*a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?i. TH. Oaaeueeiae/a

OAeE 536.759, 537.312, 621.315.55/58

AI?EAE

IAAEI IAO?IAE*

Aeeiai?*iee oain ? naiii?aai?caoe?ss

a a?iiess?ieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeao

c ae?aeoiaith iano?ee?noth

(01.04.10 – o?ceea iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a ? ae?aeaeo?ee?a)

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

*a?i?aoe? – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai? i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee
*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH. Oaaeueeiae/a

Iaoeia? ea??aieee: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oii/oe
Iao?i Ieoaeeiae/, ?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eii oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Na?aae
Ieaa Aai?a?eiae/, ?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii
o?caeaeo?ii?ee

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Aeoaa?a
A?oae?e Einoyioeiiae/, *a?i?aaoeueea a?aeae?eaiiy ?II IAI Oe?a?ie,
i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: ?inoeooo o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie
(i.Ee?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “18”/a?aiy 1999 ?. i 1300 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae76.051.01 i?e *a?i?aaoeueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. TH. Oaaeueeiae/a ca aae?anith: 274012,
i. *a?i?aoe?, aoe. Eioethaeinueeiai, 2

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? *a?i?aaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH. Oaaeueeiae/a (aoe.E. Oe?a?iee, 23).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “17”o?aaiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.A. Eo?aaiaoeueeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A inoaii? ?iee cia/iee ?ioa?an aeeeeea? aea/aiiy
a?aee?eoeo iae?i?eieo aeeneiaoeaieo nenoai, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny o aeaeaeeo
a?ae oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae noaiao ? iai?iththoueny c iaaeie?oiei
na?aaeiaeuai aia?a??th, ianith aai ?ioi?iaoe??th [1]. O oaeeo nenoaiao
/anoi a?aeaoaa?oueny ciaioaiiy /enea ?o aoaeoeaieo noaiaiae a?eueiino?,
ui i?eaiaeeoue aei iiyae iiaeo ia i?eoaiaiieo ?? neeaaeiaei /anoeiai
aeanoeainoae – ooai?aiith i?inoi?iai-/aniaeo aeeneiaoeaieo no?oeoo?.
Aeieeiaiiy oaeeo no?oeoo? aeyaeeiny caaaeueiith aeanoea?noth ??cieo
iae?i?eieo o?ce/ieo, o?i?/ieo, a?ieia?/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo oa ?ioeo nenoai
[2]. Oaea aaaaoia?aii?noue i?inoi?iai-/aniaeo no?oeoo? i?eaaea aei
noai?aiiy ? oaeaeeiai ?icaeoeo iiaiai i?aeaaeocaaiai ?icae?eo iaoee –
neia?aaoeee, ye oai??? i?ioean?a naiii?aai?caoe?? [2,3].

Ine?eueee aeey iieno aeeiai?/ieo nenoai iaa?oue ia iae?i??ai? iaiao?aeii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe neeaaei? nenoaie iae?i?eieo aeeoa?aioe?eieo ??aiyiue,
?ica’ycee yeeo a aiae?oe/iiio aeaeyae? i?aeoe/ii ciaeoe iaiiaeeeai, oi
i?eioeeiiao ?ieue o aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeeneiaoeaieo no?oeoo? ? i?ioean?a
naiii?aai?caoe?? a?ae?a?a? eiii’thoa?iee aenia?eiaio, aiae?c
?acoeueoao?a yeiai iiaea i?eaiaeeoe aei iiyae iiaeo iiiyoue ?
i?aaenoaaeaiue, a ?iiae? – aei ia?aaeaa/aiiy iiaeo yaeu [3,4].

Ia aeeaey/enue ia cia/i? caeiaooee neia?aaoeee, ne?ae eiinoaiooaaoe, ui
aiia ?ua aeaeaea a?ae naiai caaa?oaiiy. Ia?aae oe??th iaoeith noi?oue
caaea/a noai?aiiy iiaiai na?oiaeyaeo uiaei ca?iaeaeaiiy, ?icaeoeo oa
cieeiaiiy aeeiai?/ieo nenoai, a oaeiae ?ic?iaee i?eioeei?a
oe?eani?yiiaaiiai ea?oaaiiy ?o aeanoeainoyie ia iniia? a?aeiieo
e?eoa???a naiii?aai?caoe??. Aeey ciaoiaeaeaiiy e?eoa???a
naiii?aai?caoe?? iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeanoeainoae
aeeiai?/ieo nenoai ia i?ioyc? i?ii?aeeo /ano, ai?iaeiaae yeiai
i?inoi?iai-/ania? no?oeoo?e cae?eniththoue oi/a ae aeae?eueea oeeee?a
naiai ?nioaaiiy. Oiio a yeino? iiaeaeueieo iaiao?aeii aeae?aoe oae?
nenoaie, aeey yeeo oa?aeoa?i? /ane i?ioean?a ooai?aiiy no?oeoo? iae?. O
oeueiio a?aeiioaii? aeeeth/ia noaiiaeua caeiathoue iai?ai?ia?aeieeia?
nenoaie [4]. O o?ceoe? iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a ?nio? aaaaoi aeeneiaoeaieo
nenoai, a yeeo a?aeaoaathoueny i?ioeane naiii?aai?caoe?? ?, cie?aia,
nenoaie iin??a, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a oiiaao ae?aeoiai? iano?eeino? [4,5].

