IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO I?IAEAI IAOA??AEICIAANOAA

?i. ?.I. O?aioeaae/a

IAENEI*OE ?AI? IEEIEAEIAE*

OAeE: 539.3:539.4:539.4.011:

539.42:539.56

AeENEIEAOe?EIEE AIAE?C AeEIAI?*IIAI ?OEIOAAIIss IAI?AE?EOEEO E?ENOAE?A
IA NOAAe?? NOAE?EOE*IIAI ?INOO I?E?IO??UEI .

01.04.07 O?ceea oaa?aeiai o?ea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei — iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

EE?A-1998

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe

Oea/aiei Aieiaeeie? A?eai?iae/

?II IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe, i?ioani?

?aaiia Ieoaeei Ieaen?eiae/

?inoeooo iaoaeio?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie

caa.a?aeae?eii

aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe

Iiae??cia TH??e Ieeieaeiae/

?II IAI Oe?a?ie

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y:

?inoeooo i?iaeai i?oeiino? IAI Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “__”___________1998?. i___aiae.

ia can?aeaii? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae. 01.88.03 a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai
iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. ?.I. O?aioeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie (252142 Ee?a-142,
aoe. E?aeeaeai?anueeiai, 3).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. ?.I. O?aioeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie (252142
Ee?a-142, aoe. E?aeeaeai?anueeiai, 3).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee ”__”_______1998?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

ciaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee

Iaaea?ii TH.A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie.

?oeioaaiiy e?enoae?/ieo o?e, a caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo, — o?enoaae?eiee
i?ioean, ui neeaaea?oueny ?c ca?iaeaeaiiy coai?e?io??ueie, ??
i?ae?inoaiiy aei e?eoe/iiai ?ici??o oa iiaeaeueoiai eaoano?io?/iiai
?iciianthaeaeaiiy. Ni?eueiei aeey ??ciiiai?oieo iaoai?ci?a ca?iaeaeaiiy
?oeioaaiiy ? ooai?aiiy aeeneieaoe?eieo neoi/aiue aiane?aeie
iiia?aaeiuei? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, c ianooiiith ?o o?ainoi?iaoe??th
o i?e?io??ueie. Oaeee i?ioean eiio?ieth?oueny ia?aiao?aie
aeeneieaoe?eii? i?e?ioa/?? ? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oaiia?aoo?iith
caeaaei?noth i?eaaaeaieo iai?oa cnoao ia a?aeiia?aeieo ieiueiao eiacaiiy
aeeneieaoe?e. Aeiaaeie e?eoeiai ?oeioaaiiy, eiee ca?iaeaeaiiy
i?e?io??uei ? e?eoe/iith iiae??th, aeinoaoiuei aeia?a aea/aii. I?ioa i?e
aeine?aeaeaii? ?oeioaaiiy, iai?eeeaae LiF, iiiie?enoae?a iieiaaeaio oa
aieueo?aio, anoaiiaeaia iayai?noue noaae?? noae?eoe/iiai ?inoo
i?e?io??ueie, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth ??cei? oaiia?aoo?ii?
caeaaeiino? ?noeiii? ?oeioth/i? iai?oae a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?
e?eoei-a’yceiai ia?aoiaeo oa noiooiuei? i?e?iieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??
e?enoaeo ia?aae aa?oeiith o??ueie (AO).

Ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y o e?enoae?/iiio oaa?aeiio o?e? iiaea
cae?enithaaoeny aiane?aeie ?ooo aeeneieaoe?e, ui ooai?youeny iiaeeco /e
aaciina?aaeiuei a AO a i?ioean? ?oeioaaiiy, a oaeiae cacaeaeaa?aeue
aaaaeaieo aeaoi?iaoe??th. I/aaeaeii, ui ia?aiao?e aeeneieaoe?eii?
no?oeoo?e, ?ooii?noue aeeneieaoe?e, aca?iia e?enoaeia?ao?/ia i???ioaoe?y
ieiuei ?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?e?io??ueie ? eiacaiiy aeeneieaoe?e
aecia/athoue aeiaeaoeia? aia?aaoe/i? aeo?aoe oa aoaeooue eiio?iethaaoe
i?ioean ?oeioaaiiy iai?ae?eoeeo e?enoae?a. E??i oiai, aeeneieaoe??, ye
aeaoaeoe e?enoae?/ii? a?aoee, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny nai?i iieai i?oaeieo
iai?oaeaiue, ui i?iyaey? ae?aioth/ee aieea ia eieaeueia iiea AO, yeee
oaeiae iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e ?aae?noe/iiio iien? i?ioeano
aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaeaia noaaieicaoei? oa aeeiai?/iiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
o?aine?enoaeioieo i?e?io??uei, ui ca’ycaia c ?ic?iaeith e?eoa???a
iiaiiai ?oeioaaiiy, noa? aeooaeueiei caaaeaiiyi ? iniiaiei ci?noii
iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo iaoaiaoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a ? o?ce/ieo oai??e
aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy iai?ae?eoeeo e?enoae?a c noiooiueith
i?e?iieanoe/iith aeaoi?iaoe??th, eieaeiciaaiith a aa?oeiao
i?ae?inoath/eo i?e?io??uei.

A?aeiia?aeii aei aeeeaaeaiiai aeua, iaoith oe??? ?iaioe ?
aeeneieaoe?eiee aiae?c aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy iai?ae?eoeeo e?enoae?a o
?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? e?eoei-a’yceiai ia?aoiaeo, ui a?aoiao? aeeneiaoe?th
i?oaeii? aia?a?? a ieanoe/i?e cii? a aa?oeiao i?e?io??uei, oa?ii/ii
aeoeaiaaiee oa?aeoa? ?ooo ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeeneieaoe?e a iie? aenieeo
eieaeueieo iai?oaeaiue AO oa ae?aioth/ee aieea aeeneieaoe?eiiai ae?aio
ia aaee/eio ? i?inoi?iao caeaaei?noue i?oaeiiai iiey AO.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

?ic?iaeaia aeeneieaoe?eia iiaeaeue aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy iai?ae?eoeeo
e?enoae?a, ui ii?aeio? aeeiai?eo aeeneieaoe?eieo ainaiae?a a AO c
aeeiai?eith ?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?e?io??ueie oa a?aoiao? aeeneieaoe?eio
i?e?iaeo aeeneiaoe?? i?oaeii? aia?a?? a ieanoe/i?e cii? ia noaae??
noae?eoe/iiai ?inoo i?e?io??uei. I?e oeueiio iaoai?cie aeeneieaoe?eii?
i?e?ioa/?? a i?oaeiiio iie? AO aecia/athoue oaeaee?noue i?io?eaiiy
aeeneiaoeaieo i?ioean?a ? eiio?ieththoue i?ioean aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy
a iaeano? oaiia?aoo? e?eoei-a’yceiai ia?aoiaeo.

