Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

Neiiiianueea

Ia??y ss?ineaa?aia

OAeE 551.4 (47.74)

AeEIAI?EA ss??A A AANAEI? AeI?NO?A

11.00.04 — aaiiioieia?y ? iaeaiaaia?ao?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia
O?aiea I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eiaaeue/oe ?aai Ieaoiiiae/.

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao

?iai? ?aaia O?aiea,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e
aaiii?oieia??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

Eauoo ?iiai Eineiiae/.

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? ?aaia O?aiea,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
?noi?e/ii? aaieia?? oa
iaeaiioieia??;

eaiaeeaeao aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iae??iei Aaeoa?ae Oeiio?eiae/.
Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e aaiii?oieia??
? iaeaiaaia?ao??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo aaia?ao?? IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 21 o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.35.051.08 o Euea?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290000, i.Euea?a, aoe.
Aei?ioaiea,41)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290000, i.
Euea?a, aoe. Ae?aaiiaiiaa,5)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 21 ea?oiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio
Oiiei ss.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Na?aae niaeo?o aaiii?oieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, ye?
aeeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy ?aeue?oo, iaeiei c iaeiaaacia/i?oeo ? y?eiaa
a?ic?y. I?ae aieeaii a?ic?? a?aeaoaathoueny cia/i? ci?ie o
iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu?. Ii-ia?oa, ?oeiothoueny a?oioe, ciaioo?oueny
?iaeth/?noue ? iia??oothoueny ?o aiaeii-o?ce/i? oa o?ceei-o?i?/i?
aeanoeaino?. I?iaeoeoe cieao caioeththoue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?
oa?aeaey, ?iaeth/? caieaai? caie?, caa?oaeiththoue ??ee ? aiaeieie, /ei
iia??oothoue ye?noue aiaee. Ii-ae?oaa, ooai?ththoueny a?ae’?ii? oi?ie
?aeue?oo – y?e, aeiaaeeiith a?ae e?eueeio aeanyoe?a iao??a aei e?eueeio
e?eiiao??a, a y?oaeia ia?aaea c aa?oeiaie ? aieiaeie a?aeaaeoaeaiiyie
?ic/eaiiao? iiey, iia??oo? oiiae aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue.

A?aoiaoth/e aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, ii/eiath/e c 1967 ?ieo a Oe?a?i?
?aae?co?oueny aea?aeaaia i?ia?aia iiia?aaeaeaiiy a?ic?? a?oio?a ?
ai?ioueae c ?? iane?aeeaie. A ?aa?iiaeuei?e i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nuee?e
aainenoai? aanaeio Aa?oiueiai oa Na?aaeiueiai Aei?no?a (aeae? — aanaei
Aei?no?a) ia?aoiao?oueny a?eueoa 8 000 y??a, i?ae yeeie caeiyoi 11,2
oen.aa. 2/3 y?eiaeo oi?i ?icaeaathoueny ia a?ic?eii-iaaacia/ieo noeeao
e?ooeciith a?eueoa 1(. A iniiaiiio y?e i?eo?i/ai? aei ??ee?, i?ae yeith
ciaoiaeeoueny 48% ieiu? aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi???.

Ca?aene aeieeaa? iaiao?aei?noue iiooeo caeiiii??iinoae ooai?aiiy oi?i
a?ic?eiiai ?aeue?oo, ioe?iee nooiaiy o?aaeaiiy aanaeio Aei?no?a y?aie
noaiii ia 1925, 1955, 1985-98 ?iee, aecia/aiiy ?ioaineaiino? a?ic?eiiai
i?ioeano, ?ic?aooie?a iioaioe?aeo e?i?eiiai ?inoo y??a, i?iaiico
y?iooai?aiiy oa iaa?oiooaaiiy nenoaie i?ioea?ic?eieo caoiae?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee iai?yi
aeine?aeaeaiue o?nii iia’ycaiee c oaiaoeeith ?ia?o eaoaae?e
aaiii?oieia??. Iaoiaeeea oa iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoai? i?e aeeiiaii? aea?aeathaeaeaoieo oai,
«Aeieiai-aaiii?oieia?/ia ioe?iea ??/eiaeo nenoai oa ?o aanaei?a a iaaeao
Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie» (1992-1994 ??.), «Aeieiai-aaiii?oieia?/iee aiae?c
i?iaeai i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy a i?aeia?iaeieo o?ainei?aeiiieo ??/eiaeo
nenoaiao oa ?o aanaeiao ? iaa?oiooaaiiy oeyo?a ?o ae??oaiiy» (1995-1997
??.), «A?ae?ieiai-aaiii?oieia?/iee aiae?c Cao?aeiiai Aoao ? aa?oiueiai
Aei?no?a c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e aeey iio?aa
iioei?caoe?? i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy» (1998-2000 ??., iaoeiaee ea??aiee
i?ioani? ?.I.Eiaaeue/oe).

Iaoa ?iaioe: anoaiiaeoe i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy oa caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo
oi?i e?i?eii? a?ic??, iniaeeaino? iioe?aiiy y??a ??ciiai a?eo oa
ii?oieia?? a aanaei? Aei?no?a ia iniia? ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co
??ciia?eiaeo ea?o, aa?ioioici?ie?a, iieueiaeo ? iai?anoaoe?iia?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ?ic?aooie?a iioaioe?aeo e?i?eiiai ?inoo y??a; ioe?ieoe
noai ? aeyaeoe oaiaeaioe?? ci?ie iniiaieo iieaciee?a y?oaeii? ia?aae?,
iaa?oiooaaoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? i?ioea?ic?eii? i?aai?caoe?? oa?eoi???,
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue, i?aeaeuaiiy ?o ?iaeth/ino?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ae??ooaaeeny oae? caaaeaiiy: 1) ioe?iea ?ie?
i?e?iaeieo oa aio?iiiaaiieo /eiiee?a ooai?aiiy ? ?icaeoeo y??a,
?iciianthaeaeaiiy e?i?eii? a?ic??; 2) aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee
iai?anoaoe?iia?ieo ? ea?oiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue y??a; 3) noai?aiiy
aace aeaieo iniiaieo ia?aiao??a y??a aanaeio Aei?no?a (aeiaaeeie,
oe?eie, aeeaeie) oa iio?aeieo a?ae ieo (ieiu? aiaeicai?o, ia’?io
aeianaieo ii??ae oiui); 4) anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy oa
?icaeoeo y??a ia aiaeicai?ao c ??cieie oeiaie oa?aeue; 5) iaa?oiooaaiiy
nenoaie caoiae?a iiia?aaeaeaiiy y?iooai?aiiy oa ?aeoeueoeaaoe??
o?aaeaieo y?aie caiaeue.

Ia’?eoii ea?oiiao?e/ieo, iieueiaeo oa iai?anoaoe?iia?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aoee noeeia?, aa?aaia?, aeiii? oa i?eaiaeiae?euei? y?e ? y?oaei? ia?aae?
aanaeio Aei?no?a, ?o noai, aeeiai?ea ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ai?iaeiaae a?eueo
ye 70-oe ?ie?a (1925-1998??.).

A ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaii? ?iaioe neeaaeaia na??y iiaeo ea?oinoai (aonoioe
y?eiaiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy ? u?eueiino? aa?oei y??a) ia o?e a?eia? c??ce ?
ea?oia?ai noia?ieo ci?i u?eueiino? aa?oei oa aonoioe y?eiaiai
?ic/eaioaaiiy, a oaeiae neeaaeaia noaia a?ic?eiiai ?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi???
? ae?aa?aie iioaioe?aeo e?i?eiiai ?inoo y??a ia 6-oe eeth/iaeo
ae?eyieao.

Iaoeiao iiaecio ?iaioe noaiiaeyoue:

1) aia?oa io?eiai? aeey aanaeio Aa?oiueiai oa Na?aaeiueiai Aei?no?a
ia?aiao?e aonoioe y?eiaiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy oa na?aaeiuei??/ii?
?ioaineaiino? e?i?eiiai ?inoo y??a; 2) caeiiii??iino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?
aaaaoi??/ii? aeeiai?ee y??a; 3) noaia ?aeiioaaiiy aanaeio Aei?no?a ca
?ioaineai?noth i?ioean?a e?i?eii? a?ic?? oa nooiaiai o?aaeaiiy y?aie; 4)
ioe?iee a?ic?eiiai iioaioe?aeo y?eiaeo nenoai, i?eo?i/aieo aei ??cieo
eaoaai??e caiaeueieo oa?aeue;5) aia?oa neeaaeai? ia aanaei Aa?oiueiai oa
Na?aaeiueiai Aei?no?a ea?oinoaie aonoioe y?oaeii? ia?aae? ? u?eueiino?
aa?oei y??a noaiii ia 1925, 1955, 1985 ?iee oa ea?oia?aie noia?ieo ci?i
aonoioe y?oaeiiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy ? u?eueiino? aa?oei y??a ca ia??iaee
1925-1955, 1955-1985, 1925-1985 ?iee; 6) i?iaiice e?i?eiiai ?inoo
a?ic?eieo oi?i aei 2010 ?ieo.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

— eiioeaioe?y aaiii?oieia?/iiai aiae?co y??a ? i?ioean?a y?iooai?aiiy a
aanaeiia?e aainenoai? Aei?no?a;

— ?acoeueoaoe eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue iioe?aiiy y??a, o?aaeaiiy ieie
aanaeio, oaiaeaioe?e ? iioaioe?aeo ?o ?icaeoeo;

