2

Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo nioe?ieia??

Oienoeo Iaoaeuey A?eoi??aia

OAeE 338:331+316.334.2+316:303.7

AeEIAI?EA ??AIss AEEOOss IANAEAIIss OE?A?IE (NIOe?IEIA?*IEE AIAE?C)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 22.00.04 — aeiiii?/ia nioe?ieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

A?na?iei Aiaoie?e A?eai?iae/,

?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ?uaiei Iao?i Noaiaiiae/, Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii?
oai???

eaiaeeaeao nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe I?uaiei Ieoaeei Aeieo?iae/, Oe?a?inueeee
?inoeooo nioe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? iie?oe/iiai
aiae?co ? i?iaiicoaaiiy

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a nioe?ieia??, i. Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 29 aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii?

?aaee Ae 26.229.01 a ?inoeooo? nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
252021, Ee?a 21,

aoe. Oiaeiae/ia, 12

C aeena?oaoe?th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo nioe?ieia??
IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252021, Ee?a 21, aoe. Oiaeiae/ia, 12

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 27 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ______________ Nooeaei N.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ae /an ea?aeeiaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo
o?ainoi?iaoe?e, ui aeiei??iii ci?iththoue oaiaeaioe?? iinooiiaiai
noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo, iniaeeai aeooaeueiith oaiith
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? aiae?c nioe?aeueieo iane?aee?a
?aoi?i. Na?aae iaaaoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ?aaeeeaeueieo ia?aoai?aiue a
Oe?a?i? /?eueia i?noea iin?aea? no??iea cieaeaiiy ??aiy aeeooy
ianaeaiiy. Iaae?iiy aeia?iaooo i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? a noni?euenoa? oa noaaeoue i?ae caa?ico ?nioaaiiy
iaae?eiiai oa aacia/iiai aeeoo?aiai i?inoi?o. Oiio nueiaiaei? eiei
i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c ??aiai aeeooy, neeaaea? aecia/aeueio aaco on?o
?ioeo a?aeiinei noni?euenoaa.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie ?ethno?othoue ?acoeueoaoe aaeeeiianooaaieo
nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo inoaii?ie ?ieaie. A?eueo?noue
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie aaaaea? i?iaeaie, ui aeieeee aaciina?aaeiuei
aiane?aeie iaae?iiy ??aiy aeeooy, iaeaino??oeie na?aae on??? noeoiiino?
i?iaeai, cai?iiiiiaaieo aeey ?aiaeoaaiiy.

Aea, iacaaaeath/e ia ae?ae iaaaoeaio naiiioe?ieo ianaeaiiyi aeaniiai
aeia?iaooo oa cao?eniaai? io?oe?eieie noaoenoe/ieie i?aaiaie iecuee?
iieacieee ??aiy na?aaeiueiaeooiaiai niiaeeaaiiy, na?aae oao?aoe?a ia
?nio? ?aeeiiai iiaeyaeo ia oaiaeaioe??, ui neeaeeny a aeeiai?oe? ??aiy
aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. A iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? niinoa??aathoueny aeaa
ianooii? i?aeoiaee aei ioe?iee cieaeaiiy ??aiy aeeooy.

Ia?oa oi/ea ci?o iieyaa? a oiio, ui coaiae?iiy iniiaii? iane ianaeaiiy
caea?oueny aacii?aaeiei eeoa ia ia?oee iiaeyae ? i?eaiaeii aeey
iacaaeiaieaiiy ianaeaiiy ? aacae??a?noue ethaeae, ao?aoa ieie aa?aio?e
caaeia?eueieo oiia aeeooy, ui caaacia/oaaeeny ?ai?oa aea?aeaaith ca
aoaeue-yeee aianie aei noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa aeey an?o aac aeiyoeo
/eai?a noni?euenoaa. Ia aeoieo nioe?ieia?a oa aeiiii?no?a, ye?
i?aeo?eiothoue oeth oi/eo ci?o, aeiiii?/ii aeoeaia ianaeaiiy inoaii?i
/anii io?eiaei aeinooi aei oiaa??a, ui aoee ?ai?oa aeao?oeeoieie,
iie?ioeei oiiae iiaooo e aeica?eey. Ia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oeueiai aeniiaeo
iaaiaeeoueny e?euee?noue ?aae?ciaaieo oiaa??a o?eaaeiai aaeeoeo,
i?iaeaieo oo?enoe/ieo ioo?aie ia i?anoeaei? eo?i?oe na?oo oiui. Oaeiae
aaaaea?oueny, ui aeey aaaeath/eo i?aoethaaoe a?aee?eeeny oe?ie?
iiaeeeaino? “i?aoethaaoe ia naaa” e ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie coneeeyie
iaiaiaaeaii i?aeaeuoaaoe iniaenoee ??aaiue aeeooy. Iaaaoeai? c?ooaiiy a
naiiii/ooo? ianaeaiiy o oeueiio eiioaeno? iiyniththoueny i?e?iaeiith
?aaeoe??th noni?euenoaa ia aoaeue-ye? aeeaeii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? acaaae? e
iaca?aei?noth a /an? i?ioean?a i?iaaaeaiiy ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i oa
aaeaioaoe?? aei ieo ianaeaiiy.

Ae?oaee i?aeo?ae aaco?oueny ia oiio oaa?aeaeaii?, ui ??aaiue aeeooy
a?eueoino? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie aaea nyaioa o??? eaoano?io?/ii? iaae?, ca
yeith iaiiaeeea? ia eeoa anaa?/iee ?icaeoie ethaeeie, aea e iaa?oue
caaacia/aiiy ia?aeiieo oiia ?nioaaiiy. A?aoiaioaie ia ei?enoue oeueiai
oaa?aeaeaiiy ? aeai? i?i cieaeaiiy na?aaeiueiaeooiaiai ?ici??o aaeiaiai
aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo (AAI) e iia??oaiiy iieaciee?a caei?ia’y
ethaeeie. Aenia?oe, ye? oyae?thoue aei oe??? ioe?iee ??aiy aeeooy
ianaeaiiy, aa/aoue iiyniaiiy neooaoe??, ui neeaeany, a oea?ei? ae??
iae?iaeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a, ia caeeoath/e i?e oeueiio iica oaaaith, oi/a
e ia aeciath/e ye ?oo?eio neeo iiaeieaiiy e?ece oiia aeeooy,
?iaeea?aeoaeuei? coneeey ethaeae, ni?yiiaai? ia iie?ioaiiy aeaniiai
??aiy aeeooy.

Oe? i?ioeeaaei? iai?yie ooai?ththoue aeaa iiethne ioe?iee ??aiy aeeooy.
Iioeiaeueiei ? oaeee aa??aio ?o ii?aeiaiiy, i?e yeiio iie?ioaiiy oiia
iiaooo oa aeica?eey, a oaeiae ?icaeoie iiaeeeainoae i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
aeeooy iioe?ththoueny ??aiii??ii na?aae on?o /eai?a noni?euenoaa ?
a?aeaoaathoueny ia oe? iiceoeaieo oaii?a c?inoaiiy na?aaeiueiaeooiaiai
AAI e ca oiia i?i?i?caoe?? iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e o iieacieeao caei?ia’y
ianaeaiiy. Na?oiaee aeina?ae na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui a oiiaao a?aenooiino?
c?inoaiiy na?aaeiueiaeooiaiai ?ici??o AAI oa i?e iayaiino? iaaaoeaieo
oaiaeaioe?e a aeeiai?oe? iieaciee?a caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy an? oyai? ia
ia?oee iiaeyae iiceoeai? i?iyae oiia aeeooy noni?euenoaa oaeeie
aaaaeaoeny ia iiaeooue.

Naia c iiceoe?e oeueiai ii?aeioth/iai aea? i?ioeeaaei? ioe?iee ??aiy
aeeooy iai?yio aiae?co aeia?iaooo ianaeaiiy a aeena?oaoe??
aeine?aeaeothoueny oaiaeaioe??, ui neeaeeny a aeeiai?oe? ??aiy aeeooy
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a 1990-1998 ??.

Iaoeiaa i?iaeaia iieyaa? a ocaaaeueiaii? no/anieo i?aeoiae?a aei
aecia/aiiy iiiyooy “??aaiue aeeooy”, nenoaiaoecaoe?? iaoiaeee eiai
aei??o oa eiiieaeniiio aiae?c? ??aiy aeeooy ca iaoa??aeaie noaoenoe/ii?
ca?oiino? e ?acoeueoaoaie nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

I??a iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie. I?iaeaie ??aiy aeeooy ?
aeia?iaooo noni?euenoaa ?icaeyaeathoueny a eeane/ieo i?aoeyo E. Ia?ena,
O. Aiaaeuena, A.?. Eai?ia, N.I. Aoeaaeiaa, I.I. Ni?ie?ia, A. Ni?oa,
AE.-N. N?niiiae?, O. Iaeueoona, O. Aaaeaia, I. Aaaa?a, A. Aeth?eaaeia,
A. Ciiaa?oa, E. Ooiiaoa?a, Aeae. I. Eaeina, A. C?iiaey, I. O??aeiaia ?
O. Oae?ea, E. oii I?cana oa ?i.

Aecia/aiee ye nooi?iue caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa, ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy
aiae?co?oueny a i?aoeyo I.A. A?eioa, I.A. Aeii/aiei, O.I. Ea?iac?ii?,
A.I. Iioyoiaa, I.I. Ieoaeeiaa, I.A. Iaeueae, A.A. Ianyii?eiaa, I.I.
??iaoaanueei?, E.A. Nioaiue, A.I. Oeoiiiae/a oa ?i.