A ?aieao aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino eaaci??aiiaaaeii? nenoaie «AO-
ae?aioth/? aeeneieaoe?? (AAe)» aia?oa aecia/ai? oiiae ? i?iaaaeai?
ioe?iee oa?aeoa?enoee aeeneieaoe?eiiai ae?aio, a oiio /ene? e?eoe/i?
aonoeie ae?aioth/eo aeeneieaoe?e, iaiao?aei? aeey aaeueioaaiiy oa
coieiee e?eoe/ieo i?e?io??uei A?iooiona a iao?eoe? iaoae?a c IOeE- oa
AUO-a?aoeaie. Io?eiaii ?yae aeeneieaoe?eieo e?eoa???a, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ci?io iaoai?cio ?oeioaaiiy a?ae ieanoe/iiai aei
e?eoeiai, ye iane?aeie ao?aoe no?eeino? eaaci??aiiaaaeii? nenoaie
“AO-AAe».

? aoaeoeaii? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? (ao, ui a?aoiaothoue ye ae?aioth/ee
aieea aeeneieaoe?eii? eiioiao?aoe?? ia iiea iai?oae AO, oae ? oa?ii/ii
aeoeaiaaio i?e?iaeo iaoai?ci?a ?ooo aeeneieaoe?e. A ?acoeueoao?
oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ?aeaioeo?eiaaii oa?ii/ii
aeoeaiaai? iaoai?cie ?ooo aeeneieaoe?e ? aia?oa iieacaii, ui
iaeiianooaaia aeeneieaoe?eia i?e?ioa/?y a AO aiaeia?/ia ii nai?e
o?ce/i?e i?e?iae? i?ioeanai, ye? i?io?eathoue a ia’?i? iaoa??aeo ?
aecia/athoue oaiia?aoo?io caeaaei?noue iaae? ieeiiino? oeeo iaoa??ae?a.

oa (ao cai?iiiiiaaia iiaa iiaeeo?eaoe?y i?eioeeiiai? noaie ia?aoiaeo
e?enoae?a a e?eoeee noai, ui iiynith? oeae aoaeo eiieo?aioiei oa?aeoa?ii
i?ioeano aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy, eiee ci?ia ieanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae c
iiieaeaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e i?eaiaeeoue aei iaiiaeeeaino? ?aae?caoe??
aeeneieaoe?eii? i?e?ioa/?? a AO a, ioaea, aei e?eoei? iiaee ?oeioaaiiy,
oa iaea?aeai? aiae?oe/i? ae?ace aeey no?oeoo?ii? /ooeeaino? oaiia?aoo?e
e?eoeiai ia?aoiaeo.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue.

?icaeiooa a ?iaio? nenoaia iiaeo oyaeaiue i?i o?ce/io i?e?iaeo
aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy iai?ae?eoeeo e?enoae?a aeicaiey? c iiceoe?e
aeeneieaoe?eii? oai??? aiae?coaaoe aca?iica’ycai? i?ioeane ieanoe/iinoi
oa e?eoeino? oeeo iaoa??ae?a, ui i?iyaeythoueny a eiie?aoieo oiiaao
?aae?caoe?? aeeneieaoe?eii? i?e?ioa/?? a AO. Oaeee aiae?c iaoai?ci?a
?oeioaaiiy ? aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo eiino?oeoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a, ui aieiae?thoue caaeaiei eiiieaenii o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe ?iaioe aoee iinoaaeai? ianooii? caaea/i:

1) ?ic?iaeoe aeeneieaoeieio iiaeaeue i?ioeano aeeiaii/iiai ?oeioaaiiy
iaiiae?eoeeo e?enoaeia ia noaae?? noae?eoe/iiai ?inoo i?e?io??uei c
noiooiueith i?e?iieanoe/iith aeaoi?iaoei?th a AO; 2) aeine?aeeoe aieea
aeeneieaoe?eii? eiio?ao?aoe?? a AO ia ia?aiao?e ?oeioaaiiy iaiiae?eoeeo
e?enoaeia a ?aieao eieaeueiiai aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino eaaci??aiiaaaeii?
nenoaie «AO — AAe»; 3) iaea?aeaoe aiae?oe/i? ae?ace, ui iienothoue
oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiinoi inoeiii? ?oeioth/i? iai?oae oa aoaeoeaii?
iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai? e?enoaeia a iioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? e?eoei-a’yceiai
ia?aoiaeo c o?aooaaiiyi aoaeoo ae?aioaaiiy aeeneieaoe?eiith
eiioiao?aoe??th i?oaeiiai iiey AO oa o?ce/ii? i?e?iaee iaoai?ci?a
?ooeeaino? aeeneieaoe?e; 4) aeeiiaoe oai?aoe/iee aiaeic
aenia?eiaioaeueieo caeaaeiinoae inoeiii? ?oeioth/i? iai?oae oa
aoaeoeaii? iiaa?oiaai? aia?ai? oa anoaiiaeoe oa?i?/ii-aeoeaiaaii
iaoaiicie ?ooo aeeneieaoeie c ?ic?aooieii aia?a?? aeoeaaoe??; 5)
iiaeeo?eoaaoe i?eioeeiiao noaio eaac?e?eoeiai ia?aoiaeo e?enoaeia c
a?aooaaiiyi eiieo?aioiiai oa?aeoa?o ?oeioaaiiy ia noaaei? noae?eoe/iiai
?inoo oa iaea?aeaoe aiaeioe/ii ae?ace aeey no?oeoo?ii? /ooeeainoi
oaiia?aoo?e e?eoeiai ia?aoiaeo.