— i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, i???ioiaai? ia noaa?e?caoe?th y??a,
cieaeaiiy iioaioe?aeo ?o ?inoo ? caoeno oa?aeue a?ae aeaa?aaeaoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A?aoiaoth/e i?e/eie
aeieeiaiiy oa iniaeeaino? iioe?aiiy y??a ??ciiai a?eo, a oaeiae
oaiaeaioe?? ?o ?icaeoeo, iaa?oioiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? i?ioea?ic?eii?
i?aai?caoe?? oa?eoi???, ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue ?
i?aeaeuaiiy a?ic?eii-aeieia?/ii? aaciaee. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeei?enoiaothoueny o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? ? aeeth/ai? o ca?oe
eaoaae?e aaiii?oieia?? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aiie
iioae?eiaai? a iaoeiaeo noaooyo ? iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo,
aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o i?iaaaeaii? eaia?aeueieo
(ea?oiiao?e/i?, ea?oia?ao?/i? ? aeaoeo?oaaiiy aa?ioioici?ie?a),
iai?anoaoe?iia?ieo ? iieueiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue y?oaeieo nenoai aanaeio
Aei?no?a, noai?aii? aace aeaieo iniiaieo ia?aiao??a y??a (aeiaaeeie,
oe?eie, aeeaeie) oa iio?aeieo a?ae ieo (ia’?io aeianaieo ii??ae, ia’?io
y?o, ieiu? aiaeicai?o oiui), aaeineiiaeaii? iaoiaeeee iai?anoaoe?iia?ieo
? ea?oiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue y??a; aecia/aii? aeey aanaeio Aei?no?a
ia?aiao??a aonoioe y?oaeii? ia?aae?, u?eueiino? aa?oei y??a ?
na?aaeiuei??/ieo oaii?a e?i?eiiai ?inoo a?ic?eieo oi?i, anoaiiaeaii?
aeey ??cii/aniaeo c??c?a caeiiii??iinoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa aaaaoi??/ii?
aeeiai?ee y??a, ?ic?aooieo iioaioe?aeo e?i?eiiai ?inoo y??a aei 2010
?ieo ? ?aeiioaaii? aanaeio ca nooiaiai o?aaeaiiy y?aie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia ??? c’?cae? a?oioiciaaoe?a oa
aa?io?i?e?a Oe?a?ie (Oa?e?a, 1990), Ananithci?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
«Y?iceiaaaeaiea: oai?ey, yenia?eiaio, i?aeoeea» (Iineaa, 1991),
i?aeaoc?anueeeo eii?aeeiaoe?eieo ia?aaeao c i?iaeai a?ic?eieo, ?oneiaeo
? ae?eiaeo i?ioean?a (Ai?iiaae, 1993, A?yine, 1994; Aieiaaea, 1995,
Ia?i, 1997, Ineia, 1998); i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«?aaeii e aaia?aoey» (Ia?i, 1995), VII c’?cae? OAO (Ee?a, 1995),
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? aei 90-??//y i?ioani?a I.E.Caii??y (Ee?a, 1996),
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Oe?a?inueea
aaiii?oieia?y: noai ? ia?niaeoeae» (Euea?a, 1997), iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao
eaoaae?e aaiii?oieia?? Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1990-1998 ??.)

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?ii ? ca eiai o/anoth
iioae?eiaaii 17 i?aoeue, a o./. 4 — o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, 4 — o
iaoa??aeao i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?e, 9 — o ca??ieeao oac iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?e.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 142 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo. Neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (288 iaeiaioaaiue),
i?i?ethno?iaaia 51 ?enoieii ? 10 oaaeeoeyie. Caaaeueiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 234 noi??iee.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss ? ?ACOEUeOAOE ?IAIOE

1. Eiioeaioe??th aeine?aeaeaiue y?eiai? a?ic?? ia?aaeaa/aii aiae?c
?noi??? aea/aiiy y?eiai? a?ic?? ?aa?iio, aecia/aiiy iniiaieo iai?yi?a,
iaoiae?a oa aeai?eoi?a aecia/aiiy nooiaiy o?aaeaiiy oa?eoi??? y?aie,
?ioaineaiino? ?icaeoeo i?ioean?a e?i?eii? a?ic?? oa ?? iioaioe?aeo,
i?iaiicoaaiiy noaio y?eiaeo nenoai, iaa?oiooaaiiy nenoaie i?ioea?ic?eieo
caoiae?a.

Aea/aiith i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy, caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo, iniaeeainoae
iioe?aiiy oa eeaneo?eaoe?? y??a i?eny/ai? ?iaioe aaaaoueio a/aieo.
Na?aae ieo iaea?eueo a?aeii? i?aoe? ?.Eaaaeianueeiai (1890),
A.Aeieo/a?aa (1892), A.Ianaeuenueeiai (1897), N.Niaieaaa (1948),
A.Aoaeaai? (1948), I.Eiciaiea (1954), A.E?aeiaa (1954), Ae.A?iaiaea
(1956), I.Nona (1959), ?.A?aoaea (1959), I.Iaeeaa??aa (1971), I.Aoaeciia
(1974), I.Ei?io?ii? (1974), I.Caoa?iaa (1978), I.?iaeeiaa (1981),
I.Caneaanueeiai (1983), A.Einiaa (1984), E.Ci??ii? (1984,1992,1995),
E.Naooinueei?, I.Aieeiai? (1987), I.Aieiuoea (1978, 1981, 1996),
?.Eiaaeue/oea (1977-1997), A.Iooeeeia (1981, 1988), A.?aeioa (1986),
A.Aeaaeeiaa, A.Iicaea?eia, ?.Ooeaaaa (1990), N.O?ooeeiai, I. Naiaiiaa,
A.Einoeiai? (1991), I.Iaca?iaa (1992), ?.Neeaee, A.Aieiyaea, A.Iaiaaieea
(1995), ?.?en?ia (1982, 1998) oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ic?eieo i?ioean?a, ye? i?iaiaeeeeny a Cao?aeiiio
?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie, aeicaieeee aeyaeoe caeiiii??iino? iioe?aiiy oa
aeeiai?ee y??a a ie?aieo /anoeiao aanaeio Aei?no?a ? iai?oeoe iniiai?
caoiaee ii ?o iiia?aaeaeaiith, i?eieiaiith ?icaeoeo oa e?ea?aeaoe??.
I?ioa oe?e?nii? ea?oeie o?aaeaiiy oi?iaie y?eiai? a?ic?? aanaeio
Aa?oiueiai oa Na?aaeiueiai Aei?no?a, ?o iioe?aiiy a i?inoi?? oa
aeeiai?ee a /an?, aecia/aiiy noaae?e ?icaeoeo ? ?iciiae?eo iioaioe?aeo
y?iooai?aiiy aei oeueiai /ano ia io?eiaii. Oiio aeieeea iaiao?aei?noue
aeaoe e?euee?nio ioe?ieo nooiaiy o?aaeaiiy oa?eoi??? oi?iaie e?i?eii?
a?ic?? oa aeyaeoe oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo y?oaeieo nenoai.

Iniiaith aeey eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy noaio ? ?icaeoeo i?ioean?a y?eiai?
a?ic?? a aanaei? Aei?no?a ? ea?oia?ao?/i? aeaea?aea (oiiiea?oe ianooaao
1:100000 ? 1:25000), noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee, ye? a?oioothoueny ia
?acoeueoaoao ea?oiiao?e/iiai aiae?co oa aeaoeo?oaaii? aa?ioioici?ie?a, a
oaeiae iieueia? ? iai?anoaoe?iia?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy y?eiai? ia?aae? ? i?ioean?a y?iooai?aiiy aacoaaeeny ia
iaa?oioiaai?e iaie noai? aeei?enoaiiy a iaai?e iine?aeiaiino? nenoaie
i?eeii?a, niinia?a ? iaoiae?a aiae?co ? neioaco o aeaeyae? aeai?eoio, a
yeiio ii?aeiothoueny iia?aoi?e ae?e, eia?/ieo oiia, niinia?a oa i?eeii?a
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ii?aeiaiiy ??cieo iaoiae?a, ye? aeiiiaithaaee oa aca?iieiio?iethaaee
iaeei iaeiiai, aeaei iiaeeea?noue io?eiaoe ia’?eoeai? aeai? i?i noai
y?eiaeo nenoai, oaiaeaioe?? eiai ci?ie, ?ioaineai?noue e?i?eiiai ?inoo,
oaii ia?aoi?ioaaiiy iiacaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth y?o oa noeeo, a oaeiae
cae?enieoe i?iaiic y?iooai?aiiy, yeee iieyaa? a io?eiaii? ?ic?aooieiaeo
oa?aeoa?enoee ?ioaineaiino? e?i?eiiai ?inoo y??a, aonoioe ?o ia?aae? oa
u?eueiino? aa?oei a iaaeao ii?oiiao?e/ii aeae?eaieo aiaeicai??a.

?ic?iaeaia eiiieaenia iaoiaeeea ea?oiiao?e/ieo, iai?anoaoe?iia?ieo ?
iieueiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?ic?aoiaaiee iioaioe?ae e?i?eiiai ?inoo y??a
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue iioei?coaaoe i?iaeoii-aeooeoaaeuei? ?iaioe ?
ciaioeoe cao?aoe ia i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioea?ic?eieo caoiae?a.

2. Aiae?c oaeoi??a y?iooai?aiiy ia?aaeaa/a? aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaieo
/eiiee?a, ye? aecia/athoue iioaioe?eio iaaaciaeo ?icaeoeo i?ioean?a
e?i?eii? a?ic??.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui:1)iai?yiee aaaaoueio y?oaeieo oi?i ?aeue?oo aanaeio
Aei?no?a ni?aiaaeathoue c iai?yieaie i?inoyaaiiy nenoaie oaeoii?/ieo
o??uei ?aa?iio. Ia aeine?aeaeoaaieo eeth/iaeo ae?eyieao e?euee?noue
y??a, caeeaaeaieo ii oaeoii?/ieo o??ueiao i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai
i?inoyaaiiy, ci?ith?oueny a?ae 15 aei 65 %, i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai — a?ae 0
aei 60% ? oe?ioiiai a?ae 0 aei 15%. Iaeaea ia an?o eeth/iaeo ae?eyieao
iaeaeiao? io/ee i?iiai?a i?inoyaaiiy y??a a?aeiia?aeathoue iai?yiai ii
co — iae no ? ii no — iae co, ui ni?aiaaea? c iniiaieie iai?yiaie
oaeoii?/ieo o??uei; 2) 80% oa?eoi??? aanaeio Aei?no?a iie?eoi eanaie,
eaniiiae?aieie noaeeieaie ? noaeeienoeie ii?iaeaie, ui ni?ey? ?icaeoeo
y??a; 3) aeine?aeaeoaaia oa?eoi??y ioiieth? ?aa?iie c a?aei?iieie ?enaie
aaiii?oieia?/ii? aoaeiae: iecueeia??iee no?oeoo?ii-aeaioaeaoe?eiee
?aeue?o iiiiee?iaeueieo o?aao?a Cao?aeieo Aaneeae, na?aaeiueia??nueeee
no?oeoo?ii-aeaioaeaoe?eiee ?aeue?o No?aeieo Aaneeae, na?aaeiueiaenioi?
Neeaia? Ai?aaie c eai’yieie ?icneieuaie ? aeeaieeie iiia?a/ieie
aeieeiaie, iecueeia??iee ?aeue?o No?eenueei-Nainueei? Aa?oiaeie. Oe?
iaeano? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny neeueii?ic/eaiiaaiei a?ic?eiei ?aeue?oii.
Aaniethoi? aenioe eieeaathoueny a?ae 120 aei 400 i a?ey i?aei?aeaey a??
aei 500-800 i o i?aea??nueeeo oeiaiaeiao. Iaea?eueo i?aeaeuai? ?aeiie
??aieiii? /anoeie aanaeio i?eo?i/ai? aei iaoe?ii? Aieeii-Iiae?euenueei?
aeni/eie (350-470 i) oa Ia?aaeea?iaonueei? aeni/eie c aenioaie iiiaae
500 i, ye? oaeiae aieiae?thoue aenieei a?ic?eiei iioaioe?aeii. 4)
aaciina?aaei?i ee?iaoe/iei /eiieeii a?ic?? ? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy noieo
oaeeo aiae ? iiaaee, caaaeueia e?euee?noue yeeo ci?ith?oueny a?ae
450-700 ii ia Iiae?ee? aei 1500 ii o Ea?iaoao. Iniiaia e?euee?noue
iiaae?a aeiaaea? o aeaeyae? aeiuo ? ceea o oaieee ia??iae ?ieo, a
aeiaiaee iaeneioi eieeaa?oueny a?ae 19,5 aei 62,9 ii i?e na?aaei?e
?ioaineaiino? 0,12-0,17 ii/oa ? iaeneiaeuei?e 2,5 ii/oa; 5) o no?oeoo??
a?oioiaiai iie?eao aeii?iothoue aea?iiai-i?aecieeno? a?oioe a
Ia?aaeea?iaoo? oa n??? ii?aecieai? ia Iiae?ee?. Oe? a?oioe iathoue
iecueeo i?ioea?ic?eio caeaoi?noue; 6) ia ?icaeoie i?ioean?a y?eiai?
a?ic?? aieeaa? ?ineeiiee iie?ea ? ainiiaea?nueea aeei?enoaiiy oa?eoi???.
Nooi?iue cae?niaiino? a aanaei? Aei?no?a ci?ith?oueny a?ae 13,2% ia
Iiae?ee? aei 25,4% a Ia?aaeea?iaoo? oa 49% a Ea?iaoao. Aieea
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? i?iyaey?oueny a ?ici?thaaii? noeeiaeo
oa?aeue c ii?ooaiiyi aeiia i?ioea?ic?eii? i?aai?caoe?? oa?eoi???,
ae?oaoaaii? e?n?a ? ?icei?/iaoaaii? /aaa?iee?a, o i?ieeaaeaii? a?oioiaeo
aei??a, canoinoaaii? aaaeei? aa?ioaoi?ee ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oa?aeaeyo, ui iia??oo? o?eueo?aoe?ei? oa i?ioea?ic?ei? aeanoeaino?
a?oio?a.