??aaiue aeeooy u?eueii iia’ycaiee c iioeaaoe?eiith noa?ith aeiiii?/ii?
iiaaae?iee ?iaeea?ae?a oa nioe?aeueieo a?oi. Iioeaaoe?y o?oaeiai?
ae?yeueiino? aeine?aeaeoaaeany A.A. Cae?aaiieneiaei, A.A. Iiaeia?eiaei,
A.I. ?o/eith, I.I. Naeaaeith, A.A. ssaeiaei oa ?ioeie a/aieie.
Aeine?aeaeaiith ??cieo aniaeo?a aeiiii?/ii? iiaaae?iee i?enay/aii ?iaioe
A.E. A?oaeaanueeiai, A.?. Aa?/eeiaa, E.ss. Einaena, A.?. Ieeeiaiea, N.N.
Oaoae?ia.

sse iaeei c e?eoa???a nioe?aeueii? no?aoeo?eaoe?? noni?euenoaa, ??aaiue
aeeooy ciaeoia a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ?iaioao A.?. Aooyiiai?, TH.A.
Aaneeue/oea, E.A. Ai?aeiia, A.N. Cae/aiea, A.N. Ci??ia, O.?.
Caneaanueei?, N.I. Iaea?aa, ?.I. Iaiueoeeiaa, N. I. Iaaeaey, E.?.
I?yoaai?, A.?. Oia??niia, ?.A. ?eae?ii? oa ?i.

Oai?aoe/iee aiae?c ??aiy aeeooy ? iaei??th c neeaaeiaeo /anoei o
iauiaeaai?o ?iaioao-iaeyaeao, i?enay/aieo aea/aiith oyaeaiue i?i
nioe?aeueia ?eieiaa ainiiaea?noai. Na?aae ieo ?iaioe A.A. Aiae?iaa, I.I.
??aiaiea, A.Ae. Eaaoo?ia, I.I. Eaiiaiea, A.?. E?aaeeniaa, E.A. I?oniai?.

Ieoaiiy ?aaoethaaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiy ?eieiaeo
?aoi?i oa no/ani? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiino? a?aeia?aaeai? a ?iaioao A.A.
A?na?iea, A.A. Aieeiaa, A.I. Ai?iie, I.N. Aeanthea, ?.?. Aieiaaoe, E.A.
Ai?aeiia, A.A. Eeiiiaa, A.I. E?aaiiai?, A.I. Iaiaeeao?e, A.?. Iai?iooa,
?.I. I?eaeoeiai?, A.I. ?aaaiea, TH.?. Na?iea, ?.?. No?iaiea, A.?.
Oa?anaiea oa ?i. Na?aae ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo
eiiieaeniiio aea/aiith ??aiy aeeooy, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe ?iaioe A.
Eieiaeei, I.No?iaaea, Aeae. O??aeiaia.

?acii c oei, eeoeeany iaae??oaiith iecea i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c aea/aiiyi
??aiy aeeooy. O iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ??aaiue aeeooy o?aaeeoe?eii
caiaeeoueny aei nooiaiy caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa, i?e oeueiio aeueoa?iaoeai?
eiai aecia/aiiy i?aeoe/ii ia ?ic?iaeythoueny. Ia ocaaaeueiaii oa ia
nenoaiaoeciaaii no/ani? iaoiaeeee aei??o ??aiy aeeooy, ui oneeaaeith?
eiai aea/aiiy. A?aenooi? iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae i?aeia?iaeiiai
ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ??aiy aeeooy. Iacaaaeath/e ia /?oei ae?aaeaiee
iaaaoeaiee oa?aeoa? oaiaeaioe?e, ui neeaeeny a aeeiai?oe? aeia?iaooo
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, ni?yiiaai?noue oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo oeeo
oaiaeaioe?e caeeoathoueny noia?a/ieie.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? anaa?/ia
ioe?iea ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, ui neeaany aiane?aeie
i?iaaaeaiiy ?eieiaici???ioiaaieo ?aoi?i.

?aae?caoe?y iaoe aeiaaa? ?ica’ycaiiy ianooiieo caaaeaiue:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe ?nioth/? aecia/aiiy oa iaoiaeeee aei??o ??aiy aeeooy;

— aea/eoe ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ca ia??iae 1990-1998 ??. c
aeei?enoaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo ca ??cieie
iaoiaeeeaie eiai aei??o; aecia/eoe oaiaeaioe?? a aeeiai?oe? ??aiy aeeooy
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie;

— ii??aiyoe ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie c caaaeueiiaeciaieie
aeeoo?aeie noaiaea?oaie oa ??aiai aeeooy ianaeaiiy, ui iaoea? a e?a?iao
c ??ciei nooiaiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe iiaeeeaino? ?aaoethaaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie;

— aecia/eoe e?eoa??? iioeiaeueiiai ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie,
a?aoiaoth/e neooaoe?th a aaeoc? aeia?iaooo.

Ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oaiaeaioe?? a aeeiai?oe? ??aiy aeeooy
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, ui neeaeeny i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i
(1990-1998 ??.).

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee oa aii??e/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. A
aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?ii aeei?enoaii iiiyo?eiee aia?ao oai??e nioe?aeueii?
no?aoeo?eaoe?? oa aeiiii?/ii? iiaaae?iee ethaeae. O ?iaio? oaeiae
ciaeoia a?aeia?aaeaiiy aeina?ae nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co ??aiy
aeeooy a no/aniiio noni?euenoaiciaanoa?.

Aii??e/iith aacith aeena?oaoe?? ? io?oe?ei? noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee oa
?acoeueoaoe iecee aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo ia aea??eao,
?ai?acaioaoeaieo ca iniiaieie nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieie iciaeaie aeey
aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. Na?aae nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
ie?aii ne?ae aeae?eeoe cae?eniaiee ?inoeoooii nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie a
1994-1998 ??. iii?oi?eia no/aniiai noaio ? ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa oa aea??eia? ioe?ii/i? ianoaaeaiiy
athaeaeao?a aeiiiainiiaea?noa Oe?a?ie, ui aoee i?iaaaeai? a 1995 oa 1997
??. Ee?anueeei i?aeia?iaeiei ?inoeoooii nioe?ieia??. Oaeiae aoei
aeei?enoaii e ?acoeueoaoe nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo a
?ioeo e?a?iao.

O ?iaio? aeei?enoaii iaoiaee aea/aiiy noaoenoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a,
aoi?eiiiai aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?
ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co.

O ?iaio? aenoioo? oae? a?iioace: ??aaiue aeeooy iniiaii? iane ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie ca /an i?iaaaeaiiy ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i (1990-1998 ??.) cieceany ? a
oaia??oi?e /an i?iaeiaaeo? cieaeoaaoeny; ??aaiue aeeooy iniiaii? iane
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie nueiaiaei? ia a?aeiia?aea? iioeiaeueiiio ??aith aeeooy
ianaeaiiy, ui iaoea? a i?iieneiai ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao na?oo; no/ani?
oaiaeaioe?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icoa?oaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa ia?aoeiaeaeaoeiooue iiaeaeueo?e e?aa?ae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui ocaaaeueiaii
i?aeoiaee aei ioe?iee ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy
?eieiaeo ?aoi?i, aecia/aii oaiaeaioe?? a aeeiai?oe? aeia?iaooo ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie oa aea/aii aoaeoeai?noue no/anieo iiaeeeainoae i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
aeeooy ianaeaiiy. Io?eiai? ? iaa?oioiaai? oae? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe:

— c o?aooaaiiyi i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iiai oa?aeoa?o aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/aii
??aaiue aeeooy ye iiaeeeaino?, ui iaaea? noni?euenoai inia? aeey
caaeiaieaiiy aeeoo?aeo iio?aa, a?aeiia?aeii aei ??
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaoono (n. 12-23);

— nenoaiaoeciaaii ?nioth/? iaoiaeeee aei??o ??aiy aeeooy, ye? iiae?eaii
ia o?e a?oie ia i?aenoaa? ??cieoe? o iieacieeao, iaaeiei yeeo
aoaeothoueny iaoiaeeee, ia’?eoao aea/aiiy, iaoiaeao, aeaea?aeao
io?eiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? oa iiaeeeainoyo aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a; oaeiae
iieacaii noa?o canoinoaaiiy eiaeii? a?oie iaoiaeee (n. 60-77);

— aeyaeaii c iaeii/aniiai anaa?/iiai aiae?co aeaieo io?oe?eii?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? noaoenoeee oa ?acoeueoao?a iieooaaiue, ui a
1990-1998 ??. aeeiai?ea ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ia? i?ia?anoth/ee
iaaaoeaiee oa?aeoa? (n. 94-97);

— iieacaii, ui a 1990-1998 ??. iia??oeeiny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??aiy aeeooy
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie c? na?oiaeie noaiaea?oaie; cieaeaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ca
oe? ?iee nyaioei iaae?, ui aecia?oueny na?oiaeie ii?iaie ye e?eoe/ia
aeey aeaeeaaiiy ethaeeie oa ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa (n. 97-109);

— aeyaeaii ca ?acoeueoaoaie nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui nueiaiaei?
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ia’?eoeaii ia ia? iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoiaoaaoe
nioe?aeuei? ?ano?ne aeey iiaeieaiiy a?aeiino? iaa?oue i?e iayai?e
iiceoeai?e iioeaaoe?? aei aeoeaii? aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? (n.
111-120);

— aeiaaaeaii, ui i?e caa??aaii? aeyaeaieo oaiaeaioe?e
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ?
iaaeae? aoaea iia??ooaaoeny (n. 133-137);

— cai?iiiiiaaii iai?yie i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy, ye?
iieyaathoue a aeiei??iiiio ci?iai? no?aoaa?? aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i (n.
137-138).