Iniaenoee aeeaae aeena?oaioa.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo, iaa?oiooaaiiy oa ?ic?iaea iiaeae?
aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy iai?ae?eoeeo e?enoae?a o ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?
e?eoei-a’yceiai ia?aoiaeo c o?aooaaiiyi aeeneiaoeaieo aeeneieaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a a ieanoe/i?e cii? aa?oei i?e?io??uei ia noaae?? ?o
noae?eoe/iiai c?inoaiiy, iaea?aeaiiy aiae?oe/ieo ae?ac?a aeey
oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae ?noeiii? ?oeioth/i? iai?oae, aoaeoeaii?
iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? ? no?oeoo?ii? /ooeeaino? oaiia?aoo?e ieaeiueiai
ii?iaa oieiaeiieiieinoi, a oaeiae oai?aoe/i? ?ic?aooiee aeeiiai? aaoi?ii
iniaenoi. A iinoaiiaoe? caaaeaiiy, iaaiai?aii? iioi/ieo ?acoeueoao?a,
?ic?iaoe? i?eioeeiiai? noaie e?eoeiai ia?aoiaeo i?eeiaa o/anoue iaoeiaee
ea??aiee ?iaioe aeieoi? oic.-iao. iaoe A. A. Oea/aiei. Aeiiiiiao a
iaea?aeaii? aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a iaaeaa eaiaeeaeao oic.-iao.
iaoe E.?.Eie?niee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? aoee i?aaenoaaeai? oa
iaaiai?ai? ia OII Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? ii o?ceoe? i?oeiinoi oa
ieanoe/iinoi iaoae?a ? nieaa?a (Eoeaeoaa, 1989 ), VI Ananithci?e
eiioa?aioe?? ii o?ceoe? ?oeioaaiiy (Ee?a-1989 ) ? IV I?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? » Aiaeiaaa iaoa?iaeiciaanoai ? o?i?y a?ae?eae?a iaoae?a »
(Oe?a?ia, E?ei, Eaoeeaaei, 1995).

Ioae?eaoei?.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 3 noaoo? o aeo?iae?
AeAI N?N? oa 1 noaooy o aeo?iae? Int. J. Hydrogen Energy.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i ?iaioe.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c “Anooio”, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a
oa caaaeueiiai nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, ui aeeth/a? 93 iaeiaioaaiiy.
Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue 117 noi??iie, 10 ?enoie?a ia 10 noi??ieao oa 1
oaaeeoeth ia’?iii 0,1 noi??iee.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe,
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo oa caaea/? aeena?oaoe??. A?aei?/aii iaoeiao iiaecio
e i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iaaaaeaii iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? aeeiiaii aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?oeioaaiiy iai?ae?eoeeo e?enoae?a a
?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? e?eoei-a’yceiai ia?aoiaeo, ?nioth/eo o?ce/ieo
oai??e oa oai?aoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a aeey ?o iienaiiy. Iieacaii, ui ?icaeoie
oyaeaiue i?i o?ce/io i?e?iaeo i?ioeano aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy
iai?ae?eoeeo e?enoae?a a ?aieao aeeneieaoe?eii? oai??? aeiaaa?
i?eoyaiaiiy oi?iae?cio, ui ii?aeio? aeeiai?eo aeeneieaoe?eieo ainaiae?a
a AO oa aeeiai?eo ?oeioaaiiy, eiee oaeaee?noue aeeneiaoeaieo i?ioean?a
eiiioo? oaeaee?noue aea?eueiaiiy i?oaeii? aia?a?? ?c AO, a ioaea, ?
oaeaee?noue ?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?e?io??uei. I?e oeueiio i?oaeia aia?a?y
i?e?io??ueie iieno?oueny o?ueiia iniiaieie aeeaaeaie: 1) aia?a??th
ooai?aiiy iiaeo iiaa?oiiue; 2) aeeneiaoe??th aia?a?? aiane?aeie
oa?iiaeoeaiaaiiai ?ooo aeeneieaoe?eiiai ainaiaeth a ieanoe/i?e cii? AO
oa 3) aia?a?th i?oaeiiai iiey AO c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao noia?iiai
i?oaeiiai iiey aeeneieaoe?eiiai ae?aio.

O ?icae?e? 2 iaa?oioiaaia oa cai?iiiiiaaia aeeneieaoe?eia iiaeaeue
aeeiai?/iiai noae?eoe/iiai ?inoo i?e?io??uei a iai?ae?eoeeo e?enoaeao c
noiooiueith i?e?iieanoe/iith aeaoi?iaoe??th a AO. Eieaeueia ieanoe/ia
oa/?y, oiaoi aeeneieaoe?eia i?e?ioa/?y a AO, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
ia?aiao?aie ainaiaeth AAe, aecia/a? iaoai?cie iiaeeiaiiy aia?a??. I?e
oeueiio aia?a?y ooai?aiiy aeeneieaoe?eiiai ca?iaeea, yea iacia/ia o
ii??aiyii? c aia?aaoe/ieie aeo?aoaie ia noaae?? c?inoaiiy i?e?io??ueie,
iiaeeea?noue ooai?aiiy a IC iaei?ooiieo eiioiao?aoe?e aeeiieueieo ia? /e
no?oeoo?e aeeneieaoe?e e?no a e?enoaeao c AUO-a?aoeaie aeeeth/athoueny
?c ?icaeyaeo. Iniiai? aeiiae iiaeae? caaacia/othoue oiiae ?aae?caoe??
iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeai? aeeneieaoe?eii? ?aeaenaoe?? i?oaeii? aia?a?? a
ieanoe/i?e cii? AO.

— iaoanoaa?eueio i?e?io??ueio.

Ia iniia? eieaeueiiai aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino eaac???aiiaaaeii? nenoaie
«AO-AAe » a i?oaeiiio oa i?oaeii-ieanoe/iiio iaaeeaeaiiyo aeeiiaii
ii??aiyeueiee oai?aoe/iee aiae?c ? iaea?aeaii ?yae aeeneieaoe?eieo
e?eoa???a noaa?eueiiai ?inoo i?e?io??uei. Cie?aia, e?eoa??e
noae?eoe/iiai ?inoo i?e?io??uei c a?aooaaiiyi ieanoe/ii? ?aeaenaoei?
i?oaeii? aia?a?? iieno?oueny ne?aeoth/ei ae?acii:

, (1)

— i???ioaoe?e iee oaeoi?; (- eoo i?ae ieiueiaie eiacaiiy aeeneieaoe?e
oa ?oeioaaiiy.

E?eoe/iee ??aaiue iai?oae, ui oa?aeoa?eco? iiiaio ao?aoe no?eeinoi oaei?
eiioiao?aoei?, aecia/a?oueny ae?acii:

(2)

Oiae? aeiaaeeia eaoano?io?/ii? o??ueie ??aia:

(3)

Ae?ac (3), c o?aooaaiiyi (2), ia?aieoaii o aeaeyae? :

. I?eeiath/e oiiao

, (5)

(6)

Ae?ace (1) — (6) i?aaenoaaeythoue ??ci? iiaeeo?eaoei? aeeneieaoe?eiiai
iae?ineii?/iiai e?eoa??th oeio A?iooiona-I?iaaia.

a?aeiia?aea? aia?aaoe/iei aeo?aoai, ui iaiao?aei? i?e?io??uei? aeey
aeinyaiaiiy e?eoe/ii? eiioiao?aoei? a i?ioean? aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy,
a i?oaeiiio ? a i?oaeii-ieanoe/iiio iaaeeaeaiiyo i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.
1. ?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui a

) i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? ia oa?aeoa? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?e?io??uei.

