EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

Oeaiei Ieaa Ieoaeeiae/

OAeE 329.7(477)

Ae?ssEUeI?NOUe OIAA?ENOAA ”I?INA?OA” A OE?A?I?

(1891-1914 ??.)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaai

a?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe‚ i?ioani? Eocuei?iaoeue
Ieaenaiae? Aaneeueiae/‚ Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o ni?aa.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe‚ i?ioani?
Aiae?oneoei Aiaaeai ?aaiiae/‚

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith i?aaiciaanoaa

Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Inoaoei Oaoyia
Na?a??aia‚ ?inoeooo ?noi???

Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie‚ noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny ”15” n?/iy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 01.01.38 Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252017 Ee?a‚ aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea‚ 60‚
aoae. 349.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea‚ 5)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii ”10” a?oaeiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee‚

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe I.I.Aii/a?ia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

O iei?oiueiio ?ioe? any ia?aaeiaa oe?a?inueea a?iiaaenuee?noue
a?aecia/a? 130-??//y a?ae aeiy canioaaiiy ”I?ina?o” ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie. A?eueo ye ca 70-??/io ?noi??th naiai ?nioaaiiy oe? oiaa?enoaa
aoee nai???aeiith iacith‚ ia oa?ai? yeiai i?ioiaeeee oeieo
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy ? aeooiaiiai caaaa/aiiy oe?e? iieie?iiy
oe?a?ioe?a. Caaaeyee ”I?ina?o?” oe?a?inueeee ia?iae cia/iith i??ith
caa??a naaa‚ naith iiao ? eoeueoo?o‚ i?aeaiooaaany aei ae??oaeueii?
ai?ioueae ca iaoe?iiaeueia ? nioe?aeueia aecaieaiiy a?ae nai?o
iiiaaiethaa/?a‚ ca iiaoaeiao aeanii? aea?aeaae.

Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue ?noi??y ae?yeueiino? oiaa?enoa ”I?ina?oe” ?
iaaeae? caeeoa?oueny iaei??th ?c iaeaeooaeuei?oeo oai ?noi??? Oe?a?ie.
Iaoa aea?aeaaa nueiaiaei? ia?aaeeaa? iaeei ?c iaea?eueo
a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ia??iae?a nai?? ?noi??? — ia??iae ?icaoaeiae
aea?aeaaiino?. N?i ?ie?a ?nioaaiiy Oe?a?ie, ye iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae,
iieacothoue iai anth neeaaei?noue ? noia?a/eea?noue oeueiai i?ioeano.

Aeoiaey/e c iei? ?nioth/eo ?aae?e‚ iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaathoue
i?iaeaie ?aeiino?‚ a?iiaaenueei? ceaaiaee‚ ni?aoai?/ino? ethaeae ??cieo
aa?noa‚ ?aa?ii?a ? iaoe?iiaeueiinoae ?c ??ciei ?noi?e/iei ieioeei oa
iacaeaaeiei a??iniia?aeaiiyi.

No/ania ?noi?e/ia iaoea aaaaoa i?eeeaaeaie‚ eiee ia?iae o iaea?eueo
aaaee? ia??iaee aeeooy iiaa?oa?oueny aei naiai ieioeiai‚ nai?o aeoie?a‚
ca?aeee a?i /a?ia? aia?a?th‚ neeo e ?ioaeaeo aeey iiaeaeueoi? ai?ioueae
nii/aoeo ca caa?aaeaiiy naaa ye aoiino‚ a caiaeii ? ca na?e noaa?ai?oao.
O oeueiio iaea?eueo aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue iaoe?iiaeuei?
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeuee? i?aai?caoe??.

Caaaeaiiy eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeiai ?ooo iieyaa? ia o?eueee a
iio?aa? iaa/eoe iane a?aiio? e aeaoe iaiao?aei? ciaiiy‚ yeeo aoei a
aeinoaoiuei aeey iaaieo aeeoo?aeo iio?aa‚ aea e ?ice?eoe na?o ia?aae
ethaeeiith‚ i?aeianoe ?? ?ieue o noni?eueiiio aeeoo?‚ iieacaoe
aca?iica’ycie c on?i oei‚ ui ioi/o? ethaeeio‚ iaaeaoe ?e iiaeeea?noue
caaeyiooe a ?noi??th naiai ia?iaeo‚ iiaeeaeoeny‚ ye aeeee ??
iiia?aaeieee oa caieneeoeny iaae nueiaiaeaiiyi.

A ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oe? aeeoo?ai aaaeeea? caaaeaiiy oni?oii aeeiioaaee
oiaa?enoaa ”I?ina?oa”‚ ye? ae?yee ia aoi?/ieo oe?a?inueeeo caieyo a
ia??iae c 1868 ii 1939 ?iee.

?noi??y ae?yeueiino? ”I?ina?o” a?ae /ano naiai aeieeiaiiy ? aei
inoaii?o /an?a aeeeeea? aino?o aeeneon?th c i?eaiaeo ?o i?noey o
aeooiaiiio aeeoo? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. I?iaeaia oneeaaeith?oueny ua e
oei‚ ui aeiaa? /ane io?oe?eia ?noi?e/ia iaoea caiia/oaaea iaaeaaiiy
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? oeeo oiaa?enoa aai aena?oethaaea ?o
c oia?aaeaeaieo iiceoe?e.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny ua e oei‚ ui aeey
no/anii? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee aaaeeeaei ? anaa?/ia c’ynoaaiiy i?noey e ?ie?
”I?ina?o” o iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiio ?on? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo‚ ?o
aianeo o oi?ioaaiiy na?aeiiino? oa ieaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
?aea? na?aae a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie.

Aea?? oaie aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy cia/iith i??ith aoa iia’ycaiee ?c
niaoe?ae?caoe??th eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa‚ ani??aioii yei? aoa
aaoi? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aaaaoi??/iee aeina?ae /eai?a
eaoaae?e o aea/aii? ina?oi?o i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i? aeiiii?a aaoi?o o
aeai?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoiaeeee eiai
i?iaaaeaiiy.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: Aeoiaey/e ?c aeuacacia/aiiai‚ aaoi?
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaaeoue ca iaoo‚ aeei?enoiaoth/e
i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee iaoiae oa ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c‚ c?iaeoe ni?iao
ocaaaeueiaiiy oa eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy aeina?aeo a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii?
ae?yeueiino? oiaa?enoa ”I?ina?oa” a noni?eueiiio aeeoo? oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo a ia??iae c 1891 ii 1914 ?iee.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?noi??y ae?yeueiino? oiaa?enoa ”I?ina?oa” ia
oe?a?inueeeo caieyo a ia??iae c 1891 ii 1914 ?iee.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iniiaieo oi?i oa
iaoiae?a a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii? ?iaioe ”I?ina?o” ??cieo ?aa?ii?a
Oe?a?ie 1891-1914 ?ie?a‚ ?o ni?ai?aoe? c ?ioeie oe?a?inueeeie
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieie i?aai?caoe?yie o aeeiiaii?
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeeo oa aeiiii?/ii-ainiiaea?nueeeo caaaeaiue.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy: I?e ae??oaii? iinoaaeaieo o
?iaio? caaaeaiue aaoi? aeio?eioaaany i?eioeei?a ?noi?ecio oa
ia’?eoeaiino?‚ ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue c’ynoaaiiy oiia aeieeiaiiy‚ ?icaeoeo
oa iane?aeeo iiae?e‚ ?icoi?iiy ?o i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaiai ca’yceo. ?c
niaoe?aeueii-?noi?e/ieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aoa canoiniaaiee
i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee iaoiae ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co‚ neio?iiiee
iaoiae‚ yeee ia?aaeaa/a? aea/aiiy iiae?e‚ ui a?aeaoaaeeny a ??cieo
?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie‚ a oaeiae iaoiae nenoaiiino?‚ eiee ia iniia? aiae?co oa
ocaaaeueiaiue aeaoaeiao?oueny no?oeoo?a ia??iaeecaoe?? iie?oe/ieo‚
eoeueoo?ioai?/eo ? i?ina?oieoeueeeo i?ioean?a oa iiae?e.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue 1891-1914 ?iee. Aeaiee
ia??iae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cia/iei c?inoaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai
?ooo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. O oeae /an oiaa?enoaa iaee ciiao iaea?eueo
iiaii ?aae?coaaoe nai? iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino?. C iaeyaeo ia oea‚
aeine?aeaeoaaiee iaie ia??iae oiiaii iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aea? oace.

Ia?oa oaca ioiieth? i?ii?aeie c 1891 ii 1905 ??e‚ eiee o ca’yceo c
i?eeiyooyi 4-ai noaoooo Aaeeoeueei? ”I?ina?oe”‚ yeee ia?aaeaa/aa
aeiei??iia ?aoi?ioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e oiaa?enoaa‚ oi?i ?
iaoiae?a eiai a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii? ?iaioe‚ aiii iioe?th? naith
ae?yeuei?noue ii an?e oa?eoi??? Aaee/eie‚ Aoeiaeie ? /anoeiai
Caea?iaooy.