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiie iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? ye aii??e/ia aaca aeey iiaeaeueoiai oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co
nioe?aeueieo iane?aee?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?;
ocaaaeueiaiiy, c?iaeai? i?ae /an aiae?co iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae aea/aiiy
??aiy aeeooy, iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? a i?aeoeoe? aea/aiiy aeia?iaooo
ianaeaiiy; oai?aoe/i? oa aii??e/i? aeniiaee ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe
aeeth/ai? aei a?aeiia?aeieo oai i?ae?o/iee?a oa iin?aiee?a c aeiiii?/ii?
nioe?ieia??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoei
aeeeaaeaii ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “No?oeoo?ia iie?oeea
oa ?eieiaa o?ainoi?iaoe?y aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie” (Ee?a, 1999), ia
can?aeaiiyo e?oaeeo noie?a “Nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie i?eaaoecaoe?? a
ioe?ieao a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie” (Ee?a, 1999) oa “Oeyoe eiinie?aeaoe??
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a Oe?a?i?” (Ee?a, 1999).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (239 iaeiaioaaiue).
Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 176 noi??iie, 15 oaaeeoeue oa
nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae caeiathoue 30 noi?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
i??a iaoeiaiai ?? ii?aoethaaiiy, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa oa iniiai?
caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, aecia/athoueny ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia e aii??e/ia aaca, aeeeaaeathoueny iaoeiaa
iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue oa ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “??aaiue aeeooy ye eaoaai??y
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co” — aeine?aeaeothoueny i?aeoiaee aei
aecia/aiiy iiiyooy “??aaiue aeeooy”, aecia/athoueny neeaaeia? aeaiaioe
oa aeaoa?i?iaioe ??aiy aeeooy, ie?aneaii ?ieue ??aiy aeeooy ye e?eoa??th
aeae?eaiiy nioe?aeueieo a?oi.

??aaiue aeeooy o?aaeeoe?eii aaaaea?oueny i?aaeiaoii
i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iiai aiae?co. No/ani? aioeeeeiiaae?? oa aeia?aeieee
caiaeyoue ??aaiue aeeooy aei nooiaiy caaeiaieaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?
eoeueoo?ieo iio?aa ?iaeea?aea, a?oie /e noni?euenoaa, ye?
ni?aa?aeiinyoueny c ?oi?i nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei noaoonii. ??aaiue
aeeooy ethaeae caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
noni?euenoaa, oa?aeoa?o a?aeiinei ?iciiae?eo ?acoeueoao?a noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa (inoaii? a?aeia?aaeathoueny o iiaeeeainoyo caaeiaieaiiy
iio?aa ie?aieie a?oiaie ianaeaiiy) oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo coneeue naii?
ethaeeie, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?aeaeuaiiy aeaniiai ??aiy aeeooy. Aeiiii?/ia
aeoeai?noue ethaeae, ui ia? ia iao? iie?ioaiiy aeaniiai aeia?iaooo,
iaiaaeaia noeoii?noth nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei noni?euenoaa.
Oiio ??aiai aeeooy a ?iaio? aaaaeathoueny iiaeeeaino?, ui iaaea?
noni?euenoai inia? aeey caaeiaieaiiy aeeoo?aeo iio?aa, a?aeiia?aeii aei
?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaoono.

I?e aiae?c? ??aiy aeeooy iiaeia aa??thaaoe e?euee?noue eiai neeaaeiaeo
aeaiaio?a, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue iniiaiei iio?aaai ethaeeie. A ?iaio?
ia?aii cai?iiiiiaaiee III neeaae aeaiaio?a ??aiy aeeooy: caei?ia’y ?acii
c aeaiia?ao?/iith neooaoe??th, oa?/oaaiiy, ina?oa ?acii c a?aiioi?noth
oa iaae/eaie, oiiae i?aoe?, caeiyo?noue, iiaeeea?noue iaeiie/aiiy,
o?ainii?o, aeeoei, iaeya, a?aeii/eiie.

??aaiue aeeooy ? naiiaeinoaoi?i e?eoa???i aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? noni?euenoaa.
Iaoeiaa e?oa?aoo?a c noni?euenoaiciaanoaa ca ??cieoeath a ??ai? aeeooy
iiae?ey? noni?euenoai ia o?e aaeee? a?oie: a?aeieo, aaaaoeo oa na?aaei?e
eean. Oeae ?iciiae?e o ?aaeyinuee?e e?oa?aoo?? i?aeeyaaa ieu?ai?e
e?eoeoe? ? eeoa inoaii?ie ?ieaie noaa canoiniaoaaoeny a aiae?c?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? no?oeoo?e iino?aaeyinueeeo noni?euenoa.

A?aeieie aaaaeathoueny a?oie ethaeae, ye? aeeaooue a oiiaao ianoa/?
iaiao?aeieo iaoa??aeueieo oa eoeueoo?ieo ?ano?n?a aeey i?aeo?eiee
caei?iaiai ?nioaaiiy. Aei na?aaeiueiai eeano iaeaaeaoue aa?noae
ianaeaiiy c na?aaei?ie aeey aeaiiai noni?euenoaa ??aiai aeioiaeo oa
?ici??ii niiaeeaaiiy, a aaaao? — oea a?oia ethaeae, aeioiaee oa
niiaeeaaiiy yeeo cia/ii ia?aaeuothoue oeae na?aaei?e ??aaiue. A?aei?noue
? aaaaonoai ? a?aeiinieie iiiyooyie ? iathoue nai? iniaeeaino? o
eiaeiiio noni?euenoa?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Ioe?iea oaiaeaioe?e ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie a 1990-1998 ??.” — i?iaiae?ciaaii ?nioth/? iieacieee ??aiy
aeeooy oa iaoiaeeee ?o aei??o, cae?eniaii nioe?ieia?/iee aiae?c
aeia?iaooo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie oa ii??aiyii ca aeaieie i?aeia?iaeii?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? noaoenoeee ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie c
??aiai aeeooy ianaeaiiy ?ioeo e?a?i.

O caeaaeiino? a?ae oiai, aei ie?aii ia?aii? iio?aae /e aei ?o noeoiiino?
caiaeeoueny ??aaiue aeeooy, iieacieee, ca yeeie a?i aiae?co?oueny,
iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia ia?ioaa?iaai? (i?ino?) oa ?ioaa?iaai?
(ocaaaeueiai?).

Ia?ioaa?iaai? (i?ino?) iieacieee ??aiy aeeooy ? e?euee?nii ae?aaeai?
nooiai? caaeiaieaiiy ie?aieo iaoa??aeueieo /e aeooiaieo iio?aa. Aei ieo
iaeaaeaoue oae? caaaeueiia?aeii? iieacieee, ye, iai?eeeaae,
eaei??ei?noue oa?/oaaiiy, na?aaeiueiaeooiaa niiaeeaaiiy iniiaieo
i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy, na?aaeiy e?euee?noue i?aaeiao?a aeiaaino?ieiaiai
ei?enooaaiiy a aeiiiainiiaea?noaao, /anoioa a?aea?aeoaaiiy oaao?o oiui.

O i?aeoeoe? no/aniiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co ye c iaoith
i?aeia?iaeiiai ii??aiyiiy, oae e i?e aea/aii? ??aiy aeeooy a ie?aieo
e?a?iao aeei?enoiaothoueny iaeii/anii i?ino? ? ocaaaeueiai?
(?ioaa?iaai?) iieacieee. I?e oeueiio i?ino? iieacieee ??aiy aeeooy, ui
a?aeiia?aeathoue aeinyaiooiio ?ici??o caaeiaieaiiy iniiaieo iio?aa o
iaoo?aeueiiio aei???, ?ethno?othoue eiie?aoia iaiiaiaiiy ocaaaeueiaieo
iieaciee?a.

?ioaa?iaai?, ye i?aaeei, aa?o?ni?, iieacieee ??aiy aeeooy
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ocaaaeueiai? iiaeeeaino? caaeiaieaiiy an??? noeoiiino?
iio?aa ethaeeie e iaeiioe?ai?oeie na?aae ieo ?: ca?ia?oia ieaoa (/e
aeio?ae) ? iio?aei? a?ae ia? iieacieee — na?aaeiy, i?i?iaeueia ?
iaeneiaeueia ca?ia?oia ieaoa; aiaeia?/i? ??ai? iain?e, noeiaiae?e;
io?oe?ei? iaae? a?aeiino? ? iaeicaaacia/aiino?; AAI ia aeooo ianaeaiiy,
ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai ioe?iththoueny iiaeeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy aeia?iaooo
noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio. I?aeia?iaeia noaoenoeea ia? niaoe?aeueiee
?ioaa?iaaiee iieaciee aeey ii??aiyiiy ??aiy ? yeino? aeeooy a ??cieo
e?a?iao — ?iaeaen ethaenueeiai ?icaeoeo (?E?).

Ia i?aenoaa? ??cieoe? a iaoiaeao iaea?aeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ?ioaa?iaai?
iieacieee oa a oi?iao ?o iiaeaiiy nueiaiaei? iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?e
ieae/aiaaaaeai? a?oie iaoiaeee aei??thaaiiy ??aiy aeeooy.

Aei ia?oi? a?oie iaeaaeaoue iaoiaeeee, iiaoaeiaai? ia
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iieacieeao, ye? ioae?eothoueny io?oe?eiith
noaoenoeeith. ??aaiue aeeooy ?icaeyaea?oueny, ye i?aaeei, /a?ac ?ici??
ca?ia?oii? ieaoe (aai aeioiaeo), na?aaeiueiaeooiaee ?ici?? AAI,
io?oe?ei? iaae? iaeicaaacia/aiino? e a?aeiino?, a oaeiae /a?ac aeaye?
iieacieee caei?ia’y ? ina?oe.