I?iaaaeaiee oai?aoe/iee aiae?c aeicaiey? c?iaeoe ne?aeoth/? aeniiaee:

? i?eaiaeyoue aei ci?ie oa?aeoa?o i?ioeano aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy
e?enoae?a;

;

, ui a?aeiia?aea? ooai?aiith iiai?noth ?aeaeniaaieo eiioiao?aoe?e
AO-AAe, iai?eeeaae, oeio o??uei Eioo?aeea-Aieai-Naiiaeaia.

, a ioaea, ? iayai?noue aenieiai aeoeaaoe?eiiai aa?’??o, noa? iiaeeeaei
aaeueioaaiiy ? coieiea eaoano?io?/ieo o??uei.

, ui caaacia/othoue oiiae noae?eoe/iiai ?inoo i?e?io??uei, iienothoueny
ae?acii:

, (7)

— e?eoe/ia iai?oaa A?eoo?ona.

. I?eioeeiiaa a?aei?ia iaoae?a c IOeE- ? AUO- a?aoeaie neeaaea-

aeey ieiueie aaceno ? ia??aiioe?iiinoi nenoai eiacaiiy eaaeiaeoeaiaaia
aacenia eiacaiiy caaa?oo?oueny, ye i?aaeei, eaaeiaeoeaiaaiei aaceniei
neieii.

Oaeei /eiii, i?ioean noaaieicaoei? aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy oa aeiaaeeia
noaae?? i?ae?inoaiiy i?e?io??uei aei e?eoe/ieo (eaoano?io?/ieo) ?ici???a
aecia/a?oueny ae??oaeueiei aieeaii o?ueio aca?iica’ycaieo ia?aiao??a:
iii?ii ?ooo aeeneieaoe?e c aieo ?ao?oee, ?o aonoeiith a IC AO oa
aeiaaeeiith a?eueiiai i?ia?ao. ?icoe?aiiy ciie noaa?eueiiai c?inoaiiy
(noae?eoe/iiai ?inoo) eaaci?aaiiaaae-ieo i?e?io??uei noa? iiaeeeaei i?e
iioeiaeueiiio ii?aeiaii? oeeo ia?aiao??a. I?e oeueiio e?eoe/i? aaee/eie
aonoeie ?ooiieo aeeneieaoe?e, ui iaiao?aei? aeey ?aae?caoe?? oeeo
i?ioean?a a e?enoaeao c IOeE-a?aoeaie, a ii??aiyii? c AUO-a?aoeaie ia
iaeei — aeaa ii?yaeee iaio?.

A ?icae?e? 3 ?icaeaathoueny oyaeaiiy i?i o?ce/io i?e?iaeo aeeneiaoeaieo
i?ioean?a a ieanoe/i?e cii? AO oa ?o ?ieue a i?ioean? ?oeioaaiiy
iai?ae?eoeeo e?enoae?a o ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? e?eoei-a’yceiai ia?aoiaeo.
C oeeo iiceoe?e ooi/iththoueny aeiiae aei aeeneieaoe?eii? iiaeae?
i?ioeano aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy, ui a?aoiao? aoaeo ae?aioaaiiy
aeeneieaoe?eiith eiioiao?aoe??th i?oaeiiai iiey AO ? oa?ii/ii aeoeaiaai?
iaoai?cie ?ooeeaino? aeeneieaoe?e:

, yea aeey iaeiiai aeoeaaoe?eiiai caeiio iieno?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi:

(8)

— oaiia?aoo?a, yea oa?aeoa?eco? ii/aoie ieanoe/ii? ?aeaenaoe?? a AO;

— aonoeia ?ooiieo ae?aioth/eo aeeneieaoe?e ia caeaaeeoue a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e e?enoaeo ? aaaaea?oueny iino?eiith;

, ui caaacia/eoue iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeao aeeneiaoe?th i?oaeii? aia?a??
i?e?io??ueie;

(N- oaeaee?noue ?ae??aneeo oaeeue) i?ioean aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy
iiaeia iienoaaoe a ?aieao eaac?noaoe/iiai iaaeeaeaiiy. A oeueiio
aeiaaeeo iiey iai?oaeaiue noaoe/ii? oa aeeiai?/ii? i?e?io??ueie
yaeythoueny aea?aaeaioieie.

ca’ycai? a?aeiiei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi:

(9)

— eiao?oe??io ?ioaineaiino? noia?iiai iiey ??aiiaaaeii? eiioiao?aoei?
ae?aioth/eo aeeneieaoe?e.

Aiie a?aeiia?aeii ??ai?:

(11)

A iaaeeaeaii? iaaca?iiae?th/eo aeeneieaoe?e ??aiyiiy (11) iiaeia
ai?ieniioaaoe ae?acii:

, (12)

a?ae eiao?oe??ioo ?ioaineaiino? iiey iai?oa a AO iieno?oueny ae?acii:

, (13 )

aea n ? A — iino?ei? aeey aeaiiai e?enoaeo.

Oae ye oaeaee?noue ?iciianthaeaeaiiy o??ueie a i?ioean? aeeiai?/iiai
?oeioaaiiy eiiioo?oueny iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaith aaee/eiith i?iaeoei?
oaeaeeino? ae?aioth/eo aeeneieaoe?e ia iai?yiie ?oeioaaiiy (i?e aeai?e
oaiia?aoo?? e?enoaeo), oi oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue inoeiii? ?oeioth/i?
iai?oae ia noaae?? noae?eoe/iiai ?inoo i?e?io??uei aei e?eoe/iiai
?ici??o iieno?oueny ae?acii:

(14)

C o?aooaaiiyi e?eoa??th A?iooiona-I?iaaia, ui iieno? iiaaae?ieo
noaa?eueieo i?e?io??uei, ? aeei?enoiaoth/e oi?ioeo (14), io?eia?ii ae?ac
aeey oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? aoaeoeaii? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? (ao:

