?INOEOOO IAAeAAIA?EE AII OE?A?IE

EAI*AIEI Ieany Eaii?ae?aia

OAeE 371.09:37.018.46

Ae?ssEUeI?NOUe ?AEIIIEO A?AeAe?E?A IA?IAeII? INA?OE

C I?AeAEUAIIss EAAE?O?EAOe?? IAAeAAIA?*IEO EAAe??A

A OE?A?I? (1945-1990 ??.)

13.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a–1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee Aeaaeai?? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe‚ i?ioani?

Eaaeee Ieoaeei Iao?iae/,

a/aiee nae?aoa? ?inoeoooo

iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

E?enthe Noaiai Aaneeueiae/,

Aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y ea??aieo eaae??a ina?oe,

i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe;

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aieo?aaoeue Na?a?e ?aaiiae/,

Ee?anueeee i?ae?aa?iiaeueiee ?inoeooo

aaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a ?i.A?ei/aiea,

i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: E??iaia?aaenueeee aea?aeaaiee
iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.Aeiie/aiea,

eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

i.E??iaia?aae.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny ”15” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 14.00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.452.03 a ?inoeooo?
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie (i.Ee?a, aoe.A?oaia, 52A, ei?.2, o.226-31-80).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e /anoei? ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee ”14” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I.I.Eaaeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oa aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie
?aoi?ioaaiiy i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy ina?oe, a oiio /ene? ?aeiiieo
a?aeae?e?a ina?oe, aeaoa?i?io?oueny ?ioaa?aoeaiei oa?aeoa?ii
aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo, i?aai?caoe?eieo oa i?aaiaeo
iniia ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Oea coiiaeth? ia’?eoeaio iaiao?aei?noue
iiaea?i?caoe?? ci?noo, oi?i ? iaoiae?a, i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e,
noeeth ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ina?oe a oiiaao
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie, eoeueoo?iiai ? aeooiaiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia?iaeo, ?icaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee.

Aiae?c noaio nenoaie i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a o
ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe aea? ciiao i?inoaaeeoe
i?ioean ?? noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo o aecia/aieo o?iiieia?/ieo ?aieao.

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii ?ic?iaee aoaeoeaii? nenoaie i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a ? aiae?oeei-eiino?oeoeaia aea/aiiy
oa aiae?c ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, a?o?aieo, aee?aeoeaieo ?
ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a, aeina?aeo ?iaioe ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii?
ina?oe.

Iai?ee?ioe? 40-o – ii/aoeo 50-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy ii/aee ?ic?iaeyoeny
oai?aoe/i? iniiae ae?yeueiino? no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a ?aeiiieo
a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe, ye? aeeiioaaee ooieoe?? i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a (I.I.Aieeianueeee, I.A.C?i?i,
I.?.Eiiaeaeia, I.I.Iaeeoaa); aeina?ae ?o ?iaioe aena?oethaaany
ia?aaaaeii i?aoe?aieeaie i?aai?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe oa ?inoeooo?a
oaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a (I.I.Ai?iaoaiei, I.N.Aeaieeaanueeee,
I.O.Aeoaeiee, ?.O.No?ie oa ?i.).

O ia??iae 1945 – 1956 ??. a?aenooi?noue ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?aoeue
caaaaeaea aoaeoaaoe ae?yeuei?noue ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe
ia iaoeia?e iniia?; o i?an? ia?aaaaeaee noaoo? c aeina?aeo ?iaioe oa
iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? o iin?aieeao (I.I.Eiiae?aothe, A.A.No?ina,
A.?.*aiae?a, I.A.*a?i?inueeee).

O 70-o ?ieao iineeth?oueny ?icaeoie oai??? nenoai ? e?aa?iaoeee, oai???
nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy, yea ?ic?iaeyeany a?aeiieie a/aieie:
A.A.Aoaianue?aei, Ae.I.Aa?o?ai?, A.?.Aa?aii, A.I.Aeooeiaei,
I.I.Oaaei?aiei oa ?i. Ia iniia? iaoiaeieia?? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo
?ic?iaeyeany oai??y oi?aae?iiy ina?oith oa ?? ie?aieie aniaeoaie a
Oe?a?i? (A.?.Aiiaea?, ?.N.Aa?aciye, Ae.?.?oiyioeaaa, E.?.Aeaieeaiei,
I.I.Eaaeee, A.I.Cioe, A.O.Iaeaia?/oe, A.N.Eiaca?, A.?.Ianeia,
I.I.Ino?iaa?oiaa, A.N.I?eaeueia, A.A.Naaaeiaa, I.A.*a?i?inueeee oa
?i.).

Ia ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a aeoea?coaaeeny aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy
??aiy oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiii? eaiee ina?oe, ieoaiue
aca?iica’yceo ?iniaeoi?nueeiai ? aioo??oiueioe?eueiiai eiio?ieth,
nenoaie ?iniaeooaaiiy (TH.A.Aaneeue?a, A.I.Aeaaeaeia,
TH.A.Eiia?aeaanueeee, I.N.Noioeia, I.A.Ooaeii?inueeee, O.?.Oaiiaa,
O.?.Ooeeaei).

O 1981 ?ioe? aeeoea eieaa ?.N.Aa?aciyea “Aaaeeeaa eaiea oi?aae?iiy
oeieith”; caiaeii – C.N.Ia/eii?oe “?niaeooaaiiy na?aaeiuei? oeiee“,
Ae.?.Aeaeeoia ? I.?.Ae?ia’ycea “I?aai?caoe?y i?aoe?
?iniaeoi?a-iaoiaeenoa oe?e” (1990 ?.). I?aeoe/iee aeina?ae ?iaioe
?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe a oiiaao cae?eniaiiy ia?aoiaeo aei
caaaeueii? na?aaeiuei? ina?oe a?aeia?aaeaii o i?aoeyo I.ss.Ei?i?yee,
A.?.E?ioiaa, A.I.I?iaiea, A.A.No?ine oa ?i.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeey ?icaeoeo oe?e?nii? oa aoaeoeaii?
nenoaie i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a iathoue iaoeia?
i?aoe? oe?a?inueeeo o/aieo: A.?.Aiiaea?y, ?.I.AEa?iin?ea,
A.I.Iaaec?aiia, ?.A.Cycthia, N.A.E?enthea, A.?.Ianeiaa, A.A.Ie?eieea,
A.?.Iooeiaa, A.I.Ooiiiaey; ?in?enueeeo o/aieo: TH.E.Aaaainueeiai,
A.?.Caaayceinueeiai, A.TH.E?e/aanueeiai, I.A.Eocuei?ii?, A.A.Iiooe?ia,
I.I.Iioaoieea, ?.I.Oiieiiiai?, I.A.Ooaeii?inueeiai, O.?.Oaiiai? oa ?i.
Iaeiae aiae?c i?aoeue iacaaieo aaoi??a, a oaeiae aeina?aeo
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ina?oe aeathoue i?aenoaae aeey
aeniiaeo, ui ?noi?e/iee aniaeo ?o ae?yeueiino? c i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a ua iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaiee oa
aena?oeaiee.

O 90-o ?ieao OO no. aeoea?coaaeany ae?yeuei?noue iaoeiaoe?a e?a?ie o
aena?oeaii? i?iaeai ?icaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe ? oi?aae?iiy iath,
?? ?noi?e/iiai ieioeiai. Oe? i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeoaaeeny oaeeie a/aieie
–I.A.?aoooii, I.I.Eaeaie/aiei, N.A.E?entheii, A.?.Eoaiaei,
A.E.Iaeai?iaeith, I.A.Nooiieeinueeith, I.I.Iai/aieii, N.I.O?eiiaieii,
I.Ae.ss?ia/aieii.

Ae?yeuei?noue ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ina?oe c oi?aae?iiy
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieie caeeaaeaie a Oe?a?i? (1917-1994 ??.) ciaeoea
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? E.I.Eae?i?ii?;
iaoeia? canaaee ?aoi?ioaaiiy oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiiiai
a?aeae?eo ina?oe a no/anieo oiiaao ?ice?eoi I.?.Cae/aiei (1998 ?.).

Aiae?c noaio aeine?aeaeaiino? i?iaeaie na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iaaia
/anoeia ?noi?e/ieo aeaea?ae, iniaeeai a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a ?
iaaeaaia?/ii? ia??iaeeee, ua ia ? aaaaeaiith a iaoeiaee ia?a.
Iaa?iiaaeaeai? a?o/eciyiith iaoeith aeai? iaaeinoaoiuei oa?aeoa?ecothoue
ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy ina?oe c ?icaeoeo nenoaie i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a a Oe?a?i?, ua a?aeo? oaeiae
aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? a ?ice?eaaee ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ia
cia/aiiy ? aeina?ae ?iaioe ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ina?oe c ??cieo aniaeo?a
?o ae?yeueiino?. Aeooaeuei?noue aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia oaeiae
cia/ou?noth ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a
ia?iaeii? ina?oe c ieoaiue i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo
eaae??a.