Ae?oaa oaca — ioiieth? c 1905 ii 1914 ?iee. Aiia oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iiyaith a ?acoeueoao? ?aaiethoe?eieo iiae?e 1905-1907 ?ie?a ”I?ina?o” ia
oa?eoi??? no?aeii-oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue. O oeae /an ”I?ina?oe” noathoue
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiei yaeuai‚ ioiiethth/e nai?th
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueith ?iaioith oe?ie? aa?noae oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy‚
?aeaeii e aeooiaii i?aeaioiaethth/e eiai aei iiaeaeueoi? ai?ioueae ca
nai? aecaieaiiy. Aeaiee aoai caaa?oo?oueny c ii/aoeii 1-i? na?oiai?
a?eie‚ eiee o?yae ?in?enueei? ?iia??? caai?iiea ?nioaaiiy ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie ”I?ina?o”‚ ye naia?aoenonueeeo ? aioeo?yaeiaeo i?aai?caoe?e.
Ainaie oeueiai ae ?ieo‚ i?ney ieoiaoe?? i?noa Eueaiaa ?in?enueeith
a?i??th i?eieieea nai? ?nioaaiiy ? Aaeeoeueea ”I?ina?oa”.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny iinoaiiaeith ? ?acoeueoaoaie
?ic?iaee aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie. Aeei?enoiaoth/e iia? a?o?ai?
iaoa??aee‚ i?ano‚ niiaaaee no/aniee?a‚ aaoi? cae?eniea ni?iao
eiiieaeniiai ocaaaeueiaiiy a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?
”I?ina?o” a ia??iae c 1891 ii 1914 ?iee. Aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy o
aeine?aeaeaii? ii?aeiothoueny c iaoeiaei ii?aoethaaiiyi ?yaeo eiie?aoieo
ieoaiue‚ ui neeaaeathoue iniiaiee ci?no i?iaeaie‚ ? ye?, aai acaaae? ia
aea/aeeny‚ aai aeine?aeaeoaaeeny o?aaiaioa?ii‚ ia iaoa??ae? ie?aieo
?aa?ii?a.

O aeena?oaoe?? ia caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiio oe? aena?oeai? oiiae
noaiiaeaiiy ”I?ina?o”‚ aecia/ai? iniiai? iai?yiee a?iiaaenueei? ?iaioe
oeeo oiaa?enoa‚ c?iaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?o ae?yeueiino?.
Aeine?aeaeoaaiee o aeena?oaoe?? eiiieaen ieoaiue aeicaiey? iiai?oa
oyaeoe oa?aeoa? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? oa a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii? i?aoe?
”I?ina?o” ? aea? ciiao iieacaoe ?o neeaaeiee‚ a ?ieiee noia?a/eeaee
?icaeoie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy‚
a?aeiia?aei? oaeoe‚ iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie‚ i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iaoeiaeo ?
iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo i?aoeue c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie‚ oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e oa
eiiia?aoe??‚ a oaeiae i?e /eoaii? ii?iaoeaieo ? niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a
eaeoe?e. Aeina?ae ieioeiai iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny no/anieie
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?ie i?aai?caoe?yie a ina?oi?e oa aeoiai?e ?iaio? c
iieiaeaeth. C?a?aiee oa ocaaaeueiaiee o aeine?aeaeaii? oaeoe/iee
iaoa??ae ni?eyoeia nooo?aiio ?icoe?aiith ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o a
?noi?e/i?e iaooe?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a: I?e ?ic?iaoe? oaie aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?
aeei?enoiaoaaa aeaye? iaoeia? ?aea? aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe i?ioani?a
I.A.Eocuei?ioey‚ cie?aia‚ uiaei i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii?
na?aeiiino? oe?a?inueei? ethaeiino? Iaaeaei?i?yiueie‚ a oaeiae ??
oa?aeoa?enoeea a no/anieo oiiaao aea?aeaaioai?aiiy. A ?acoeueoao?
oai?/i? ni?ai?aoe? aoee iioae?eiaai? o ni?aaaoi?noa? 2 noaoo? ? a?ioo?a.

1. Ae?y/? ”I?ina?o” — ?a/ieee oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai
?ooo// Iaoeia? caienee c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. — Aei. 3‚ 1996. — N. 32-36;

A aeai?e noaoo? aeena?oaio iaiaaaany nenoaiaoecoaaoe c?a?aiee iaoa??ae
ii ae?y/ao ”I?ina?o”‚ ?o aieea ia ae?yeuei?noue oiaa?enoa a ia??iae
1891-1914 ?ie?a.

2. Einoue Iaiuee?anueeee — aeaeaoiee ae?y/ oe?a?inueeiai
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai ?ooo// ?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae. — 1997. — ? 3. —
N. 41-46.

A noaoo? aaoi? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaiaaaany i?ine?aeeoaaoe
i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? eiiia?aoe?? ? aeiiii?/ieo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a ia oa?eoi??? Aaee/eie‚ yeee aoa aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaiee ?c
/eaiii ”I?ina?oe”‚ aeaeaoiei a?iiaaenueeei ? iie?oe/iei ae?y/ai
E.Iaiuee?anueeei.

O a?ioo?? ”Ae?yeuei?noue ”I?ina?o” o aaeoc? eiiia?aoe?? oa
ainiiaea?nueeiai aeoiaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a e?ioe? O?O — ii/aoeo
OO noie?oue” aaoi? aeena?oaoe?? c?iaea ni?iao aena?oeeoe ae?yeuei?noue
”I?ina?o” o aaeoc? iaoe?iiaeueii? eiiia?aoe??‚ aeine?aeeoe ?o ?ieue o
i?ioean? c?inoaiiy iaoa??aeueiiai ? eoeueoo?iiai ??ai?a oe?a?inueei?
ethaeiino?.

?acii c oeei aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei naiino?eii
iioae?eiaaii aea? a?ioo?e ? iaeio noaooth:

1. Noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie i?ina?oieoeueeiai ?ooo o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O
— ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy. — E.: Ciaiiy‚ 1998. — 22 n.

2. Ae?yeuei?noue ”I?ina?o” o oi?ioaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?
na?aae ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. — E.: Ciaiiy‚ 1998. — 18 n.

3. Iie?oe/ia ni?yiiaaii?noue ae?yeueiino? ”I?ina?o” iai?ee?ioe? O?O — ia
ii/aoeo OO noie?oue// Iiaa iie?oeea. — 1998. — ?5. — N. 9-12.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai?
aaoi?ii o 6-e iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo‚ a oaeiae 2-o aaoi?nueeeo iia?aeiieaiiyo
ia oi?aa?neoaonueeeo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo. Ie?ai? ?icae?ee ?iaioe
iaaiai?thaaeeny o 1995-1997 ?. ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy.
?? ianya noaiiaeoue 166 noi??iie. Aiia neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio‚
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a‚ aeniiae?a‚ nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa
e?oa?aoo?e (14 noi??iie‚ 155 iaeiaioaaiue).

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ”Aeaea?aeueia aaca oa ?noi??ia?ao?y aeine?aeaeaiiy”‚
iniiaia oaaaa cina?aaeaeaia ia oa?aeoa?enoeoe? aeaea?ae oa ?noi???
oiaa?enoa ”I?ina?oa”. A?eueo ye ca 70-??/iee ia??iae ?noi??? ”I?ina?o”
aoei iaeiie/aii cia/iee ia’?i iaoa??ae?a‚ ye? a o?e /e ?io?e oi?i?
?ice?eaathoue ??ci? aniaeoe eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? oa
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? ”I?ina?o”.

Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue ?nioth/o aeaea?aeueio aaco c ?noi??? ”I?ina?o”
oiiaii iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia /ioe?e a?oie.

Ia?oo ca cia/aiiyi a?oio aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue a?o?ai? iaoa??aee.
A?aoiaoth/e ?aa?ii aeine?aeaeaiiy‚ aaoi?ii a?aeiia?aeii aoea ia?aia ?
a?o?aia aaia?ao?y‚ yea ioiieth? Oeaio?aeueiee aea?aeaaiee ?noi?e/iee
a?o?a o i.Eueaia? (OeAe?A o i.Eueaia?)‚ oiiaee 146 — Aaeeoeueea
iai?nieoeoai‚ 309 — IOO‚ Oeaio?aeueiee aea?aeaaiee ?noi?e/iee a?o?a
Oe?a?ie o i.Ee?a? (OeAe?A Oe?a?ie o i.Ee?a?)‚ oiiaee 274 — Aeaia?oaiaio
iie?oe?? Ee?anueei? aoaa?i??‚ 295 — Eaioeaey??y Ee?anueeiai
aoaa?inueeiai oi?aae?iiy‚ 276 — Anaoe?a?inueea ni?eea a/eoae?a‚ 301 —
AEaiaea?inueea oi?aae?iiy Ee?anueei? aoaa?i??‚ a oaeiae iaeani?
aea?aeaai? a?o?ae: Ee?anueei? (AeAEI)‚ oiiae 1447 — Ee?anueea oiaa?enoai
”I?ina?oa”‚ Oa?iii?euenueei? (AeAOI)‚ oiiae 294- Oa?iii?euenueea
oiaa?enoai ”I?ina?oa”‚ Ieeiea?anueei? (AeAII)‚ oiiaee 206 —
Ieeiea?anueea oiaa?enoai ”I?ina?oa”‚ 468 — oiiae I.A?eana‚
*a?i?a?anueei? oiiae 1081 — oiiae ?i. O?aaa‚ Oa?e?anueei? oiiae 200 —
Oa?ueeianeia iauanoai ?ani?ino?aiaiey a ia?iaea a?aiioiinoe.