. (15)

aeicaieythoue aiae?coaaoe oa?i?/ii aeoeaiaai? aeeneieaoe?ei? iaoai?cie
i?e?ioa/?? a AO, ui eiio?ieththoue i?ioean aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy
iai?ae??oeeo e?enoae?a a iaeano? oaiia?aoo? e?eoei-a’yceiai ia?aoiaeo. A
?aieao i?eeiyoi? iiaeae? aeeiai?/ia ?oeioaaiiy ? ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y
a AO ? aca?iica’ycaieie oa?i?/ii aeoeaiaaieie i?ioeanaie, aeey yeeo
oaiia?aoo?i? ci?ie ia?aiao??a i?e?ioa/?? ? iae?ineii?/ii ci?ie
ia?aiao??a ?oeioaaiiy i?aeii?yaeeiaothoueny iaeiiio e oiio ae
aeoeaaoe?eiiio caeiio, ui eiio?ieth? oaeaee?noue ieanoe/ii?
aeaoi?iaoe??. Oaea aea?aaeaioi?noue eiio?iethth/eo iaoai?ci?a aeicaiey?
aiae?coaaoe ia?aiao?e aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy c i?eoyaiaiiyi a?aeiieo
aeeneieaoe?eieo iaoai?ci?a, ui cai?iiiiiaai? aeey iieno ieanoe/ii? oa/??
e?enoae?a. Oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? inoeiii? ?oeioth/i? iai?oae oa
aoaeoeaii? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? aeey e?enoae?a c AUO- oa IOeE-a?aoeith
i?aaenoaaeai? ia ?en. 3. oa 4.

I?e oeueiio, oi/a e?enoaee, iai?eeeaae Aa, i?iyaeythoue neaaeo
oaiia?aoo?io /ooeea?noue iaae? ieeiiino? a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?
e?eoei-a’yceiai ia?aoiaeo, caeaaei?noue ?noeiii? ?oeioth/i? iai?oae ia?
??ceee aeniiiaioe?aeueiee oa?aeoa? ? eiio?ieth?oueny aeeneieaoe?eieie
iaoai?ciaie aeeneiaoe?? aia?a?? a AO. Cie?aia, oe? aeanoeaino? iathoue
no?oeoo?ii-aeii?oeia? noaie aa?ee?th oaoi?/ii? /enoioe (Be-
0,1%C-0,1%Fe), ui i?iyaeythoue o aeo?aeiiio noai? aoaeoe
aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai aeeiai?/iiai noa??iiy, aeeeeeai? aieeaii aeii?oeiaeo
aoii?a aoaeaoeth ? cae?ca,

nieaaa Ii IO.

i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 293-473 E ? 773- 873 E. Aaaeeeai i?aee?aneeoe, ui
aia?a?y aeoeaaoe?? (a.a.) aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy aeey iie?e?enoae?/iiai
aa?ee?th, ??aia 0,05-0,07 aA o ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? e?eoeiai ia?aoiaeo,
ocaiaeaeo?oueny c a.a., ??aiith 0,06 aA, ?oeioaaiiy iiiie?enoae?a
aa?ee?th Aa- 0,1% C, i???ioiaaieo aeey aaceniiai ?oeioaaiiy oeyoii
aaaaeaiiy o??uei iino?eii? aeiaaeeie, oa aeyaey?oueny aeinoaoiuei
aeecueeith aei aaee/eie a. a. oa?i?/iiai aea?eueiaiiy ?ao?oeiaeo
aeeneieaoe?e a iie?e?enoaeao Aa aiaeia?/ii? /enoioe (0,05-0,08 aA),
ia/eneaii? ii aeaiei aiie?ooaeii-caeaaeiiai aioo??oiueiai oa?oy (ACAO) a
oiio ae ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?. Ioaea, iie?e?enoaee ? iiiie?enoaee
aa?ee?th, i???ioiaai? aeey aaceniiai eiacaiiy, a aeine?aeaeaiiio
iioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? ?oeiothoueny ?c iaeiaeiai iecueeith aia?a??th
aeoeaaoe??, ui a?aeiia?aea? oa?i?/ii aeoeaiaaiiio iiaeieaiith aacenieie
aeeneieaoe?yie aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a aoaeaoeth a iie? iai?oae ?ooiieo
i?e?io??uei, ae?th/iio a iiiie?enoaeao aae aei 77 E. I?ney
aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai ?iciaaeo aeaioeiiiiiaioiiai oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio c
aeae?eaiiyi caaaa/aieo aoiiaie Fe oac aeeiai?/ia aaeueioaaiiy
aeeneieaoe?e ia aeii?oeiaeo aoiiao niinoa??aa?oueny i?e a?eueo aenieeo
oaiia?aoo?ao oa noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ci?oeiaiiyi iaae ca?ai, ui ae?thoue
ye aoa?i?/i? aa?’??e aeey i?e?io??uei.

Aacenia ?oeioaaiiy Zn iaei a?ae??ciy? a?ae caeiiii??iinoae,
anoaiiaeaieo aeey Aa. ?ic?aoiaaia aia?a?y aeoeaaoe?? aeeiai?/iiai
?oeioaaiiy oeeo e?enoae?a oaeiae aeia?a ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aia?a??th
aeoeaaoe?? i?ioean?a, ui eiio?ieththoue oaeaee?noue i?e?iieanoe/ii?
aeaoi?iaoe??. Oeeie ? aenieiaiicio?iiiee e?enoae, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aenieith aia?a??th noiaeeiie neieo. Ia a?aei?io a?ae e?enoae?a c iiiiei
oeiii ca’yceo (LiF ? MgI), aoaeoeaia iiaa?oiaaa aia?a?y a iaeano?
e?eoeiai ia?aoiaeo oaeaeei ca?eueoo?oueny c oaiia?aoo?ith, ui iia’ycaia
c c?inoaiiyi aeeaaeo iiia?a/iiai iaaaceniiai eiacaiiy, aeey yeiai
iaiao?aei? cia/i? aia?aaoe/i? cao?aoe. Oai?aoe/i? ia/eneaiiy ii
aenia?eiaioaeueiei aeaiei aeathoue i?eaeecii iaeiaeia? cia/aiiy a.a
?oeioaaiiy 0,1 aA aeey iie?e?enoae?a oeeieo ??cii? /enoioe (99, 96 % Zn
oa 99, 99 Zn ) ? iiiie?enoae?a oeeieo, ui i???ioiaai? aeey aaceniiai
?oeioaaiiy neieii.