Ioaea, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy cacia/aii? i?iaeaie, a oaeiae ??
iaaeinoaoiy ?ic?iaeai?noue o iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe? coiiaeee aea?? oaie
iaoiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy “Ae?yeuei?noue ?aeiiieo
a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo
eaae??a a Oe?a?i? (1945 — 1990 ??.)”.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue 1945 – 1990 ??. c
aecia/aiiyi o?ueio ia??iae?a: 1)1945-1956 ??.; 2) 1957-1967 ??.; 3)
1968-1990 ??.

Eiaeai ?c aeae?eaieo ia??iae?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ia’?eoeaieie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie, iie?oe/ieie oa eoeueoo?ieie iniaeeainoyie
?icaeoeo e?a?ie, nenoaie ina?oe oa nenoaie i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a ye oe?eani?yiiaaiiai i?ioeano aaeineiiaeaiiy ?o
i?ioan?eii? eiiiaoaioiino?, niaoeeo?eith aaiethoe?? i?aaeiaoa
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei oaiaoe/iiai ieaio iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie i?e ?ic?iaoe? oaie
“I?iaeaie oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieie caeeaaeaie a oiiaao
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy”.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy: ae?yeuei?noue ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii?
ina?oe a Oe?a?i? (1945-1990 ??.).

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ae?yeuei?noue ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii?
ina?oe c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a (1945-1990
??.).

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: cae?enieoe ?ao?iniaeoeaiee ?
eiino?oeoeaii-e?eoe/iee aiae?c aaiaceno no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a
?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe, iniiaieo aniaeo?a, ci?noo oa oi?i
?o ae?yeueiino? c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a a
ie?aneaieo o?iiieia?/ieo ?aieao; aeyaeoe oaiaeaioe?? oa caeiiii??iino?
aieeao iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia ia noai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a,
iiaeeeainoae ?o aeno?aiieyoe??.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

– aecia/eoe oa iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe ?aoe?iiaeueio ia??iaeecaoe?th
ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe c i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a;

– ?ice?eoe nooi?noue aca?iica’yceo aaiaceno nenoaie i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a oa nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe;

– ?ice?eoe i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/i? canaaee ae?yeueiino? no?oeoo?ieo
i?ae?icae?e?a ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe c i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a; aeyaeoe oaiaeaioe?? oa
caeiiii??iino? aeeiai?ee iiiaeaiiy ?? ci?noo, no?oeoo?e, oi?i ? iaoiae?a
?iaioe;

– ?ic?iaeoe oa iaa?oiooaaoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeioe?eueiino?
aeei?enoaiiy aeina?aeo ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe
c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a o no/anieo oiiaao.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? o?einionuee? iieiaeaiiy i?i
ae?aeaeoe/iee aca?iica’ycie ? aca?iicoiiaeai?noue yaeu oa i?ioean?a
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?eniino?; nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei
oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? ?aeAII c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a; i?eioeeie ae?aeaeoeei-iaoa??ae?noe/iiai
na?oiaeyaeo (iaoeiaino?, ?noi?ecio, ae?aeaeoe/iiai i?ioe??//y, ?aeiino?
e?eueeino? oa yeino?, ?icaeoeo, eaocaeueiino? oa ?i.).

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy: 1) aea?aeaai?, ia?o?ei?,
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/i? aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai
a?o?ao aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie (OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie),
cie?aia oiiaee 1, 166, a yeeo caa??aathoueny iinoaiiae ?aaee Ia?iaeieo
Eii?na??a O?N?; iaeace I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe O?N?, ye? ia iioae?eiaai? o
ca??ieeao iaeac?a II O?N?; a?aeiiino? i?i e?euee?noue
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueieo iaeeieoeue O?N? (nienee iiaiooai?aieo
?aeii?a O?N?); ??/i? ca?oe i?i ?iaioo iaeanieo ?inoeooo?a oaeineiiaeaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a (Oiiae 1, Ii.20, Ni?.: 185, 465. Oiiae 166,
Ii.15, Ni?.: 4, 7, 215, 108, 1155, 1785; Ni?.15. o.?V, Ni?.5359); 2)
a?o?ai? iaoa??aee, aee?aeoeai? ? ii?iaoeai? aeieoiaioe Aea?aeaaiiai
a?o?ao E??iaia?aaenueei? iaeano? (AeAEI) (Oiiae 3175, Ii.1 aeii., Ni?.:
1, 2, 15; Ii.2, Ni?.: 29, 30; Ii.3, Ni?.: 35, 45, 47. Oiiae 4789, Ii.4,
Ni?.: 10, 14, 15, 37, 44, 45, 139, 190, 278, 302). A i?ioean?
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaii ? ii?aoeueiaaii 26
a?o?aieo ni?aa, ye? aia?oa aaaaeai? a iaoeiaee ia?a; 3) 67 ioae?eaoe?e o
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiyo c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy 1945 — 1990 ??. ?c
oiiae?a Oeaio?aeueii? iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee IAI Oe?a?ie ?i.
A.Aa?iaaenueeiai, Iaoe?iiaeueii? Ia?eaiaionueei? a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie,
?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie, E??iaia?aaenueei? aea?aeaaii?
iaeanii? oi?aa?naeueii? iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee ?i. Ae.?.*eaeaanueeiai,
Eieaeeiai? iaeaoe Oe?a?ie; 4) 15 ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo oa
?ino?oeoeaii-iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a a?o?ao oa a?ae?ioaee Aea?aeaaii?
Aeaaeai?? ea??aieo eaae??a; 5) iiiia?ao??, iin?aieee, noaoo?
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, aeena?oaoe??, aaoi?aoa?aoe, iaoiaee/i? eenoe oa
iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, a yeeo aena?oeaia i?iaeaia oi?aae?iiy
?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ina?oe c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo
eaae??a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeiny i?ioyaii 1994 – 1999 ??. e ioiieth?
e?eueea aoai?a:

ia ia?oiio aoai? (1994 – 1996 ??.) aea/aany noai aeine?aeaeaiino?
i?iaeaie oeyoii ii?aoethaaiiy oa aiae?co ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e, aecia/aeenue iniiai? iai?yie, ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa ?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy; i?iaiaeeeany nenoaiaoecaoe?y oa ia?aeiia
ocaaaeueiaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aea/aiiy ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo
a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo
eaae??a (1945 – 1990 ??.);

ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1996 – 1997 ??.) aiae?coaaeeny a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe,
ia?o?eii-o?yaeia? iinoaiiae, iaeace oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? i?aai?a ia?iaeii?
ina?oe c oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, cae?enithaaany ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, ?o nenoaiaoecaoe?y oa ocaaaeueiaiiy, ui aeaei
ciiao aeyaeoe oaiaeaioe?? ? caeiiii??iino? aeeiai?ee ci?noo, no?oeoo?e
oa oi?i ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe c i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a;

ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1997 – 1999 ??.) ie?aneaii oeyoe aeei?enoaiiy
aeina?aeo ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe c
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a o no/anieo oiiaao;
oi?ioethaaeeny aeniiaee, cae?enithaaeiny ci?noiai-e?oa?aoo?ia ioi?ieaiiy
aeena?oaoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o:

– iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaii? ia??iaeecaoe?? ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo
a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo
eaae??a;

– aeyaeaii? aca?iica’yceo aaiaceno no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a ?aeAII, ia
ye? iieeaaeaeeny caaaeaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo
eaae??a, oa nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy;

– aecia/aii? i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo canaae (aea?aeaaieo oa
a?iiaaenueei-aeaiie?aoe/ieo) ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii?
ina?oe c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o aeyaeaii?
oaiaeaioe?e oa caeiiii??iinoae aeeiai?ee ci?noo, no?oeoo?e oa oi?i
ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe c i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a; aia?oa a iaoeiaee ia?a aaaaeaii
iaa?aeii? oa iaeia?aeii? a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe, ui ?ice?eaathoue ?icaeoie
nenoaie i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a o ae?yeueiino?
?aeAII a ia??iae c 1945 ii 1990 ??.

Cae?eniaia aeine?aeaeaiiy caaaa/o? ciaiiy c ?noi??? ?icaeoeo i?aai?a
oi?aae?iiy ina?oith a Oe?a?i?, cie?aia aeaieie i?i nenoaio i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a, eiie?aoieie oaeoaie, aeieoiaioaie ?
aeniiaeaie, aiae?cii noia?a/eeaiai oa iaiaeiicia/iiai oa?aeoa?o iinooio
iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee .

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aecia/a?oueny iiaeeea?noth aeei?enoaiiy eiai
iaoa??ae?a i?aoe?aieeaie i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy ina?oe, cie?aia
?iniaeoi?aie, iaoiaeenoaie ?aeiiieo ??ai?a, ea??aieeaie caeeaae?a
ina?oe. Aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c ieoaiue i?aai?caoe?? oa ci?noo
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?ae /an ?ic?iaee e?eoa???a ioe?iee ae?yeueiino? ?aeAII c
aeaiiai aniaeoo i?aoe?aieeaie iaoeiaeo onoaiia, o i?ioean?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oai??? oa ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee, aea/aiiy eo?no ?noi???
iaaeaaia?ee a iaaeaaia?/ieo aocao. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae
aoaeooue oe?iieie i?ae /an ?ic?iaee iioeiaeueieo iiaeaeae nenoaie
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a o ?aeii? c o?aooaaiiyi
niaoeeo?ee ?aeiio, i?iaiicoaaii? iiaeaeueoiai ?o ?icaeoeo.

A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a ? iniiaieo aeniiae?a caaacia/aia:
iaoiaeieiai-oai?aoe/iei iaa?oiooaaiiyi aeo?aeieo iiceoe?e
aeine?aeaeaiiy; ia’?eoeaiei ?noi?eei-eia?/iei aiae?cii aaeeeiai ianyao
oa oe?ieiai niaeo?o a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, ii?iaoeaieo oa aee?aeoeaieo
aeieoiaio?a, e?oa?aoo?ieo oa ?ioeo aeaea?ae; aeei?enoaiiyi
aca?iicoiiaeaieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaeaeaaoieo eiai iao? oa
caaaeaiiyi.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
iaaeaaia?ee E??iaia?aaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i.A. Aeiie/aiea oa eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? E??iaia?aaenueeiai
iaeaniiai ?inoeoooo oaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a, o eaai?aoi??yo oai??? oa
?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee, oi?aae?iiy ina?oi?ie caeeaaeaie oa ia?aaeiaiai
aeina?aeo ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie (i.Ee?a). Ai?iaiaaii aeai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia I?aeaoc?anuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Iaoiaee/i? iniaeeaino? aeeeaaeaiiy o?ceee ia no/aniiio aoai?”
(i.E??iaia?aae, 1994 ?.); Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Ceaoii?euenueea a?iiac?y: ieioea, no/ania, iaeaooi?”
(i.Iiaiie?ai?iae, 1996 ?.); Einothe?anueeeo /eoaiiyo “Ineoieia?y ia
ia?aoei? oeny/ie?oue” (i.Ee?a, 1999 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii iaoiaee/iee
iin?aiee “I?aai?caoe?eii-eiio?iethth/a ae?yeuei?noue ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a
ia?iaeii? ina?oe c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a a
Oe?a?i? (1945 — 1956 ??.)”, 7 iaeiiin?aieo noaoae, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue
iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ca ?icae?eaie, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ? a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a. Iniiaiee oaeno aeeeaaeaii
ia 190 noi??ieao. Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ai?uo? 269
iaeiaioaaiue. ?iaioa i?noeoue 3 oaaeeoe?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy oa eiai o?iiieia?/i?
iaae?, aecia/athoueny ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa ? caaaeaiiy;
iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee, iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy, iaoiaee ? aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy; aeeeaaeai?
iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, aena?oeth?oueny ai?iaaoe?y ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “I?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue ?aeiiieo
a?aeae?e?a ina?oe c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a
(1945 — 1956 ??.)” i?iaiae?ciaaii oa ?ice?eoi niaoeeo?eo
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a
ia?iaeii? ina?oe c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a i?ney
Ae?oai? Na?oiai? a?eie; ci?no, oi?ie oa iaoiaee ae?yeueiino? oe?eueii?
?iniaeoe?? ?aeAII; aaiacen iaoiaee/ieo no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a ?aeAII.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui iniiaieie oiiaaie, ye? ni?eyee
noaiiaeaiith ? ?icaeoeo nenoaie oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? ?aeAII, ?
iie?oe/i?, aeiiii?/i? oa nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? i?ioeane, oa?aeoa?i?
aeey iaaiiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa e?a?ie.

Ae?yeuei?noue ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe a ia??iae 1945 — 1956
??. aecia/aeany aea?aeaaiith iie?oeeith a aaeoc? ina?oe, yea iieyaaea o
a?aeiiaeaii? a i?neyai?ii? ?iee ia?aae? oe?e c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee
?aa?ii?a O?N? oa iiiiaiaii? nenoaie ina?oe iaaeaaia?/ieie eaae?aie, ui
iia’ycaii c aino?ith ianoa/ath a/eoae?a i?ney Ae?oai? Na?oiai? a?eie,
ia?aoiaeii ?o ia ?iaioo a ?io? aaeoc? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa. Oiio a
oeaio?? oaaae ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe aoee iaaeaaia?/i?
eaae?e. Caaaeyee oe?eani?yiiaai?e, ieaiii??i?e, iaiieaaeea?e ?iaio?
?aeAII, i?ioyaii aeaio i’yoe??/ie ci?ieany e?euee?niee oa ye?niee neeaae
o/eoaeuenueeeo eaae??a ?anioae?ee. Ii??aiyii c 1946/1947 i.?., ia
ii/aoie 1956/1957 i.?. e?euee?noue o/eoae?a ca?eueoeeany ia 120133
/ieia?ee, a oiio /ene? c aeuith ina?oith c?inea ia 64614 /ieia?e aai ia
74,9%, a c ina?oith ca o/eoaeuenueeee ?inoeooo – a?eueo, i?ae ia 50 oen.
/ieia?e. Ioaea, iiaeaii noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ca oe? ?iee i?iaeaia
caaacia/aiiy caeeaae?a ina?oe iaaeaaia?/ieie eaae?aie a iniiaiiio aoea
?ica’ycaia. I?ia?aeiith oi?iith o iaaooo? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe aoei cai/ia
iaa/aiiy. Ca i?neyai?ii? ?iee 117870 o/eoae?a cai/ii cae?i/eee
iaaeaaia?/i? oa o/eoaeuenuee? ?inoeoooe, oi?aa?neoaoe ? iaaeaaia?/i?
o/eeeua.

?noi?eei-eia?/iee aiae?c a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a iieacaa, ui aei inai? 1948
?. ieoaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a o eiaeiiio ?aa?ii? O?N?
?ica’ycoaaeiny caeaaeii a?ae ?o niaoeeo?/ieo oiia ? i?ioan?eiiai ??aiy
ea??aieo oa o/eoaeuenueeeo eaae??a. ?aeeieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe O?N? uiaei ci?noo, oi?i ? iaoiae?a oe??? ?iaioe ia aoei. C iaoith
oii?yaeeoaaiiy ?iaioe ?aeAII oa ?ioeo onoaiia uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a I?i?noa?noai ina?oe O?N? caoaa?aeeei
“Iieiaeaiiy i?i ?aeeio nenoaio i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a oa
i?aoe?aiee?a a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe O?N?” (1948 ?.), ca?aeii yeiai
i??i?eoaoieie ooieoe?yie ?aeAII aaaaeaeenue: i?aai?caoe?y ? eiio?ieue ca
noaiii aeiai?o oa ?icnoaiiaee iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a, caaacia/aiiy
ioiieaiiy a/eoae?a a?aeiia?aeieie oi?iaie i?aeaeuaiiy ?o eaae?o?eaoe??.

I?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy ?aeaeii-iie?oe/iiai oa iaoiaee/iiai ??aiy a/eoae?a
oeiee aoee i?a?iaaoeaith an?o no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a ?aeAII, a oiio
/ene? oe?eueiiai ?iniaeoi?a. A oeae ia??iae ia?o?eieie oa aea?aeaaieie
i?aaiaie, I?i?noa?noaii ina?oe nenoaiaoe/ii ? iine?aeiaii oi?ioaaany
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iee noaoon oe?eueiiai ?iniaeoi?a. Na?ae/aiiyi oeueiai
aoei i?eeiyooy “Iieiaeaiiy i?i ?iniaeoi?a oe?e” (1945 ?.), a yeiio
aecia/aii i?aai?caoe?eii-ci?noiao nenoaio eiai ae?yeueiino?. A oeae
ia??iae ?iniaeoi?nueeee aea?aeaaiee eiio?ieue cina?aaeaeoaaany aieiaiei
/eiii ia ia?aa??oe? yeino? iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy o/i?a ye iieaciee
?acoeueoaoeaiino? iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey. Iniiaieie oi?iaie
?iniaeooaaiiy ae?yeueiino? oeiee aoee o?iioaeueia, aea??eiaa ?
oaiaoe/ia. Iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?i ia?aa??ee a oeaio?? oaaae ?iniaeoi?a
aoea ianaiia?aae ae?yeuei?noue ea??aiee?a oeiee oa a/eoae?a. I?e oeueiio
oaeineiiaethaaeeny oa o??ciiiai?oithaaeeny iaoiaee ?iniaeooaaiiy ?
i?aeaaaeaiiy eiai i?aenoie?a.