3. Nooi?iue o?aaeaiiy aa?oiuei? oa na?aaeiuei? /anoeie aanaeio
Aei?no?a oi?iaie e?i?eii? a?ic?? ? oaiaeaioe?? eiai aaaaoi??/ieo ci?i
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iieacieeaie, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue aonoioo y?eiai?
ia?aae? oa u?euei?noue aa?oei y??a noaiii ia o?e a?eia? c??ce — 1925,
1955, 1985??. ? aeeiai?eo ?o ci?i ca ia??iaee 1925-1955, 1955-1985,
1925-1985 ??., ye? anoaiiaeai? ia iniia? ea?oiiao?e/iiai aiae?co,
aeaoeo?oaaiiy aa?ioioici?ie?a oa iai?anoaoe?iia?ieo ? iieueiaeo
niinoa?aaeaiue.

Iniiaiei iieacieeii aeoeaiino? y?eiai? a?ic?? ? ieiueiia o?aaeai?noue
oa?eoi??? y?aie. ?ic?aoiaaiee eiao?oe??io aonoioe y?oaeii? ia?aae? aeaa
iiaeeea?noue io?eiaoe ia’?eoeaio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i aaiii?oieia?/io ?ieue
y??a. Neeaaeai? ii?oiiao?e/i? ea?oinoaie I1:100000 ioiieee
aeine?aeaeoaaio oa?eoi??th ieiuath aeecueei 25 000 ea.ei ? aeaee
iiaeeea?noue ioe?ieoe nooi?iue o?aaeaiiy aiaeicai??a iniiaii? ??ee oa
aeiieea?a Aei?no?a noaiii ia o?e a?eia? c??ce (1925,1955,1985??.)
oi?iaie e?i?eii? a?ic?? ca oaeei iieacieeii ye ?o aonoioa. A?i
ci?ith?oueny a aeiaie? oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? — a?ae 0 aei 2,58 ei/ei2.
Iaeaeu? iieacieee aonoioe y??a noaiii ia 1985 ??e (?en.1) oa?aeoa?i?
aeey iaaee??//y Aeno?eoey-Oeniaieoey (2,3 ei/ei2), Aeno?eoey-Eoeaa (2,1
ei/ei2), No?ee-Na?/a (1,85 ei/ei2), No?ea?ai? -Aei?noa? (1,75 ei/ei2),
E?iieoey-Na?/a (1,75 ei/ei2), Aieiai?i-E?aiaiaoeueeiai e?yaeo (2,0
ei/ei2), ?icoi//y (1,46 ei/ei2). Ieiua a?aae?a c iaeneiaeueieie
iieacieeaie y?oaeiiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy ia ia?aaeuo? 5% ieiu?
aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi???.

I?eaeecii 15-20% aanaeio Aei?no?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieei ? na?aaei?i
nooiaiai o?aaeaiiy y?aie. Nthaee a?aeiineoueny I?eeoeaeinueea aeni/eia
(1,48 ei/ei2), Aa?aaeainueea ai?aia??’y (1,2 ei/ei2), Oiaei??anueea
(1,01 ei/ei2) ? ?iaaoeinueea Ii?eey ( 1,05 ei/ei2). Aeecueei iieiaeie
aanaeio Aei?no?a caeiyoi a?aaeaie, c aonoioith y?eiaiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy
a?ae 0 aei 0,5 ei/ei2. Oae? ae?eyiee a iaeiaeia?e i??? cono??/athoueny
ye ia ?ici?aieo, oae ? cae?niaieo oa?aeaeyo. Iaeaea 25% iiaa?oi? aanaeio
a?aeiineoueny aei aac’y?eiaeo oa?eoi??e aai cii c iiiaeeiieeie y?aie. ?o
a?aaee i?eo?i/ai? aei i?eaiaeiae?eueieo /anoei Aaneeae ? Ai?aai,
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? /anoeie Euea?anueeiai ieaoi, Oiao?, aanaei?a ??e
Na?ao, Ca?o/, Ai?cia, i?eaeieeiii? /anoeie aanaei?a Aei?no?a, No?ey,
Oeniaieoe?.

Iieaciee aonoioe y??a (ei/ei2) aeiiiaith?oueny iieacieeii u?eueiino? ?o
aa?oei ia iaeeieoeth ieiu (iae/ei2).

Iaeaeu? iieacieee u?eueiino? aa?oei y??a noaiii ia 1985 ?. cao?eniaai?
ia iaaee??//? ??e No?ee — Na?/a ? E?iieoey — Na?/a (19 iae/ei2), a
Aieiai?i-E?aiaiaoeueeiio e?yae? (21 iae/ei2) ? ia
A?a?nueei-No?euenueeiio Ii?ee? (20 iae/ei2), ui aea? iiaeeea?noue
a?aeianoe oe? ?aeiie aei iaea?eueo a?ic?eiiiaaacia/ieo.

Iaea?eueo? ieiu? caeiathoue a?aaee c iiiaeeiieeie y?aie. Ooo
u?euei?noue aa?oei eieeaa?oueny a?ae 0 aei 4 iae/ei2. Oae? iieacieee
oa?aeoa?i? aeey y??a, i?eo?i/aieo aei a?aeiinii ??aieo ? ieineeo
ae?eyiie ia iaaee??//yo ??/ie Na?ao-Ca?o/ (0-3 iae/ei2), Aieea
Eeia-Cieioa Eeia (0-3 iae/ei2), Na?ao-Ai?cia (0-2 iae/ei2),
Aiaa?ea-Aieea Eeia (0-4 iae/ei2), i?eaeieeiii? /anoeie Aei?no?a (0-4
iae/ei2), Oa?iii?euenueeiai ieaoi (0-4 iae/ei2).

ss?e, ye a?aeiii, ? aeoaea aeeiai?/ieie oi?iaie ?aeue?oo. I?aeaeuaia
u?euei?noue y??a na?ae/eoue i?i aenieo a?ic?eio iaaaciaeo oa aeoeaio
noaae?th ?icaeoeo ?aeue?oo.

Ii??aiyiiy a?ic?eii-aaiii?oieia?/ii? oa i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/ii?
neooaoe?? ia aa?ioioici?ieao (I 1:14000, 1:17000) 1952 ?ieo c oaeith ae
neooaoe??th noaiii ia 1985 ??e na?ae/eoue i?i nooo?a? ci?ie, ye?
a?aeaoeeny o noai? y??a oa oa?aeoa?? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue. Ca oeae
ia??iae a?eueo?noue y??a ia?aeoee a noaae?th noaa?e?caoe??, oiaoi
ae?iaeaiiy oei/aniaiai i?io?eth ??aiiaaae. Ia inoaii?o ci?ieao noeeia?
y?e aaea iie?eo? i?e?iaeiith o?aa’yienoi-/aaa?ieeiaith ?ineeii?noth.

Iieueia? ia?o?ooi? aeine?aeaeaiiy y??a i?iaiaeeeeny a 1990-1998 ??. ia
eeth/iaeo ae?eyieao c iaoith ioe?iee no/aniiai ?o noaio (oaiaeaioe?e
?icaeoeo), aeathoue i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui:

— ?nio? aeia?a ae?aaeaia oeeee?/i?noue o ?icaeoeo y?eiaeo oi?i, naciiia
aeeiai?ea ci?ie ii?oieia?? y??a ye oi?i ?aeue?oo (aeoea?caoe?y —
caoooaiiy a?ic?eieo i?ioean?a);

— aeyaeai? nooo?a? oa?eoi??aeuei? a?aei?ie nooiaiy aeoeaiino? y??a
??cieo oei?a. Iaeaeoeai?o? y?eia? oi?ie ( c oi/ee ci?o aeeiai?ee
aeciaaiieo i?ioean?a) ? y?e a eanao oa a aeai/eaiieo a?aeeeaaeao. Aei
?aeii?a c a?aeiinii a?eueoith aeoeai?noth a?ic?eieo i?ioean?a a y?ao
iiaeia a?aeianoe ieaeith /anoeio aanaeio ??ee Cieioa Eeia, iaaee??//y
??e Ue?ea-Aiaa?ea ? Aeno?eoey Iaaea??iyinueea-Aeno?eoey Nieioaeinueea,
aanaeie ??/ie Eoeaa, Oeniaieoey, Eieiaeieoey, Na?/a, E?iieoey.