I?e iaaieo oiiaao neeueio oaiia?aoo?io /ooeea?noth ia?aiao??a ?oeioaaiiy
iiaeooue i?iyaeyoe ? aeaye? oieiaeiieiiei iaoaee c IOeE — a?aoeaie.
?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? inoeiii?
?oeioth/i? iai?oae aeey IOeE- iaoae?a (?en. 4) i?eaaaeai? a oaaeeoe?.
sse a?aeiii, iaoaee c IOeE- a?aoeaie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny neeueiei
e?enoae?/iei ?aeue?oii ? aenieeie aa?’??aie Iaea?ena, ui coiiaeth?
iaoai?cie oa?i?/ii aeoeaiaaiiai ?ooo aeeneieaoe?e a oeeo e?enoaeao. E??i
oiai, oaeaee?noue ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? iiaea eiio?iethaaoeny oaeiae
aca?iiae??th ?ooeeaeo aeeneieaoe?e c aeii?oeiaeie aoiiaie. ??ciiiai?oi?
oai??? ieanoe/iinoi caniiaothoueny ia aeii?ioth/iio aeeaae? iaeiiai ?c
cacia/aieo iaoai?ci?a, i?ioa ioe?iea ?o a?aeiiniiai aeeaaeo caeeoa?oueny
aeineoue neeaaeiith i?iaeaiith, a ?o inoaoi/iee aea?? i?iaeaiaoe/iei.
?acii c oei i?eeiyoi aaaaeaoe, ui oaeaee?noue ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??
IOeE- iaoae?a eiio?ieth?oueny ?aeeiei oa?i?/ii aeoeaiaaiei
aeeneieaoe?eiei iaoai?ciii — iiaeieaiiyi ?ooeeaeie aeeneieaoe?yie iii?o
?ao?oee, oiaoi iiaeieaiiyi iioaioe?eiiai ?aeue?oo Iaea?ena. Oae, a
/enoeo e?enoaeao Ii ii aeaiei ACAO ?aeaenaoe?y i?oaeieo iai?oa
i?ioiaeeoue c aia?a??th aeoeaaoe??, ui ??aia aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? ?ooo
a?eueieo aeeneieaoe?e a IOeE- a?aoeao 0,17-0,19 aA. Ia/eneaiiy aeey
nieaao Cr-La aeaee aaee/eio a. a. 0,32 aA, ui aeaco? ia oie aea iaoai?ci
?ooo aeeneieaoe?e, ui ? o aeiaaeeo Ii.

) oa iiaoaeiaaii oai?aoe/i? e?ea? aeey aoaeoeaii? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a??.
sse aeaeii ?c ?en. 5, aiie aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny c aeaieie, ui
iaea?aeai? c ?ic?aooie?a ii e?eoa??th A?iooiona-I?iaaia.

Oaaeeoey. ?ic?aooieiaa aia?a?y aeoeaaoe?? aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy

, aA 0,07-0,08 0,1 0,32 0,07 0,06 0.17-0,19

Oaeei /eiii, ?acoeueoaoe i?eaaaeaiiai aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo
aeiaiaeyoue oioiaei?noue oa?ii/ii aeoeaiaaieo iaoai?ci?a aeeneieaoe?eii?
i?e?ioa/?? a iie? aeeneieaoe?eieo neoi/aiue ia ?aii?e noaae?? ieanoe/i?e
aeaoi?iaoe??, ui ia?aaeo? ?oeioaaiith, oa i?oaeiiio iie? AO ia noaae??
ieanoe/i?e aeaoi?iaoe??, noiooiuei? aeeiai?/iiio ?oeioaaiith e?enoae?a.
Ioaea, oaiia?aoo?ia /ooeea?noue ia?aiao??a aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy
e?enoae?a o ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? e?eoei-a’yceiai

?en.5. ?ic?aooieia? caeaaeiino? (yo(T) aeey II IO: 1- iaaee-aeaiiy
A??oo?ona-I?iaaia, 2, 3 — ii oi?ioe? (14) i?e (?O= 600 IIa (2) e 700
IIa (3) ia?aoiaeo eiio?ieth?oueny aeeneiaoeaieie i?ioeanaie, oaeaee?noue
i?io?eaiiy yeeo aecia/a?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aeeneieaoe?eii?
eiioiao?aoe?? a ieanoe/i?e cii?, a oiio /ene?, oa?ii/ii aeoeai-

aaieie iaoai?ciaie ?ooeeaino? ae?aioth/eo aeeneieaoe?e a AO.

o e?eoeee noai ye ?acoeueoao ciaioaiiy ??aiy iii?o ?oeioaaiith, ui
aecia/a?oueny aeeneiaoeaieie i?ioeanaie a AO, aei e?eoe/iiai cia-

, ui a?aeiia?aea? iiai?e aeaa?aaeaoe?? ieanoe/ieo aean-

?c oiiae

(16)

iaea?aeeii:

(17)

.

?en. 6. I?eioeeiia? noaie e?eoeiai ia?aoiaeo aeey e?e-noae?a: noaia
Eiooa-Aeaaeaeaieiaa (a); iia? iiaeae? (a oa a)

Oiae? ?c ae?aco (16) ne?aeo?:

(18)

ia? aeaeyae:

(19)

— ci?oeiaiiy, ui aecaaia aeiaeaoeiaeie cnoaaie a iie?e?enoae?,

:

(20)

aeey Aa (?en. 7), ui aeeiiai? c aeei?enoaiiyi ??aiyiiy (16) oa c
o?aooaaiiyi ?ai?oa

.

io?eiaieo ia?aiao??a aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy, aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny c
aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie. Oea aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ia?ao?ae
iaoae?a a e?eoeee noai, c iiceoe?e ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?oeioaaiiy,
iiynith?oueny iaaeinoaoiueith oaeaee?noth i?io?eaiiy aeeneiaoeaieo
i?ioean?a i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao a, ioaea, iaiiaeeea?noth noai?aiiy
aeeneieaoe?eieo eiio?ao?aoe?e a ieanoe/i?e cii? AO.

INIIAI? AENIIAEE.

1. Cai?iiiiiaaia aeeneieaoe?eia iiaeaeue, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?nioth/eo,
caniiaaia ia aca?iica’yceo aeeiai?ee ?oeioaaiiy oa aeeiai?ee
aeeneieaoe?eieo ainaiae?a a aa?oei? i?e?io??uei, eiee oaeaee?noue
aea?eueiaiiy i?oaeii? aia?a?? ??aia oaeaeeino? ?? iiaeeiaiiy, ui
eiio?ieth?oueny aeeneiaoeaieie aeeneieaoe?eieie i?ioeanaie a ieanoe/i?e
cii? aa?oeie i?e?io??ueie. Iiaeaeue a?aoiao? o?ce/io i?e?iaeo
aeeneiaoeaieo i?ioean?a oa aoaeo ae?aioaaiiy i?oaeiiai iiey AO
aeeneieaoe?eiith eiio?ao?aoe??th ? aeicaiey? aaeaeaaoii iienoaaoe
aeeiai?/ia ?oeioaaiiy iai?ae?eoeeo e?enoae?a a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?
e?eoei-a’yceiai ia?aoiaeo ia noaae?? noae?eoe/iiai ?inoo i?e?io??uei.
Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie aeeneieaoe?eii? oai??? iio?aao? a?aooaaiiy
aca?iiae?? ae?aioth/eo aeeneieaoe?e i?ae niaith, a ia o?eueee c i?oaeiei
iieai aa?oeie o??ueie, oa a?eueo oi/ieo eiii’thoa?ieo ?ic?aooie?a
ia?aiao??a aeeneieaoe?eii? eiio?ao?aoe??.

