueei? ?on? aeine?aeiee
aeae?ey? iaaiee ?eoi: iaeaea aei e?ioey O?no. o oaenoao e?oa?aoo?ieo
iai”yoie cao/aoue a?ae/ooi? iioei?noe/i? iioeae, a?ae/oooy ?aaeino? a?
i?eeo/aiiy aei o?enoeyinueeiai na?oo. Aneaoe/i? oe?iiino? ii?aeiothoueny
ooo c ?aeaaeaie o?enoeyinueeiai eeoea?noaa oa a?aeaa?oi aioeaneaoe/ieie
iano?iyie. I?ioa eaoano?ioa O???no., iaae?iiy Ee?aa i?ae oaea?aie
iiiaiei-oaoa?nueeeo i?ae noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeeaieith aeooiaiith
e?ecith. Oey e?eca i?yiei /eiii ia iia”ycaia c a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iith
ii?aceith, aiia ia? iaai? ?iaiaioi? ei?ai? – a?aenooi?noue aeooiaii?
eoeueoo?e, yea “o?eiaeany a ia aeanieo iiaao”.

I?ney O???no. aeooiaiee ?icaeoie a iaaeao i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai
(iineianueei-?onueeiai) ? i?aaeaiii-cao?aeiiai (ee?ai-?onueeiai)
?aa?ii?a ?icai?oa?oueny aeineoue a?aei?iieie oeyoaie. Ia i?aaeaiiiio
caoiae? ia iinoa? ne?eueee-iaaoaeue oe?e?nia, ?aeeia aea?aeaaia
ooai?aiiy – i?ioa ooo aeooiaia aeeooy eeoa?oueny a?eueo a?aee?eoei,
a?eueiei a?ae ?cieyoe?ii?nonueeeo oaiaeaioe?e. Iaoii?noue ia i?ai?/iiio
noiae? oi?io?oueny nenoaia aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae, eiinie?aeoth/ei yae?ii
yei? aenooia? ?aeaae “Nayoi? ?on?”, ui ciaoiaeeoue nai? ao?eaiiy a
eoeueo? nai?oieoeoaa, noeiieoeoaa, th?iaenoaa – c iaeiiai aieo, oa
iann?ai?cio oa iaoe?iiaeueii? ia?aiino? – c ?ioiai. sse i?aee?aneth?
Ae.*eaeaanueeee, oaeiai ?iaeo ?aeaae aoa “niii aeooo”, yeee aaeueioaaa
oai?/o aeoeai?noue ? ni?eya aeooiai?e noaaiaoe??. C iei aoei iia”ycaia
oyaeaiiy i?i oa, ui ?in?y noi?oue iica ?noi???th ? iaae ?noi???th.
Oe?eeii caeiiii??ii, ui ?aeaae “Nayoi? ?on?” noaa ?aeaieia?/iei
aea?aaeaioii ian?ai?nonueei? eiioeaioe?? “Iineae ye o?aoueiai ?eio”, ui
?? caiice/ea o a?caio?enueeiai o?ii?noa Iaian?? ? ia?anaaeea ia
iineianueeee a?oio /a?iaoeue O?eioae. Oeei naiei aeooiaia e?eca
i?aeoe/ii ia aoei iiaeieaia, a ia?aeoea o noai iino?eii? oai?iae yea
?oeioaaea ia?iaeio aeooo. Oe? ooii?/i?, ian?ai?nonuee? oyaeaiiy, ye
i?aee?aneth? aeine?aeiee, aoee oniaaeeiaai? ?in?enueeei ia?eneciii ?
caeiaoee a iueiio iiaa aeeooy, iaaoaoe ua a?eueoiai aieeao. Ni?eueiith
?enith eiioeaioe?e “Nayoi? ?on?” ? ?in?enueeiai eiioi?cio ? ooii?ci,
i?eioeeiiaa iaiiaeeea?noue ?aae?caoe?? ia i?aeoeoe?.