Aiae?c a?o?aieo aeaea?ae, iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, ii?iaoeaieo ?
aee?aeoeaieo aeieoiaio?a aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iaoiaee/ia ?iaioa
a ?aeii? ca nai?i ci?noii, oi?iaie ? iaoiaeaie cae?eniaiiy
aeaeici?ithaaeany a caeaaeiino? a?ae ci?i iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo oa
nioe?aeueieo oiia ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa e?a?ie, ina?oiuei? ia?aaeeaie oa
aeiia aei oaoiaiai ??aiy a/eoae?a. Iniaeeaa oaaaa a icia/ai? ?iee
i?eae?eyeany caaacia/aiith iaia?a?aiino? i?ioeano i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a caniaaie i/ii-cai/iiai iaa/aiiy o
ii?aeiaii? c oe?eani?yiiaaiith naiiina?oith.

Nooue aaiaceno iaoiaee/iiai no?oeoo?iiai i?ae?icae?eo ?aeAII iieyaaea a
oiio, ui a iniiaiiio a e?ioe? 40-o ?ie?a caaa?oeany i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
iaeaaaeeea?oeo no?oeoo?ieo ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo eiiiiiaio?a nenoaie
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a a Oe?a?inuee?e ?N?,
na?aae yeeo /?oei aecia/aeeny eiai i?noea, ?ieue, iaoa, caaaeaiiy oa
ci?no.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?noioiee aieea ia iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie nenoaie
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a a ?aeii? iaee
aeaiia?ao?/i? ? i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/i? oaeoi?e, i?ae aieeaii yeeo
oi?ioaaeany oe?eueia ia?aaea. A?ae e?eueeino? o/i?a o oeieao, a?aenoai?
i?ae ieie caeaaeaee no?oeoo?a iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe a ?aeii?, oi?ie ?
iniaeeaino? ?? i?aai?caoe??, ooieoe?e ?aeiiieo iaaeaaia?/ieo eaa?iao?a
a?aeiia?aeii aei iiaeo iieiaeaiue (1948 ?.).

Aaaeeeai cacia/eoe, ui “Iieiaeaiiy i?i ?aeeio nenoaio i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a oa i?aoe?aiee?a a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe O?N?”
a?ae?a?aaaei ye iiceoeaio, oae ? iaaaoeaio ?ieue. C iaeiiai aieo,
iaoiaee/ia ?iaioa ia ??ai? ?aeAII iaaoea oe?eani?yiiaaiiai oa
ci?noiaiiai oa?aeoa?o: a?ae/ooii i?aeaeueany ?aeaeii-iie?oe/iee,
caaaeueiiiaaeaaia?/iee oa iaoiaee/iee ??aaiue i?aeaioiaee, noi?iiaaiino?
iaae/ie naiino?eii? ?iaioe a/eoae?a o aaeoc? oai??? ?
aenia?eiaioaeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?. C ?ioiai aieo, a
i?aeoeoe? ?iaioe ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe e ?aeiaaeeaa?iao?a
a?ae/oaaeany aei?noea ?aaeaiaioaoe?y ci?noo oa i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a; iaee i?noea aeaiaioe
oi?iae?cio, ui ia??aeei i?ecaiaeeei aei ia?aaaioaaeaiiy a/eoae?a. Iaeiei
?c iaaaoeaieo oaeoi??a aieeao ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?aeeii? nenoaie
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a aoea a?aenooi?noue ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeaeaiue oe??? i?iaeaie oa iaaeinoaoi?noue
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e.

Iniiaiei no?oeoo?iei i?ae?icae?eii ?aeeii? nenoaie i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a, ?o oaoiaiai ??aiy e iaaeaaia?/ii?
iaenoa?iino? o cacia/aiee ia??iae (1945 — 1956 ??.) aoa ?aeiiiee
iaaeaaia?/iee eaa?iao, yeee a?ae?a?aaaa iiceoeaio ?ieue o oe?e ni?aa?.
Iaeiae o ca’yceo c? nei?i/aiiyi eaae??a oi?aae?inueeiai aia?aoo a 1956
?. ?aeiii? iaaeaaia?/i? eaa?iaoe aoee e?ea?aeiaai?, ui iaaaoeaii
aieeioei ia ??aaiue i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a .

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Niaoeeo?ea ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a
ia?iaeii? ina?oe c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a a
oiiaao cae?eniaiiy caaaeueii? na?aaeiuei? ina?oe (1957 — 1990 ??.)”
?ice?eoi aea?aeaaii-a?iiaaenuee? canaaee, iniaeeaino? ae?yeueiino?
?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe oa ?o no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a,
ci?no ? oi?ie i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a a oiiaao
?aoi?ie oeiee, ?ioaineaiiai cae?eniaiiy ia?aoiaeo aei caaaeueii?
na?aaeiuei? ina?oe, iie?oaoi?/iiai iaa/aiiy ? o?oaeiaiai aeoiaaiiy
i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy; ca’yceo iaa/aiiy c aeeooyi, caeo/aiiy o/i?a
aei iaa/aeueii-i?iaeoeoeaii? i?aoe?, i?aeaioiaee ?o aei o/ano? o
ae?iaieoeoa? iaoa??aeueieo oa aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae. Oa?aeoa?
ae?yeueiino? ?aeAII o cacia/aiee ia??iae c aniaeoo aeine?aeaeaiiy
aecia/aany niaoeeo?eith nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
nenoaie ina?oe a Oe?a?inuee?e ?N?. Aoa i?eeiyoee “Caeii i?i oeieo” (1958
?.), yeee ia?aaeaa/aa caaacia/aiiy o/iyi aeeaieeo, i?oeieo ciaiue,
i?aeoe/ieo iaae/ie aeei?enoaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue c iniia iaoe;
iineeaiiy ?icaeoeo i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a o
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean?. Oea coiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue iiiaeaiiy
ci?noo ? oi?i ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe c
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a; ?icoe?aiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaia’yce?a ?iniaeoi??a, ye? iieyaaee o cae?eniaii?
i?aai?caoe??, eiii?aeeiaoe??, iae?eo ? eiio?ieth ca noaiii iaoiaee/ii?
?iaioe. O i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaia’yce?a ?iniaeoi?a
i?aaaethaaea ooieoe?y eiio?ieth ca ae?yeuei?noth oeiee a oe?eiio ? ca
noaiii iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe cie?aia. Ia?aaaioaaeaiiy ?iniaeoi?a
cacia/aieie aeua iaia’yceaie cieaeoaaei aoaeoeai?noue ?o
eiinoeueoaoeaii-eiio?iethth/i? ooieoe??. Naia oeeie ianoaaeiaie
iiynith?oueny aaaaeaiiy iinaaee a?iiaaenueeiai ?iniaeoi?a oa Iieiaeaiiy
i?i eiai caaaeaiiy, ooieoe?iiaeuei? iaia’ycee, iniiai? iai?yie
ae?yeueiino?. Iaeiae aea?aeaai? oa a?iiaaenuee? ?iniaeoi?nuee? neoaeae
caaacia/eoe ye?nio iaoiaee/io ?iaioo c o/eoaeyie ?aeii?a ia ciiaee, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny a?ae?iaeaeaiiyi (ia ii/aoeo 60-o ?ie?a)
iaaeaaia?/ieo eaa?iao?a, aea ia a?iiaaenueeeo canaaeao. Nii/aoeo ia?aaea
oaeeo eaa?iao?a ?icaeaaeany caaaeyee ?i?oe?aoea? ia i?noeyo (o
A?iieoeuee?e, Oiaeueieoeuee?e, Caii??cuee?e, ??aiainuee?e, Noinuee?e oa
?ioeo iaeanoyo). Eia?/iei aea?aeaaiei aeoii aoei i?eeiyooy “Iieiaeaiiy
i?i iaaeaaia?/i? eaa?iaoe ia a?iiaaenueeeo canaaeao” (1964 ?.).
Caeaaeii a?ae iio?aa ? niaoeeo?ee ?aa?iio noai?thaaeeny i?aeoe?euei? ?
ciiaeuei? iaaeaaia?/i? eaa?iaoe. ?iaioa iaaeaaia?/ieo eaa?iao?a
ni?yiiaoaaeany ia i?aeaeuaiiy ?aeaeii-oai?aoe/iiai ??aiy a/eoae?a,
iiaeeaeaiiy ?o oaoiaeo ciaiue, iciaeiieaiiy c aeinyaiaiiyie iaoee,
oaoi?ee, ienoaoeoaa, aeyaeaiiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy oa iioe?aiiy ia?aaeiaiai
aeina?aeo ? iaoiaee/ii? iaenoa?iino?.