Aei ia?oi? a?oie aeaea?ae oaeiae a?aeiinyoueny iaoa??aee ?inoeoooo
?oeiien?a Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie ?i. A.Aa?iaaenueeiai‚ oiiae
114 — Ee?anueea ”I?ina?oa”.

Iaea?eueo iiaiioe?ii? a?o?ai? iaoa??aee ciaoiaeyoueny o oiiaeao OeAe?A
o i.Eueaia? oa OeAe?A Oe?a?ie o i.Ee?a?.

Ae?oao a?oio aeaea?ae ii oai? aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue ca?oe o?e?e
oa /eoaeaiue ”I?ina?o”‚ noaoooe oiaa?enoa a oaeiae ?o aeaeaaie/a
i?iaeoeoe?y: eaeaiaea??‚ ”I?ina?oi?” eenoe” oiui.

C oeeo aeaea?ae iiaeia i?ine?aeeoaaoe aeeiai?eo ?icaeoeo
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? oa a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? ”I?ina?o”
ii ?ieao‚ aiie oaeiae oe?ii? aeey no/aniiai aeine?aeieea nai?i
noaoenoe/iei iaoa??aeii.

Aei o?aouei? a?oie aeaea?ae aoiaeyoue oiae?oi? ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy‚
ye? a cia/i?e i??? eiiiainothoue ianoa/o a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a i?e
?icaeyae? oiai /e ?ioiai aniaeoo aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie. Aei ieo
aoiaeyoue: ”Ae?ei”‚ ”Aaee/aiei”‚ ”A?iiaaenueeee aiein”‚ ”A?iiaaenueea
aeoiea”‚ ”Aei?i?ia? oaee?”‚ ”Aeiiii?no”‚ ”Naiaiaea”‚ ”Naei”‚ ”Neiai”‚
”?aaea” oiui.

*aoaa?oo a?oio aeaea?ae c ?noi??? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? oa
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? ”I?ina?o” neeaaea? iaioa?ia
e?oa?aoo?a. Cie?aia‚ niiaaaee A.Aaoiyieia‚ I.Aa?a?inueeiai‚ ?.A?eea‚
?.*eeaeaiea Aaoiyiei A. Niiieie c aeeooy. — Euea?a: I?ina?oa‚ 1908;
Aa?a?inueeee I. Ia??? ”I?ina?oe”. — 1992. — 14 eenoiiaaea; A?ee ?.
Neia’yinueeee c’?cae o I?ac? 1848 ?. ? oe?a?inueea ni?aaa. — Euea?a:
IOO‚ 1920. — 81 n.; *eeaeaiei ?. Uiaeaiiee (1907-1917). — Euea?a:
*a?aiia eaeeia‚ 1931. oa ?i.

Iaioa?ia e?oa?aoo?a‚ iacaaaeath/e ia cia/io /anoeo noa’?eoea?cio ??
aaoi??a a ioe?ioe? oeo /e ?ioeo iiae?e oa yaeu‚ ?noi?e/ieo i?ioean?a oa
ie?aieo ia?niiae?e‚ aea? iai oe?iiee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae aeey iaoeiaiai
aiae?co‚ yeee ie ia cono??iaii i?e ii?aoethaaii? ?ioeo aeaea?ae.

??ciiiai?oia aeaea?aeueia aaca aeicaieeoue oieeiooe iaeiia?/iino? o
ciaethaaii? oa ioe?ioe? ?noi?e/ieo iiae?e oa ?o ae?eiaeo in?a‚ a oaeiae
c?iaeoe a?aeiia?aei? ia’?eoeai? aeniiaee oa ocaaaeueiaiiy.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? aeaii? i?iaeaie aaoi? oaeiae a?aoiaoaaa ? nooi?iue
?? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee‚ yea noaiiaeoue caaaeii aeineoue aaaiio
?noi??ia?ao?/io aaco. Ii/aoeiaei aoaiii aeine?aeaeaiiy‚ aena?oeaiiy ?
aea/aiiy ?noi??? ”I?ina?o” aaaaea?oueny e?iaoeue O?O — ii/aoie OO
noie?ooy. Oea aea/aiiy aoei ?icii/aoa /eaiaie Aaeeoeueei? ”I?ina?oe”‚
cie?aia‚ i?aoe? ?.Aaeay‚ I.Eiceinueeiai‚ E.Eaaeoeueeiai‚
E.Nooaeeinueeiai‚ ?.Ia?nueeiai Aaeae ?. Aeaaaeoeyoue i’youe e?o ?noi???
oiaa?enoaa ”I?ina?oa”. — Euea?a: I?ina?oa‚ 1894; Eiceinueeee I. Ni?ie
e?o ae?yeueiino? ”I?ina?oe”. — Euea?a: I?ina?oa‚ 1908; Ia?nueeee N.
Iiioey?ia ?noi??y oiaa?enoaa ”I?ina?oe” o i.Eueaia?. — Euea?a: I?ina?oa‚
1932; Eaaeoeueeee E. ?noi??y iie?oe/ii? aeoiee aaeeoeueeeo oe?a?ioe?a
1848-1918 ?. — Euea?a: IOO‚ 1927; Nooaeeinueeee E. Aaee/eia e Oe?a?ia a
eenooaaii? 1862-1884 ?. Iaoa??aee aei ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e a
Aaee/ei? oa ?? ca’ycie c Oe?a?iith. — E.: I?ieaoa?‚ 1931. oiui. Aeai?
aeine?aeieee caeeaee iaoeia? i?aeaaeeie iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy ?noi???
”I?ina?o”‚ iaeiae ?oi? aaoi?e aeoeaiooaaee naith oaaao eeoa ia
aeine?aeaeaii? ?noi??? Aaeeoeueei? ’I?ina?oe”‚ yea ?icaeyaeaeany ie?aii
a?ae ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ?ooo caaaeii‚a
oae? aaaeeea? ieoaiiy‚ ye ni?ai?aoey ”I?ina?o” c oe?a?inueeeie
iie?oe/ieie ia?o?yie‚ ?o ?iaioa o noa?? aeiiii?/iiai ? ainiiaea?nueeiai
aeoiaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo aeine?aeaeoaaeany a e?auiio aeiaaeeo
eeoa aeioeeiai.

I?ney e?ea?aeaoe?? o 1939 ?ioe? ?aaeyinueeith aeaaeith ”I?ina?oe”
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?? ?noi??? ia?aoiaeeoue o ai?a?aoe?th. Ooo oe?a?inuee?
?noi?eee iaiaaathoueny ii-iiaiio ioe?ieoe ae?yeuei?noue ”I?ina?o”‚
c’ynoaaoe i?noea ? ?ieue oeeo oiaa?enoa a ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo. Iai?eeeaae‚ o iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaeao
A.Aei?ioaiea‚ A.ssi?aa Aei?ioaiei A. ”I?ina?oa”‚ ?? canioaaiiy ? i?aoey.
Ei?ioeee ?noi?e/iee ia?en c aeiaeaoeaie i?i ”I?ina?oe” a ?ioeo e?a?iao.
— O?eaaeaeueo?y: Iieiaea ”I?ina?oa” ?i. A.Oaioeoeue-eiai‚ 1959; ssi?a A.
”I?ina?oa” ye aeya nioe?aeueieo ni?yioaaiue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. —
Ithioai: Oe?. A?eueiee Oi-o‚ 1970. ”I?ina?oe” ?icaeyaeathoueny ye
caaaeueiioe?a?inueea yaeua‚ ye? nai?th ae?yeuei?noth ioiieththoue cia/io
oa?eoi??th Oe?a?ie ? ? iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo.

A oe?a?inuee?e ae?anii?? oaeiae ?icii/aeany aeine?aeieoeueea ?iaioa
iaei??? c iaea?eueo iaaeine?aeaeaieo ae?eyiie ?iaioe ”I?ina?o” —
aeiiii?/ii-ainiiaea?nueei?. Aeine?aeaeaiith oe??? oaie aoee i?enay/ai?
i?aoe? ?.Aeoaiiae/a‚ A.Ea/i?a‚ Ae.I?niy/aanueeiai, I.Oai?eaeea Aeoaiiae/
?. ?noi??y oe?a?inueeiai eiiia?aoeaiiai ?ooo. — Iueth-Ei?e: IOO‚ 1954;
Ea/i? A. ?iey ”I?ina?o” a aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie. —
A?ii?iaa: OAAI‚ 1960; Ea/i? A. ?iey aeooiaainoaa ? oea?eae a
aeiiii?/iiio a?ae?iaeaeaii? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie‚ A?ii?iaa: OAAI‚ 1990;
I?niy/aanueeee Ae. A?ae eai?oae?cio aei eiiia?aoecio. — Ia?eae‚ 1945;
Iaco- ?ie I. Iaoa??aee c ieioaoeie oe?a?inueei? iiei/a?nueei?
eiiia?aoe??. — Aaeiiioii: OAAI‚ 1968. oa ?ioeo.

O ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae, e??i aeaceioi?ioth/eo aeia?aeie a
aioeeeeiiaae?yo oa iaaaoeaieo caaaeie o noaooyo ie ia cono??/a?ii i?yeeo
na?eicieo aeine?aeaeaiue c aeaii? i?iaeaie.

Ni?aaaeiy iaoeiaa ?ic?iaea i?iaeai‚ iia’ycaieo c ?noi???th ae?yeueiino?
”I?ina?o”, ?icii/aeany o?eueee i?ney i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie.
Oae, aei 125-e?oiueiai tha?eath canioaaiiy ”I?ina?oe” aeeoia ?yae
no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiue c ?noi??? Iaaeaei?i?yinueeeo ”I?ina?o”. Cie?aia‚
oea i?aoe? E.?anaeaanueeiai oa N.Oa?eie‚ A.Iineaeaiea‚ I.Eiiiaoey‚
?.ssoeeaae/a‚ I.E?aanoiai?‚ N.A?eieiiy‚ C.Aeaeoeeinueei? ?anaeaanueeee
E.‚ Oa?eia N.‚ ”I?ina?oa” o Iaaeaei?i?yinuee?e Oe?a?i?. — E.‚ 1993;
Iineaeaiei A.‚ Eiiiaaoeue I. Iiioey?ecaoe?y iaoee a Oe?a?i?: ?noi??y ?
no/ani?noue. — E.: O?auaoee‚ 1992; Eiiiaaoeue I. I?ina?oieoeueeee ?oo a
Oe?a?i? (O?O — ia?oa o?aoeia OO noie?ooy). — E.: Eea?aeue‚ 1993;
ssoeeaae/ ?. Na?oeee i?ii?iue aoooy ia?iaeiiai// Oe?a?ia. — 1989. —
?38. — N. 14-16; E?aanoiaa I.‚ A?eie?iue N. Iiaee o?ai ia ?o?iao.
Aan?aea ii ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ”I?ina?oe”// Ethaeeia ? na?o. — 1992. —
?3. — N. 12-18; Aeaeoeeinueea C. E aii?ino i aeayoaeueiinoe “I?inaeo“
Eaaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu// Enoi?ey e a?oaieiaey Neiaiaeneie Oe?aeiu. Oacenu
aeieeaaeia. — O., 1992. — N. 20-21. oiui. Ii ?noi??? Aaeeoeueei?
”I?ina?oe” a inoaii?e /an aeeoee aeine?aeaeaiiy AE.Eiaae‚ I.Aa?iaia‚
A.A?ei/ooeueeiai‚ a oaeiae eieaeoeaia i?aoey ”Ia?en ?noi??? ”I?ina?oe”
Eiaaa AE.I. ”I?ina?oa” — na?oei‚ ciaiiy‚ aeia?i ? aiey oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo. — Ae?iaiae/: A?ae?iaeaeaiiy‚ 1993; Aa?iai I.‚ A?ei/ooeueeee A.
Oiaa?enoaa ”I?ina?oe”‚ ye iaa?aae eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? niaaeueie//
Eoeueoo?ia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?. — Euea?a: Anoa?een‚ 1993; Ia?en
?noi??? ”I?ina?oe”. — Euea?a: I?ina?oa‚ 1993..

I.Eenaieii aoei caoeuaia aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy ”I?ina?oe o
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio ? eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo? Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? Oe?a?ie”
(1905-1916 ?.)” Eenaiei I. ”I?ina?oe o noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio ?
eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo? Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? Oe?a?ie” (1905-1916 ?.)”: Aeen.
… eaiae. ?no. iaoe. — E.‚ 1998. — 169 n.. O aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii?
aaoi? iaiaaa?oueny ii-iiaiio i?ae?eoe aei aena?oeaiiy i?iaeai ?noi???
Iaaeaei?i?yinueeeo ”I?ina?o”. Oae‚ cie?aia‚ I.Eenaiei aeineoue iiceoeaii
ioe?ith? ae?yeuei?noue Iaaeaei?i?yinueeeo ”I?ina?o” o noa?? eoeueoo?e oa
ina?oe‚ aea aaoi? iaaeiioe?ith? ?o ae?yeuei?noue o iaoe?iiaeueiiio
aeoiaaii? iieiaeiai iieie?iiy oe?a?ioe?a.

Iaeyae ?noi??ia?ao?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e iieaco?‚ ui iacaaaeath/e ia nooo?aee
aei?iaie‚ yeee aoei aianaii a/aieie ? aeine?aeieeaie a ??ci? ia??iaee o
aea/aiiy ?noi??? ae?yeueiino? ”I?ina?o”‚ aei inoaiiueiai /ano i?iaeaia
ii??aiyeueii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ae?yeueiino? ”I?ina?o” ??cieo ?aa?ii?a
Oe?a?ie o ia??iae c 1891 ii 1914 ?iee a aeine?aeaeaiiyo ia noaaeeanue.
AEiaeia c aeuaiacaaieo i?aoeue ia ? aeiaa?oaiith o aea/aii? i?ioeano
noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ”I?ina?o” ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo a aeaiee
ia??iae.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ”Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?‚ iie?oe/i? oa
i?aai?caoe?ei? oiiae noaiiaeaiiy ”I?ina?o” aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea
iniiaiei nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei‚ iie?oe/iei‚ eoeueoo?iei ?
i?aai?caoe?eiei oi?iai‚ ye? a o?e /e ?io?e i??? aieeioee ia noai?aiiy‚
ae?yeuei?noue ? iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ”I?ina?o” a Oe?a?i?.

Noaiiaeaiiy ”I?ina?o” i?ioiaeeei o aeineoue neeaaeieo aeey
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ?noi?e/ieo ianoaaeiao. O?O noie?ooy aoei ia??iaeii
aaaeeeo aei?iaoaaiue‚ eiee i?ae ieoaiiyi aoei iinoaaeaii nai oaeo
?nioaaiiy oe?a?ioe?a‚ ye aoiino. Ia e?iaoeue O?O noie?ooy Oe?a?ia
ia?aaoaaea i?ae aeaaeith aeaio ?iia??e — ?in?enueei? oa Aano??enueei?.
?ic??aai?noue Oe?a?ie i?ae aeaiia ?iia??yie noaei aaaeeith ia?aiiiith ia
oeyoo eiinie?aeaoe?? iaoe??‚ aac yei? i?ioean iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy cia/ii oneeaaeithaaany. Oe?a?inueeee ia?iae ia?aaoaaa ia
o?eueee o aeaio noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo nenoaiao aea e ia aeaio
oeea?e?caoe?eieo ??aiyo‚ ye? nooo?ai a?ae??ciyeeny iaeei a?ae iaeiiai.
Ia?oee — oea ac?aonueeee oeea?e?caoe?eiee ??aaiue ?c i?eoaiaiiith eiio
oeaio?ae?ciaaiith nenoaiith oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaith‚ c ia?aaaaith
eieaeoeaieo ii/aoe?a iaae ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie‚ ae?ae aei?noieeie oi?iaie
aenieoaoaoe?? e??iaoeueei? i?aoe?. A aeaiiio eiioaeno? ?ai?acaioaioii
eiai aoea ?in?enueea ?iia??y. ?aoi?ie 60-70 ?ie?a‚ iacaaaeath/e ia anth
?o i?ia?aneai?noue aeey oiai/anii? ?in??‚ ia iie?aueee iaoe?iiaeueiiai‚
nioe?aeueiiai ? iaoa??aeueiiai noaiiaeua oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.
AEeoo?aee ??aaiue oe?a?ioe?a o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? iaaeaa. O oeae /an
Oe?a?ia aoea iiai?noth ia?aoai?aia o aa?a?ii-ne?iaeiiee i?eaeaoie
aeiiii?ee ?in?enueei? ?iia???‚ iane?aeee /iai a?ae/ooi? ? ii
nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue.

Ii?yae c aeiiii?/iei ai?oii oe?a?inueea ethaei?noue
no?aeii-oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue a?ae/oea ia nia? ia iaio aaaeeee aeooiaiee
ai?o. O nai?e ?oneo?eaoi?nuee?e iie?oeoe? oea?nueeee o?yae aeio?eioaaany
/?oei? e?i??‚ iai?aaeaii? ia anei?eyoe?th ? aeei??iaiiy oe?a?inueei?
iiae ye ”iaei?in?enueeiai ae?aeaeoo”‚ a a?aeiia?aeii ? oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e oa ?noi??? ?c iai’yo? ia?iaeo.

Ae?oaee oeea?e?caoe?eiee ??aaiue — oea ?a?iiaenueeee c i?eoaiaiieie
eiio ?iaeea?aeoae?ciii‚ i?aaiaoeciii‚ i?aaiaiiyi aei aeoeaieo ae?e ca
iie?auaiiy naiai aoooy‚ eoeueoo?e e ina?oe. A aeine?aeaeoaaiee iaie
ia??iae ?ai?acaioaioii ?a?iiaenueeiai oeea?e?caoe?eiiai ii?yaeeo a
oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue aenooiaea
Aano?i-Oai?ueia.