Ioe?ithth/e ?noi?e/ia cia/aiiy ci?i a ?in?enueeiio aeooiaiiio aeeoo?,
aeeeeeaieo Iao?ianueeeie ?aoi?iaie, Ae.*eaeaanueeee i?aee?aneth?
noia?a/eeaee oa?aeoa? oeeo yaeu. Ooo ciaeoea na?e i?iya iaeia ?c aeaai?o
iniaeeainoae ?in?enueeiai aeooiaiiai aeeooy – eiai ??cea iiey?ecaoe?y,
?iceie ia i?ioeeaaei?, iai?eie?aii? iiceoe??, a?aenooi?noue oi?
na?aaeeie aea a i?ioeeaaeiino? iiaee i?eie?eoenue. C oeei iia”ycaiee
cie?aia ? oea?eiaiee ?iceie OO???no. ni?e/eiaiee ?aoi?iaie iao??a?oa
I?eiia, iane?aeeii yeiai noaei oaeoe/ia aeeeth/aiiy c aeooiaiiai aeeooy
i?eueeii?a i?eoeeueiee?a noa?i? a??e, ye? aiaeii/an aoee iin?yie
ia?iaeii? ii?ae?. ?iceie iaa nai?i iane?aeeii ia i?aeianaiiy, a,
iaaiaee, cieaeaiiy ??aiy aeooiaiiai aeeooy, cie?aia, ??aiy ?icaeoeo
oaieia?/ii? iaoee oa inoaoi/io ao?aoo iacaeaaeiino? oea?eae a?ae
aea?aeaae. ? ana ae i?i?oaaia Iao?ii ? “a?eii a ?a?iio” aeaei ciiao
iiaeieaoe – o iaaieo iaaeao – ?cieyoe?ii?ci ? i?eeo/eoeny aei caeiaooe?a
naeoey?ii? cao?aeii? eoeueoo?e, o oiio /ene? ? o noa?? o?einionuee?e.

?in?enueea aeooiaia aeeooy OO??? — O?Ono., cacia/a? Ae.*eaeaanueeee,
cia/iith i??ith ?icaeaa?oueny i?ae cao?aeieie aieeaaie. Cae/aeii ae,
aiii ia caiaeeoueny eeoa aei ieo – ?, aiaeii/an, aac oeeo aieea?a oyaeoe
nia? iinoaiiy, neaae?ii, aeaaeai?/ii? o?einionueei? aeoiee a ?in??
i?inoi iaiiaeeeai. Iniaeeai ?ioaineaieie aoee a oeae /an aieeae aeaio
eiieo?oth/eo i?ae niaith eoeueoo?ieo nee – o?aioeocnueei?, ia aioe? yei?
aoee I?ina?oieoeoai, ?aoe?iiae?ci, iie?oe/iee ?aaeeeae?ci, oa
i?iaoeueei?, yea aoea iia”ycaia c i?noeeith niaeoeyoeaiith o?einio??th
oa ?iiaioeeith. I/aaeaeii, ui a oiiaao a?aenoaeiai ?icaeoeo
eai?oae?noe/ieo a?aeiinei ? iaioaaiiy naiiaea?aeaaiiai ?aaeeio a ?in??
neeaaeaeeny a?eueo ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ni?eeiyooy ianaiia?aae
i?iaoeueeeo aeooiaieo aieea?a ye oaeeo, ui ia iaee i?yii? iie?oe/ii?
caaiaaaeiaaiino?.

Iiyaa ? ?icaeoie ?in?enueeiai aaaaeueyinoaa coiiaeai? oeie aeeaeiieie
c?ooaiiyie a ?a?iiaenuee?e ?noi??? ieioeiai noi??//y, ye? i?eeiyoi
iaceaaoe “aaniith ia?iae?a” — niaeaoii iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? ?
ai?ioueae ca iaoe?iiaeueio iacaeaaei?noue. I?oean iaoe?iiaeueiiai
naiiona?aeiieaiiy ?icai?oa?oueny ? a ?in??. ?ioa ??/, ui aeooiaiei
caieoai ?in?enueei? ?ioae?aaioe?? a neeo ?yaeo ianoaaei aeeae/eie
aeyaeeeny ia ?aoe?iiae?noe/ii-i?ina?oieoeuee?, a niaeoeyoeai? ? i?noe/i?
?aeaieia?/i? oi?ioee.