C 1925 ii 1985 ?iee a aonoio? y??a aanaeio Aei?no?a oa u?eueiino? ?o
aa?oei noaeeny iii?oi? ci?ie. Aiie aeyaeai? oeyoii ii??aiyiiy
??ciia?eiaeo ea?oinoai cay?oaeaiino? noaiii ia 1925, 1955, 1985 ??. Aeey
aecia/aiiy ianooaa?a ci?i noaio y??a a?ae iaeiiai iae?eiaiai ia??iaeo
aei ?ioiai aoee neeaaeai? ?acoeueooth/? ea?oia?aie noia?ieo ia?aoai?aiue
y?eiai? ia?aae?.

sseui i?eeiyoe aonoioo y??a a 1925 ?ioe? ca 100% oi ca 60-??/iee
ia??iae (1925-1985??.) aonoioa y??a (?en.2) o Ia?aaeea?iaoo? ca?eueoeeny
ia 14%, ia Iiae?ee? — ia 30% ? a?eueoa. C 1925 ii 1955 ?iee ??cei (ia
25-50%) ca?eueoeeany aonoioa y??a ia ?icoi//?, Euea?anueeiio ieaoi,
Aieiai?i-E?aiaiaoeueeiio e?yae?. Aeey ianooiii? /aa?o? noie?ooy
oa?aeoa?ia iii?oia ciaioaiiy (22-40%) aonoioe aeoeaieo y??a, ia ui
aieeioee i?iaaaeai? a 60-70 ?ieao i?ioea?ic?ei? ?iaioe. Ni?eyei oeueiio
oaeiae aeaaaeaiiy /anoeie e?ooinoeeiaeo ae?eyiie c aeoeaiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ic?eieo i?ioean?a o aanaei? Aei?no?a
aeicaieeee aeyaeoe aaeeeo ??ciiiai?oi?noue i?iyao a?ic?eieo oi?i a
??cieo aaiii?oieia?/ieo oiiaao oa ?o caeaaei?noue a?ae aeanoeainoae
e?oieia??, ee?iaoo, a?oio?a, ?ineeiiiai iie?eao, ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie oiui. Oiio aeey ?aa?iiae?caoe?? a?ic?eieo
i?ioean?a, cie?aia y?eiai? a?ic??, iaie ?ic?iaeaia noaia
a?ic?eii-aaiii?oieia?/iiai ?aeiioaaiiy aanaeio Aei?no?a.

A yeino? iniiaii? iaeeieoe? a?ic?eii-aaiii?oieia?/iiai ?aeiioaaiiy (AA?)
aanaeio Aei?no?a i?eeiyoee ?aeii. Iiae?ai? ca noeoii?noth iciae
a?ic?eii-aaiii?oieia?/i? ?aeiie aeioe?eueii ia’?aeiaoe a o?e oeie :

1) aacy?eia? aai c iiiaeeiieeie y?aie (aonoioa y?eiaiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy
0-0,5 ei/ei2, u?euei?noue aa?oei 1-3 iae/ei2). Aei oeueiai oeio
a?aeiinyoueny oae? ?aeiie: Ai?iaeioeueei-Eiia?i?anueeee,
Naia??nueei-Iaaeeinueeee, Oiaei??anueei-AEeaea/?anueeee, Ica?yinueeee c
aaeeeith aonoioith y?eiai? ia?aae? (aonoioa y??a ia?aaeuo? 1,2 ei/ei2 a,
Oi?inoe?anueeee, Iii?aoeue-Neie?anueeee, Aeoe?anueei-Iniieiae?anueeee;

2) c iii??iei y?eiaei ?ic/eaioaaiiyi (aonoioa y??a 0,6-1,2 ei/ei2,
u?euei?noth aa?oei aei 12 iae/ei2). Oeae oei ioiieth? ?aeiie:
Aa?aueoeueei-ssi?anueeee, Aeia?iieeuenueei-Oe??anueeee,
Oo?e?anueei-No?aeieoeueeee, Ae?iaiaeoeueeee, Ue?aoeueei-?icae?euenueeee,
?iaaoeinueei-Ao?ooeinueeee, Eaeonueei-?aaii-O?aie?anueeee,
Ai?iaeaie?anueei-Cae?ueoeueeee, Oeniaieoeueei-Oeoiaoeueeee,
Euea?anueei-Aeaaeae?anueeee, Aeno?eoeueeee, Iiianoe?enueei-Ao/aoeueeee,
Aa?aaeainueei-Oa?iii?euenueeee, Oa?aaiaeyinueeee, Aonyoeinueeee;

u?euei?noue aa?oei aei 21 iae/ei2). Aei oe??? eaoaai??? a?aeianai?
Iaiyee-Aieoaeoeueeee, A?a?nueei-Na??aenueeee,
Ia?aieoeyinueei-Eeiiaaoeueeee, No?eenueei-Aieao?anueeee,
Aeieeinueei-?iaeiyo?anueeee, Iaaea??iyinueeee.

4. Iioaioe?ae e?i?eiiai ?inoo y??a aecia/a?oueny oa?aeoa?ii ii?aeiaiiy
/eiiee?a y?iooai?aiiy. Ioe?iea iioaioe?aeo, ?ioaineaiino? ?icaeoeo
e?i?eii? a?ic?? oa ?? aeieiai-aaiii?oieia?/ieo iane?aee?a aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue i?iaiicoaaoe ?icaeoie y?eiaeo oi?i oa aecia/eoe ?o
iiaeaeueoee aieea ia aeiae?eey.

Iniiaieie /eiieeaie, ye? a?aooaaeeny i?e i?iaiicoaaii? ?icaeoeo oi?i
e?i?eii? a?ic??, aoee i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa?eoi??? —
ee?iao, cie?aia iaeneiaeueiee iiaeoeue aeiuiaiai noieo (A1%); ?aeue?o
(e?ooecia ? aeiaaeeia noee?a, aeeaeia aaceno a?ic??); e?oieia?/iee
neeaae i?aenoaeyth/eo ii??ae oa ?o i?ioea?ic?eia no?ee?noue oiui.

?ic?aooiie iioaioe?aeo e?i?eiiai ?inoo y??a aeeiioaaany aeey
aiaeicai??a ie?aieo y??a c aeei?enoaiiyi oiiia?ao?/ii? iniiae ianooaao
1:25000. A yeino? ia’?eoo i?iaiicoaaiiy aenooiaee y?e aeiaaeeiith
a?eueoa 25 i, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny ia eeth/iaeo ae?eyieao ia Iiae?ee?, a
Ia?aaeea?iaoo? ? Ea?iaoao oa a?ae??ciythoueny ee?iaoe/ieie oiiaaie,
aaiii?oieia?/ieie ia?aiao?aie oa e?oieia?/iei neeaaeii i?aenoaethth/eo
ii??ae.

Caeaaeii a?ae aeeaeie aa?oeeaeueiiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy, aeiaaeeie ?
e?ooecie noee?a, oeio iooeeo a?aeeeaae?a, oa?aeoa?o a?oioiaiai ?
?ineeiiiai iie?eao, aeaeo i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy, oeio y??a ? noaae?? ?o
?icaeoeo, iioaioe?ae e?i?eiiai ?inoo a?ic?eieo oi?i ci?iththoueny a?ae 4
aei 460 i. Aiae?c ii?oieia?? noee?a ? y??a, ?ic?aoiaaiiai iioaioe?aeo ?o
e?i?eiiai ?inoo aea? iiaeeea?noue noaa?aeaeoaaoe: an? aeine?aeaeoaai?
e?i?ei? a?ic?ei? oi?ie ia?aaoaathoue ia ??ci?e /ania?e a?aeaeae? a?ae
noaae?? ae?iaeaiiy i?io?eth ??aiiaaae. Iiaeia aeiionoeoe, ui y?e,
iioaioe?ae e?i?eiiai ?inoo yeeo eieeaa?oueny a?ae 4 aei 10 i,
cae?i/othoue na?e ??no ? iinooiiai aoaeooue ia?aoiaeeoe a noaae?th
aaeee. I?ioa ianoi?iaeothoue y?e aeiaaeeiith 120-750 i ia aeiaaeo
(350-1000 i ? a?eueoa) noeeao, aea iioaioe?ae e?i?eiiai ?inoo cia/ii
ia?aaeuo? 100 i. Oae? y?e iiaeooue iaoe aaeeeo aeoeai?noue e?i?eiiai
?inoo ? i?e ni?eyoeeaiio ii?aeiaii? ye i?e?iaeieo, oae ? aio?iiiaaiieo
/eiiee?a noai?ththoue iaaaciaeo aeey ?oeioaaiiy oa?aeue oa
ainiiaea?nueeeo ia’?eo?a.

Na?aaei? iieacieee iioaioe?aeo e?i?eiiai ?inoo y??a noaiiaeyoue a
Aieiai?i-E?aiaiaoeueeiio e?yae? — 119i, ia Ii?ee? — 107i, a
Ia?aaeea?iaoo? — 55i, a i?eaeieeii?e /anoei? Aei?no?a — 141i, a
Aaneeaeao — 73 i.

A na?aaeiueiio, ia aeine?aeaeoaai?e oa?eoi??? aeiaaeeie y??a iiaeooue
ca?eueoeoeny ia 40-150 i. Cia/ia aiie?ooaea aa??aoe?? iieaciee?a
iiynith?oueny aaeeeith ??ciiiai?oi?noth i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/ieo oiia,
iayai?noth y??a ??cieo oei?a ? noaae?e ?icaeoeo, a?aei?iaie aeanoeainoae
ei??iieo ii??ae, a?oio?a, ?ineeiiino?, ii?oiiao??? noee?a oa
ainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy oa?eoi???.

Aa?oi a?aei?oeoe, ui ie?ai? y?e ae?iaeee iioaioe?ae e?i?eiiai ?inoo ia
50-99%, oiaoi aaea i?ieoee i?e naiai ?icaeoeo. Iieueia? ? ?ic?aooieia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui aeecueei 30% a?ic?eieo oi?i ?aae?coaaee
na?e iioaioe?ae ?inoo o aeiaaeeio; ie?ai? y?e i?eieieee ?icaeoie o
ca’yceo c? cae?eniaiiyi nenoaie i?ioea?ic?eieo caoiae?a; ?io? oi?ie
e?i?eii? a?ic?? i?iaeiaaeothoue ye e?i?eiee ??no, oae ? ci?io
iiacaeiaaei?o ? iiia?a/ieo i?io?e?a. Iae/ano?oa ?inoo/? y?e i?eo?i/ai?
aei n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue, ieieeoeue ianaeaieo ioieo?a aai
aei iieueiaeo aei??a.