O oaia??oi?e aeiiii?/i?e neooaoe?? iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeee,
iiaoaeiaaieo aeeeth/ii ia iieacieeao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? ca?oiino?,
aeoaea iaiaaeai?. I?e aaeee?e /enaeueiino? iaca?a?no?iaaieo aac?ia?oieo
? ia?aaoey?i?e aeieao? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe iieacieee, iaaeiei yeeo
aoaeothoueny oe? iaoiaeeee, ia iiaeooue a?aeia?aaeaoe ?aaeueiee ??aaiue
aeeooy anueiai ianaeaiiy. Io?oe?ei? noaoenoe/i? aeai? aeoaea
iinooiathoueny ca ?ioi?iaoe?eieie iiaeeeainoyie ?acoeueoaoai iieooaaiue,
oiio a oaia??oi?o oiiaao niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y i?e aea/aii? ??aiy
aeeooy ianaeaiiy oe?iei canoiniaoaaoe iieooaaeuei? iaoiaeeee iaa?oue
aeey oeo iieaciee?a, ye? o?aaeeoe?eii ?ic?aoiaothoueny ca iaoa??aeaie
noaoenoe/ii? ca?oiino?.

Ae?oao a?oio ooai?ththoue iaoiaeeee, ui aacothoueny aeeeth/ii ia
iieooaaeueieo iaoiaeao io?eiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ?ici?? iieaciee?a, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy. Nooue oeeo iaoiaeee
caiaeeoueny aei i?eiouaiiy i?i oioiaei?noue aeioiae?a oa ?aaeueiiai
niiaeeaaiiy. Iaa?oiooaaiiyi oeueiai i?eiouaiiy ? iaiiaeeea?noue a ?ioee
can?a ioe?ieoe ae?eni? oiiae aeeooy ethaeae a neooaoe??, eiee a?eueoa
/anoeia ianaeaiiy ia? io?oe?eii ia?a?no?iaai? aeioiaee. Aaaaea?oueny, ui
ethaee ?aaeueii niiaeeaathoue ia a?eueoa aeaa, i?ae aeicaieythoue ?oi?
aeioiaee.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy “Aeioiaee oa aeo?aoe aeiiiainiiaea?noa
Oe?a?ie”, i?iaaaeaiiai Ee?anueeei i?aeia?iaeiei ?inoeoooii nioe?ieia?? a
1995 ?ioe? ca iaei??th c oaeeo iaoiaeee, na?aaeiueiaeooiaa ?aaeueia
niiaeeaaiiy ia?aaeuo? na?aaeiueiaeooiaee aeio?ae (iaeaeaa iieacieee
io?eiai? i?ae /an iieooaaiiy) a 2,09 ?ace. Oaea cia/ia ??cieoey i?ae
na?aaeiueiaeooiaeie aeioiaeaie oa na?aaeiueiaeooiaei ?aaeueiei
niiaeeaaiiyi aeicaiey? aiai?eoe i?i oa, ui ianaeaiiy e??i oi?iaeueii?
caeiyoino? ia? e aeiaeaoeia? aeaea?aea io?eiaiiy cania?a aei ?nioaaiiy
(iai?eeeaae, i?aoey ia i?enaaeeai?e ae?eyioe?, ae??aia iina?aaeieoeueea
ae?yeuei?noue oiui), ?ieue yeeo a oiiaao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece
o?ainoi?io?oueny c aeiiii?aeii? a aieiaio, ui ni?ey? iiaeaeueoiio
cieaeaiith iioaioe?aeo c?inoaiiy noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa e ao?ao?
ianaeaiiyi i?ioan?eieo iaae/ie.

Oaeee aiae?c, ni?yiiaaiee ia aecia/aiiy ia?aae on?i ?aaeueiiai ??aiy
aeeooy, ? aeioe?eueiei, oiio ui aeicaiey? aecia/eoe iayai?noue
i?eoiaaieo iiaeeeainoae iie?ioaiiy oiia aeeooy ianaeaiiy (ca ?ici??ii
?aaeueiiai niiaeeaaiiy). Aea oey aeioe?euei?noue ia? aooe iaiaaeaia
ae?aaiinoe/iith ooieoe??th ?icaeyaea?ieo iaoiaeee. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, i?e
yeiio na?aaeiueiaeooia? aeioiaee cia/ii ia?aaeuothoue na?aaeiueiaeooiaa
?aaeueia niiaeeaaiiy e aeicaieythoue cae?enithaaoe caiuaaeaeaiiy, ?
?iaeeeaoi?ii ni?eyth/eo anaa?/iiio ?icaeoeo ethaeeie oiia aeeooy. I?e
noi?aeieo /e ??aieo cia/aiiy caaaeaieo iieaciee?a ??aaiue aeeooy iiaea
aooe aecia/aiee ye a?aie/ii i?eeiyoiee, aea aaea aeiaaath/ee
oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo iaea?eueo
iaeicaaacia/aieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy. E, ia?aoo?, o oiio aeiaaeeo, eiee
niinoa??aa?oueny ia?aaeuaiiy na?aaeiueiaeooiaiai ?aaeueiiai niiaeeaaiiy
iaae na?aaeiueiaeooiaeie aeioiaeaie, ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy iaiao?aeii
aeciaoe ye iecueeee.

Iaoiaeeee, ui ooai?ththoue ae?oao a?oio, iathoue iaiaaeaia i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo ca oeeie iaoiaeeeaie,
ia iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ye aeo?aei? aeai? i?e ieaioaaii? eiie?aoieo
caoiae?a o noa?? nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy, oi/a i?e iani?eyoeeaiio
ni?aa?aeiioaii? aeioiae?a ? ?aaeueiiai niiaeeaaiiy ?o iaiiaeeeai ia
a?aoiaoaaoe ye iaaaoeai? oaiaeaioe?? i?e oi?ioaaii? no?aoaa??
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae. Iaaeie?eii oeeo iaoiaeee ?
oaeiae e oie oaeo, ui aiie ?ic?iaeai? aeey aiae?co ??aiy aeeooy o
e?a?iao, ui ?icaeaathoueny, aai noiniaii a?aeieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy, ? ?o
canoinoaaiiy aei aiae?co ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie caaeuo? ??aaiue
aeeooy.

Aei o?aouei? a?oie aoiaeyoue iaoiaeeee, ui caaacia/othoue i?aeia?iaeia
ii??aiyiiy oiia aeeooy. Aei ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a ia aoei ?ic?iaeaii
niaoe?aeueieo ocaaaeueithth/eo iieaciee?a, ui aeicaieyee a o na?oiaiio
ianooaa? ii??aithaaoe oiiae aeeooy ethaeae a ??cieo e?a?iao. Aea,
ii/eiath/e c 1990 ?ieo, III ui??/ii ioae?eo? “Ca?o c ethaenueeiai
?icaeoeo”, o yeiio i?noyoueny aeai? i?i na?aaeiueiaeooiaee ?ici?? AAI,
caei?ia’y e ??aaiue ina?oe ianaeaiiy, caaaeai? a ?iaeaen ethaenueeiai
?icaeoeo (?E?).

Aeo?aei? aeai? aeey ?ic?aooieo ?E? ? aiae?co ??aiy aeeooy ?c
canoinoaaiiyi iaoiaeee, caaaeaieo iaie aei ia?oi? a?oie, ? o? ae nai?, c
o??th eeoa ??cieoeath, ui aei ?E? aiie aoiaeyoue aaea nei?eaiaai?
a?aeiinii i?i?iaeueieo oa iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiue, cao?eniaaieo na?oiaith
noaoenoeeith. Oaeei /eiii, ?E? — oea a?aeia?aaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ie?aieo e?a?i o na?oe? na?oiaiai
i?ia?ano oiia aeeooy ethaeeie.

Eiiieaeniee aiae?c, i?iaaaeaiee ca aeuaiacaaieie iaoiaeeeaie, aoaea
aeioe?eueiei aeiiiaieoe naiiioe?ieith ianaeaiiy ca iaoa??aeaie
iii?oi?eiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui i?iaiaeyoueny ia aea??eao,
?ai?acaioaoeaieo ca iniiaieie nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieie iciaeaie aeey
aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy e?a?ie.

?acoeueoaoe aiae?co ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie na?ae/aoue i?i
cia/ia eiai iia??oaiiy.

A?aeiia?aeii aei io?oe?eii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? ca?oiino?, ca
1989-1998 ??. AAI Oe?a?ie nei?ioeany a?eueo, i?ae ia 60 %; ?aaeueia
ca?ia?oia ieaoa a 1998 ?. ia ia?aaeuoaaea o?aoeie a?ae ?? ??aiy a 1990
?.

Ca aeaieie iii?oi?eiaiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy no/aniiai noaio e ia?niaeoea
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, i?iaaaeaiiai ?inoeoooii nioe?ieia??
IAI Oe?a?ie, c eiaeiei ?ieii ?aniiiaeaioe iaaaoeai?oa ioe?iththoue
iaoa??aeuei? oiiae nai?? ?iaeeie, /ano?oa aeacothoue ia a?aenooi?noue
eioo?a ia iaeiaiao?aei?oa oa?/oaaiiy oa iaeya. Oe? aeai?
a?aeiia?aeathoue ca?oai io?oe?eii? noaoenoeee i?i ?ici?? niiaeeaaiiy
ianaeaiiyi iniiaieo i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy, yeee o 1990-1998 ??. cia/ii
cieceany.

Cieaeaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ? iniiaiith i?e/eiith iia??oaiiy aeaiia?ao?/ii?
neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i?. Ii/eiath/e c 1994 ?ieo, a Oe?a?i? niinoa??aathoueny
iaaaoeai? oaiie c?inoaiiy ianaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio ia?aaeuaiiy nia?oiino?
iaae ia?iaeaeoaai?noth a Oe?a?i? ia? i?noea c 1991 ?. C?inoathoue oaeiae
aeeoy/? caoai?thaai?noue oa nia?oi?noue. Iaaaoeai? iane?aeee oeeo
aeaiia?ao?/ieo oaiaeaioe?e Oe?a?ia a?ae/o? a iaeaooiueiio i?e oi?ioaaii?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?aeo.