I?ine?aeeoaaaoe iaeaea a?eiao ?noi??th “?in?enueeiai aaaaeueyinoaa”,
oe?a?inueeee a/aiee oei naiei inieneea aoceia? iiiaioe ?icaeoeo
?in?enueei? o?einio?? aeoiee a?ae 20-o ?ie?a O?Ono. aei ii/aoeo
?aaeyinueei? aeiae. Ia caiaey/e ana aei “cao?aeieo aieea?a”, a?i
iieacaa, aiaeii/an, aeiyoeiai aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy i?iaoeueei? eeane/ii?
o?einio?? ?, cie?aia, ?aeae Aaaaey, ye nai???aeiiai eaoae?caoi?a, aeey
?icaeoeo ?in?enueei? o?einionueei? aeoiee. Eiaeai ?c o?ueio aoai?a
canai?iiy ? ia?ainieneaiiy i?iaoeueei? o?einionueei? eeaneee a ?in??
ao?eth? a nia? ye?nii iiaee iiiaio “oaiiiaiieia?? ?in?enueeiai aeooo”.
Ia?oee – “?iiaioe/iee” (20-o? – 50-o? ?iee) — oea aeiaa, eiee i?ae
aaciina?aaei?i aieeaii cao?aeii? o?aaeeoe?? o ?in?? oi?iothoueny ia?o?
iai?yie, oa/??, ci???ioiaai? ia ona?aeiieaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiiaooiino? (?aii? aaaaeueyinoai, neaa”yiio?ee). Ae?oaee aoai –
“iaioaaiiy i?ina?oieoeoaa” (60-o? – 80-o? ?iee) – oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
ciaioaiiyi caoe?eaaeaiiy aeania o?einionueeeie i?iaeaiaie, iineeaiiyi
noo?aiaaiino? ieoaiiyie nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieie, ui ia? nai?i iane?aeeii
iaaia ni?iuaiiy ? i?ei?oea?caoe?th o?einionueei? eoeueoo?e. O?ao?e –
“iaia?aaeiaei? nueiaiaeaiiy” (90-o? ?iee O?Ono. – 20-o? ?iee OOno.) –
oea aeiaa, eiee o?einio?th “a?aee?eaathoue caiiai”, ii/eia?oueny
?ioaineaia ?ic?iaea ?? ie?aieo iai?yie?a – aiinaieia??, iioieia??,
?ae?a?eii? aio?iiieia?? — oa ?o i?ioenoiyiiy, ai?ioueaa i?ae ieie.
Aiane?aeie ?aaiethoe?? 1917?. ?icaeoie iacaeaaeii? o?einionueei? aeoiee
a ?in?? oaeoe/ii i?eieiy?oueny (ca iiiaeeiieeie aeiyoeaie – I.Ein?a) ?
i?iaeiaaeo?oueny a ae?anii?? (I.Aa?aey?a, I.Einnueeee, A.Oei?ianueeee,
N.O?aie oa ?i.).