O ii??aiyii? c oe?a?inueeeie caieyie i?ae aeaaeith ?in?enueei? ?iia???‚
aea oe?a?inueea iiaa ? eoeueoo?a ia?ane?aeoaaeeny‚
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia‚ iie?oe/ia ? eoeueoo?ia neooaoe?y‚ a ye?e
ciaoiaeeeanue cao?aeiioe?a?inueea ethaei?noue i?ae aeaaeith
Aano?i-Oai?ueie aoea a?eueo iii??eiaaiith ? e?aa?aeueiith. sse ia
iiaeyae aeena?oaioa‚ oea iiynith?oueny oei‚ ui a neeo naiai
aaia?ao?/iiai iieiaeaiiy Aano?i-Oai?ueia iaaeoaaea ?c ?icaeiooeie
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeie aea?aeaaaie‚ oiio aei ia? oaeaeoa aeioiaeeee
ia?aaeia? ia oie /an ?aea? ?aaiethoe?eiiai ?anioae?eainoaa‚
aeaiie?aoecio ? i?ina?oieoeoaa‚ ye? a naith /a?ao ae??oaeueii aieeioee
ia ?aeaieia?th iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ?oo?a i?aeei?aieo iath
ia?iae?a. Ciaoiaey/enue i?ae aeaaeith a?eueo i’yeiai iiia?o?/iiai
?aaeeio‚ no?eioaaiiai eiinoeoooe?eieie ii?iaie‚ oe?a?ioe?
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue iaee a?eueoa iiaeeeainoae ?icai?iooe naith
iaoe?iiaeueio i?aai?caoe?eio ?iaioo‚ i?ae oe?a?ioe? Iaaeaei?i?yiueie.
Iaea?eueo yne?aai oe? iiooae i?iyaeee naaa a aaeoc? ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e.

Oaeei /eiii‚ c i?e/ei aea?aei?oeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo
oiia Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie noaiiaeaiiy ”I?ina?o” ?icii/aeiny naia oai.

Aaeeoeueea oiaa?enoai ”I?ina?oa” aoei caniiaaia 8 a?oaeiy 1868 ?ieo o
i. Eueaia?. Ii/eiath/e ?c noaoooii? ?aoi?ie oeueiai oiaa?enoaa 1891 ?ieo
aiii ia?aoai?th?oueny o iaea?eueo ianiao ? iaea?eueo aaoi?eoaoio
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oith ? a?iiaaenueeo i?aai?caoe?th cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue ?c /?oei i?aai?ciaaiith o?enooiaiaaith no?oeoo?ith‚ yea
ioiieth?: Aieiaiee A?aeae?e ”I?ina?oe” o i. Eueaia?‚ o?e?e o iia?oiaeo
oeaio?ao ? /eoaeuei? o i?noa/eao ? naeao. Caaaeyee oe?e i?aai?caoe?? aei
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ?iaioe aoee caeo/ai? oe?ie? aa?noae oe?a?inueei?
ni?eueiioe. Oae‚ ia ii/aoie 1-i? na?oiai? a?eie Aaeeoeueea ”I?ina?oa”
ia?aoiaoaaea 77 o?e?e‚ 2670 /eoaeaiue‚ 36‚5 oeny/ iino?eieo /eai?a
OeAe?A o i. Eueaia?. — O. 348. — Ii. 1. — Ni?. 769. — A?e. 30-80; Ni?.
6791. — A?e. 1-58..

Ii/eiath/e c 1905 ?ieo‚ i?ina?oyinueeee ?oo a Oe?a?i? aoiaeeoue a iiao
oaco naiai ?icaeoeo. ?aaiethoe?ei? iiae?? 1905-1907 ?ie?a ? ianooiiee ca
ieie ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo i?ecaaee aei
noai?aiiy ”I?ina?o” ia oa?eoi??? Iaaeaei?i?yiueie. Uiaei iinoaaeaii? a
noaoooao iaoe ? caaaeaiue ”I?ina?o”‚ oi /a?aiiith ieoeith /a?ac an?o ieo
i?ioiaeeoue ?aeay ao?eaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?
oeyoii eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ?iaioe na?aae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Ia?oa Iaaeaei?i?yinueea ”I?ina?oa” aeieeea o i. Eaoa?eiineaa? 8.10.1905
?.‚ caiaeii ca iath ”I?ina?oe” aeieeee o Iaean?‚
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeo‚ Ee?a?‚ *a?i?aia?‚ Ieeiea?a?‚ Iae?oiiie?‚
AEeoiie??‚ Oa?eia? oa ?ioeo i?noao.

Aiae?c i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e Iaaeaei?i?yinueeeo ”I?ina?o” aea?
iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i iaaeinoaoith ?? ?icaeioo?noue. Oae‚ ia
a?aei?io a?ae Aaeeoeueei? ”I?ina?oe”‚ ia an?i Iaaeaei?i?yinueeei
i?ina?oi?i oiaa?enoaai aaeaeiny noai?eoe aeani? o?e?? ia i?noeyo.
I?e/eia oeueiio iieyaa? o aei?noieiio ?in?enueeiio
aeaiaea?inueei-aaei?i?no?aoeaiiio ?aaeei?. Ia aeiiao oea?nueeeo aeanoae
iiaicaniiaai? ”I?ina?oe” aoee ciooai? iaiaaeeoe naith ae?yeuei?noue
oa?eoi??aeueieie ?aieaie‚ ui ia aeaaaei ?i iiaeeeaino? ia’?aeiaoeny a
?aeeio i?ina?oith i?aai?caoe?th ia c?acie Aaeeoeueei?. O aaaaoueio
i?noao‚ cie?aia a Iieoaa? e Oa?nii? canioaaiiy ”I?ina?o” aoei acaaae?
caai?iiaii i?noeaaeie o?yaeieeaie.

Ioaea‚ an? aeuaiaaaaeai? oaeoi?e caaaeii iiyniththoue oiiae‚ a yeeo
i?ioiaeeei noaiiaeaiiy ”I?ina?o” o ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ”?iaioa ”I?ina?o” a aaeoc? eoeueoo?iiai ?
ina?oiueiai aeoiaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo”‚ aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea
iniiaieo oi?i oa iaoiae?a eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ? a?iiaaenueei? ?iaioe
”I?ina?o”‚ a iniiao yeeo aoa iieeaaeaiee iaoe?iiaeueiee /eiiee.

Iane?eueee i?aeeaco? ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae aeeooy eiaeiiai a?iiaaenueeiai
ia’?aeiaiiy‚ ?acoeueoaoeai?noue eiai i?aoe? e o?eaae?noue
ooieoe?iioaaiiy o aaeee?e i??? caeaaeaoue a?ae i?aaeeueiino? aeai?o
iaa?no?aeueii? e?i?? ?icaeoeo‚ a?ae oiieiai a?ae/oooy ea??aieoeoaii
aeiia /ano‚ a?ae aeeai? ? oai?/i? i?aai?caoe?? oi?i ? iaoiae?a ?iaioe‚
a?ae ca’yceo c o??th eaoaai???th noni?euenoaa‚ ia yeo i?iaeoo?oueny ye
naia i?aoey‚ oae ? ?? ?acoeueoaoe.

O aeine?aeaeoaaiee iaie ia??iae eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiy ae?yeuei?noue
”I?ina?o” oa?aeoa?ecoaaeany ??ciiiai?ooyi oi?i oa iaoiae?a‚ ye?
ioiiethaaee oe?ieee aaeocaaee niaeo? eoeueoo?iiai ? aeooiaiiai aeeooy
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Aiae?c oi?i oa iaoiae?a iie?oe/ii? ? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ?iaioe
”I?ina?o” aea? iiaeeea?noue oiiaii aeae?eeoe 4 iniiai? iai?yiee ??
ae?yeueiino?: 1. Eaeoe?eia ?iaioa; 2. Aeaeaaie/i-a?ae?ioa/ia ni?aaa; 3.
Oe?eueie/i-i?aai?caoe?eia ?iaioa; 4. Ioce/ii-a?oenoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue‚ ui c on?o aeuaia?ae?/aieo oi?i
a Aaeeoeuee?e ”I?ina?o?” iaee?aua ?icaeaaeany aeaeaaie/a ni?aaa. Ia ia?
i?ina?oyiaie ?iaeany iniaeeaee aeoeaio‚ ye ia iaea?eueo ianiao oi?io‚
yea ioiiethaaea iaea?eueo oe?ie? aa?noae ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. Oaiaoeea
aeaeaaie/i? i?iaeoeoe?? aoea aeineoue ??ciiiai?oiith. Ia ia?oiio i?noe?
uiaei iiioey?iino? na?aae ianaeaiiy noiyee ooaeiaei? oa
?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo/i? oai?e oe?a?inueeeo ienueiaiiee?a. *eaie Aaeeoeueei?
”I?ina?oe” iniaeeaee aeoeaio ?iaeee ? ia aeione cia/ii? e?eueeino?
aeaeaiue ?ae?a?eiiai oa?aeoa?o. Ii?yae c oeei‚ aaeeoeuee? i?ina?oyie
aeaeaaaee a cia/i?e e?eueeino? eieaeeiao i?iaeoeoe?th iaoeiaiai oa
i?e?iaeie/i-i?ciaaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. Ca ia??iae c 1890 ii 1914 ?iee
Aaeeoeueeith ”I?ina?oith” aeaeaii 56 eiea caaaeueiith e?euee?noth 559
oen. i?ei??iee?a.