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee iioaioe?ae Oe?a?ie iia??ooaaoeiaoueny oaeiae
aiane?aeie cieaeaiiy noeioethth/i? ?ie? ina?oe ? iiaeeeainoae ??
iaea?aeaiiy. Nei?i/aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ia aa?aioo? caeiyoino? ethaeyi c
ina?oith. Oiio a ia??iae iaeaooiueiai aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy c aaeeeith
eiia??i?noth iiaeia i/?eoaaoe ianoa/o aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo oao?aoe?a,
ye? nueiaiaei? iaiio??ai? aeiiii?oe?.

Cieaeaiiy ??aiy aeeooy iniiaii? iane ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny c?inoaiiyi aac?ia?ooy. Iaca?a?no?iaaia aac?ia?ooy a
aaaaoi ?ac?a ia?aaeuo? io?oe?ei? iieacieee ? nyaa? nueiaiaei? iaeaea
i’yoi? /anoeie aeiiii?/ii aeoeaiiai ianaeaiiy. A oiiaao a?aenooiino?
aoaeoeaii? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo oey a?oia ianaeaiiy acaaae? ia
ia? aoaeue-yeeo cania?a aei ?nioaaiiy.

A?ae cieaeaiiy ??aiy aeeooy iaea?eueo no?aaeaeathoue a?oie ianaeaiiy,
ye? ia iiaeooue naiino?eii iiai?noth caaacia/oaaoe caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa —
ethaee iioeeiai a?eo, ae?oe oa ?iaae?aee, oiaoi naia oa /anoeia
ianaeaiiy, ca ??aiai aeeooy yei? aecia/a?oueny aeia?iaoo noni?euenoaa.
Oe? eaoaai??? ianaeaiiy nueiaiaei? iaea?eueoa i?aeiaaeathoue i?ae ?ecee
iieieoeny ca iaaeath a?aeiino? oiio, ui nenoaia aea?aeaaiiai
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ia iiaea aa?aiooaaoe ?i iaa?oue a?aeiinii
caaeia?euei? oiiae ?nioaaiiy.

Aenieee oa caaeia?eueiee ??aaiue aeeooy ? nueiaiaei? aeeeth/iei yaeuai,
yea i?aeoe/ii ia o?eno?oueny aeaieie io?oe?eii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
noaoenoeee oa iieooaaiiyie ianaeaiiy. Aea a noni?euenoa? aaea c’yaeeany
nioe?aeueia a?oia aaaao??a, a?aei?iiith iniaeea?noth yeeo ? aieiae?iiy
eai?oaeii o eeane/iiio ?icoi?ii? oeueiai iiiyooy.

Inoaii?ie ?ieaie niinoa??aa?oueny no??iea c?inoaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? ia??aiino?, ui aaaea aei iiey?ecaoe??
noni?euenoaa. Iaeaea 90 % ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie nueiaiaei? aeeaa a
a?aeiino?, 5 % neeaaeathoue o?, eiai iiaeia a?aeianoe aei na?aaeiueiai
eeano, ? 5 % — aei aaaaoeo ethaeae.

Ioaea, ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a 1990-1998 ??. cieceany ? iaia?
aeiaeii? i?aenoaae aeey eiai iiceoeaii? ioe?iee.

??cea cieaeaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ciaeoei a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
iia??oaii? eiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c? na?oiaeie a?aeiia?aeieie iieacieeaie.

??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, aei??thaaiee ca ?E?, c eiaeiei ?ieii
iia??oo?oueny. O 1994 ?ioe? Oe?a?ia na?aae iiaeaieo o “Ca?o? c
ethaenueeiai ?icaeoeo-97” 170 e?a?i iin?ea 95-oa i?noea. Aaniethoia
cia/aiiy ?E? Oe?a?ie aei??aith? 0,689, Eaiaaee, ia?eiath/i? ia?oa i?noea
ca oeei iieacieeii, — 0,942, Nue???a-Eaiia, caieeath/i? oaaeeoeth, —
0,176. Aaniethoia cia/aiiy ?E? Oe?a?ie iaeaea noi?aeia c ieaeiueith
iaaeath cia/aiiy ?E? aeey e?a?i ?c na?aaei?i ??aiai ?icaeoeo
ethaenueeiai iioaioe?aeo. A oeueiio ae ?aeoeiao e?a?i Oe?a?ia iin?aea?
na?aaeith iiceoe?th i?ae ?in??th, ui ciaoiaeeoueny ia 67-io i?noe? o
caaaeueiiio ia?ae?eo ? ia ia?oiio na?aae eieeoi?o ?anioae?e N?N?, oa
Oaaeaeeeenoaiii, ia?aaoaath/ei o noai? a?eie ? oo?eioth/ei 115-oa i?noea
na?aae a?aeia?aaeaieo o oaaeeoe? e?a?i ? iath/ei iaea??oa na?aae
eieeoi?o ?anioae?e N?N? cia/aiiy ?E?. Ca?aeii c aeaieie “Ca?oo c
ethaenueeiai ?icaeoeo-98”, Oe?a?ia o 1995 ?ioe? ca ?E? iin?ea aaea
102-aa i?noea.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ??aaiue aeeooy
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie nueiaiaei? cia/ii ieae/ee a?ae na?oiaeo noaiaea?o?a.
Na?aae eiiiiiaio?a ?E? eeoa ??aaiue ina?oe ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie
a?aeiia?aea? e?eoa??yi aeniei?icaeiooeo e?a?i, oi/a ye?noue eiai a
oiiaao c?inoaiiy aac?ia?ooy iia??ooaaoeiaoueny. Iaaaoeai? oaiaeaioe??,
ui neeaeeny a iae?iaeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo i?ioeanao, ye?
coiiaeththoue ??aaiue aeeooy, ? iaaeae? aoaeooue no?eioaaoe c?inoaiiy
AAI ? ni?eyoeiooue iia??oaiith caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy, ui iiaea iaoe
iane?aeeii onoiaiiy Oe?a?ie c a?oie e?a?i ?c na?aaei?i ??aiai
ethaenueeiai ?icaeoeo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “No/ani? iiaeeeaino? oi?aae?iiy ??aiai aeeooy
ianaeaiiy” — aeine?aeaeothoueny nioe?aeuei? ?ano?ne i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
aeeooy, iai?yie aaeineiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee
aea?aeaae a aaeoc? i?aeianaiiy aeia?iaooo ianaeaiiy, e?eoa???
iioeiaeueiiai ??aiy aeeooy.

On? iaoai?cie ?aaoethaaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy a ?iaio? iiae?eaii ia
aea? a?oie. Aei ia?oi? iaeaaeaoue iiaeeeaino? na?aeiieo ae?e ethaeae,
ni?yiiaai? ia iie?ioaiiy aeaniiai aeia?iaooo, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei
caeaaeaoue a?ae naieo ethaeae oa ?oiueiai iaeaeeae/iai ioi/aiiy.
Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea aea?aeaae o aaeoc? i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
aeeooy ianaeaiiy ? no?aoaa?y ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio
neeaaeathoue ae?oao a?oio iaoai?ci?a, ae?y yeeo ooai?th? ciai?oi? aei
iaoai?ci?a ia?oi? a?oie na?aaeiaeua, ia noai yeiai iiaaae?iea ie?aieo
ethaeae aaciina?aaeiueiai aieeao ia ia?.

?aae?caoe?y aoaeue-yei? eiioeaioe?? iiaeieaiiy a?aeiino?, ui nie?a?oueny
ia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeiiii?/ii? iiaaae?iee ?iaeea?ae?a oa
aeiiiainiiaea?noa, ia?o ca ana ia?aaeaa/a? caaacia/aiiy iiaeeeainoae
aieeao ethaeae ia na?e aeia?iaoo. Aea a?eueo?noue ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a
oaia??oi?e /an aecia/a?, ui ia iiaea aeoeaii aieeaaoe ia oiiae naiai
aeeooy, ye?, ye na?ae/aoue aiae?c iae?iaeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a ?
?acoeueoaoe iieooaaiue, ? ae?ae iacaaeia?eueieie.

Iecueea naiiioe?iea aeanii? cia/ouino? aeey noni?euenoaa, ianeaiee oei
aca?iiae?? c ioi/oth/ei na?aaeiaeuai ? aieiaieie neeaaeiaeie aeaiaioaie
aeaio aca?iiiia’ycaieo oaiiiai?a, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei oa?aeoa?ieo ?en
a?aeiino? — aoaeoo aeeo/aiiy oa noaeoeueoo?e a?aeiino?. Ca iaaaeeeei
aeiyoeii a?oie caiiaeieo ethaeae, iniiaia iana ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie
iicaaaeaia nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo c aieo noni?euenoaa ? a oiiaao
c?inoaiiy aac?ia?ooy ia ca aeaniei aaaeaiiyi aeiaaea? c noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa acaaae?. C?inoath/a iacaaeiaieaiiy oiiaaie aeeooy oa
ianeaia noaaeaiiy aei ioi/oth/i? ae?eniino? i?ecaiaeyoue aei oei??iaiiy
a na?aeiiino? ethaeae a?ae/oooy i?e?a/aiino? oa aacii?aaeiino? ?
caa?iaeothoue a iaeaooiueiio a?eueo noai?eie iane?aeeaie, i?ae oea
caea?oueny ia ia?oee iiaeyae. Noaeoeueoo?a a?aeiino?, yea i?iyaey?oueny
a oo?eiainueee-ianeaiiio noaaeaii? ?? iin??a aei noni?euenoaa oa
iani?eeiyoo? ieie o?oaeiaeo oe?iiinoae, ia aeoieo cao?aeieo
aeine?aeiee?a, — oea oniaaeeiaaia c iieie?iiy a iieie?iiy yaeua, yea
?iciianthaeaeo?oueny a noni?euenoa? iaa?iaii i?iii?oe?eii noaa?eueiino?,
? oiio iiyaa a oiiaao nueiaiaei?oiuei? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece
na?aae ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie aaaaoi/enaeueii? nioe?aeueii? a?oie, yea a
eeane/iiio ?icoi?ii? iaeaaeeoue aei ia?aeiae?a /e ethiiai-i?ieaoa??aoo ?
ia i?aeaea?oueny aieeao aoaeue-yeeo noeioe?a i?aoe?, ? ieoaiiyi /ano. Ua
aeineoue neeueia i?aaiaiiy io?eiaoe ina?oo, aaaeaiiy i?aoethaaoe ia eeoa
ia naaa, aea e aeey noni?euenoaa, iiaaaa aei noni?eueieo ?ioa?an?a, aac
caaacia/aiiy yeeo ia iiaea aooe e iiaii? ?aae?caoe?? iniaenoeo oe?eae,
ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe aaea ia ye iaioth/? oe?iiino?, a ye caeeoeia?
noa?aioeie, cieeiaiiy yeeo i?e caa?aaeaii? oaiaeaioe?e
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aeeiai?ee, ui neeaeany, ? iaieio/ei.