O oeae ia??iae aoea aaaaeaia iinaaea a?iiaaenueeiai iaoiaeenoa. Eiai
caaaeaiiy, ci?no ?iaioe, ooieoe?iiaeuei? iaia’ycee, iniiai? oi?ie
ae?yeueiino? aecia/aeeny “Iieiaeaiiyi i?i a?iiaaenueeiai iaoiaeenoa
?aeiiiiai, i?nueeiai, iaeaniiai a?aeae?eo ia?iaeii? ina?oe oa
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe O?N?” (1964 ?.).

O ia??iae, ui aeine?aeaeoaaany, iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo iaaoaaee
a?iiaaenuee? e aeaiie?aoe/i? canaaee oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a. Oeaio?ii iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe noaea
caaaeueiiina?oiy oeiea. I?ia?aeieie oi?iaie aioo??oiueioe?eueii?
iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe onoaeeeenue: iaoiaee/i? ia’?aeiaiiy, i?aaeiaoi?
eii?n??, nai?ia?e, nai?ia?e-i?aeoeeoie, naiino?eia ?iaioa. ?icoe?eeany
ia?aaea ?aeiiieo, i?nueeeo, eouiaeo, ciiaeueieo iaaeaaia?/ieo eaa?iao?a,
iii?ieo oe?e, oe?e ia?aaeiaiai iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo, ye? i?aoethaaee
ia a?iiaaenueeeo canaaeao. Naiiina?oa, ye ? o iiia?aaei?e ia??iae,
na?aae oi?i i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a aoea i?ia?aeiith. O
ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe ? iaoiaee/ieo neoaea
i?aaaethaaea oaiaeaioe?y oi?o?eaoe?? ci?noo ? iaoiaeeee i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe??.

Ia ii/aoeo 70-o ?ie?a a?aeiia?aeii aei Caeiio O?N? i?i ia?iaeio ina?oo
iiiaeththoueny ci?no ? oi?ie i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo
eaae??a. Iaoiaee/ia ?iaioa iaaoaaea iaoeiaiai, oai?/iai oa?aeoa?o,
c’yaeyeeny iia? i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie ?? cae?eniaiiy (noaaeoaaiiy,
ianoaaieoeoai, oai?/? a?oie a/eoae?a-aeine?aeiee?a oa ?i.); a/eoae?
caeo/aeeny aei aenia?eiaioaeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii Iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?inoeooo?a iaaeaaia?ee oa ineoieia??
O?N? (c ia?aa??ee oa ai?iaaoe?? iaa/aeueieo ieai?a, i?ia?ai, iiaeo
i?ae?o/iee?a ? oaeoeueoaoea?a), aei nenoaie iie?oe/ii? ina?oe.

Iaoiaee/ia ?iaioa, yea cae?enithaaeany a oeae ia??iae ia?aaaaeii ia
a?iiaaenueeeo canaaeao, ia aeinyaaea iaiao?aeii? ?acoeueoaoeaiino?. A
oiio I?i?noa?noaii ina?oe O?N? aoei aeaeaii iaeac (1967 ?.), yeei
?aeiii? a?aeae?ee ia?iaeii? ina?oe ciaia’ycoaaeeny noai?eoe iaoiaee/i?
eaa?iaoe, ae?yeuei?noue yeeo aeaoa?i?ioaaeany “Iieiaeaiiyi i?i ?aeiii?
(i?nuee?) iaoiaee/i? eaa?iaoe Oe?a?inueei? ?N?” (1967 ?.). Ca oeeo oiia
oeaio?ii iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe c o/eoaeyie c i?aeaeuaiiy ?o
?aeaeii-iie?oe/iiai, oaoiaiai, iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai ??aiy noaa
iaoiaee/iee eaa?iao.

Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth aeey oeueiai ia??iaeo aoea aca?iiae?y nenoaie
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a c i?aeaioiaeith a/eoae?a
o aocao.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui o no?oeoo??
ae?yeueiino? ?iniaeoi??a oe?e iaaiith i??ith a?ae/oaaeiny ci?uaiiy
aeoeaioo c eiio?iethth/i? ooieoe?? ia i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/io oa
?ino?oeoeaii-iaoiaee/io. Ia ?aeiii? a?aeae?ee ia?iaeii? ina?oe
iieeaaeaeiny caaaeaiiy noai?aiiy iioeiaeueieo oiia aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iiaeo iaa/aeueieo ieai?a, i?ia?ai, i?ae?o/iee?a ? a?aeiia?aeii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a aei ?o ?aae?caoe??.

O 1974 ?ioe? “Caeiiii Oe?a?inueei? ?N? i?i ia?iaeio ina?oo” aaaaeaii
aoanoaoe?th a/eoae?a ye iaeio ?c oi?i i?aeaeuaiiy ?o eaae?o?eaoe??. Ia
aeeiiaiiy oeueiai Caeiio aoei i?eeiyoi “Iieiaeaiiy i?i ii?yaeie
i?iaaaeaiiiy aoanoaoe?? a/eoae?a caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e”. Oe? aeieoiaioe
iiceoeaii aieeioee ia ?acoeueoaoe aoanoaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a.

?acoeueoaoe aiae?co aee?aeoeaii-ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a oa e?oa?aoo?e c
ieoaiue i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a o ae?yeueiino?
?aeAII iieacaee, ui iineeeeany oaaaa aei iiiaeaiiy ci?noo oa ?ie?
iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe o i?aeaeuaii? ?aeaeii-iie?oe/iiai,
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiai ??aiy, iaoiaee/ii? i?aeaioiaee ? i?ioan?eii?
iaenoa?iino? a/eoae?a. Iniaeeai aaaeeeaei ? oa, ui o cacia/aiee ia??iae
aeoea?coaaeany ae?yeuei?noue o/aieo, i?aoe?aiee?a I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
O?N? oa i?aai?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe uiaei ?ic?iaee oai?aoe/ieo canaae,
ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo ?iaioe ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe c
ieoaiue i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a. Ie?ai? aniaeoe
oe??? i?iaeaie aena?oeaii o iiiia?ao?yo, iin?aieeao, iaoiaee/ieo eenoao,
noaooyo.

Oaeei /eiii, niaoeeo?ea ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii?
ina?oe c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a o cacia/aiee
ia??iae (1957 — 1990 ??.) iieyaaea o: ci?i? no?oeoo?e iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe
a ?aeii? o ca’yceo c a?aee?eooyi iaoiaee/ieo eaa?iao?a, ye? noaee
oeaio?ii i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe c i?aeaeuaiiy ?aeaeii-iie?oe/iiai,
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiai ? iaoiaee/iiai ??aiy, i?ioan?eii? iaenoa?iino?
a/eoae?a; iiaea?i?caoe?? ci?noo i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a a
oiiaao cae?eniaiiy caaaeueii? na?aaeiuei? ina?oe; iioeiaeueiiio
ii?aeiaii? eieaeoeaieo ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo oi?i iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe,
na?aae yeeo i??i?eoaoieie aoee aoanoaoe?y oa naiiina?oa a/eoae?a;
i?aeaeuaii? iaoeiaiai ? oai?/iai ??aiy iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe c o/eoaeyie;
iiya? iiaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe c o/eoaeyie;
iineeaii? aca?iica’yce?a oa aca?iiae?? an?o no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a
nenoaie i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a;
aeaiie?aoecaoe?? oa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? nenoaie i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a; aeoea?caoe?? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? oa
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? ae?yeueiino? iaoiaee/ieo neoaea ?aeAII.

O caaaeueieo aeniiaeao aeeeaaeaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy:
oaiaeaioe?? ? caeiiii??iino? ci?ie ci?noo ? oi?i i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a o ae?yeueiino? ?aeAII; aecia/aii
ia?niaeoeai? oeyoe ?icaeoeo no?oeoo?iiai iaoiaee/iiai i?ae?icae?eo
?aeAII, eiai i?noea ? ?ieue o nenoai? i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a.

Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co oe?eae, caaaeaiue, ci?noo,
ooieoe?e, oi?i ? i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo ?iaioe ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a
ia?iaeii? ina?oe aecia/aia oa iaa?oioiaaia ia??iaeecaoe?y ?o
ae?yeueiino? c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a, yea
coiiaeaia ia’?eoeaieie ci?iaie: iie?oeee ia?o?? oa o?yaeo a aaeoc?
ina?oe; ina?oi?o ia?aaeeai ? ci?noo ina?oe a Nithc? ?N? oa Oe?a?inuee?e
?N?; nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie ina?oe oa ??
neeaaeiaeo; aeiia noni?euenoaa aei ina?oiueiai oa oaoiaiai ??aiy
a/eoae?a; aee?aeoeaii-ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a, ye? aeaoa?i?ioaaee oa
?aaoethaaee ?o ae?yeuei?noue.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo
a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo
eaae??a ioiieththoue 1945 -1990 ??., a yeeo aeae?eaii o?e iniiai?
ia??iaee: 1) 1945 — 1956 ??.; 2) 1957 — 1967 ??.; 3) 1968 — 1990 ??.

Ia??iae 1945 — 1956 ??. – iaeei ?c neeaaeieo o ?icaeoeo nenoaie
ia?iaeii? ina?oe Oe?a?inueei? ?N?, ui iiynith?oueny niaoeeo?eith
i?neyai?iieo ?ie?a. Aea?aeaaia iie?oeea o aaeoc? ina?oe a oeae ia??iae
iieyaaea o a?aeiiaeaii? ia?aae? oe?e c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ?aa?ii?a
?anioae?ee oa iiiiaiaii? nenoaie ina?oe iaaeaaia?/ieie eaae?aie.

O cacia/aiee ia??iae oeaio?aeueiith eaieith a nenoai? i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a aoea iaoiaee/ia ?iaioa ia aac?
?aeiaaeeaa?iao?a, a i?ia?aeiith oi?iith i?aeaeuaiiy ina?oiueiai ??aiy
a/eoae?a – i/ii-cai/ia iaa/aiiy o ii?aeiaii? c oe?eani?yiiaaiith
naiiina?oith.

?iaioa ?aeAII c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a
ia?aaaaeii cae?enithaaeany iaoiaeenoaie ia aac? ?aeiaaeeaa?iao?a /a?ac
nenoaio ?aeiiieo oa eouiaeo iaoiaee/ieo ia’?aeiaiue, iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe
a oeieao a?aeiia?aeii aei iiaeo iieiaeaiue (1948 ?.). O i?ioean?
aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui a?eueo?noue ?aeiaaeeaa?iao?a ia
i?eae?eyee iaeaaeii? oaaae aea/aiith noaio aeeeaaeaiiy iaa/aeueieo
i?aaeiao?a ? yeino? ciaiue o/i?a, ea??aieoeoao iaoiaee/iith ?iaioith a
oeieao, ocaaaeueiaiith oa iioe?aiith ia?aaeiaiai aeina?aeo.

Ae?oaee ia??iae 1957 — 1967 ??. oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iiaeaeueoith
?ioaineaiith ?iaioith ia?o?eieo, aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a oa i?aai?a
ia?iaeii? ina?oe uiaei cae?eniaiiy caaaeueii? na?aaeiuei? ina?oe.
Iaoiaee/ia ?iaioa c iaaeaaia?/ieie eaae?aie cae?enithaaeany ia?aaaaeii
oe?eueieie ?iniaeoi?aie ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe.
Eii?aeeiaoe?eio ooieoe?th a ?aa?ii? aeeiioaaa iaeaniee ?inoeooo
oaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a. Cia/ii ?icoe?eeeny ooieoe?iiaeuei? iaia’ycee
?iniaeoi??a, ui ia ni?eyei iie?ioaiith yeino? iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe c
o/eoaeyie oe?e. Naia oeei iiynith?oueny aaaaeaiiy iinaaee a?iiaaenueeiai
oe?eueiiai ?iniaeoi?a oa iieiaeaiiy i?i eiai caaaeaiiy, ooieoe?iiaeuei?
iaia’ycee, iniiai? iai?yie ae?yeueiino?. ?acii c oei ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aea?aeaaieo oa a?iiaaenueeeo ?iniaeoi?nueeeo neoaea ia caaacia/eei
aoaeoeaii? iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe c o/eoaeyie ?aeiio, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
noai?aiiyi ia ii/aoeo 60-o ?ie?a iaaeaaia?/ieo eaa?iao?a ia
a?iiaaenueeeo canaaeao, ?iaioa yeeo ?aaeaiaiooaaeany “Iieiaeaiiyi i?i
iaaeaaia?/i? eaa?iaoe ia a?iiaaenueeeo canaaeao” (1964 ?.). O oeae aea
??e aoea aaaaeaia iinaaea a?iiaaenueeiai iaoiaeenoa, caaaeaiiy, ci?no
?iaioe, ooieoe?iiaeuei? iaia’ycee yeiai aecia/aeeny oeei “Iieiaeaiiyi
…” (1964 ?.). Oaeei /eiii, o cacia/aiee ia??iae iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo
iaaoaaee a?iiaaenuee? e aeaiie?aoe/i? canaaee oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a o ?iaio? ?aeiiieo
a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe. Oeaio?ii iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe aoea
caaaeueiiina?oiy oeiea.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ci?noo ? oi?i i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo
eaae??a cana?ae/o?, ui ?o aeiei??iia iiiaeaiiy coiiaeaia iiaith
ia?aaeeaiith ina?oe. Iaoiaee/ia ?iaioa noaea iaaoaaoe iaoeiaiai oa
oai?/iai oa?aeoa?o, aeieeaee iia? i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie, cie?aia
aenia?eiaioaeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea ?iaioa ca o/anoth iaoeiaeo onoaiia oa
?o i?aoe?aiee?a.

C iaoith caaacia/aiiy iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo nenoaie i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? ? iie?ioaiiy ?? ?acoeueoaoeaiino? iaeacii I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe O?N? aoee a?aee?eo? ?aeiii? iaoiaee/i? eaa?iaoe ye no?oeoo?i?
i?ae?icae?ee ?aeAII, ae?yeuei?noue yeeo aeaoa?i?ioaaeany “Iieiaeaiiyi
i?i ?aeiii? (i?nuee?) iaoiaee/i? eaa?iaoe Oe?a?inueei? ?N?” (1967 ?.).

O?ao?e ia??iae ioiieth? 1968 — 1990 ??., aeey yeiai oa?aeoa?ieie
iciaeaie aoei: aecia/aiiy no?aoaa?/ii? e?i?? ?icaeoeo nenoaie ina?oe –
aaaaeaiiy iaia’yceiaiai ainueie??/iiai iaa/aiiy ? ia?ao?ae aei
caaaeueii? na?aaeiuei? ina?oe, iiaea?i?caoe?y ci?noo ina?oe, iie?ioaiiy
noeeth ? iaoiae?a ea??aieoeoaa ina?oyinueeith ni?aaith, a oiio /ene?
i?aeaeuaiiyi eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a. ?icoe?eany ae?aiacii
iai?yi?a i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? (?aeaeii-iie?oe/ia, oaoiaa
i?aeaioiaea a/eoae?a, ?icaeoie iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino?, caeo/aiiy ?o
aei aenia?eiaioaeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe). Iineeeeany oaaaa aei
iaoiaeieia?/ii? ica?i?iino? a/eoae?a oa ?o iie?oe/ii? ina?oe.

Aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue
i?aenoaae aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a
ia?iaeii? ina?oe c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a o
cacia/aiee ia??iae. Aei ieo a?aeianai?: ci?ia no?oeoo?e iaoiaee/ii?
?iaioe a ?aeii? o ca’yceo c aeaeici?iith iaoiaee/iiai no?oeoo?iiai
i?ae?icae?eo ?aeAII; iiaea?i?caoe?y ci?noo i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a a oiiaao cae?eniaiiy caaaeueii? na?aaeiuei?
ina?oe; iioeiaeueia ii?aeiaiiy eieaeoeaieo ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo oi?i
iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe, na?aae yeeo i??i?eoaoieie aoee aoanoaoe?y oa
naiiina?oa a/eoae?a; i?aeaeuaiiy iaoeiaiai ? oai?/iai ??aiy iaoiaee/ii?
?iaioe; iineeaiiy aca?iica’yce?a oa aca?iiae?? an?o no?oeoo?ieo
i?ae?icae?e?a nenoaie i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a o
ae?yeueiino? ?aeAII.