Aeey ia?oiai aoaio (I.Noaieaae/, A.A?e?inueeee) aeanoeaith aoea naiai
?iaeo ?iiaioecaoe?y niaaeueia Aaaaey ? Oae?iaa. A?i caaa?oeany aeeaieith
e?ecith, iaeiith c i?e/eo yei? aoei “?ae?a?eia” ni?eeiyooy i?iaoeueei?
o?einionueei? niaaeueie, iaoooaaiiy ye?niith ??cieoeath i?ae
o?einionueeith oai???th ? aeeooyi, i?aeoeeith. Aiaeii/an iieie?iiy
aaaaeueyioe?a 40-o ?ie?a iin?yei o? aeooiai? ca?ia – cie?aia ?aeath
ae?aeaeoeee oa ?aeath eiie?aoiino? — aac yeeo iaiiaeeeai oyaeoe
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ?in?enueei? o?einio??.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e ae?oaee aoai canai?iiy o?einio?? Aaaaey a ?in?? –
60-80?. O?Ono. — ye aeiao “iaioaaiiy i?ina?oieoeoaa”, Ae.*eaeaanueeee
aeaco? ia ye?nio a?aei?ii?noue i?ae cao?aeiei ? ?in?enueeei
i?ina?oieoeoaii. Inoaii?, ia a?aei?io a?ae cao?aeiiai, ia iaei aeanii?
aaaaoia?eiai? o?aaeeoe?? ?icaeoeo ? ia caeaoia aoei ?aaiethoe?ii?coaaoe
noni?euenoaa oae, ye oea c?iaeei o OO???no. o?aioeocnueea
i?ina?oieoeoai. A oiiaao iaiaiaaeaiiiai iaioaaiiy naiiaea?aeaaieoeoaa,
iecueeiai ??aiy iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e i?ina?oieoeueea ?aeaieia?y a ?in??
iinooiiai ae?iaeaeo?oueny o oae caaiee “i?a?e?ci”, yeiio i?eoaiaii?
ciaaaaa aei o?aaeeoe??, i?ei?oeai?noue ieneaiiy, iaeneiae?ci oa

aa?aneai?noue. Ii/eiathoue aeii?ioaaoe ia iiooee iiceoeaieo oe?iiinoae,
a i?aaiaiiy aei anacaaaeueiiai caia?a/aiiy, c iaeiiai aieo, oa aei
ooii?? – c ?ioiai. Ona oea Ae.*eaeaanueeee ??ii?/ii iaceaaa
“iaeiiiiaa?oiaei ?icoi?iiyi ae?eniino?”.

Oeiiaeie i?aaenoaaieeaie i?ina?oieoeoaa aaoi? “Aaaaey a ?in??” aaaaeaa
Ae.Iena??aa, A.Caeoeaaa, I.Oea/iaa, I.*a?ieoaanueeiai, I.Eaa?iaa. Eeoa
aeaa inoaii?, ia eiai aeoieo aieiae?thoue iaeaaeiith o?einionueeith
eoeueoo?ith, oiae? ye ?aooa ? ao?eaiiyi “o?einionueeiai aac/anny” –
aeiae, eiee neiaieii na?oiaeyaeo noa? “??caiiy aeaa”. O oeae, ae?ae ia
ni?eyoeeaee aeey ?icaeoeo iacaeaaeii? o?einionueei? aeoiee, /an aiia
ciaoiaeeoue na?e ?icaeoie o ?iaioao I.No?aoiaa, A.*e/a??ia,
N.Aiaioeueeiai, I.Aeaaieuenueeiai, I.Aaeoi?ia, ye?, eiaeai o na?e
niin?a, iie?athoueny ia ?aea? Aaaaey. Aiie e?eoeeothoue iaeiia?/i?noue
i?ina?oieoeueeiai ?aoe?iiae?cio, iaoai?/ia ?icoi?iiy iei i?e?iaee ?
noni?euenoaa, ni?iae caanoe aeu? oi?ie aeeooy aei ieueo, iacaeaoi?noue
c?icoi?oe ethaenueeo iniaeno?noue ye aeuo oe?ii?noue.

Cia/io oaaao Ae.*eaeaanueeee i?eae?eea ieoaiith i?i a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?aeae
i?ina?oieoeoaa o oai?/ino? O.Aeinoi?anueeiai. A?i iieacaa, ui na?oiaeyae
?in?enueeiai ienueiaiieea oi?ioaaany cia/iith i??ith i?ae aieeaii ?aeae
aecia/iiai i?iaoeueeiai ienueiaiieea – i?ina?oeoaey O.O?eea?a.
Iiae?eyth/e ?aea? i?ina?oieoeueeiai aoiai?cio, ?in?enueeee ienueiaiiee,
aiaeii/an, a?a ?ioeineaio iieai?eo c ?in?enueeei i?ina?oieoeueeei
“i?a?e?ciii”, i?aaenoaaiee?a yeiai aaaaeaa ea?eeaoo?ith ia cao?aeieo
i?ina?oeoae?a. Ae.*eaeaanueeiio ?iiiioaaei i?aaiaiiy O.Aeinoi?anueeiai
iiaeieaoe iiceoea?nueea ?icoi?iiy ineo?/iiai aoooy, ye /iainue
aoi?eiiiai, ona?aeiieoe ethaeeio ye ?noioo, yea o?ainoeaiaeo? aoooy.