Aiae?coth/e ?noi?e/i? aeai?‚ aaoi? aeae?ey? ? oe?eee ?yae
a?aei?iiinoae‚ ye? a?ae??ciythoue aeaeaaie/o ni?aao Iaaeaei?i?yinueeeo
”I?ina?o” a?ae Aaeeoeueei?. Oae‚ a neeo aioo??oiuei-iie?oe/ii?
neooaoe??‚ yea oa?aeoa?ecoaaeany i?aeaeuaiith iie?oe/iith aeoeai?noth
ia?iaeieo ian‚ aeaeaaieoeoaa Iaaeaei?i?yinueeeo ”I?ina?o” iineee
cia/iith i??ith iie?oe/iee oa?aeoa?. O nai?e aeaeaaie/?e ae?yeueiino?
”I?ina?oe” no?aeii-oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue ciooai? aoee ii?aeioaaoe ye
eaaaeuei?‚ oae ? iaeaaaeuei? oi?ie‚ ye oea aeaeii c i?eeeaaeo
Iaeanueei?‚ Ieeiea?anueei? oa Ee?anueei? ”I?ina?o”.

Oa?aeoa?iith a?aei?ii?noth aeaeaiue Iaaeaei?i?yinueeeo ”I?ina?o” a?ae
Aaeeoeueei? aoea a?aenooi?noue na?aae ieo oai??a ia ?ae?a?eio oaiaoeeo.

Eaeoe?eio ae?yeuei?noue iaea?eueo aeoeaii i?iaiaeeee Aaeeoeueea‚
Ee?anueea‚ Eaoa?eiineaanueea‚ Ieeiea?anueea‚ *a?i?a?anueea ”I?ina?oe”.
Eaeoe?? ia?aaaaeii /eoaeeny c ieoaiue ?noi??? Oe?a?ie‚ oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e oa i?e?iaeie/eo aeenoeeie?i. sse i?aaeei aiie iineee
iaoeiai-i?ciaaaeueiee oa?aeoa?‚ aeinooiiee aeey ?icoi?iiy oe?ieiai
caaaeo neooa/?a.

Ni?aaa i?aai?caoe?? oe?a?inueeeo oe?e oa ?ioeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
iaea?eueo ie?aeii i?ioiaeeea a Aaeeoeuee?e ”I?ina?o?”‚ aea i?noeaaei
i?ina?oyiai aaeaeiny i?aai?coaaoe oe?a?inuee? iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee ??cieo
nooiai?a‚ ii/eiath/e a?ae ii/aoeiaeo oe?e ? cae?i/oth/e ”Eo?naie aeui?
ina?oe o Eueaia?”‚ ye? aoee ii noo? ia?oei oe?a?inueeei oi?aa?neoaoii.

O nai?e ae?yeueiino? a aaeoc? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai aeoiaaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ”I?ina?oe” aeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaee‚ e??i aaea
iacaaieo oi?i eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ?iaioe ?ioo oi?io‚ yea io?eiaea
iacao ioce/ii-a?oenoe/ii?. A ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie oi?iaie‚ oey oi?ia
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ?iaioe‚ e??i aa?oaoe?eii-aeoiaiiai‚ iineea ua e
?icaaaeaeueiee oa?aeoa?‚ ui iaea?eueo ni?eyei i?aeianaiith aaoi?eoaoo
”I?ina?o” ia i?noeyo.

Oey ?iaioa aeeth/aea a naaa i?aai?caoe?th aenoaa‚
ni?ai/i-aeaeeaiaoi?nueeeo aa/i?ieoeue‚ ioce/ieo aa/i??a‚ ianiaeo aoeyiue
oiui‚ i?enay/aieo ??ciiiai?oiei tha?eayi oa iai’yoiei aeaoai‚ ia?iaeiei
nayoai.

Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? ”I?ina?o” aoea
?o aeoeaia ni?ai?aoey ? aca?iiaeiiiiiaa. Oae‚ cie?aia‚ /eaie Aaeeoe?ei?
”I?ina?oe” aeoeaii aeiiiiaaaee Iaaeaei?i?yinueeei ”I?ina?oai” ia
ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao ?o noaiiaeaiiy. Iai?eeeaae‚ /eai Aieiaiiai A?aeae?eo
Aaeeoeueei? ”I?ina?oe” iiaea?oaaa Ee?anueeei i?ina?oyiai 1000
ea?aiaaioe?a ? naith aeanio a?ae?ioaeo‚ yea ia?aoiaoaaea 3000
aecaiiey??a eiea. O naith /a?ao Ee?anueea ”I?ina?oa” aeiiiiaaaea
*a?i?a?anuee?e‚ ieeiea?anuee?e ? AEeoiie?nuee?e ”I?ina?oai” o
i?aai?caoe?? eaeoe?e ii ?noi??? Oe?a?ie e oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e.
Iaaeaei?i?yinuee? i?ina?oyie‚ cie?aia‚ A.A??i/aiei‚ I.Eioethaeinueeee‚
Eany Oe?a?iea‚ Ae.ssai?ieoeueeee‚ ?.*eeaeaiei‚ I.A?ean oiui aaceiooiaii
iaaeneeaee nai? oai?e aeey iaae?oeoaaiiy o aaeeoeueeeo i?ina?oyinueeeo
aeaeaiiyo.

Oaeei /eiii, ia??iae c 1891 ii 1914 ?iee aoa ia??iaeii iaeaeuiai
?icaeoeo eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ?iaioe “I?ina?o” ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo.
Oey ?iaioa, iacaaaeath/e ia anth neeaaei?noue ciai?oiuei- ?
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ieo oiia, iineea caaaeueii-iaoe?iiaeueiee ?
oe?ieiianooaaiee oa?aeoa?. O oeae /an “I?ina?oe” ia?aoai?eeeny o
nai???aeio oeieo iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “?iaioa “I?ina?o” o aaeoc? aeiiii?/iiai ?
ainiiaea?nueeiai aeoiaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo” ?icaeyioo? ieoaiiy
aeiiii?/ii-ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? “I?ina?o”, yea ia aeaeue ?
iaeiaio aeine?aeaeaiith i?iaeaiith o no/ani?e ?noi?e/i?e iaooe?.

Ii/eiath/e c 90-o ?ie?a O?O noie?ooy ia?aaeiaa oe?a?inueea
?ioae?aaioe?y, caaaeoth/e ia coaiae?iiy oe?ieeo aa?noa oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo ana /ano?oa noaaeoue ieoaiiy i?i noai?aiiy ?icaaeoaeaii? ia?aae?
i?ioan?eieo i?aai?caoe?e oa e?aaeeoiaeo onoaiia, ye? ia iniia?
eiiia?aoe?? naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa ciiaee a oni?oii aenoiyoe a oiiaao
aei?noiei? ?eieiai? eiieo?aioe?? c ?iicaiiei eai?oaeii. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo ia?iae?a, ye? iaee naith aea?aeaai?noue, aeey
oe?a?inueeiai naeyinoaa oea aoea oaeiae ? a?aeiia?aeia eaaaeueia oi?ia
eiai aeiiii?/iiai ? ainiiaea?nueeiai aeoiaaiiy /a?ac caa?aaeaiiy aeanii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?, o?aaeeoe?e oa a?aeiino?.

Ia?oei, ooi acyany ca ae??oaiiy oeueiai neeaaeiiai caaaeaiiy aoee /eaie
Aaeeoeueei? “I?ina?oe”. Noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie iaoe?iiaeueii? eiiia?aoe??,
aeiiii?/iiai ? ainiiaea?nueeiai aeoiaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai naeyinoaa
i?iaiaeeeiny /eaiaie “I?ina?oe” o?ueiia oeyoaie. Ia?oee oeyo — oea
noai?aiiy oe?e?nii? aeiiii?/ii-i?aaiai? eiioeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeueii?
eiiia?aoe??. Ae?oaee — canioaaiiy i?e o?e?yo oa /eoaeueiyo oiaa?enoaa
eiiia?aoea?a, iice/eiaeo oa iuaaeieo ean. O?ao?e — canioaaiiy
aeiiii?/ii-ainiiaea?nueeeo iaa/aeueieo onoaiia, aeione eiea ia oaio
iaoe?iiaeueii? eiiia?aoe??, aeiiii?/iiai ? ainiiaea?nueeiai aeoiaaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

*eaiaie Aieiaiiai A?aeae?eo “I?ina?oe” E.Iaiuee?anueeei ? E.Eaaeoeueeei
aoee ?ic?iaeai? aeiiii?/ii-i?aaia? i?eioeeie eiioeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeueii?
eiiia?aoe??, iniiai? canaaee yei? iieyaaee:

— a iii?? ia aeani? neee oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo;

— o i?aeiyoo? ii?yae c eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?i ?
aeiiii?/ii-ainiiaea?nueeiai ??aiy oe?a?inueeiai naeyinoaa;

— o noai?aii? oa aeoiaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiiiai, caiiaeiiai
na?aaeiueiai i?ioa?eo ianaeaiiy, yeee o iaeaooiueiio iiaeiai aoa noaoe
iniiaiith nioe?aeueiith aacith iiaeaeueoeo iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo
ciaaaiue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Uiaei i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? nai?o oai?aoe/ieo ieai?a, iniiaiee aeoeaio
ieie ?iaeany naia ia oiaa?enoai “I?ina?oa”, ye iaea?eueo ianiao ?
iaea?eueo iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiio eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeo
i?aai?caoe?th Aaee/eie.