2. Ia iniia? eieaeueiiai aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino eaaci??aiiaaaeii?
nenoaie » AO-AAe» aecia/ai? oiiae oa c?iaeaii ioe?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aeeneieaoe?eiiai ae?aio, a oiio /ene? e?eoe/ii? aonoeie ae?aioth/eo
aeeneieaoe?e, ui iaiao?aei? aeey aaeueioaaiiy oa coieiee e?eoe/ieo
i?e?io??uei A?iooiona a iao?eoe? iaoae?a c IOeE- ? AUO-a?aoeaie.
Iieacaii, ui i?ioean noaaieicaoe?? aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy ? aeiaaeeia
noaae?? i?ae?inoaiiy i?e?io??uei aei e?eoe/ieo (eaoano?io?/ieo) ?ici???a
aecia/a?oueny ae??oaeueiei aieeaii o?ueio aca?iica’ycaieo ia?aiao??a:
?ao?oeiaei iii?ii ?ooo aeeneieaoe?yi, ?o aonoeiith oa aeiaaeeiith
a?eueiiai i?ia?ao. ?icoe?aiiy ciie noaa?eueiiai noae?eoe/iiai ?inoo
eaaci?aaiiaaaeieo i?e?io??uei noa? iiaeeeaei i?e iioeiaeueiiio
ii?aeiaii? oeeo ia?aiao??a.

3. A ?aieao i?eeiyoi? iiaeae? aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy, i?e a?aooaaii?
oa?ii/ii-aeoeaiaaiiai oa?aeoa?o ?ooo aeeneieaoe?e, aia?oa iaea?aeai?
aiae?oe/i? ae?ace, ui iienothoue neeueio oaiia?aoo?io caeaaei?noue
?noeiii? ?oeioth/i? iai?oae ? aoaeoeaii? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? a ?ioa?aae?
oaiia?aoo? e?eoei-a’yceiai ia?aoiaeo ia noaae?? noae?eoe/iiai ?inoo
i?e?io??uei.

4. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo
aeiaaaeaia oioiaei?noue oa?i?/ii aeoeaiaaieo iaoai?ci?a aeeneieaoe?eii?
i?e?ioa/?? ia ?aii?e noaae?? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, ui ia?aaeo?
?oeioaaiith, oa a i?oaeiiio iie? AO ia noaae?? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??,
noiooiuei? aeeiai?/iiio ?oeioaaiith e?enoae?a. I?e oeueiio oaiia?aoo?ia
/ooeea?noue ?noeiii? ?oeioth/i? iai?oae e?enoae?a a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?
e?eoei-a’yceiai ia?aoiaeo eiio?ieth?oueny aeeneiaoeaieie i?ioeanaie,
oaeaee?noue i?io?eaiiy yeeo aecia/a?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
aeeneieaoe?eii? eiioiao?aoe?? a ieanoe/ii? cii?, a oiio /ene?, oa?i?/ii
aeoeaiaaieie iaoai?ciaie ?ooeeainoi ae?aioth/eo aeeneieaoe?e a AO.

5. Aiae?oe/i? ae?ace, ui iaea?aeai? ia iniia? oyaeaiue i?i ae??oaeueio
?ieue aeeneiaoeaieo i?ioean?a a AO oa cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeeo?eaoe??
i?eioeeiiai? noaie eaac?e?eoeiai ia?aoiaeo, iienothoue no?oeoo?io
/ooeea?noue oaiia?aoo?e ieaeiueiai ii?iao oieiaeiieiieino? iai?ae?eoeeo
e?enoae?a. I?e oeueiio, c iiceoe?e ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?oeioaaiiy,
ia?ao?ae e?enoae?a a e?eoeee noai iiynith?oueny iaiiaeeea?noth ooai?aiiy
ae?aioth/i? aeeneieaoe?eii? eiio?ao?aoe?? a ieanoe/i?e cii? aa?oeie
i?e?io??ueie ?c-ca iaaeinoaoiuei? oaeaeeino? i?io?eaiiy aeeneiaoeaieo
i?ioean?a.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iioae?eiaai?:

Oea/aiei A.A., Iaenei/oe E.I.,O?aoeeia A.E. Iee?ieeiaoeea e
noaaeeecaoeey aeeiaie/aneiai ?ac?ooaiey iieoo?oieeo e?enoaeeia // Aeiee.
AI NNN?. — 1991. — 320, N2. — N. 330 — 333.

Oea/aiei A.A., Iaenei/oe E.I., O?aoeeia A.E. Oece/aneay i?e?iaea e iiaay
i?eioeeieaeueiay noaia o?oieiai ia?aoiaea a e?enoaeeao//Aeiee. AI NNN?.
— 1991. — 320, N 3. — C. 615 — 618.

Oea/aiei A.A., Iaenei/oe E.I., O?aoeeia A.E. Aeeneieaoeeiiiay oai?ey
oi?ie?iaaiey enoeiiiai ?ac?ooathuaai iai?yaeaiey a iaeanoe o?oieiai
ia?aoiaea e?enoaeeia // Aeiee. AI NNN?. — 1991. — 320, N4. — N.873 —
876.

Tkachenko V.G., Kolesnik L.I., Maksimchuk I.N. et. Dislocation mechanism
of hydrogen embrittlement of metalls and alloys with hcp and fcc
crystall structure // Int. J. Hydrogen Energy. — 1996. -21, N 11/12. —
p. 1105-1113.