Aieiaiith caneoaith ?in?enueeeo aaaaeueyioe?a 60-o ?ie?a aoei, ye
aaaaea? aeine?aeiee, caa?aaeaiiy niaaeei?iiino? ?icaeoeo o?einionueei?
aeoiee ye naiiaooiueiai oaiiiaio aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e, i?ioenoiyiiy
i?ina?oieoeueeiio iiceoea?cio oa i?a?e?cio ye ni?iaai caia?a/aiiy
o?einio?? ye oaei?. Cia/iith i??ith caaaeyee ?o coneeeyi c 90-o ?ie?a o
?in?? a?aeaoaa?oueny “ae?oaa a?aee?eooy” o?einio??. Iac??aa?
i?ioenoiyiiy i?ae i?eoeeueieeaie aiinaieia?/ii? oa iioieia?/ii?
i???ioaoe??. A ?in?enuee?e o?einio?? “iioieia?/iee iiai?io” ?icii/aany
iaa?oue ?ai?oa, ai?ae o cao?aei?e o?einio?? (?iaioe A.Nieiaeiaa,
I.Oaaei?iaa, ?.?eue?ia, I.Einnueeiai, I.Aa?aey?aa). Eiaeai c oeeo
ieneeoae?a nai?i niiniaii i?aaia iiaeieaoe “aiinaieia?ci” iaieaio?aioe?a
? iiceoea?no?a, aenooiath/e aiaeii/an i?ioe o?aaeeoe?eiiai ?icoi?iiy
aaaae?anueei? o?einio?? ye “iaieia?cio”. Ooo ?iaeyoueny ia?o? e?iee aei
ia?ainieneaiiy aaaae?anueeiai ae?aeaeoe/iiai iaoiaeo a
aecenoaioe?aeueii-aio?iiieia?/iiio eiioaeno?, aia?oa aenoaathoueny
?aea?, ye? caiaeii noaiooue eeth/iaeie aeey ?yaeo aieeaiaeo oa/?e
cao?aeii? o?einionueei? aeoiee (?ae?a?eiee aecenoaioe?ae?ci,
o?einionueea aio?iiieia?y ? o.?i.).

Oea o?einionueea a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aoei ianeeueieoeueeei oeyoii ia??aaia
i?ney ?aaiethoe?? 1917?., i?ney yei? na?eici? o?einionuee? iiooee a
?in?? noathoue i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeaeie. Ae.*eaeaanueeee, ioe?ithth/e
neooaoe?th o?einio?? o ?aaeyinuee?e ?in?? 20-o ?ie?a caa?oa? oaaao ia
i?ioenoiyiiy aeaio iai?yie?a – io?oe?eiiai aeiaiaoeciaaiiai
“ia?enecio-eai?i?cio” oa iaio?oe?eii? o?einionueei? aeoiee (I.Ein?a,
I.?oa?iooaei). I?aoe? I.Ein?aa “Aioe/iee einiin ? no/ania iaoea”,
“O?einio?y ?iai?” oa ?i. — oea ni?iaa noai?aiiy i?ea?iaeueii? oe?e?nii?
o?einionueei? nenoaie, ci?no
yei? iieyaa? o iani?eeiyoo? iiceoea?nonueeiai iaoiaeieia?cio ?
ni?ia? ia?ainieeeoe a no/aniiio eiioaeno? (c a?aooaaiiyi iia?oi?o
oaiiiaiieia?/ieo ?aeae A.Aonna?ey) ?aea? ieaoii?cio. Aiaeii/an, ye
aaaaea? aeine?aeiee, iaiaaeai?noue iaoiaeo I.Ein?aa iieyaa? a oiio, ui
?noi??y o?einio?? aeey iueiai – oea oaeoe/ii ?noi??y ieaoii?cio.