I?ney noaoooii? ?aoi?ie 1891 ?ieo /eaie Aaeeoeueei? “I?ina?oe”
?icii/eiathoue ?ioaineaio i?aoeth ii noai?aiith eiiia?aoea?a, iice/eiaeo
? iuaaeieo ean ? e?aiieoeue. I?e aeoeaiiio ni?eyii? i?ina?oyi ii/eiath/e
c 90-o ?ie?a O?O noie?ooy aeieea? oe?eee ?yae eiiia?aoeaieo onoaiia.

Coneeeyie i?ina?oyi E.Eaaeoeueeiai, E.Iaiuee?anueeiai oa A.A?aoeueiie
noai?ththoueny o 1898 ?ioe? E?a?aee Nithc E?aaeeoiaee, a a 1904 ?ioe?
E?a?aee Nithc ?aa?c?eiee, ye? noaee oeaio?aie, ui ia’?aeioaaee an?
oe?a?inuee? e?aaeeoia? eiiia?aoeae e?ath. Oe?a?inuee? e?aaeeoia?
eiiia?aoeae ei?enooaaeeny aaeeeith iiioey?i?noth na?aae oe?a?inueeiai
ianaeaiiy Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie, aaeaea a?aenioie a?ae iice/aiiai ooo ia
ia?aaeuoaaa 6%, aeey ii??aiyiiy neaaeaii, ui o iieuenueeeo oa
?a?aenueeeo eeoaa??a a?aenioie nyaaa 50 % a?ae iice/aii? noie. Nai?th
aieiaiith iaoith i?ina?oyinuee? eiiia?aoeae noaaeee: iaioa aeaaoe i?i
nai? a?aenioee, a a?eueoa i?i i?aeianaiiy ainiiaea?noaa nai?o /eai?a, ?o
eoeueoo?ia oa ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy.

Caaaeoth/e ia oie oaeo, ui e?aaeeoiaeo oiaa?enoa aoei cia/ii a?eueoa,
i?ae niiaeea/eo Aieiaiee A?aeae?e c 1904 ?ieo ii/eia? o nai?e
aeiiii?/i?e ae?yeueiino? ?iaeoe aeoeaio ia noai?aiiy
niiaeea/i-ae?iaie/eo oiaa?enoa, oae o 1899 ?ioe? ”I?ina?oith” aoei
noai?aii oiaa?enoai “N?euenueeee ainiiaea?”, o 1904 ?ioe? i?e
No?eenuee?e o?e?? “I?ina?oe” noai?eeanue iiei/a?nueea ni?eea, yea c 1907
?ieo ia’?aeioaaea an? iiei/a?nuee? eiiia?aoeae ? ia?aoai?eeanue o
“E?a?aee Iiei/a?nueeee Nithc”.

O nai?e aeiiii?/ii-ainiiaea?nuee?e ?iaio? /eaie oiaa?enoaa “I?ina?oa”
iaiaaaeeny ia o?eueee ooai?thaaoe a?aeiia?aei? eiiia?aoeai? i?aai?caoe??
oa onoaiiae, aea e i?aei?iaoe aeiiii?/ii-ainiiaea?nueeo eoeueoo?o
ia?iaeo, aaa/ath/e a oeueiio neeaaeiao /anoeio eiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai o 1906 ?ioe? Aieiaiei A?aeae?eii “I?ina?oe”
ai?iaaaeaeo?oueny ?inoeooo iaiae??aiiai a/eoaey, yeee noaaeoue ia?aae
niaith caaaeaiiy iciaeiieaiiy oe?a?inueeeo naeyi c ia?aaeiaeie iaoiaeaie
aaaeaiiy n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, a oaeiae o i?iiaaaiae? na?aae ieo
?aeae eiiia?aoe??, ?? ia?aaaae iaae ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie oi?iaie aaaeaiiy
ainiiaea?noaa. Oaeeie iaiae??aieie o/eoaeyie aoee o ??ci? /ane
A.Ei?ieue, I.Aa?anaae/, N.Eocee oiui.

O 1910 ?ioe? i?ney ia?aaea/? oe?eiai ?yaeo aeiiii?/ii-eiiia?aoeaieo
ooieoe?e oiaa?enoao “N?euenueeee ainiiaea?” “I?ina?oa” acyeany ca
noai?aiiy oe?ei? ia?aae? aeiiii?/ii-ainiiaea?nueeeo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a. Oae, o 1910 ?ioe? aoea noai?aia Naae?aie/i-ainiiaea?nueea
oeiea o nae? Ieeiaaii?, Oiaiaoeueeiai iia?oo. Iaa/aeueia i?ia?aia oe???
oeiee ioiiethaaea a eiiieaen? an? iaa/aeuei? aeenoeeie?ie ii
aaeineiiaeaiiio aaaeaiith n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ia iiaeo
oaoiieia?yo, a oaeiae aeaaaea caaaeueio ina?oo naeyinueeei ae?oyi.
Ui?ieo oeiea aiooaaea 30 niaoe?ae?no?a o aaeoc? n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa. Ia c?acie oeiee a Ieeiaaiith aoee ooai?ai? oaeiae ae?ii/a
oeiea aeiiaoiueiai ainiiaea?noaa a n. Oaa?oeyo Aeiyanueeeo, oi?a?aaeueia
oeiea o i.Eueaia?, a oaeiae ia?aaea 3-4 i?ny/ieo eo?n?a i?e o?e?yo
“I?ina?oe” o Neiea, Aonyoei?, Ao/a/?, ?iaaoei? oa ?ioeo i?noao.

E??i aeuacaaaeaieo oi?i o nai?e aeiiii?/ii-i?ina?oieoeuee?e
ae?yeueiino? “I?ina?oa” aeei?enoiao? ua e oaeo oi?io, ye i?aai?caoe?y
??ciiiai?oieo aenoaaie, ia yeeo i?ina?oyie iieacoaaee i?aeoe/i?
caeiaooee oe?a?inueei? eiiia?aoe??.

Eoeuei?iaoe??th on??? aeiiii?/ii-ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?
“I?ina?oe” aoa i?aai?ciaaiee iath Ia?oee Anaoe?a?inueeee
aeiiii?/ii-ainiiaea?nueeee eiia?an, yeee a?aeaoany 1-2 ethoiai 1909 ?ieo
o i. Eueaia?.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae Aaeeoeueei? “I?ina?oe” Iaaeaei?i?yinuee? i?ina?oi?
oiaa?enoaa ia iaee ciiae aaciina?aaeiuei caeiaoeny aeiiii?/iei ?
ainiiaea?nueeei aeoiaaiiyi oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Oea iiynith?oueny
oe?eei ?yaeii ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo i?e/ei:

— ii-ia?oa, ciaoiaey/enue i?ae iino?eiei iaaeyaeii c? noi?iie i?noeaai?
aaei?i?no?aoe??‚ “I?ina?oe” Iaaeaei?i?yiueie ia iaee ciiae iaa?oue
io?eiaoe aeica?e aeey oe??? ?iaioe, ia aiai?y/e aaea i?i o?iainiao
noi?iio oeueiai ieoaiiy;

— ii-ae?oaa, oaea aaaeeeaa ? o?oaeii?noea ni?aaa aeiaaaea aaee/acieo
cao?ao eioo?a ? aia?a??. Oeth ni?aao iiaea aeeiioaaoe o?eueee aaeeea
i?aai?caoe?y, yea a ia’?aeioaaea aaee/aci? iaoa??aeuei? ? ethaenuee?
?ano?ne. Oea?nueea ae aaei?i?no?aoe?y, iacaaaeath/e ia an? ni?iae
i?ina?oyi, oae ? ia aeicaieeea ?i ia’?aeiaoeny a ?aeeio “I?ina?oo”;

— ii-o?ao?, o Iaaeaei?i?yinueeeo “I?ina?oao”, ye iieacothoue aea/ai?
iaoa??aee, i?aoethaaee, ye i?aaeei i?aaenoaaieee aoiai?oa?ieo i?ioan?e,
ye? ia iaee iaeaaeiiai aeina?aeo ? iaae/ie o aeiiii?/ii-ainiiaea?nuee?e
ni?aa?;

— ii-/aoaa?oa, yeui Aaeeoeueea “I?ina?oa” io?eioaaea ia naith
ae?yeuei?noue o?iainiao aeiiiiiao a?ae o?yaeo (oi/a ? a iacia/i?e i???),
oi Iaaeaei?i?yinuee? “I?ina?oe” a oiiaao aea?aeaaiiai aii?iiy ia
oe?a?inoai aoee iiai?noth iicaaaeai? oe??? iiaeeeaino?;

— ii-i’yoa, ia a?aei?io a?ae cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, ia oa?eoi???
Iaaeaei?i?yiueie ?nioaaea oe?ea ia?aaea eiiia?aoeaieo onoaiia, ui
eiio?iethaaeenue oea?nueeei o?yaeii ? a oeeo oiiaao o i?ina?oyi ia aoei
iiaeeeaino? caeiaoeny ieoaiiyie eiiia?aoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? ca aeooii.