AIIOAOe?ss

Iaenei/oe ?.I. Aeeneieaoe?eiee aiae?c aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy
iai?ae?eoeeo e?enoae?a ia noaae?? noae?eoe/iiai ?inoo i?e?io??uei. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.07 — o?ceea oaa?aeiai
o?ea. ?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. ?.I. O?aioeaae/a, Ee?a —
1998.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith aieeao aeeneiaoeaieo
aeeneieaoe?eieo i?ioean?a a aa?oei? i?e?io??ueie ia noaae??
noae?eoe/iiai ?inoo ia oa?aeoa?enoeee ?oeioaaiiy iai?ae?eoeeo e?enoae?a.
Cai?iiiiiaaia aeeneieaoe?eia iiaeaeue i?ioeano aeeiai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy,
ui a?aoiao? aeeneiaoe?th i?oaeii? aia?a?? a ieanoe/i?e cii? aa?oeie
o??ueie, oa?i?/ii aeoeaiaaiee oa?aeoa? ?ooo aeeneieaoe?e oa ae?aioth/ee
aieea aeeneieaoe?eii? eiio?ao?aoe?? ia aaee/eio ? i?inoi?iao
caeaaei?noue iiey aa?oeie i?e?io??ueie. Io?eiai? aeeneieaoe?ei? e?eoa???
noae?eoe/iiai ?inoo i?e?io??uei oa iaaaaeai? ioe?iee ia?aiao??a
aeeneieaoe?eiiai ainaiaeth, ui iaiao?aei? aeey aaeueioaaiiy oa coieiee
e?eoe/ieo iee?io?auei a iao?eoe? iaoae?a c IOeE- ? AUO- a?aoeaie. A
?aieao oeueiai i?aeoiaeo io?eiai? aiae?oe/i? ae?ace, ui iienothoue
oaiia?aoo?io caeaaei?noue ?noeiii? ?oeioth/i? iai?oae ? aoaeoeaii?
iiaa?oiaai? aia?a??. Ia iniia? oyaeaiue i?i ae??oaeueio ?ieue
aeeneiaoeaieo i?ioean?a a aa?oeiao noae?eoe/ieo i?e?io??uei
cai?iiiiiaaia i?eioeeiiaa noaia ia?aoiaeo e?enoae?a a e?eoeee noai ?
iaea?aeai? aiae?oe/i? ae?ace, ui iienothoue no?oeoo?io /ooeea?noue
oaiia?aoo?e ieaeiueiai ii?iaa oieiaeiieaieino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?e?io??ueie, noae?eoe/iee ??no, ieanoe/ia ciia,
ae?aioth/? aeeneieaoe??, ?oeioth/a iai?oaa, aoaeoeaia iiaa?oiaaa
aia?a?y, oaiia?aoo?a e?eoeiai ia?aoiaeo.

AIIIOAOeEss

Iaenei/oe E.I. Aeeneieaoeeiiiue aiaeec aeeiaie/aneiai ?ac?ooaiey
iieoo?oieeo e?enoaeeia ia noaaeee noae?eoe/aneiai ?inoa iee?io?auei. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.07 — oeceea
oaa?aeiai oaea.

Einoeooo i?iaeai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey ei. E.I. O?aioeaae/a, Eeaa — 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth aeeyiey aeenneiaoeaiuo
aeeneieaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a aa?oeia iee?io?aueiu ia noaaeee
noae?eoe/aneiai ?inoa ia oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ac?ooaiey iieoo?oieeo
e?enoaeeia. I?aaeeiaeaia aeeneieaoeeiiiay iiaeaeue i?ioeanna
aeeiaie/aneiai ?ac?ooaiey, o/eouaathuay aeenneiaoeeth oi?oaie yia?aee a
ieanoe/aneie ciia aa?oeiu o?aueiu, oa?ie/anee aeoeae?iaaiiue oa?aeoa?
aeaeaeaiey aeeneieaoeee e ye?aie?othuaa aeeyiea aeeneieaoeeiiiie
eiioeao?aoeee ia aaee/eio e i?ino?ainoaaiioth caaeneiinoue iiey aa?oeiu
iee?io?aueiu. Iieo/aiu aeeneieaoeeiiiua e?eoa?ee noae?eoe/aneiai ?inoa
iee?io?auei e i?eaaaeaiu ioeaiee ia?aiao?ia aeeneieaoeeiiiiai ainaiaey,
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey oi?iiaeaiey e inoaiiaee e?eoe/aneeo iee?io?auei a
iao?eoea iaoaeeia n IOeE e AIO — ?aoaoeaie. A ?aieao yoiai iiaeoiaea
iieo/aiu aiaeeoe/aneea au?aaeaiey, iienuaathuea oaiia?aoo?ioth
caaeneiinoue enoeiiiai ?ac?ooathuaai iai?yaeaiey e yooaeoeaiie
iiaa?oiinoiie yia?aee. Ia iniiaa i?aaenoaaeaiee i ?aoathuae ?iee
aeenneiaoeaiuo i?ioeannia a aa?oeiao noae?eoe/aneeo iee?io?auei
i?aaeeiaeaia i?eioeeieaeueiay noaia ia?aoiaea e?enoaeeia a o?oieia
ninoiyiea e i?eaaaeaiu aiaeeoe/aneea au?aaeaiey, iienuaathuea
no?oeoo?ioth /oanoaeoaeueiinoue oaiia?aoo?u ieaeiaai ii?iaa
oeaaeiieiieinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iee?io?aueia, noae?eoe/aneee ?ino, ieanoe/aneay ciia,
ye?aie?othuea aeeneieaoeee, iai?yaeaiea ?ac?ooaiea, yooaeoeaiay
iiaa?oiinoiay yia?aey, oaiia?aoo?a o?oieiai ia?aoiaea.

SUMMARY

Maksimchuk I.N. Dislocation analysis of dynamic fracture of semi-brittle
crystals at the stage of subcritical growth of microcracks. —
Manuscript.

Thesis for the Ph. Dr. degree on speciality 01.04.07 — Solid state
physics. Frantsevich Institute for Materials Science Problems of
Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, 1998.

Thesis is devoted to research of the influence of dissipative processes
in top of the microcrack at the stage of subcritical growth on the
characteristics of fracture of semi-brittle crystals. Dislocation model
of process of dynamic fracture taking into account a dissipation of
elastic energy in a plastic zone of the crack’s top, thermally activated
character of movement of dislocations and the shielding influence of
dislocations configuration on to the size and spatial dependence of the
top’s field of microcrack is proposed. Dislocations criterions of
subcritical growth of microcracks are obtained and the parameters of
dislocations assemble necessary for braking and a stop of critical
microcracks in a matrix of metals with fcc and hcp lattices are
evaluated. Within the limits of this approach the analytical expressions
describing the temperature dependences of true fracture stress and
effective surface energy are obtained. On the base of submissions about
a main role of dissipative processes in tops of subcritical microcracks
the concept of transition of crystals in to the brittle state is offered
and the analytical expressions describing structural sensitivity of
temperature of the lower threshold brittleness are suggested.

Key words: microcrack, subcritical growth, plastic zone, shielding
dislocations, fracture stress, effective surface energy, temperature of
brittle transition.

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