I??eoaaiiy c i?eaiaeo ein?anuee?o ?aeae aeaee iiaeeea?noue
Ae.*eaeaanueeiio oi?eiooenue a?eueo oe?iei? i?iaeaie – iniaeeainoae
iaoe?iiaeueii? o?einionueei? o?aaeeoe??. A?i, cie?aia, ia iiae?eya
iioe?aii? aeoiee (E.Ea?naa?i, N.Aoeaaeia oa ?i.) i?i oa, ui ?in?enueea
o?einio?y ia? ia?aae on?i i?aeoe/io ni?yiiaai?noue — ia i?ioeaaao
o?einio?? cao?aei?e, aeey yei? naiioe?iia cia/aiiy iaa oai?aoe/iee
aeeneo?n. O?einio?y, i?aee?aneth? aeine?aeiee, ? ? iiaea aooe eeoa
oai?aoe/iith iaoeith. Ni?aaaei?e i?aeoe/iee iaoin a?ae/oaa?oueny eeoa
oai aea ? na?eicia oai??y, ye oea aoei o Ieaoiia, Ni?iice, Eaioa,
Aaaaey. O?einio?y, ieoa Ae.*eaeaanueeee, oea eeoa anueiai-iaanueiai
inoaiiy na?eici?noue, yea aeiaaa? ona?aeiieaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?,
aecia/aiiy “?c inoaii?o aeeaei”. ?in?enueea, ye ? acaaaeii neia”yinueea
o?einio?y, ua eeoa ?icii/eia? oeyo o oeueiio iai?yieo ? aaea ia? ooo
iaai? caeiaooee.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaaaeai? i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy, iienai? ia?niaeoeae
? iai?yiee iiaeaeueoi? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee ie?aneaii? i?iaeaiaoeee,
i?iiiiothoueny i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

Ia iniia? aiae?co ?noi?eei-o?einionueei? niaaeueie Ae.*eaeaanueeiai
anoaiiaeaii, ui eiai ?iaioe a oe?e aaeoc? ? aaaiiei aianeii a a?o/eciyio
o?einionueeo ? eoeueoo?ieia?/io aeoieo.

Oai?/i inai?aoe ?aea? eeane/ii? ? no/anii? eiio cao?aeii? o?einio??,
oe?a?inueeee a/aiee iaa?oiooaaa iiaee iaoiaeieia?/iee i?aeo?ae o
aeine?aeaeaii? ?noi??? o?einio?? neia”yinueeeo ia?iae?a, iniiao yeiai
neeaaea? aea/aiiy aca?iica”yceo i?ae eoeueoo?ith ? o?einionueeeie
?aeayie, ui aeaei ciiao ?ic?iaeoe eiioeaioe?th o?einionueei? aeoiee ia
Oe?a?i? ?ai?acaiooaaoe ?? ye naiiaooi?e iai?yiie a ?icaeoeo
?a?iiaenueei? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e. Iaa?oioiaaia Ae.*eaeaanueeei
eiioeaioe?y eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ieo aiio, oaiaeaioe?e ?o ci?ie noai?eea
iiaeeea?noue ?ic?iaee a?eueo oi/ii? ia??iaeecaoe?? ?noi??? o?einionueei?
aeoiee neia”yinueeeo ia?iae?a.