Aeniiaee. Aiae?c a?o?aieo aeaea?ae, ae?oeiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa
ia??iaeeee 1891-1914 ?ie?a aea? ciiao c?iaeoe ?yae ocaaaeueithth/eo
aeniiae?a.

Noaiiaeaiiy “I?ina?o” ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie aoei caeiiii??iei
?acoeueoaoii aeiiii?/iiai, iie?oe/iiai oa eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Iiyaa “I?ina?o” iineea ianiaee oa?aeoa?, aiie
noai?thaaeeny oa ?nioaaee caaaeyee aeoeai?e i?aeo?eioe? oe?ieeo aa?noa
ianaeaiiy.

I?ioyaii onueiai ?nioaaiiy “I?ina?o” ?o /eaie aoaeoaaee naith i?aoeth
ia canaaeao aeniei? o?enoeyinueei? ii?ae?, aoiai?cio oa ethaenueei?
ii?yaeiino?, ia i?eioeeiao iiaaae aei eiaeii? ethaeeie iacaeaaeii a?ae
?? nioe?aeueiiai oa iaoa??aeueiiai noaiiaeua. Ia iniaeeao ioe?ieo
caneoaiao? ?ieue oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??, yeo aiia c?a?aea o ?iaio?
“I?ina?o”. Naia caaaeyee ?? iaeia?oei i?aaenoaaieeai‚ “I?ina?oe” ciiaee
o iaea?eueo iiaiiio ianyc? ?icai?iooe naith ae?yeuei?noue a on?o
?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie.

Aoai 1891-1914 ?ie?a aoa iaeiei ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo o ?icaeoeo
i?ina?oieoeueeiai ?ooo ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo. “I?ina?oe”
ia?aoai?thaaeenue o ni?aaae? caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueia yaeua, yea ioiieth?
nai?th eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeith ?iaioith oe?ie? aa?noae oe?a?inueei?
ethaeiino? iaeaea an??? Oe?a?ie.

Ia ae?yeuei?noue Iaaeaei?i?yinueeeo “I?ina?o” cia/ii aieeioea ?oiy
iie?oecaoe?y a oiae? ?aaiethoe?? 1905-1907 ?ie?a, ia a?aei?io a?ae
Aaee/eie, ?o a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ia ?iaioa iioe?thaaeany ia o?eueee ia
oe?a?inueea naeyinoai, aea e ia ?ia?oiee?a. Cia/iith a?aei?ii?noth
oaeiae aoei e oa, ui o ?iaio? Iaaeaei?i?yinueeeo “I?ina?o” ia a?aei
o/ano? aeooiaainoai, ye oea ie aa/eii ia i?eeeaae? Aaeeoeueei?
“I?ina?oe”. ?iaioa Aaeeoeueei? “I?ina?oe” a?aecia/aeany a?eueo
?icaaeoaeaiith ia?aaeath ina?aaee?a, /a?ac ye? i?ioiaeeea
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ia ?iaioa oeueiai oiaa?enoaa, a oaeiae eiai cia/ii?
?ie? o noa?? aeiiii?/iiai ? ainiiaea?nueeiai aeoiaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo.

Aaoi? ona?aeiieth? oa, ui aeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ae/a?io? anueiai
eiiieaeno ieoaiue iia’ycaieo c ?noi???th “I?ina?o”. Ia iao iiaeyae,
iiaeaeueoa aea/aiiy oaie aeioe?eueii cae?enithaaoe ii ie?aieo ?aa?iiao
Oe?a?ie, c iaoith inieneaiiy eiie?aoieo i?noeaaeo oiia ?o ae?yeueiino?,
o/ano? ae?y/?a a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai‚ eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai oa
ienoaoeueeiai ?oo?a a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?‚ a oaeiae ni?ai?aoeth
”I?ina?o” c ?ioeie a?iiaaenueeeie i?aai?caoe?yie. Oaiith ie?aiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae iiaea aooe ? ?noi??y “I?ina?o”, ye? ?nioaaee ca
iaaeaie Oe?a?ie.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue.

1. Eocuei?iaoeue I.A., Oeaiei I.I. Ae?y/? ”I?ina?o” — ?a/ieee
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo// Iaoeia? caienee c
?noi??? Oe?a?ie. — Aei. 3‚ 1996. — N. 32-36.

2. Eocuei?iaoeue I.A., Oeaiei I.I. Einoue Iaiuee?anueeee — aeaeaoiee
ae?y/ oe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai ?ooo// ?icaoaeiaa
aea?aeaae. — 1997. — ?3. — N. 41-46.

3. Eocuei?iaoeue I.A., Oeaiei I.I. ”Ae?yeuei?noue ”I?ina?o” o aaeoc?
eiiia?aoe?? oa ainiiaea?nueeiai aeoiaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a e?ioe?
O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?oue”. — E.‚ Ciaiiy‚ 1998. — 16 n.

4. Oeaiei I.I. Noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie i?ina?oieoeueeiai ?ooo o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy. — E.: Ciaiiy‚ 1998. — 22 n.

5. Oeaiei I.I. Ae?yeuei?noue ”I?ina?o” o oi?ioaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii?
na?aeiiino? na?aae ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. — E.: Ciaiiy‚ 1998. — 18 n.

6. Oeaiei I.I. Iie?oe/ia ni?yiiaaii?noue ae?yeueiino? ”I?ina?o”
iai?ee?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO noie?oue// Iiaa iie?oeea. — 1998. — ?5.
— N. 9-12.

Aiioaoe?y:

Oeaiei I.I. Ae?yeuei?noue oiaa?enoaa ”I?ina?oa” a Oe?a?i? (1891-1914
??.).

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01. — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Eaoaae?a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i. I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa. Ee?a‚ 1998.

O aeena?oaoe?? ia iniia? cia/ii? e?eueeino? aeaea?ae eiiieaenii
aeine?aeaeaii ?noi??th noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo oiaa?enoa ”I?ina?oa” a
Oe?a?i? o 1891-1914 ??. I?iaiae?ciaaii iniiai? oi?ie oa iaoiaee
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii? ?iaioe ”I?ina?o”‚ aeae?eai? iniiai?
caeiiii??iino? oa ?aa?iiaeuei? a?aei?iiino? o ?o ae?yeueiino?.

Cia/ia oaaaa o ?iaio? i?eae?eaia aeine?aeaeaiith iaei??? ?c iaeiaio
aeine?aeaeaieo aaeocae ae?yeueiino? ”I?ina?o” — aeiiii?/iiio ?
ainiiaea?nueeiio aeoiaaiith oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo‚ i?aeianaiith eiai
iaoa??aeueiiai ? aeooiaiiai ??ai?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Iaaeaei?i?yiueia‚ Aaee/eia‚ i?ina?oa‚ o?e?y‚ /eoaeueiy‚
eiiia?aoea‚ ae?yeuei?noue‚ ?aeay.

Aiiioaoeey:

Oeaiei I.I. Aeayoaeueiinoue iauanoaa “I?inaeoa“ a Oe?aeia (1891-1914
aa.).

Aeena?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01. — Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu.

Eaoaae?a enoi?ee Oe?aeiu Iaoeeiiaeueiiai iaaeaaiae/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa
ei. I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa. Eeaa, 1998.

A aeena?oaoeee ia iniiaa cia/eoaeueiiai eiee/anoaa enoi/ieeia
eiiieaenii enneaaeiaaii enoi?eth noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey iauanoa
“I?inaeoa“ a Oe?aeia a 1891-1914 aa. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu iniiaiua oi?iu e
iaoiaeu iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie ?aaiou “I?inaeo“, auaeaeaiu iniiaiua
caeiiiia?iinoe e ?aaeiiaeueiua ioee/ey a eo aeayoaeueiinoe.

Cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea a ?aaioa oaeaeaii enneaaeiaaieth iaeiie ec
iaeiaiaa eco/aiuo noa? aeayoaeueiinoe “I?inaeo“ — yeiiiie/aneiio e
oicyenoaaiiiio ainieoaieth oe?aeineiai ia?iaea, iiaeuaio aai
iaoa?eaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai o?iaiae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Iaaeaeiai?yiueia, Aaee/eia, i?inaauaiea, oeeeae,
/eoaeueiy, eiiia?aoea, aeayoaeueiinoue, eaeay.

Annotation.

Tsapko O.M. Social and political activities of “Prosvita” societies on
Ukrainian lands in 1891-1914.

Dissertation for Candidates Degree in History by speciality 07.00.01 —
History of Ukraine.

History of Ukraine Board of the National Teachers Training University
named after M.P.Dragomanov. — Kyiv, 1998.

In the dissertation on grea amount of sources it is profoundly
investigated the history of formation and development of “Prosvita”
societies of Ukraine during 1891-1914. There are analysed the main forms
and methods of social and political activities of “Prosvita”,
distinguished the main conformities and regional distinctions in their
activities.

There it is payde attention on one of the least investigated spheres of
“Prosvita” activities: economical and agricultural education of
Ukrainian people by means of raising their material and spiritual
levels.

Key words: Naddniprianshchina, Galychina, enlightenment, subsidiary,
library, cooperative society, activities, idea.

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