? ??cieoey a aeei?enoaii? ?ano?n?a ai?ioueae c a?aei?noth a
noni?euenoaao, aea a?aei? neeaaeathoue a?aeiinii iacia/io /anoeio, yea
ia ia?aaeuo? 20 % caaaeueii? /enaeueiino? ianaeaiiy, oa a noni?euenoaao,
aea a oiiaao a?aeiino? ciaoiaeeoueny iniiaia iana ianaeaiiy. O ia?oiio
aeiaaeeo a?aei? ?icaeyaeathoueny ?ioeie /eaiaie noni?euenoaa ye
iaeiaaacia/i?oa a?oia, ye oaeoi? ?eceeo ?nioaaiiy iaae?eiiai aeeoo?aiai
i?inoi?o, yeeo iiaeia “iaeo?ae?coaaoe” ca ?aooiie iacia/iiai ca?eueoaiiy
/anoee iaeicaaacia/aieo i?e ia?a?iciiae?e? ?acoeueoao?a noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, ianyae yeiai iino?eii c?inoathoue. Noni?euenoai, a yeiio,
iaaiaee, a?aeiinii caaacia/ai? ethaee neeaaeathoue iacia/io /anoeio, a
a?aeieie ? ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue ianaeaiiy, iacia/ia ei?aeoe?y
a?aeiinei ia?a?iciiae?eo ia aoaea iaoe i?yeiai aoaeoo.

A Oe?a?i? ca?ac niinoa??aa?oueny naia ae?oaee oei iioe?aiiy a?aeiino?,
oiio ui a?aeiei iiaea aeciaaaoeny ca iaaaeeeei aeiyoeii iaeaea ana
ianaeaiiy. Oiio iiaeieaiiy ianiai? a?aeiino? a neooaoe??, ui neeaeany,
caeaaeeoue ia a?ae iaiaaaiue ie?aieo ethaeae i?aeaeueoe aeaniee ??aaiue
aeeooy, a a?ae aioee?eciai? no?aoaa?? noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio oa
aoaeoeaii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae o aaeoc?
aeia?iaooo ianaeaiiy.

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io iie?oeeo aea?aeaae o aaeoc? aeia?iaooo ianaeaiiy
iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe o aeaio aniaeoao. C iaeiiai aieo, ye iai?yiie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, aea?aeaaia
iie?oeea a no/aniiio na?o? i?aaenoaaeaia eiina?aaoeaii-e?aa?aeueiith
aeieo?eiith oa nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao??th. C ?ioiai aieo,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea aea?aeaae a aaeoc? ?aaoethaaiiy ??aiy
aeeooy ciaoiaeeoue eiie?aoia a?aeia?aaeaiiy a noai?aii? e oi?aae?ii?
nenoaiith nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy.

Noni?euenoaa c eiina?aaoeaii-e?aa?aeueiei oa nioe?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iei
aea?aeaaiei ?aaoethaaiiyi ??ciyoueny i?ae niaith nooiaiai ao?o/aiiy
aea?aeaae a aeiiii?eo. Eiina?aaoeaii-e?aa?aeueiee i?aeo?ae o
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e iie?oeoe? aea?aeaae ae?aaeaiee o aeciaii?
?iaeea?aea oa eiai iio?aa iaeaeuith noni?eueiith oe?ii?noth, i?eaaoii?
aeaniino? ia caniae ae?iaieoeoaa oa caaaeaii? aei i?i?ioio noa?e
nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e. Nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?y aaco?oueny ia aeciaii?
noni?eueieo ?ioa?an?a o yeino? noni?eueiiai i??i?eoaoo, ??cieo aeaeao
eieaeoeaii? oa aeoe?iia?ii? aeaniino? ia caniae ae?iaieoeoaa oa
anaa?/iiio ?icoe?aii? noa?e nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e.

?eieia? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i? caiaeyoueny aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? cae??ieaiiy
eiina?aaoeaii-e?aa?aeueieo iaoai?ci?a oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith, ye? ia
a?aeiia?aeathoue oyaeaiiyi a?eueoino? ianaeaiiy i?i aaaeaio
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io i?aai?caoe?th noni?euenoaa. sse iieacothoue
iieooaaiiy, a?eueo?noue ?aniiiaeaio?a iaaea? ia?aaaao ?icoe?aiith
anaioiiethth/eo aea?aeaaieo aa?aio?e ia?aae iiaeaeueoith
e?aa?ae?caoe??th aeiiii?ee ? noni?euenoaa. Ia?aaaaeath/a /anoeia
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ia ii/aoeo 1998 ?ieo aaaaeaea, ui iaiao?aeii
iineethaaoe ?ieue aea?aeaae ia o?eueee a nioe?aeuei?e iie?oeoe?, aea ? a
aeiiii?/ieo i?ioeanao acaaae?. Aeoiee ?aniiiaeaio?a i?e oeueiio a
a?eueo?e i??? noeeythoueny aei noaaeaiiy aei?noeeo oi?i ao?o/aiiy
aea?aeaae a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?ioeane, i?ae aei i?aeo?eiee
/anoeiaiai aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

Aeiiii?/i? ? nioe?aeuei? ?aoi?ie, ni?yiiaai? ia iiaeieaiiy e?ece a
noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?, a ioaea, ? ia i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeeooy
ianaeaiiy, nueiaiaei? ca’ycothoue c i?eaaoecaoe??th, yeith ?aaeueii
ioiieaia eeoa iaaaeeea /anoeia ianaeaiiy, ye aeaeii c iieooaaiue.

O 1997 ?ioe? ia ieoaiiy “sse Ae ioe?ith?oa nai? ae??, iia’ycai? c
o/anoth a i?eaaoecaoe???” 52 % iieoaieo a?aeiia?ee, ui aiie ia aa?ooue
o/anoue a i?eaaoecaoe??, 23 % — ?iaeyoue “oa, ui ? an?”, i?e oeueiio ia
oyaeyth/e iane?aee?a nai?o ae?e, 7 ? 12 % iieoaieo a?aeiia?aeii aaaaeeny
c a?aeiia?aeaeth ? ia ciaee, ye acyoe o/anoue a i?eaaoecaoe??. ? eeoa 6
% ?aniiiaeaio?a na?aeiii aa?ooue o/anoue o i?eaaoecaoe??.

Iaaoaeoeaiith aeyaeeany na?oeo?eaoia i?eaaoecaoe?y. Ia ana ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie a?aei o/anoue a i?e: aeaye? a?iiaaeyie ia iciaeo i?ioanoo i?ioe
nioe?aeueii? noo? oeueiai iai?yio i?eaaoecaoe?? acaaae? a?aeiiaeeeny
a?ae iaea?aeaiiy na?oeo?eao?a, ?io?, ciaoiaey/enue o ceeaeiyo, ca oiia
coieiaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa oa iaaeia??e aei onyeiai ?iaeo o?anoiaeo
eaiiai?e, ui aeene?aaeeooaaee naaa, caoaath/e nai? iaeiia? na?oeo?eaoe
ca iacia/io ieaoo, noeeuei? aoee aa/eoe a ieo nei??oa iiaeeea?noue
io?eiaiiy iaeii?aciai a?ioae, ui caaacia/othoue ethaeei? caaeiaieaiiy
iaaeaaaeeaeo iio?aa o oa?/oaaii? i?ioyiaii 2-3 ae?a, i?ae aeaea?aei
iino?eieo i?eaooe?a o ?ac? aoaeoeaiiai aeeaaeaiiy na?oeo?eaoa aai ae
iiaeeea?noue ia iaeiaeo canaaeao i?aai?caoe?? aeaniiai a?ciano. Aea e
a?iiaaeyie, eio?? iai?iyee na?oeo?eaoe ia aeoe??, ia noaee o nai?e
ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? ni?aaeanieeaie cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia io?eiaee
cia/i? aeea?aeaiaee. Iaea?aeai? a?ae i?eaaoecaoe?? a?io? ia i?oee ia
?icaeoie ae?iaieoeoaa, a aeyaeeeny aeaea?aeii caaaa/aiiy iacia/ii?
iaioino? /eai?a noni?euenoaa.

A oiiaao iacaaeia?eueiiai aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ? a?ioiaa i?eaaoecaoe?y
oaeiae iaaoaa? anioe?aeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, oiio ui a?eueo?noue ianaeaiiy
ia ia? cania?a aei o/ano? a i?e.