E??i ea?oiiao?e/ieo oa i?iaiicii-?ic?aooieiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
i?iaiaeeeeny iieueia? ? iai?anoaoe?iia?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?ee y??a,
cie?aia, ?inoo y??a o aeiaaeeio oa ci?ie i?io?e?a. Aiie aeicaieeee
eiinoaiooaaoe, ui na?aaeiuei??/i? iieacieee ?ioaineaiino? ?inoo y??a o
aanaei? Aei?no?a eieeaathoueny a?ae 0 aei 2,3 i/??e, oi/a eieaeueii
niinoa??aa?oueny e?i?eiee ??no aei 5 i/??e. Na?aaei? oaeaeeino? ?inoo
y??a ci?iththoueny caeaaeii a?ae aiaeiino? ?ieo. Iaea?eueoee i?e??no a
aeiaaeeio niinoa??aaany i?ae /an eaoano?io?/ieo ceea (1990, 1991, 1992
??.). Iaeneiaeuei? oaeaeeino? ?o ?inoo (5-6 i/??e) niinoa??aaeeny a
aanaeiao ??e Cieioa Eeia, Coa?a, Na??ae, Oeniaieoey, Na?/a, a oaeiae o
I?eaei?no?ia’?. I?i?iaeuei? oaeaeeino? ?inoo (0- 0,3 i/??e) oa?aeoa?i?
aeey y??a, ui ia?aoiaeyoue a noaae?th aaeee.

?icaeoie eiaeiiai y?o cae?enith?oueny i?ae aieeaii ?aa?aneaii?
aeeaeiii? a?ic?? c iaeiiai aieo, aeiino ?oneiaei iioieii i?iaeoeo?a
a?ic?? — c ae?oaiai ? noeeiaeo aeaoi?iaoe?e — c o?aoueiai. Aeey ioe?iee
oaiaeaioe?e ? ni?yiiaaiino? o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a o y?ao iaie aoee
caeeaaeai? noaoe?iia?i? aeine?aee ia Iiae?ee? ? Ia?aaeea?iaoo?
(eiiieaene ?aia??a o aeieuao, ia noeeao, a?ey aa?oeie ? a??aie y??a).
Ia??iaee/ia i?aaethaaiiy oa aei??thaaiiy aenioe ?aia??a aeicaieeei
ioe?ieoe ni?yiiaai?noue (ia?aaaaeaiiy a?ic??, aeoioeyoe?? /e o?aiceoo
i?ia?aeueii? ?a/iaeie) oa ?ioaineai?noue ?oneiaeo ? noeeiaeo
aeaioaeaoe?eii-aeoioeyoeaieo i?ioean?a o y?eiaeo nenoaiao.

A??caiiy ?onea a?aeaoaa?oueny ia ae?eyieao aeieua c e?ooeciith 3-40.
I?ioean a?ic?? ii/eia?oueny c iiyae a oaeueaaao e?eie ?icieao c e?ooith
caaeiueith no?ieith, yea ooai?th? a ?one? iaaaeeeee onooi. A ieaei?e
/anoei? onooio ooai?th?oueny aiaeia?eia i?oa. Iaaenath/ee iaae iath
onooi (aenioith a?ae 0,5 aei 4 i) iaaaeth?oueny i?ae /an ceeaiaeo aeiu?a
aai ni?aioaiaiiy.

O i?ioean? ae?iaeaiiy iiacaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth y?o
aeoioeyoeai? eiiieaene oi?iothoueny ianaiia?aae o ieaei?e /anoei?
aanaeio y?o. Ia??iaee/iee ?iciea eiion?a aeiino ci?ith?oueny ianooiiith
aeoioeyoe??th iaiin?a, ui ni?ey? ooai?aiith aeioeei? oi?ie
iiacaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth. I?e iiaeaeueoiio e?i?eiiio ?ino? y?o ?
aeiieiaeoaaii? eiai iiacaeiaaeiueiai i?io?eth, a na?aaei?e ? aa?oi?e
/anoeiao oaeiae oi?iothoueny eiione aeoioeyoe??. Aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iaioeie ?ici??aie, a?eueoith ianoaa?euei?noth, ?ioaineai?oith
aeeiai?eith. Naia oea coiiaeth? iieiaioaeeynoo oi?io iiacaeiaaeiueiai
i?io?eth y?o. Eieaeuei? caaaee ?onea i?iaeoeoaie ?icaeoeo noeeiaeo
i?ioean?a oaeiae aeiaie? neeueii aieeaathoue ia oi?io iiacaeiaaeiueiai
i?io?eth y??a oa ?icaeoie ?oneiaeo i?ioean?a o ieo.

5.Iaoeia? iniiae ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioean?a e?i?eii? a?ic?? aeiaaathoue
i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaenieo caoiae?a aeey iiia?aaeaeaiiy ?inoo y??a ?
ai?ioueae c iane?aeeaie y?iooai?aiiy.

Aeey iioei?caoe?? i?ioea?ic?eiiai caoenoo cay?eiaaieo oa?eoi??e
i?iiiio?oueny aeei?enoaoe aeai?eoi: aiae?c noaio ? aeeiai?ee y??a —
aecia/aiiy oeio y?o ? noaae?e ?icaeoeo — aecia/aiiy iniiaieo /eiiee?a
?icaeoeo y?o — ?ic?aooiie iioaioe?aeo e?i?eiiai ?inoo — ioe?iea
iioaioe?aeo oa ?ioaineaiino? aeaioaeaoe?eii-aeoioeyoeaieo i?ioean?a a
aeieu? ? ia noeeao — aea?? aeae?a i?ioea?ic?eieo caoiae?a oa
iaa?oiooaaiiy noaie ?o canoinoaaiiy — ?aae?caoe?y eiiieaeno
i?ioea?ic?eieo caoiae?a — iii?oi?eia noaio y??a oa i?aeo?eiea
aoaeoeaiino? ? ei?aeoe?y i?ioea?ic?eiiai caoenoo.

Oae ye iiiaae 40% ieiu? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue a aanaei?
Aei?no?a i?eo?i/ai? aei noee?a e?ooeciith a?eueoa 20, oi on? aiie
caciathoue ieiueiii? ? e?i?eii? a?ic??. ?acii c i?e?iaeieie oaeoi?aie,
?icaeoeo a?ic?? a?oio?a ni?ey? iaaeinoaoi? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
ainiiaea?noaaie i?ioea?ic?eii? i?aai?caoe?? oa?eoi??? ? iaiiaia
(aeecueei 75%) inai?iiy a?oioicaoenieo n?aici?i, ia?ia?oie a?oioo
acaeiaae noee?a, ae?iuoaaiiy i?inaiieo eoeueoo? ia noeeao e?ooeciith
iiiaae 5-70, ?oeioaaiiy ?nioth/eo i?inoeo nii?oae, oiaoi iaoooaaiiy
aa?ioaoi?/ieie, e?niiae?i?aoeaieie ? a?ae?ioaoi?/ieie i?ioea?ic?eieie
caoiaeaie.

Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieie ? aeinooiieie eiaeiiio ainiiaea?noao
i?ioea?ic?eieie caoiaeaie ? i?aiea, eoeueoeaaoe?y ? ?yaeeiaa n?aaa
eoeueoo? iiia?ae noee?a, ae?iuoaaiiy eoeueoo? nioaaie. Ia i?aecieenoeo ?
ii?aecieaieo a?oioao aanaeio Aei?no?a i?iaiaeeoueny i?aiea c
iiaeeaeaiiyi oa u?eeioaaiiy. Ia noeeao e?ooeciith 2-60 aeey ciaioaiiy
noieo cae?eniththoue yieoaaiiy cyao, a i?e e?ooeci? noee?a a?eueoa 60 —
ia?a?ea/anoa ai?icioaaiiy.C iaoith ia?aoiieaiiy iiaa?oiaaiai noieo ia
i?eaiaeiae?eueieo /anoeiao noee?a aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi??? caeeaaeai?
aiaeiiiaeeiath/? e?nia? nioae oe?eiith 20-50 i. Ia a?ic?eiiiaaacia/ieo
noeeao noai?ai? ooo/i? oa?ane aeey ?icieethaaiiy noeeiaiai noieo.

Na?aae a?ae?ioaoi?/ieo nii?oae ia aeine?aeaeoaai?e oa?eoi???
aeei?enoiaothoueny eioee — oaeaeeioiee, ye? canoiniaoaaeeny c iaoith
a?aeaaaeaiiy oei/aniaeo iioie?a a?ae aa?oeie y?o aei a?ic?eii aacia/iiai
i?noey a ?one?. Iaeiae ?o aoaeoeai?noue aeyaeeanue iaaaeeeith.

Aeineoue aoaeoeaiei i?ioea?ic?eiei caoiaeii aeyaeeiny oaeiae
aoae?aieoeoai ia?aae aa?oeiaie y??a caieyieo aeaia aenioith aei 2-4i ?
noaae?a.

ss?e aeiaaeeiith aei 500i ? aeeaeiith aei 10 i i?e aiaeica??i?e ieiu?
5-10aa aeioe?eueii /anoeiai aai iiai?noth caneiaoe. I?ioa oe? caoiaee
aoaeooue aoaeoeaieie eeoa ia ae?eyieao c aeineoue ?iaeth/eie a?oioaie ia
noeeao e?ooeciith ( 150. Iiaio caneieo y??a cae?eniththoue ia oeo
caieyo, ye? a ia?niaeoea? aoaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny i?ae naaeaie aai
aeey n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? nooe?eueiiai iin?ao. Ia
ae?eyieao, aea ieaiothoue aen?aaoe aaaaoi??/i? o?aae, aeeiiothoue
/anoeiaa caneiaiiy y??a.

A aanaei? Aei?no?a aeey ??cieo oei?a y??a aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe
??ci? aeaee i?ioea?ic?eieo caoiae?a:

a) aeey aeiiieo — oaoeii? caaaoe o aeieu? oa aiaeicao?eioth/? nii?oaee
ia aiaeicai?? (aaee, noaaee-aeiaethaa/?, e?nio?oiiae?i?aoeai? nioae);

a) aeey noeeiaeo — nenoaio aiaeicao?eioth/eo nii?oae ia aiaeicai??;
a?ae?ioaoi?/i? nii?oaee a?ey aa?oei y??a (eioee-oaeaeeioiee);
cae?niaiiy noee?a ? oaeueaaa?a, aoae?aieoeoai oaoeiieo caaao o aeieu?;

a) aeey aa?oeiieo ? aa?aaiaeo — ei??iia iae?i?aoe?y, aoae?aieoeoai
ia?aoiiethth/eo oa aiaei?icieethth/eo aae?a oiui.