Aiae?coth/e o?einionueeo niaaeueio ss.A.Eiiainueeiai, Ae.*eaeaanueeee
aeia?a, ui a aeooiai?e eoeueoo?? neia”inueeeo ia?iae?a a?c??aaee ?aea?,
ye? a iaeaooiueiio noaaaee eeth/iaeie aeey a/aiue a?aeiieo
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo o?einio?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai a/aiiai iieacaee, ui aaaeeeaei /eiieeii
oi?ioaaiiy ?in?enueei? o?einionueei? aeoiee ? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e O?Ono.
noaea i?iaoeueea eeane/ia o?einio?y, cie?aia aaaaeueyinoai. ?icaeoie
?in?enueei? o?einio?? a?aeaoaaany ia ?cieueiaaii, a a ?ioaineaiiio
ae?aeic? c cao?aeieie aeooiaieie o?aaeeoe?yie.

C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui a inia? Ae.*eaeaanueeiai, eiai o?einionueeeo,
eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo oa e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo i?aoeyo oe?a?inueea o?einionueea
aeoiea noaea iaa?ae”?iiith neeaaeiaith ?a?iiaenueei? oa na?oiai?
o?einio?? eoeueoo?e OOno.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeathoueny a ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?a:

1. Iiai??eee A.I. “Ae.?.*eaeaanueeee ye ?noi?ee oe?a?inueei? o?einio??”
(“A?niee ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo”, Ee?a 1993?.),
“Aieea o?einio?? Oaee?iaa ia Oe?a?io” (“A?niee ee?anueeiai
Oi?aa?neoaoo”, Ee?a 1993?., ia?aeeaae c aiae?enueei? iiae noaoo?
Ae.?.*eaeaanueeiai);

2. Iiai??eee A.I. “Aeieo?i ?aaiiae/ *eaeaanueeee” (“?noi??y o?einio??
Oe?a?ie” o?anoiiao?y, Ee?a 1993?., anooiia /anoeia aei ?icae?eo,
i?aea??ea o?aaiaio?a c iaoeiaeo i?aoeue a/aiiai, ?yaeo eiai noaoae,
ia?aeeaae c ?in?enueei? iiae noaoo? a/aiiai “Aoeea ? eia?ea”, Ee?a
1993?.);

3. E?niaee A.N., Iiai??eee A.I. “O?einionuee? iiaeyaee
Ae.?.*eaeaanueeiai” aeena?oaioo iaeaaeaoue i.3, i.4 (“?noi??y o?einio??
Oe?a?ie” i?ae?o/iee aeey nooaeaio?a AOC?a ?icae?e “O?einionuee? iiaeyaee
Ae.?.*eaeaanueeiai”, Ee?a 1994?.).

AIIOAOe?ss

Iiai??eee A.I. Aeieo?i *eaeaanueeee ye ?noi?ee o?einio??.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo
iaoe ii niaoe?aeueiino? 09.00.05. – ?noi??y o?einio??. Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiei (eaoaae?a oe?a?inueei? o?einio?? oa
eoeueoo?e). Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? o?einionueeei aeine?aeaeaiiyi aianeo Ae.?.*eaeaanueeiai
a ?noi?eei-o?einionueeo iaoeo. I?iaiae?ciaaii iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee ia
yeeo a?oioo?oueny ?icoi?iiy a/aiei i?aaeiaoo ? iaoiae?a
?noi?eei-o?einionueeiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi ci?no ? ?acoeueoaoe
eiai aeine?aeaeaiue a aaeoc? a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii? o?einio??.
Iieacaii, ui a ?iaioao Ae.*eaeaanueeiai iaa?oioiaaii iiaee
iaoiaeieia?/iee i?aeo?ae, iniiao yeiai neeaaea? aea/aiiy aca?iica”yceo
i?ae eoeueoo?ith, na?oiaeyaeieie ?aeayie oa o?einio??th. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
Ae.*eaeaanueeei aia?oa iaa?oioiaaii eiioeaiooaeueio noaio ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei? o?einio?? a?ae aeaaieie aei no/aniino?. I?iaiae?ciaaii
aianie a/aiiai o aea/aiiy ?noi??? ?in?enueei? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e oa
o?einio??, cie?aia cao?aeieo aieea?a ia ?in?enueeo o?einionueeo aeoieo
O?Ono. Iieacaii, ui aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiue a/aiiai iathoue aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy c oi/ee ci?o no/anieo eiiia?aoea?nonueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue
?noi??? o?einio??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: o?einio?y, ?noi??y o?einio??, iaoe?iiaeueia o?einio?y,
o?einionueea aeoiea, iaoiaeieia?y, ia??iaeecaoe?y, na?oiaeyae,
na?aeii?noue, eoeueoo?a, iaoe?iiaeueia eoeueoo?a.