Oaeei /eiii, ?aaeueio aeaiaeo a?ae i?eaaoecaoe?? io?eio? iacia/ia
/anoeia ianaeaiiy. Iniiaia iana ianaeaiiy aeeeth/a?oueny c i?ioeano
i?eaaoecaoe??. Iaeiei c iane?aee?a i?eaaoecaoe?? a oiio aeaeyae?, a
yeiio aiia ca?ac a?aeaoaa?oueny, aoaea iiaeaeueoa iiey?ecaoe?y
noni?euenoaa ? c?inoaiiy iaaaeiaieaiiy ianaeaiiy iani?aaaaeeeaei
ia?a?iciiae?eii aea?aeaaii? aeaniino?.

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io iie?oeeo aea?aeaae a Oe?a?i? a oaia??oi?e /an
iiaeia ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye aeiooaio aiane?aeie aeeaiei? aeiiii?/ii?
e?ece a?aeiiao a?ae ?aaoethaaiiy noa?e nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy.

Nueiaiaei? o i?ia?aeieo cao?aeieo e?a?iao ia nioe?aeuei? iio?aae
aeae?eythoueny ii??aiyii aenie? eiooe. O na?aaeiueiio ii ?a?ii? /anoea
aeo?ao ia ioi?iio caei?ia’y noaiiaeoue 8,5 %, a NOA — 14 % a?ae AAI. A
Oe?a?i? noia?i? aeo?aoe ia ioi?iio caei?ia’y ? ina?oo ia ia?aaeuothoue
10 % a?ae AAI.

O a?eueoino? e?a?i c ?icaeiaieie ?eieiaeie a?aeiineiaie nioe?aeueia
caaacia/aiiy cae?enith?oueny ia aeaio ??aiyo. Ia?oee ??aaiue ooai?th?
noa?a caaaeueieo nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e, ui iaaea? eiaeiiio /eaio
noni?euenoaa i?i?iaeueia caaeiaieaiiy iniiaieo iio?aa ? ui o?iaino?oueny
c athaeaeaoo aea?aeaae. Oeae ??aaiue ioiieth? iaia’yceia? iain?? ca
a?eii ? ?iaae?aei?noth, aeiiiiiae ii a?aeiino? ? aac?ia?ooth, a oaeiae
aaceiooiaio iaiao?aeio iaaee/io aeiiiiiao ? aaceiooiaio caaaeueio
ii/aoeiao e na?aaeith ina?oo. Ae?oaee ??aaiue iiaeia iacaaoe
aeueoa?iaoeaiei nioe?aeueiei no?aooaaiiyi, ui o?iaino?oueny ?c eioo?a
i?aoe?aiee?a ? i?aai?caoe?e. Nthaee a?aeiinyoueny i?eaaoi? no?aoia?
oiiaee. sseui a aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy ia?oiai ??aiy caeeaaeai? iaia’yceia? a?ae?aooaaiiy
(iiaeaoee) a?ae ca?ia?oii? ieaoe i?aoe?aiee?a aai i?eaooeo i?aai?caoe?e,
ui ia?a?iciiae?eythoueny iio?i oeaio?ae?ciaaii /a?ac athaeaeao, oi
iniiao i?eaaoiiai no?aooaaiiy neeaaeathoue aeia?ia?euei? aianee,
aiaeia?/i? aianeai a iuaaei? aaiee. *ei aoaeoeai?oa noni?eueia
ae?iaieoeoai, aeua oaiie aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy ? aaaaooa noni?euenoai
acaaae?, oei a?eueoa eioo?a aiii iiaea aacaie?nii aeeo/aoe c
iaeaooiueiai aeiiii?/iiai i?ioeano ? ?icaeaaoe, aeei?enoiaoth/e oe?
eiooe, noa?o iaia’yceiaeo nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e. O aeaaiiieo/iiio
noni?euenoa? oaeiae oe?oa iiaeeeaino? i?eaaoiiai nioe?aeueiiai
no?aooaaiiy ca ?aooiie a?eueieo eioo?a a?aeiinii ni?iiiaeieo a?oi
ianaeaiiy, aaaeath/eo a iaeaooiueiio caaacia/eoe nia? a?eueo aenieee
??aaiue aeeooy oeyoii io?eiaiiy aeieao c i?eaaoieo no?aoiaeo oiiae?a. O
oeueiio aeiaaeeo, iaaiaee, eiooe, ui aeeaaeathoueny ianaeaiiyi a
i?eaaoi? no?aoia? oiiaee, iiaeooue aooe ?iaanoiaai? a noni?eueia
ae?iaieoeoai c iiaeaeueoith aeieaoith aeeaaeieeai e??i aeeaaeaieo eioo?a
oaeiae ? i?ioeaio?a a?ae i?eaooeo, ui io?eio?oueny aiane?aeie
aoaeoeaiiai aeeaaeaiiy eioo?a i?eaaoiei no?aoiaei oiiaeii. Noaa?eueia
aea?aeaaa ? aa?aioii caaaeueiiai nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy. Nioe?aeueia
no?aooaaiiy ia i?eaaoi?e iniia? i? ca yeeo oiia ia iiaea iiai?noth
cai?ieoe caaaeueia nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy. Aeueoa?iaoeaia no?aooaaiiy
iiaea eeoa iaaeaoaeiaoaaoeny iaae iaia’yceiaei nioe?aeueiei
caaacia/aiiyi.

A Oe?a?i? nueiaiaei? a?aenooiy aoaeoeaia nenoaia nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy. Aeiiii?/ia e?eca ia aeicaiey? aea?aeaa? a iiaiiio ianyc?
aa?aiooaaoe ianaeaiith nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy. ?icaeoie nenoaie
i?eaaoiiai nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy a Oe?a?i? ca?ac ia oyaey?oueny
iiaeeeaei, ine?eueee iniiai?e ian? ianaeaiiy ia aenoa/a? a?ioae iaa?oue
ia iiaiioe?iia oa?/oaaiiy, ?, ioaea, ethaee ia iathoue a?eueieo eioo?a,
ye? aiie iiaee a aeeanoe a i?eaaoi? oiiaee.

Iecueeee ??aaiue aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ? a?aenooi?noue iiaeeeainoae
aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy ia aeicaieythoue o
yeino? no?aoaa?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo iae?aoe
eiina?aaoeaii-e?aa?aeuei? iaoiaee aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee. Na?aae ?aoi?i,
ni?yiiaaieo ia iineeaiiy ae?? ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a, aea?aeaaa iiaea
i?aeo?eioaaoe eeoa o?, ui iaoeiooue i?yiee iiceoeaiee aieea ia noa?o
nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy ? ?aaeueii i?aeaeuaoue ??aaiue aeeooy
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie.

AENIIAEE

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aenoioo? a?iioace. ??aaiue
aeeooy iniiaii? iane ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy ?eieiaeo
?aoi?i cieceany ? nueiaiaei? ia a?aeiia?aea? caaaeueiiaeciaiei na?oiaei
noaiaea?oai. Aenieee ??aaiue aeeooy niinoa??aa?oueny o oeo
noni?euenoaao, aea nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?ioeane oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
noaa?euei?noth, aio/e?noth oa aeeiai?ciii, ui caaacia/o? iinooiiaee
?icaeoie oa i?ia?an. Noaa?euei?noue noni?euenoaa aeyaey?oueny ia?aae
on?i a iinooiiaiio a?aeoai?aii? oiia aeeooy a iioeiaeueieo ?ici??ao,
a?aenooiino? iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aeeiai?ee oa
i?eoeeueiino? a?eueoino? /eai?a noni?euenoaa aei noaeeo aoiai?noe/ieo
oe?iiinoae. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee i?ia?an noni?euenoaa iiaeia
aecia/eoe ye i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy a oe?eiio, ui
ciaoiaeeoue a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iioe?aii? aenieiai aeeoo?aiai noaiaea?oo ia
ana a?eueoo e?euee?noue ethaeae oa e?ea?aeaoe?? aaniethoii? a?aeiino?.
No/ania nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia aeeiai?ea Oe?a?ie ia a?aeiia?aea? oeei
e?eoa??yi. A Oe?a?i? ca?ac, niinoa??aa?oueny oei??iaiiy cai?ioiiai
?icaeoeo aeacaieo yaeu. Iaeaooi? i?aeianaiiy aeiiii?ee oa noni?euenoaa
caeaaeaoue a?ae noaa?e?caoe??, yea aa?aioo? iinooiiaa a?aeoai?aiiy
noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa c ?icaeoeii nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
iioaioe?aeo a yeino? aieiaiiai i??i?eoaoo.

IOAE?EAOe??

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a a?ioo??, 5
noaooyo oa iaoa??aeao e?oaeiai noieo.

1.Oienouo I.A. Nia?aiaiiua aiciiaeiinoe oi?aaeaiey o?iaiai aeecie
ianaeaiey (nioeeieiae/aneee aiaeec). — E.: Einoeooo nioeeieiaee IAI
Oe?aeiu, 1999. — 30 n.

2. Oienoeo I.A. Aeiiii?/i? oa nioe?aeuei? aniaeoe ioe?iee ??aiy aeeooy
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy. // O?ainoi?iaoe?? a aa?a?i?e noa??
(nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee aniaeo) — E.: ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie,
1998. — N. 123-129.

3. Oienoeo I.A. I?i i?aeoiaee aei ioe?iee ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie. //Nioe?aeuei? aei??e noni?euenoaa: Ca??ea iaoeiaeo ?ia?o
iieiaeeo iaoeiaoe?a. Aei. 2. — E.: ?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie,
1998. — N. 58-65.

4. Oienoeo I.A. ?aoi?ie: a?ae a??oiai aei e?auiai /e iaaiaee // A?/a. —
1998. — ? 9. — N. 71-83.

5. Oienouo I.A. Nia?aiaiiua iieacaoaee o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey e
iaoiaeeee eo ecia?aiey. // Nioeeieiaey: oai?ey, iaoiaeu, ia?eaoeia. —
1999. — ? 1. — N. 108-113.