AENIIAEE

I?inoi?iai-/aniaee aiae?c y?oaeieo nenoai aanaeio Aei?no?a aeicaiey?
c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

1) y?eiaa ia?aaea ia? oniaaeeiaaiee oa?aeoa?. Aiia caeeaaeaia ii aaea
noi?iiaaieo a aei/aoaa?oeiiee ia??iae i?aaaeeao, ye? iiai?noth
i?i??cothoue oiauo iooeeo a?aeeeaae?a ? i?eo?i/ai? aei cii oaeoii?/ii?
o??ueioaaoino? e?aeaeiai? iiaa?oi?. I?i oea na?ae/aoue ?ice-ae?aa?aie
i???iooaaiiy oaeueaaa?a y??a. ?o iniiai? iai?yiee ni?aiaaeathoue ?c
iai?yieaie oaeoii?/ieo o??uei, ui aeicaiey? aiai?eoe i?i oaeoii?/ii
iaoiiaeaiee oa?aeoa? y?oaeii? ia?aae?. Oeae aeniiaie aeia?a
ei?aeth?oueny c aeaieie aiae?co aca?iic’yceo oaeeo aea yaeu ?ioeo
?aa?ii?a (Kosmowska-Suffczynska, 1998; ?unei,1998);

2) iioe?aiith ? ?icaeoeo y??a a aanaei? Aei?no?a ni?eyea, iecueea
i?ioea?ic?eia no?ee?noue a?oio?a oa ei??iieo a?aeeeaae?a, ?ic??aeaeaiee
oa?aeoa? ?ineeiiiai iie?eao ? eiai cia/ia o?ainoi?iiaai?noue
ae?yeuei?noth ethaeeie, ee?iaoe/i? oiiae — aaeeea (> 650-1400 ii/??e)
e?euee?noue iiaae?a, aeniea (1 — 2,5 ii/oa) ?ioaineai?noue ?o
aeiaaeaiiy, cia/ia aa?oeeaeueia ?ic/eaioaaiiy oa?eoi??? (100 i/ei2 ?
a?eueoa);

3) aeey e?euee?nii? ioe?iee nooiaiy o?aaeaiiy aanaeio Aei?no?a oi?iaie
e?i?eii? a?ic??, anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae i?inoi?iai-/aniai?
aeeiai?ee y?oaeieo nenoai ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea, yea aeeth/a?: a)
ea?oiiao?e/iee aiae?c y??a ia iniia? aaeeeiianooaaieo ea?o; a) iieueia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oeiiaeo y??a ? y?oaeii-aaeeiaeo nenoai oa aiae?c
aa?ioioici?ie?a; a) iai?anoaoe?iia?ia aea/aiiy aeeiai?ee oeiiaeo y??a a
??cieo /anoeiao aanaeio Aei?no?a; a) i?iaiicii-?ic?aooieia? ioe?iee
oaiaeaioe?e ci?ie nooiaiy o?aaeaiiy oa?eoi??? y?aie oa iioaioe?aeo
e?i?eiiai ?o ?inoo;

4) a ?acoeueoao? aaia?ao?/iiai aiae?co y?oaeieo nenoai a aanaei?
Aei?no?a anoaiiaeaii, ui: a) y?e ia aeine?aeaeoaai?e oa?eoi??? ?ici?uai?
aeoaea ia??aiii??ii. Aonoioa y?oaeiiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy ci?ith?oueny a?ae 0
aei 2,3 ei/ei2, a u?euei?noue aa?oei — a?ae 0 aei 21 iae/ei2; a)
na?aaeiy aonoioa y??a ia aeine?aeaeoaai?e oa?eoi??? noaiiaeoue 0,6
ei/ei2, a na?aaeiy u?euei?noue aa?oei a a?aaeao ?iniianthaeaeaiiy y??a
nyaa? 4,3 iae/ei2; a) ?aeiie c iaea?eueoith aonoioith y??a
ni?aiaaeathoue c ?aeiiaie iaea?eueoi? u?eueiino? ?o aa?oei. Aiie
i?eo?i/ai? aei cii iaeneiaeueii? iiooaeiino? ean?a (aei 15i) ?
eaniiiae?aieo a?aeeeaae?a. A?aeoeeaiiy iia’ycai? c iniaeeainoyie
ii?oieia?? y?eiaeo nenoai;

5) iaea?eueo cay?oaeaieie ? iaaee??//y ??/ie No?ee-Na?/a-E?iieoey,
Aeno?eoey Iaaea??iyinueea — Aeno?eoey Nieioaeinueea a Ia?aaeea?iaoo?
(aonoioa y?oaeii? ia?aae? 2,3 ei/ei2, u?euei?noue aa?oei aei 16
iae/ei2), Aieiai?i-E?aiaiaoeueeee e?yae (a?aeiia?aeii 2,0 ei/ei2 ?
21iae/ei2), Aaneeaee (1,75 ei/ei2 ? 18 iae/ei2), ?icoi//y ?
A?a?nueei-No?euenueea ai?aia??’y (1,46 ei/ei2 ? 14 iae/ei2), ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeeaieei aa?oeeaeueiei (aei 140 i ia Iiae?ee?, aei
300 i o Ia?aaeea?iaoo? oa 300-500 i o Ea?iaoao) ?ic/eaioaaiiyi,
ia?aaaaeii aeioeeith oi?iith noee?a oa ?o cia/iith (aei 2 ei)
aeiaaeeiith ? e?ooeciith (aei 100 ? a?eueoa). ?aeiie c i?i?iaeueiei
y?oaeiei ?ic/eaioaaiiyi i?eo?i/ai? aei oa?eoi??e c iaeeie iieacieeaie
aeeaei aacen?a a?ic?? ? aonoioe aeieeiii-aaeeiai? ia?aae?, iieiaeie
aa?aaaie ??/ie. Aei ieo a?aeiineii i?eaiaeiae?euei? /anoeie Aaneeae ?
Ai?aai, i?eaeieeii? /anoeie aanaei?a ??e Aei?no?a, Aa?aueoe?, No?ey,
Na?aoo, Ca?o/a, Ai?cii?;

6) aeey iioe?aiiy oi?i e?i?eii? a?ic?? oa?aeoa?i?: eieaeueia
cina?aaeaeaiiy, aai ciaioaiiy aonoioe y??a, iaoiiaeaia aoaeiaith
?aeue?oo, ?iniianthaeaeaiiyi iaaieo oei?a ?aeue?oiooai?thth/eo
a?aeeeaae?a oa oa?aeoa?ii ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie:
?nioaaiiy ??cieo oei?a y??a — iaeiiaa?oeiieo, aeaioaa?oeiieo oa
aaaaoiaa?oeiieo, i?e/iio iae/ano?oa aaaaoiaa?oeii? y?e cono??/athoueny
ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeaeyo; iaea?eueoee nooi?iue ?aae?caoe??
iioaioe?aeo y?eiaiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy aeyaeaiee ia Iiae?euenuee?e aeni/ei?
(Ii?eey, Aieiai?i-E?aiaiaoeueeee e?yae) oa a Ia?aaeea?iaoo?
(I?eeoeaeinueea aeni/eia, Aeno?eoeueei-Oeoiaoeueea iaaee??//y).

7) a?ic?ei? oi?ie i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith na??th ??ciia?eiaeo a??c?a,
noi?iiaaieo ia i?ioyc? o?eaaeiai /ano (iiaeeeai c aa?oiueiai iaiaaio).
Iaea?eueo i?aaenoaaieoeueeith ? a?oia aio?iiiaaiii coiiaeaieo y??a a?eii
100-200 ?ie?a, i?eo?i/aieo ia?aaaaeii aei n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oa?aeue. Iaeiieiaeo? a?ic?ei? oi?ie ?icaeaathoueny aeoaea aeeiai?/ii.
Iae/ano?oa aaciina?aaeiueith i?e/eiith ?o aeieeiaiiy oa aeoeaiiai
?icaeoeo aenooia? caiea?ianueea, e?niainiiaea?nueea, o?ainii?oia oa
aoae?aaeueia ae?yeuei?noue ethaeeie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui y?e, ye? c’yaeeeny
aiane?aeie ?ici?thaaiiy caiaeue, i?ney aeoeaii? noaae?? aeae?
?icaeaathoueny ca i?e?iaeieie caeiiaie yeui neea oaoiiaaiiiai aieeao ia
ia?aaeuo? iioaioe?aeo i?e?iaeiiai ?icaeoeo a?ic?eii-aeoioeyoeaiiai
i?ioeano. Ia?aiao?e y?oaeii? ia?aae?, cie?aia ?? noai, ia caaa?oaeueieo
aoaiao ?icaeoeo aecia/athoueny ye i?e?iaeieie oiiaaie oa?eoi???, oae ?
aio?iiiaaiieie /eiieeaie;

8) aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? iioe?aiiy y??a ia noeeao aeieeiii-aaeeiai?
ia?aae?, anoaiiaeai? caeaaeiino? i?ae ??cieie ia?aiao?aie aiaeicai??a
a?ic?eieo oi?i oa io?eiai? e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/ieo ? aaieiai-aaiii?oieia?/ieo oiia y?iooai?aiiy
aeicaieeee ?ic?aooieiaei oeyoii aecia/eoe aeooaeueia ? iioaioe?eia
y?oaeia ?ic/eaioaaiiy aiaeicai??a;

9) cai?iiiiiaaia noaia a?ic?eii-aaiii?oieia?/ieo ?aeii?a
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?, ui iioe?aiiy y?oaeieo oi?i a aanaei? Aei?no?a ?
aciiaeueiei, ine?eueee ia aaia?ao?th y??a aieeaa? a?ic?eiee iioaioe?ae
?aeue?oo, i?ioea?ic?ei? aeanoeaino? i?aenoaeyth/eo a??nueeeo ii??ae, oei
oa ?ioaineai?noue ainiiaea?nueeiai inai?iiy ? aeei?enoaiiy oa?eoi???;

10) aaia?ao?y ia?aiao??a i?iaiicii? y?oaeiino? ia iiaoi?th?
iiai?noth ?iciiae?eo ii oa?eoi??? a?ic?eiiai iioaioe?aeo eiaeiiai c
i?e?iaeieo ia?aiao??a y?iooai?aiiy, ye? aoiaeyoue a ?ic?aooieia?
caeaaeiino?, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iiaeyae ia y?iooai?aiiy ye neeaaeiee
aaaaoioaeoi?iee neia?aaoe/iee i?ioean;