Aiane?aeie aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a o ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii?
ina?oe a Oe?a?inuee?e ?N? a ie?aneaiee ia??iae aeyaeaii oae?
caeiiii??iino? aeaiiai i?ioeano ? oaiaeaioe?? eiai ?icaeoeo:

– aca?iica’ycie c iie?oe/ieie, nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieie oiiaaie
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie ina?oe;

– noni?eueiee, aeeiai?/iee, aacia?a?aiee, nenoaiiee oa?aeoa? i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a;

– ?aei?noue aea?aeaaiiai, ia?o?eiiai oa a?iiaaenueeiai oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiith i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a ia ?aeiiiiio ??ai?;

– aeaoa?i?iiaai?noue oa oi?o?eiaai?noue ci?noo, i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i ?
no?oeoo?e nenoaie i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a o
ae?yeueiino? ?aeAII;

– aca?iiae?y iaoiaee/ieo neoaea ?aeAII oa caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e,
iii?ieo oe?e, oe?e ia?aaeiaiai iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo;

– aca?iica’ycie eo?niai? i?aeaioiaee ? ia?ai?aeaioiaee, iaoiaee/ii?
?iaioe, aoanoaoe?? oa naiiina?oe a/eoae?a;

– cae?eniaiiy iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe c iaaeaaia?/ieie eaae?aie, i???ioiaaii?
ia ?icaeoie ?o i?ioan?eii? ?i?oe?aoeae, aeoeaiino? oa oai?/ino? a oiiaao
?aoi?ie oeiee;

– aca?iica’ycie nenoaie i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a oa nenoaie
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe;

– ocaiaeaeai?noue ? ianooii?noue o ae?yeueiino? a?aeiia?aeieo onoaiia,
i?aai?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe o ni?aa? i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a;

– i???ioaoe?y ci?noo i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a ia iia?oi?
aeinyaiaiiy iaoee ? oaoi?ee;

– aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y a?aeai?o eiioeiaaioo a/eoae?a, ci?noo, oi?i oa
iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy ?o eaae?o?eaoe?? a?aeiia?aeii aei oaoiaiai,
caaaeueiieoeueoo?iiai ??aiy oa oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo.

?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee aiae?c aaiaceno no?oeoo?iiai iaoiaee/iiai
i?ae?icae?eo ?aeiiiiai a?aeae?eo ia?iaeii? ina?oe aea? iiaeeea?noue
aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeai? oeyoe eiai ?icaeoeo, i?noea oa ?ieue o nenoai?
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a, cie?aia: ia canaaeao
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo ?icoe?thaaoe aa??aoeai?noue oi?i
iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe; i?aeaeuoaaoe aeiiae aei i?ioan?eiiai ??aiy a/eoaey
oa iaaeaaia?/ii? oai?/ino?; oe?eani?yiiaaii iineethaaoe
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee oa?aeoa? iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe; oe?oa aeei?enoiaoaaoe
caeiaooee ieioeiai aeina?aeo ?iaioe ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe
c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a o no/anieo oiiaao.

Aeeiiaiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi ia ae/a?iothoueny an? iiaeeea? aniaeoe oe???
i?iaeaie. Iio?aaothoue a?eueo aeeaieiai aea/aiiy ieoaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a o eiiieaen? an?o no?oeoo?ieo
i?ae?icae?e?a ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ina?oe, a oiio /ene? oi?aae?iiy oeei
i?ioeanii ia ??ai? ?aeAII oa caeeaae?a ina?oe.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

Eai/aiei I.E. I?aai?caoe?eii-eiio?iethth/a ae?yeuei?noue ?aeiiieo
a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo
eaae??a a Oe?a?i? (1945-1956 ??.): Iaoiaee/iee iin?aiee. – E??iaia?aae:
O?aeaen, 1998. – 64 n.

Eai/aiei I.E. Ae?yeuei?noue ia?iaeieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe
Oe?a?ie c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a (1945-1956
??.) // Ina?oa ? oi?aae?iiy. – 1999. – ?1. – N.165-169.

Eai/aiei I.E. Ci?no oa oi?ie i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo
eaae??a a oiiaao ?aoi?ie oeiee (1984-1990 ??.) // Ia???. –
1999. – ?1(8). – N.21-25.

Eai/aiei I.E. Ae?yeuei?noue ?aeiiieo iaaeaaia?/ieo eaa?iao?a c
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a (1945-1956 ??.) //
A?niee Eoaainueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
O.A.Oaa/aiea. – 1999. – ?1. – N.18-28.

Eai/aiei I.E. I?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a a
ae?yeueiino? ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ina?oe (1957-1967 ??.) // Oeyo ina?oe.
– 1999. – ?2. – N.47-51.

Eai/aiei I.E. Ae?yeuei?noue oe?eueii? ?iniaeoe?? ?aeAII c i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a i?ney Ae?oai? Na?oiai? a?eie (1945-1956 ??.) //
??aeia oeiea. – 1999. – ?3. – N.74-77.

*a/ai?ia I.E. (Eai/aiei I.E.) Aeaye? i?iaeaie i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe
iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a oe?e iiaiai oeio (e?oeae, a?iiac?y):
Ceaoii?euenueea a?iiac?y: ieioea, no/ania, iaeaooi?. Iaoa??aee
aeiiia?aeae oa aenooi?a Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
27-28 o?aaiy 1996 ?. – Iiaiie?ai?iae. – 1996. – N.67-70.

Eai/aiei I.E. Aaiacen iaoiaee/iiai i?ae?icae?eo ?aeiiiiai a?aeae?eo
ia?iaeii? ina?oe (1945-1956 ??.). // Ineoieia?y ia ia?aoei? oeny/ie?oue:
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue o/aniee?a I’yoeo Einothe?anueeeo /eoaiue. A 3
o. – E.: Aiicen, 1998. – O.1. – N.559-568.

Eai/aiei I.E. Ae?yeuei?noue ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe c
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a a Oe?a?i?
(1945-1990 ??.). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee. –
?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ae?yeueiino? ?aeAII c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
iaaeeaae??a a Oe?a?i? (1945-1990 ??.). O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy
cae?eniaiee oe?e?niee ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee aiae?c noaio i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeeaae??a o ae?yeueiino? ?aeAII. O ?acoeueoao? c’yniaaia
niaoeeo?ea nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia eiaeiiai ia??iaeo oa ?o aieeao
ia aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe iaoiaee/ieo no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a ?aeAII;
a?aei?ii?noue ci?noo oa oi?i i?aai?caoe?? i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
iaaeeaae??a caeaaeii a?ae ina?oi?o ia?aaeeai, ci?ie iie?oeee aea?aeaae a
aaeoc? ina?oe, nioe?aeueiiai caiiaeaiiy ia iiao aaia?aoe?th iieiae?.

Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia ia??iaeecaoe?y ae?yeueiino? ?aeAII c i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeeaae??a; aeyaeai? oa ?ice?eo?
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/i? canaaee ae?yeueiino? no?oeoo?ieo
i?ae?icae?e?a ?aeAII c i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeeaae??a; aeyaeai?
oaiaeaioe?? oa caeiiii??iino? aeeiai?ee iiiaeaiiy ci?noo, no?oeoo?e ?
oi?i i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? iaaeeaae??a ie?aneaieo ia??iae?a.

Aeyaeaii oaeiae, ye iiceoeaiee oaeoi?, aca?iiae?th iaoiaee/ieo neoaea
?aeAII oa caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e, iii?ieo oe?e, oe?e ia?aaeiaiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo; aca?iica’ycie eo?niai? i?aeaioiaee ?
ia?ai?aeaioiaee, iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe, aoanoaoe?? oa naiiina?oe a/eoae?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ae?yeuei?noue, nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae,
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??, oe?eueia ?iniaeoe?y, iaoiaee/i? no?oeoo?i?
i?ae?icae?ee ?aeAII.

Eai/aiei I.E. Aeayoaeueiinoue ?aeiii(o ioaeaeia ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey
ii iia(oaieth eaaeeoeeaoeee iaaeaaiae/aneeo eaae?ia a Oe?aeia (1945 —
1990 aa.). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 – oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee. –
Einoeooo iaaeaaiaeee AII Oe?aei(, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?aaenoaaeai( ?acoeueoao( oeaeinoiiai
enoi?eei-iaaeaaiae/aneiai aiaeeca ninoiyiey iia(oaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee
iaaeaaiae/aneeo eaae?ia a aeayoaeueiinoe ?aeIII ia?aciaaiey. A
?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiey iao/ii iainiiaaia ?aoeeiiaeueiay
ia?eiaeecaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe ?aeIII ii iia(oaieth eaaeeoeeaoeee
iaaeeaae?ia; a(yaeai( i?aaiecaoeeiiii-iaaeaaiae/aneea iniia( eo
aeayoaeueiinoe.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?ane?(oa niaoeeoeea nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneeo oneiaee
eaaeaeiai ia?eiaea e eo aeeyiey ia (ooaeoeaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe
iaoiaee/aneeo no?oeoo?i(o iiae?acaeaeaiee ?aeIII. A(yaeaia acaeiinaycue
iaaeaeo niaea?aeaieai e oi?iaie i?aaiecaoeee iia(oaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee
iaaeeaae?ia a caaeneiinoe io ia?aciaaoaeuei(o ia?aaeeai, eciaiaiey
iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa a iaeanoe ia?aciaaiey, nioeeaeueiiai caeaca ia
iiaoth aaia?aoeeth iieiaeaaee.

Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth nenoai( iia(oaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee iaaeeaae?ia a
aeayoaeueiinoe ?aeIII a ia?eiae 1945-1956 aa. yaeyaony iaania/aiea
o/eoaeae a(noei iaaeaaiae/aneei ia?aciaaieai /a?ac nenoaio i/ii-cai/iiai
iao/aiey. Oeaio?ii iaoiaee/aneie ?aaio( n o/eoaeyie ?aeiia a(ee
iaaeaaiae/aneea eaaeiao(, eioi?(a ooieoeeiie?iaaee a Oe?aeia aei 1956
aiaea.

A ia?eiae 1957-1967 aa. aeayoaeueiinoue ?aeIII ii iia(oaieth
eaaeeoeeaoeee iaaeeaae?ia inouanoaeyeanue i?aeiouanoaaiii ia
ainoaea?noaaiii-iauanoaaii(o iniiaao, a /anoiinoe, oeieuei(ie
einiaeoi?aie ?aeIII, /oi i?eaaei e eo ia?aa?ocea e nieaeaieth
(ooaeoeaiinoe iia(oaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee o/eoaeae. (oei ia(yniyaony
aaaaeaiea aeieaeiinoe iauanoaaiiiai oeieueiiai einiaeoi?a e iieiaeaiey i
aai iaycaiiinoyo. Nicaeaaaeenue iaaeeaaeiao( ia iauanoaaii(o ia/aeao e
iieiaeaiea ia eo aeayoaeueiinoe. A aeaii(e ia?eiae i?aaaee?iaaee
iauanoaaii(a e aeaiie?aoe/aneea iniia( oi?aaeaiey i?ioeannii iia(oaiey
eaaeeoeeaoeee iaaeeaae?ia a ?aaioa ?aeIII. Oeaio?ii iaoiaee/aneie ?aaio(
noaea iauaia?aciaaoaeueiay oeiea.

Oa?aeoa?i(a i?eciaee ia?eiaea 1968-1989 aa.: aaaaeaiea iaycaoaeueiiai
ainueieeaoiaai iao/aiey e ia?aoiae e iauaio n?aaeiaio ia?aciaaieth,
iiaea?iecaoeey niaea?aeaiey ia?aciaaiey, oeo/oaiea noeey e iaoiaeia
?oeiaiaenoaa nenoaiie ia?aciaaiey, a o./. nenoaiie iia(oaiey
eaaeeoeeaoeee iaaeeaae?ia.

A niioaaonoaea n Caeiiii Oe?aeineie NN? i ia?iaeiii ia?aciaaiee a 70-o
aiaeao, iiaea?ieciaaii niaea?aeaiea e oi?iu iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee
iaaeeaae?ia. Iaoiaee/aneay ?aaioa eiaea iao/iue, oai?/aneee oa?aeoa?,
?ac?aaaouaaeenue iiaua i?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu a? i?iaaaeaiey
(noaaee?iaea, ianoaaie/anoai, oai?/aneea a?oiiu o/eoaeae-enneaaeiaaoaeae
e ae?.); o/eoaey i?eaeaeaeenue e yenia?eiaioaeueii-iiuoiie ?aaioa iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii Iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo einoeoooia iaaeaaiaeee e
ineoieiaee Oe?aeineie NN? (ai?iaaoeey o/aaiuo ieaiia, i?ia?aii, iiauo
o/aaieeia e oaeoeueoaoeaia), e e nenoaia iieeoe/aneiai ia?aciaaiey.

A yoio ia?eiae iaoiaee/aneay ?aaioa inouanoaeyeanue i?aeiouanoaaiii ia
iauanoaaiiuo ia/aeao e a neeo yoiai ia eiaea aunieie ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe.
A 1967 aiaeo Ieienoa?noaii ia?aciaaiey Oe?aeineie NN? aue ecaeai i?eeac,
niaeanii eioi?iio ?aeiiiua ioaeaeu ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey iaycuaaeenue
nicaeaoue iaoiaee/aneea eaaeiaou, aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo
aeaoa?ieie?iaaeanue (Iieiaeaieai i ?aeiiiuo (ai?iaeneeo) iaoiaee/aneeo
eaaeiaoao Oe?aeineie NN?(. Iaoiaee/aneee eaaeiao noae oeaio?ii iiauoaiey
eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneiai, i?ioanneiiaeueiiai, iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneiai o?iaiy
o/eoaeae. Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth yoiai ia?eiaea yaeyeinue
acaeiiaeaenoaea nenoaiu iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee iaaeeaae?ia n
iiaeaioiaeie o/eoaeae a aocao. A (oio ia?eiae a(ea aaaaeaia aooanoaoeey
o/eoaeae eae iaeia ec oi?i iia(oaiey eo eaaeeoeeaoeee, a oaeaea
iieiaeaiea i ii?yaeea i?iaaaeaiey aooanoaoeee o/eoaeae oeie.

Iniaaiiinoe, niaea?aeaiea e oi?i( iia(oaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee
iaaeaaiae/aneeo eaae?ia a oneiaeyo ?aoi?i( oeie( (1984-1990 aa.) a(ee
iaoneiaeai( eciaiaieai no?oeoo?( iaoiaee/aneie ?aaio( a ?aeiia,
iiaea?iecaoeeae niaea?aeaiey iia(oaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee iaaeeaae?ia a
oneiaeyo inouanoaeaiey iauaai n?aaeiaai ia?aciaaiey, iioeiaeuei(i
ni/aoaieai eiaeeaeaeoaeuei(o e eieeaeoeai(o oi?i iaoiaee/aneie ?aaio(,
iia(oaieai aa iao/iiai e oai?/aneiai o?iaiy, oneeaieai acaeiinayce e
acaeiiaeaenoaey anao no?oeoo?i(o iiae?acaeaeaiee nenoai( iia(oaiey
eaaeeoeeaoeee iaaeeaae?ia a aeayoaeueiinoe ?aeIII.

A a(aiaeao iainiiaai( iieeoe/aneea, nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneea oneiaey
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoai( ia?aciaaiey e nenoai( iia(oaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee
a aeayoaeueiinoe ?aeIII, ii?aaeaeai( oaiaeaioeee e caeiiiia?iinoe
eciaiaiey niaea?aeaiey e oi?i iia(oaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee o/eoaeae,
niaeaniaaiiinoue e i?aainoaaiiinoue a aeayoaeueiinoe niioaaonoaothueo
o/?aaeaeaiee, i?aaiia ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey a aeaea iia(oaiey
eaaeeoeeaoeee o/eoaeae. Enoi?eei-iaaeaaiae/aneee aiaeec aaiacena
no?oeoo?iiai iaoiaee/aneiai iiae?acaeaeaiey ?aeIII iicaieee ii?aaeaeeoue
ia?niaeoea( aai ?acaeoey, ianoi e ?ieue a nenoaia iia(oaiey
eaaeeoeeaoeee iaaeeaae?ia ?aeiia.

Eeth/aa(a neiaa: aeayoaeueiinoue, nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneea oneiaey,
iia(oaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee, oeieueiay einiaeoeey, iaoiaee/aneea no?oeoo?i(a
iiae?acaeaeaiey ?aeIII.

Kapchenko O.L. Activities of district departments of education for skill
improvement of pedagogical training specialists in Ukraine (1945-1990).
– Manuscript.

Thesis for a scientific degree of Candidate in Pedagogics by speciality
13.00.01 – Theory and History of Pedagogics. – Institute of Pedagogics
of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

Candidate degree thesis is devoted to the investigation of the district
departments of education activities for skill improvement of pedagogical
training specialists in Ukraine (1945 — 1990). The thesis gives the
complete historical and pedagogical analysis of skill improvement in the
district departments of education activities.

As a result the specificity of social and pedagogical conditions of
every period and their influence on activities efecacy of methodological
struclural subdivisions of district departments of education has been
revealed. The difference of content and forms of process organization
for skill improvement of pedagogical training specialists depending on
educational paradigms, changes in state policy in sphere of education,
social order to a new young generation has been defined too.

The rational division into periods in the activities of district
departments for skill improvement of pedagogical training specialists on
the basis of objective factors analysis of influence on it is defined
and grounded; the social, dynamic, continuous, systematic character of
skill improvement of pedagogical training specialists is defined too.

As a positive factor, the interaction of methodological maintenance of
district departments of education and secondary schools, bases schools,
schools of advanced pedagogical experience; intercommunication of course
for training and improving qualification, methodological activities,
teachers certification and self-education has been revealed too.

Key words: Activities, social and pedagogical conditions, skill
improvement, school inspection, methodological structural subdvisions of
district departments of education.

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