6.Oienoeo I.A. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee aiae?c ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie // Iieiaea iaoe?y. — 1998. — ? 10. — N. 126-140.

7. Oienouo I.A. Nieaeaiea noaiaie ?anneiaiey eae iai?aaeaiea
eiinieeaeaoeee iauanoaa // Iaoa??aee e?oaeiai noieo “Oeyoe
eiinie?aeaoe?? a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa” — E.: ?inoeooo nioe?ieia??
IAI Oe?a?ie, 1999. — N. 68-69.

Oienoeo I.A. Aeeiai?ea ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie (nioe?ieia?/iee
aiae?c). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 22.00.04 — aeiiii?/ia nioe?ieia?y. — ?inoeooo
nioe?ieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeine?aeaeothoueny oaiaeaioe??, ui neeaeeny a
aeeiai?oe? ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy ?eieiaeo
?aoi?i.

?icaeyiooi i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy iiiyooy “??aaiue aeeooy”,
nenoaiaoeciaaii no/ani? iieacieee ??aiy aeeooy oa iaoiaeeee ?o aei??o,
i?iaiae?ciaaii noai aeia?iaooo oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io no?oeoo?o
ianaeaiiy, aeine?aeaeaii ni?yiiaai?noue oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo
aeyaeaieo o aeeiai?oe? ??aiy aeeooy oaiaeaioe?e, cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeeea?
iai?yie iiaeieaiiy a?aeiino?.

O ?iaio? aeei?enoaii io?oe?ei? noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee oa ?acoeueoaoe
iecee nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ??aaiue aeeooy, ?iaeaen ethaenueeiai ?icaeoeo,
a?aei?noue.

Oienouo I.A. Aeeiaieea o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey Oe?aeiu (nioeeieiae/aneee
aiaeec). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa nioeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 22.00.04 — yeiiiie/aneay nioeeieiaey. — Einoeooo
nioeeieiaee Iaoeeiiaeueiie aeaaeaiee iaoe Oe?aeiu. — Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa enneaaeothony oaiaeaioeee, neiaeeaoeany a
aeeiaieea o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey Oe?aeiu ca a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey ?uii/iuo
?aoi?i.

?anniio?aiu iiaeoiaeu e ii?aaeaeaieth iiiyoey “o?iaaiue aeecie”,
nenoaiaoece?iaaiu nia?aiaiiua iieacaoaee o?iaiy aeecie e iaoiaeeee eo
ecia?aiey, i?iaiaeece?iaaiu aeaaininoiyiea e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay
no?oeoo?a ianaeaiey, enneaaeiaaiu iai?aaeaiiinoue e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey
auyaeaiiuo a aeeiaieea o?iaiy aeecie oaiaeaioeee, i?aaeeiaeaiu
aiciiaeiua iai?aaeaiey ai?ueau n aaaeiinoueth.

A ?aaioa eniieueciaaiu ioeoeeaeueiua noaoenoe/aneea iaoa?eaeu e
?acoeueoaou ?yaea nioeeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee.

N o/aoii iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iiai oa?aeoa?a enneaaeiaaiey o?iaaiue aeecie
ii?aaeaeai a ?aaioa eae aiciiaeiinoe, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua iauanoaii
/aeiaaeo aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey aeeciaiiuo iio?aaiinoae, niioiineiua n aai
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei noaoonii.

A oiaea eiiieaeniiai aiaeeca aeeiaieee iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae,
?acoeueoaoia ianeaaeiaaiey yeiiiieee aeiiioicyenoa e eco/aiey
naiiioeaiee ianaeaieai nianoaaiiuo oneiaee aeecie onoaiiaeaii, /oi n
1990 aiaea o?iaaiue aeecie ianaeaiey Oe?aeiu aani?aoeaaeaioii nieceeny,
i?iaeieaeaao nieaeaoueny e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iao iniiaaiee
i?iaiice?iaaoue a iaic?eiii aoaeouai aai caiaoiia iiauoaiea.

?aceia nieaeaiea o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey Oe?aeiu iaoei io?aaeaiea a
oooaeoaiee aai niioiioaiey n iauaie?iauie niioaaonoaothueie
iieacaoaeyie. N?aaee eiiiiiaioia i?aaeeiaeaiiiai yenia?oaie III aeey
ioeaiee o?iaiy aeecie a ?acee/iuo no?aiao Eiaeaena /aeiaa/aneiai
?acaeoey, eioaa?e?othuaai iieacaoaee caei?iauey, ia?aciaaiey e
n?aaeiaaeooaaie ?acia? aaeiaiai aioo?aiiaai i?iaeoeoa, oieueei o?iaaiue
ia?aciaaiey ianaeaiey Oe?aeiu naaiaeiy niioaaonoaoao ie?iaui noaiaea?oai
e e?eoa?eyi auniei?acaeouo no?ai. Iaeiaei a oneiaeyo ?anoouae
aac?aaioeoeu, aaaeouae e nieaeaieth aiciiaeiinoae ?aaeecaoeee
iieo/aiiiai ia?aciaaiey, ea/anoai iineaaeiaai aoaeao iaaeaoue.

A nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie no?oeoo?a iauanoaa iaiaoeeanue ?aceay
iiey?ecaoeey, aaeaaiaeii aic?anoaao ia?aaainoai e nioeeaeueiay
iai?yaeaiiinoue. Aunieee e oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiue o?iaaiue aeecie
yaeythony a ianoiyuee iiiaio a iauanoaa yaeaieai eneeth/eoaeueiiai
ii?yaeea, i?aeoe/anee ia oeene?oaiui i?e ii?inao ianaeaiey. Anee ca
ii?aaeaeaiea aaaeiinoe acyoue ionoonoaea iaiaoiaeeiuo aiciiaeiinoae
ananoi?iiiaai ?acaeoey /aeiaaea, aaaeiuie neaaeoao i?eciaoue ii/oe ana
ianaeaiea Oe?aeiu. Oaaee/eaaaony /eneaiiinoue nioeeaeueiie a?oiiu
aaniethoii aaaeiuo, o.a. ethaeae, iieiinoueth eeoaiiuo n?aaenoa e
nouanoaiaaieth.

Aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey Oe?aeiu a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?eciaao, /oi ia iiaeao
aeoeaii aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia oneiaey naiae aeecie. ?anoouay
iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue oneiaeyie aeecie, ianneaiia ioiioaiea e
ie?oaeathuae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aaaeoo e oei?aiaieth a niciaiee ethaeae
/oanoaa ia?a/aiiinoe e aacunoiaeiinoe, e a?icyo a aoaeouai oe?ieei
?ani?ino?aiaieai noaeoeueoo?u aaaeiinoe, i?iyaeythuaeny a eaeaeeaai/anee
ianneaiii ioiioaiee aa iineoaeae e iauanoao e iai?eiyoee eie o?oaeiauo
oeaiiinoae.

Aunieee o?iaaiue aeecie iaaethaeaaony a oao iauanoaao, aaea
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu oa?aeoa?ecothony noaaeeueiinoueth,
aeaeinoueth e aeeiaieciii, iaania/eaathueie iinooiaoaeueiia ?acaeoea e
i?ia?ann. Noaaeeueiinoue iauanoaa au?aaeaaony i?aaeaea anaai a
iinoiyiiii aini?iecaiaenoaa oneiaee aeecie a iioeiaeueiuo ?acia?ao,
ionoonoaee iaaaoeaiuo oaiaeaioeee nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie aeeiaieee e
i?eaa?aeaiiinoe aieueoeinoaa /eaiia iauanoaa onoiyaoeiny aoiaienoe/aneei
oeaiiinoyi. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee i?ia?ann iauanoaa iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue eae iiauoaiea o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey a oeaeii, /oi
i?iyaeyaony a ?ani?ino?aiaiee aunieiai aeeciaiiiai noaiaea?oa ia ana
aieueoaa /enei ethaeae e eeeaeaeaoeee aaniethoiie aaaeiinoe. Nia?aiaiiay
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay aeeiaieea Oe?aeiu ia niioaaonoaoao yoei
e?eoa?eyi. A Oe?aeia nae/an iaaethaeaaony ooaa?aeaeaiea ia?aoiiai
?acaeoey oeacaiiuo yaeaiee. Aoaeouee iiaeuai yeiiiieee e iauanoaa
caaeneo io noaaeeecaoeee, aa?aioe?othuae iinooiaoaeueiia ainnoaiiaeaiea
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa n ?acaeoeai nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai
iioaioeeaea a ea/anoaa aeaaiiai i?ei?eoaoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: o?iaaiue aeecie, Eiaeaen /aeiaa/aneiai ?acaeoey,
aaaeiinoue.

Tolstykh N.V. Dynamics of a standard of living of the population of
Ukraine (Sociological analysis). — Manuscript.

The thesis for a scientific degree of the candidate of sociological
sciences on a speciality 22.00.04 — economic sociology. — Institute of
Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. — Kyiv. 1999.

The tendencies which have been formed in dynamics of a standard of
living of the population of Ukraine during realisation of market reforms
are investigated in the thesis.

The approaches to definition of concept “standard of living” are
considered, the modern indicators of a standard of living and technique
of their measurement are systematised, well-being and socio economic
structure of the population are analysed, orientation and prospects of
development revealed in the tendencies and dynamics of standard of
living are investigated, the possible directions of poverty eradication
are proposed.

The official standard data and results of a number of sociological
researches are used.

Key words: a standard of living, human development index, poverty.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 29.06.1999. Oi?iao 60o84/16. Iai?? ionaoiee.
Aa?i?oo?a “Journal”. Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 1,5. Oe?aae 100 i?ei.
Iaae?oeiaaii NI “?ioa?oaoiiae?oe”.

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