11) ioe?iea iioaioe?eii? iaaaciaee y?oaeii? a?ic?? aeicaieeea
aeyaeoe ?aeiie c iiaeeeaith aeoea?caoe??th y??a ? ae?eyiee c ae/a?iaiei
iioaioe?aeii y?iooai?aiiy;

12) e?euee?nia ioe?iea no/aniiai y?oaeiiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy ?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y oa?eoi??? ca nooiaiai y?oaeii? iaaaciaee aeicaiey?
aeae?eeoe a cay?oaeaieo ?aeiiao ieiu?, i?eaeaoi? aeey
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy aac aeiaeaoeiaeo cao?ao ia
ai?ioueao c y?aie, ioe?ieoe iaeneiaeueii iiaeeea? ao?aoe, ye? iiaea
iaianoe caiaeueiei ?ano?nai y?eiaa a?ic?y. Oey ?ioi?iaoe?y aea? ciiao
aea?aoe niaeo? i?ioea?ic?eieo caoiae?a, aecia/eoe aeioe?euei?noue ?
ii/a?aia?noue ?o ?aae?caoe??, a oiio aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a, cie?aia caiaeueieo, iie?aueoe
aeieiai-aaia?ao?/io neooaoe?th a aanaei? Aei?no?a oa eiai ??cii?aiaiaeo
i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueeeo nenoaiao;

13) eiiieaen i?ioea?ic?eieo caoiae?a aeey ai?ioueae c y?eiaith
a?ic??th iiaeiai ioiiethaaoe aanue aiaeica??iee aanaei, ui aeicaieeoue
iioeiaeueii ca?aaoethaaoe no?e aiaee ? caiia?aoe ?icaeoeo i?ioean?a
e?i?eii? a?ic??. O?eueee i?e oaeiio i?iaaaeaii? ?ia?o aoaeooue
e?ea?aeiaai? i?e/eie, ui ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo a?ic?eieo i?ioean?a.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a ianooiieo ioae?eaoe?yo:

?aa?iiaeuei? caeiiii??iino? iioe?aiiy ? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo y?eiaeo
nenoai aanaeio Aei?no?a // A?ni.Euea?a.oi-oo. Na?. aaia?., 1992. Aei.18.
— N.16-19 (ni?aaaoi? Eiaaeue/oe ?.I.)

Aieea oaeoii?/ieo ?oo?a ? e?oieia?? ia ?icaeoie y?oaeii? a?ic?? a
aanaei? Aei?no?a // A?ni. Euea?a. oi-oo. Na?. aaia?., 1998. Aei.23. —
N.328-332.

Aeieiai-aaiii?oieia?/i? iane?aeee ooai?aiiy oa ?icaeoeo y??a a aanaei?
Aei?no?a // A?ni. Euea?a. oi-oo. Na?. aaia?., 1999. Aei.24.- N.142-146.

Iii?oi?eia y??a aanaeio Aei?no?a // A?ni. Oe?. Aoae. aeii. oa
iaoe.-oaoi. ciaiue. -1998. — ? 4. — N.115-116.

Iooe auyaeaiey aeeiaie/aneeo eciaiaiee ninoiyiey i?e?iaeiuo e
oicyenoaaiiuo nenoai aannaeia Aeiano?a // Oac. aeiee. Ananithci. eiio.
iieiaeuo o/aiuo e niaoeeaeenoia. «Iiinoa?iaaiac: iinoaiiaea e iooe
?aoaiey i?iaeaiu».- Eeoeiaa.-1990. — N.43-44 (niaaoi?u: Eiaaeue/oe E.I.,
Ceiueei TH.A.)

Ia?aae aannaeia Aeiano?a: ?ani?ino?aiaiea, nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea e
oaiaeaioeee iiiaieaoieo eciaiaiee // Oac. aeiee. O nuacaea ii/aiaaaeia e
aa?ioeieeia ONN?. «Iaeei?aoeey e io?aia ii/a». — Oa?ueeia, 1990. —
N.180-181(niaaoi?u: Eiaaeue/oe E.I., E?aa/oe ss.N.)

?ani?ino?aiaiea, oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey e i?iaiic ia?aaeiie y?icee a
Caiaaeiii ?aaeiia Oe?aeiu // Oac. aeiee. Ananithci. eiio.
«Y?iceiaaaeaiea: oai?ey, yenia?eiaio, i?aeoeea».-I.: Ecae-ai Iine.
oi-oa, 1991. — N.80-81(niaaoi?u: Eiaaeue/oe E.I., E?aa/oe ss.N., Aiein
N.E.)

Iniaaiiinoe ?ani?ino?aiaiey e ?acaeoey ia?aaia aannaeia Aeiano?a // Oac.
aeiee. VIII iaaeaoc. eii?aeeiaoe. niaau. ii i?iae. y?iceiiiuo, ?oneiauo
e onoueaauo i?ioeannia.- Ai?iiaae: Ecae-ai Ai?iiaae.
ainaa?ioieaa?neoaoa, 1993. -N.91-92.

?aaeiiaeueiue aiaeec ia?aaeiuo nenoai aannaeia Aeiano?a // Oac. aeiee.
IX iaaeaoc. eii?aeeiaoe. niaau. ii i?iae. y?iceiiiuo, ?oneiauo e
onoueaauo i?ioeannia. — A?yine, 1994. — N.124-125.

Aeeyiea oicyenoaaiiie inaiaiiinoe aannaeiia ?ae nenoaiu Aeiano?a ia
iniaaiiinoe ia?aaiia?aciaaiey // O iaaeaoc. eii?aeeiaoe. niaau. ii
i?iae. y?iceiiiuo, ?oneiauo e onoueaauo i?ioeannia. Iao/i. niiauaiey.-
Aieiaaea, 1995. — N.107.

Ioe?iea eiia??iino? e?i?eiiai ?inoo y??a a aanaei? Aei?no?a //
Oac.aeii.VII c’?cae OAO. — Ee?a, 1995. — N.140-141.

?aaeiiaeueiua aniaeou eco/aiey eeiaeiie y?icee aa?oiae /anoe aannaeia
Aeiano?a // Oac. aeiee. iaaeaeoia?iaei. iao/i.- i?aeo. eiio. «?aaeii e
aaia?aoey». — Ia?iue, 1995 — N.79-80.

No/aniee noai, oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oa ioe?iea a?ic?eiiai iioaioe?aeo
y?eiaeo nenoai Ia?aaeea?iaooy // Oac. aeii. iaoe. eiioa?aioe. aei
90-??//y i?io. I.E.Caii??y. -E.: AIOe «Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao», 1996.-
N.103-105.

Iioa?e ii?oiiao?e/aneie eioi?iaoeee ia ia?aaao aannaeia Aeiano?a i?e
oiaiueoaiee ianooaaa eniieuecoaiuo a aiaeeca oiiia?aoe/aneeo ea?o //XII
ieaia?i. niaau. iaaeaoc. iao/i.-eii?aeeiaoe. niaaoa ii i?iaeaia
y?iceiiiuo, ?oneiauo e onoueaauo i?ioeannia. E?aoeea niiauaiey. —
Ia?iue, 1997. — N.135-136.

Ioe?iea iioaioe?aeo e?i?eiiai ?inoo y??a Iiae?eey ca aeaieie
ea?oiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue // Iaoa?. i?aeia?. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio.
«Oe?a?inueea aaiii?oieia?y: noai ? ia?niaeoeae». — Euea?a, 1997. —
N.292-295.

ss?e aanaeio Aei?no?a: ?noi??y aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaeaie ? caaaeaiiy //
Iaoa?. i?aeia?. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. «Oe?a?inueea aaiii?oieia?y: noai ?
ia?niaeoeae». — Euea?a, 1997. — N.158-161.

?acaeoea oi?i eeiaeiie y?icee a i?aaeai?ueyo Oe?aeineeo Ea?iao // XIII
ieaia?i. Iaaeaocia. Eii?aeei. Niaauaiea ii i?iaeaia y?iceiiiuo, ?oneiauo
e onoueaauo i?ioeannia. Iaoa?eaeu e e?aoeea niiauaiey.- Ineia, 1998. —
N.150-151 (niaaoi? Neuaea ?.A.)

AIIOAOe?ss

Neiiiianueea I.ss. Aeeiai?ea y??a a aanaei? Aei?no?a.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 11.00.04 — aaiii?oieia?y ?
iaeaiaaia?ao?y.- Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia
O?aiea, Euea?a, 1999.

Anoaiiaeai? i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy oa caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo
e?i?eieo a?ic?eieo oi?i, aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? iioe?aiiy y??a ??ciiai
a?eo ? ii?oieia?? a aanaei? Aei?no?a ia iniia? ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co
??ciia?eiaeo (1925, 1955, 1985 ??.), oiiia?ao?/ieo ea?o (I 1:100000,
1:25000), aeaoeo?oaaiiy aa?ioioici?ie?a, iai?anoaoe?iia?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?aooie?a iioaioe?aeo e?i?eiiai ?inoo y??a. Ia iniia?
i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ioe?iaiee no/aniee noai y?eiaeo oi?i ?
aeyaeai? iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ci?ie y?oaeii? ia?aae? i?ae aieeaii ye
i?e?iaeieo, oae ? aio?iiiaaiieo /eiiee?a. Cai?iiiiiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
uiaei i?ioea?ic?eii? i?aai?caoe?? oa?eoi???, ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue, i?aeaeuaiiy ?o ?iaeth/ino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: y?, y?eiaa nenoaia, aonoioa y?eiai? ia?aae?,
u?euei?noue aa?oei y??a, iioaioe?ae e?i?eiiai ?inoo y?o, iiacaeiaaei?e ?
iiia?a/iee i?io?eue y?o, i?ioea?ic?eia i?aai?caoe?y oa?eoi???.

AIIIOAOeEss

Neiiiianeay I.ss. Aeeiaieea ia?aaia a aannaeia Aeiano?a. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
aaia?aoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 11.00.04 — aaiii?oieiaey e
iaeaiaaia?aoey.- Eueaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia
O?aiei, Eueaia, 1999.

Ii?aaeaeaiu i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey e caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey oi?i
eeiaeiie y?icee, iniaaiiinoe ?ani?ino?aiaiey ia?aaia ?acee/iiai aic?anoa
e ii?oieiaee a aannaeia Aa?oiaai e N?aaeiaai Aeiano?a ia iniiaa
n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeca ?aciia?aiaiiuo ea?o, aeaoeo?e?iaaiey
ay?ioioinieieia, iieonoaoeeiia?iuo enneaaeiaaiee e ?an/aoia iioaioeeaea
eeiaeiiai ?inoa ia?aaia; aeaia ioeaiea ninoiyiey e auyaeaiu oaiaeaioeee
eciaiaiey iniiaiuo ia?aiao?ia ia?aaeiie naoe, iainiiaaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
ii i?ioeaiy?iceiiiie i?aaiecaoeee oa??eoi?ee, ?aoeeiiaeueiiio
eniieueciaaieth caia?aaeaiiuo caiaeue e iiauoaieth eo ieiaei?iaeey.