AIIIOAOeEss

Iiai?aeue A.A. Aeieo?ee *eaeaaneee eae enoi?ee oeeinioee.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeinioneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.05 – enoi?ey oeeinioee. Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao
eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei ( eaoaae?a enoi?ee oe?aeineie oeeinioee e
eoeueoo?u ). Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey yaeyaony oeeinioneei enneaaeiaaieai aeeaaea
Ae.E.*eaeaaneiai a enoi?eei-oeeinioneoth iaoeo. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu
iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?aaeiinueee yaeythueany iniiaaieai o?aeoiaee o/?iui
i?aaeiaoa e iaoiaeia enoi?eei-oeeinioneiai enneaaeiaaiey, ?ane?uoi
niaea?aeaiea e ?acoeueoaou aai enneaaeiaaiee ioa/anoaaiiie e ca?oaaaeiie
oeeinioee. Iieacaii, /oi a ?aaioao Ae.E.*eaeaaneiai iainiiaai iiaue
iaoiaeieiae/aneee iiaeoiae, iniiao eioi?iai ninoaaeyao eco/aiea
acaeiinayce eoeueoo?u, ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo eaeae e oeeinioee.

A aeenna?oaoeee aeieacaii, /oi Ae.E.*eaeaaneee aia?aua iainiiaae
eiioeaiooaeueioth noaio ?acaeoey oe?aeineie oeeinioee io ae?aaiaeoeo
a?ai?i e aei nia?aiaiiinoe. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu aeinoeaeaiey o/?iiai a
eco/aiee ?onneie aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u e oeeinioee, a iniaaiiinoe
caiaaeiuo aeeyiee ia ?onneoth oeeinioneoth iuneue O?Oa. Iieacaii, /oi
?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee o/?iiai eiatho aaaeiia cia/aiea n oi/ee c?aiey
nia?aiaiiuo eiiia?aoeaenoneeo enneaaeiaaiee enoi?ee oeeinioee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oeeinioey, enoi?ey oeeinioee, iaoeeiiaeueiay oeeinioey,
oeeinioneay iuneue, iaoiaeieiaey, ia?eiaeecaoeey, ie?iaicc?aiea,
niciaiea, eoeueoo?a, iaoeeiiaeueiay eoeueoo?a.

SUMMARY

Pogoriliy A.O.- ‘Dmitrij Tchizhevski as a historian of philosophy’.
Manuscript.

The basic objectives of the present paper are the historic backgrounds
and the scientific research approaches at the field of philosophy – Ph.
D. degree.

Major -‘History of Philosophy’ – code no. 09.00.05.

Kyiv University named after Taras Shevchenko (Historical Dept. of the
Ukrainian Philosophy and Culture). Kyiv ’99.

The present survey is based upon the historic backgrounds of D.
Tchizhevski. The following aspects made the hardcore of the paper:
methodological backgrounds that have gave birth to the further
scientific studies at this field, as well as to the Researcher itself,
the contents and the results of scientific researches of native and
foreign philosophy. Proved, D. Tchizhevski has implemented a new
methodological approach targeted on subject interaction of culture,
common standpoints and philosophy.

D. Tchizhevski is a founder of a conceptual schemes of evolution of the
Ukrainian philosophy from ancient times up till now. The results of his
studies of Russian native culture and philosophy have been analyzed as
well, especially, — Western tendencies or/and influences upon the
Russian philosophy of the XIX century. It has been proved and commonly
agreed, that the results of his scientific researches are of the great
importance at present and have common roots with the comparative
analysis of the history of philosophy.

Key-words: philosophy, history of philosophy, national philosophy,
methodologies, terms, conscience, culture, national culture.

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