I?iaaaeaiu ea?oiiao?e/aneea, iieaaua e iieonoaoeeiia?iua
enneaaeiaaiey neeiiiauo, aa?aaiauo, aeiiiuo e i?eaiaei?acaeaeueiuo
ia?aaia, ia?aaeiuo nenoai aannaeia Aeiano?a, eo ninoiyiey, aeeiaieee e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ia i?ioyaeaiee aieaa 70-oe eao (1925-1998 aa.).

A ?acoeueoaoa eniieiaiie ?aaiou ninoaaeaia na?ey iiauo ea?oinoai
aonoiou ia?aaeiie naoe e ieioiinoe oi/ae ?inoa ia?aaia ninoiyieai ia
1925, 1955, 1985 aa. a ianooaaa 1:100000 e ea?oia?aii noia?iuo eciaiaiee
ieioiinoe aa?oei e aonoiou ia?aaeiie naoe ca o?e ia?eiaea — 1925-1955,
1955-1985, 1925-1985 aa., a oaeaea ninoaaeaia noaia y?iceiiiiai
?aeiie?iaaiey oa??eoi?ee e aeeaa?aiiu iioaioeeaea eeiaeiiai ?inoa
ia?aaia ia 6-oe eeth/aauo o/anoeao.

Aiaeec ea?oinoai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi aonoioa ia?aaia a aannaeia
Aeiano?a eieaaeaony a i?aaeaeao 0 — 2,58 ei/ei2, a ieioiinoue aa?oei io
0 aei 26 aae/ei2. Yoe iieacaoaee caiaoii aeeooa?aioee?iaaiu eae ii
aaiii?oieiae/aneei ?aeiiai, oae e a i?aaeaeao eaaeaeiai ec ieo.

Ninoiyieai ia 1985 a. iaeaieaa ieioii ii?aaeaiu ia?aaaie
iaaeaeo?a/uey ?ae Auno?eoea-Oeniaieoea (2,3 ei/ei2 ), /oi iaoneiaeaii
aunieie oaeoiie/aneie o?aueiiaaoinoth ieioeaiiauo ii?iae,
Auno?eoea-Eoeaa (2,1 ei/ei2), Aieiai?i-E?aiaiaoeeee e?yae (2,0ei/ei2),
?anoi/uea (1,46 ei/ei2), iaaeaeo?a/uea ?ae No?ee-Nae/a (1,85ei/ei2),
Nae/a-Eeiiuoey (1,47ei/ei2), ?anoi/uea aaea ia aicieeiiaaiea e
yaiethoeeth ia?aaeiuo oi?i a noaaeeth aaeee iiaeeyee oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aieaiea ?uoeuo noaeeienouo ioeiaeaiee, iaaeia?iua inaaeee e
iaaeeaiiua ainoiaeyuea aeaeaeaiey a aieioeaia, a oaeaea oaaee/aiea
ieiuaaee iaoioiuo caiaeue. Iaeneiaeueiua iieacaoaee ieioiinoe oi/ae
?inoa caoeene?iaaiu oaeaea a Aieiai?i-E?aiaiaoeeii e?yaea (21aae/ei2) e
ia iaaeaeo?a/uea ?ae No?ee-Nae/a (19aae/ei2), Auno?eoea-Eoeaa
(17aae/ei2), /oi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ioianoe yoe ?aeiiu e eaoaai?ee
iaeaieaa y?iceiiiiiianiuo.

Ii/oe iieiaeia oa??eoi?eee aanaeia Aeiano?a caiyoa a?aaeaie n
aonoioie ia?aaeiiai ?an/eaiaiey io 0 aei 0,5 ei/ei2, e ieioiinoueth
aa?oei — 0 — 4 aae/ei2. Aunieay caia?aaeaiiinoue oa?aeoa?ia eae aeey
?aniaoaiie /anoe aannaeiaoae e caeanaiiie, n aunieei y?iceiiiui
iioaioeeaeii ?aeueaoa.

I?e n?aaiaiee ?aciia?aiaiiuo ea?oinoai (1925,1955,1985 aa.) auyaeaiu
nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey aonoiou ia?aaeiie naoe e ieioiinoe oi/ae ?inoa.
Oae, ca ia?eiae n 1925 ii 1955 aiae iieacaoaee aonoiou e ieioiinoe
ia?aaia caiaoii (a 1,1-2,1 ?aca) oaaee/eeenue ia Eueaianeii,
Oa?iiiieueneii ieaoi, ?anoi/uea, Aieiai?i-E?aiaiaoeeii e?yaea, a ca
ia?eiae n 1955 ii 1985 aiae iie oiaiueoeeenue (1,1-1,5 ?aca) o.a. ia?aae
ia?aoee a noaaeeth aaeee. A oeaeii aea ca ia?eiae n 1925 ii 1985 aiae
nie?aoeeenue ieiuaaee n aaeeie/iuie ia?aaaie e oia?aiiui ia?aaeiui
?an/eaiaieai e ?anoe?eeenue a?aaeu n aunieei iieacaoaeyie aonoiou
ia?aaeiie naoe e ieioiinoe ia?aaia.

A ?acoeueoaoa aiaeeca ea?oia?aoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea e iiiaieaoieo
iaaethaeaiee ia eeth/aauo o/anoeao onoaiiaeaii, /oi: 1) iiiaiaa?oeiiua
ia?aae (ieioiinoue aa?oei 12-21aae/ei2) yaeythony iaeaieaa iianiuie aeey
caieaaeaeey e i?aiaeaaeatho a ?aeiiao eioaineaiiai
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey neeiiiauo oaiaeee n ii/aaie,
noi?ie?iaaiuie ia eannao e eanniaeaeiuo noaeeieao; 2)ia?aae aeeeiiie io
3,5 aei 5,0 ei oa?aeoa?iu aeey Auno?eoeei-Oeoiaoeei-I?enae/neie,
I?eeoeaeineie aicauoaiiinoe e iaaeaeo?a/uey Coa?a-Nae?ae, a ei?ioeea
ia?aae (aei 250i) i?eo?i/aiu e ei?ioeei neeiiai ?a/iuo aeieei; 3)
n?aaeiaaiaeiaie eeiaeiue ?ino ia?aaia eciaiyaony io 0,1 aei 2,3 i/aiae,
a iaeneiaeueiue — aei 10 i/aiae; 4) iaeaieueoay nei?inoue ?inoa ia?aaia
oa?aeoa?ia aeey ?aeiiia n iiuiie oieuae eannia e eanniaeaeiuo noaeeieia
(5-15i) e aeoaieei (aieaa 80i/ei2) aa?oeeaeueiui ?an/eaiaieai, iaaunieie
(aei 15%) eanenoinoueth e cia/eoaeueiie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth (aieaa
100-500 eao) caieaaeaeue/aneiai eniieueciaaiey neeiiiauo o/anoeia.

Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou aeatho aiciiaeiinoue auaeaeeoue a aannaeia
Aeiano?a o?e oeiu ?aeiiia:

— aacia?aaeiua eee n aaeeie/iuie ia?aaaie (aonoioa ia?aaeiie
naoe 0-0,5 ei/ei2, ieioiinoue aa?oei 1-3 aae/ei2);

— n oia?aiiui ia?aaeiui ?an/eaiaieai (aonoioa ia?aaeiie naoe 0,6-1,2
ei/ei2 , ieioiinoue aa?oei aei 12 aae/ei2 );

— n aunieie noaiaiueth ia?aaeiiai ?an/eaiaiey (aonoioa ia?aaia i?aauoaao
1,2 ei/ei2 , a ieioiinoue aei 21 aae/ei2 ).

Ia iniiaa i?iaaaeaiiuo ?an/aoia ia eeth/aauo o/anoeao onoaiiaeaii, /oi
iioaioeeae eeiaeiiai ?inoa ia?aaia eciaiyaonny io 0 aei 460 i. O
aieueoeinoaa ia?aaeiuo oi?i iioaioeeae eeiaeiiai ?inoa au?aaioai ia
50-99%, o.a. ia?aae i?ioee iee naiaai ?acaeoey a aeeeiio e ia?aoiaeyo a
noaaeeth aaeee. Yoiio niinianoaiaaee i?ioeaiy?iceiiiua ia?ii?eyoey,
i?iaaaeaiiua a 60-70-o aiaeao.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?aa, ia?aaeiay nenoaia, aonoioa ia?aaeiie naoe,
ieioiinoue aa?oei ia?aaia, iioaioeeae eeiaeiiai ?inoa ia?aaa,
i?iaeieueiue e iiia?a/iue i?ioeee, i?ioeaiy?iceiiiay i?aaiecaoeey
oa??eoi?ee.

ABSTRACT

Dynamics of Ravine Erosion in the Basin of the Dniester River. —
Manuscript.

Symonovska M.Ya. Dissertation on getting scientific degree of candidate
of geography sciences in speciality 11.00.04 — geomorphology and
paleogeography. Lviv Ivan Franko State University. Lviv, 1999.

On the basis of comparative analysis of different age (1925,1955,1985)
topography maps (M 1:100000, 1:25000), deciphering of aerophotos,
half-stationary researches and calculations of the potential of linear
ravine growth, the reasons of the appearance and regularities of the
development of linear erosive forms have been established and
peculiarities of the extension of different age ravines and their
morphology have been discovered in the basin of the Dniester river. On
the basis of the researches a present — day condition of ravine forms
has been estimated and main tendencies of the changes of ravine network
under the influence of natural and anthropogenous factors have been
discovered. Recommendations concerning antierosive organization of the
territory, rational usage of lands, their fertility increase have been
proposed.

Key words: ravine, ravine system, ravine network density, compactness
of ravine tops, potential of linear ravine growth, prolongated and
diametrical ravine profile, ante-erosive organization of the territory.

«Ia?eaoi?»

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo ________.

A?aeae?oeiaaii c aioiaeo i?ea?iae?a.

Niin?a ae?oeo – ??cia?ao?y.

Oe?aae 130 i?ei. Caiiae. ?

Ianya ae?oeo – 12, ae?oe. a?e.

Ae?oe AEI «AIN»

aoe. Eeiiaa Aeay, 9, i.Euea?a

oae. (0322) 42-10-41, 42-10-46

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