Aei ii/aoeo iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue i?e aea/aii? aeanoeainoae
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai? iiiiiiey?ii? aai a?iiey?ii? nenoai iin??a c
ae?aeoiaith iano?ee?noth [5] i?aeoe/ii ia aeei?enoiaoaaeeny neia?aaoe/i?
iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? ni?iiiaei? aeaoe caaaeueio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
noaie aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie oa caeaaei?noue oiia ia?aoiaeo i?ae inoaii?ie
a?ae aaee/ei ia?aiao??a caaea/?, ui noai?th? ia?aaeoiiae
oe?eani?yiiaaiiai ea?oaaiiy oaeeie nenoaie [1-4].

C i?eeeaaeii? oi/ee ci?o aaaeeeaeie ? caaea/? noai?aiiy ?ioaa?iaaiiai
i?ia?aiiiai iaeaoo aeey aecia/aiiy iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeeneiaoeaii?
nenoaie oa ?ic?iaee i?inoeo aeni?an-iaoiae?a, ye? a ia caeaaeaee nooo?ai
a?ae aeai?o ii/aoeiaeo oiia ? e?ieo ?ioaa?oaaiiy oa aeaaaee iiaeeea?noue
c iaiao?aeiith oi/i?noth aeine?aeaeoaaoe aaiethoe?th neeaaeieo
aeeiai?/ieo nenoai [3].

Ioaea, aeoiaey/e ?c aeeeaaeaiiai aeua, iiaeia eiinoaiooaaoe, ui oaia
aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, yea i?enay/aia aea/aiith i?ioean?a
aeeiai?/iiai oaino ? naiii?aai?caoe?? o iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo nenoaiao c
a?iiey?ieie iin?yie i?e iayaiino? ae?aeoiai? iano?eeino?, a oaeiae
?icaeoeo iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?/ieo nenoai, ?
aeooaeueiith caaea/ath o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a ? ia? ia o?eueee /enoi
oai?aoe/ia, aea ? i?eeeaaeia cia/aiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy,
?acoeueoaoe yeeo i?aaenoaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??, aeeiiai? o
a?aeiia?aeiino? aei i?ia?aie iaoeiai? oaiaoeee eaoaae?e o?ce/ii?
aeaeo?ii?ee *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo: “Aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ioean?a ?inoo e?enoae?a, no?oeoo?e aeaoaeo?a ? aeaeo?iiieo yaeu a
neeaaeieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeao ia iniia? A2A6 ? A4A6” (iiia?
aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0186U060721) oa a ?aieao i?iaeo?a Aea?aeaaiiai Oiiaeo
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue I?i?noa?noaa Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao iaoee ?
oaoiieia?e: “E?eoa??? aeeiai?/iiai oaino oa naiii?aai?caoe?? a aeayeeo
o?ce/ieo nenoaiao i?e iayaiino? noeoiiino? ciai?o?i?o aieea?a” (i?iaeo ?
2.4/745) ? “Aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae aeeneiaoeaiiai no?oeoo?oaaiiy
a neeaaeieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo nenoaiao” (i?iaeo ? 3.4/297).

Iaoa ?iaioe caeeth/aeany o anoaiiaeaii? aeeiai?ee ia?aoiaeo a?ae
aii?yaeeiaaieo aei oaioe/ieo noai?a a?iiey?ii? noaoe?iia?ii? ?
ianoaoe?iia?ii? nenoai iin??a o iai?ai?ia?aeieeo a oiiaao ae?aeoiai?
iano?eeino?.

Aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aeiaaaei ?ica’yceo ianooiieo iniiaieo caaea/:

— aeine?aeaeaiiy no?eeino? i?inoi?iai-iaeii??aeieo ?iciiae?e?a ca?yaeo ?
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey o a?iiey?iiio iai?ai?ia?aeieeo c aa?y/eie iin?yie;

— aea/aiiy aaiethoe?? noai?a a?ae aii?yaeeiaaieo aei oaioe/ieo eieeaaiue
no?oio oa ?ic?aooiie oa?aeoa?enoee oaei? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeey
ianoaoe?iia?ii? nenoaie iin??a o n-GaAs;

— ii??aiyeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy noeaia???a o?ainoi?iaoe?? noai?a
ianoaoe?iia?ii? a?iiey?ii? oa noaoe?iia?ii? a?iiey?ii? ? ianoaoe?iia?ii?
iiiiiiey?ii? nenoai iin??a o iai?ai?ia?aeieeo;

— ?ic?iaea i?inoeo aeni?an-iaoiae?a ? noai?aiiy ?ioaa?iaaiiai
i?ia?aiiiai iaeaoo aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiethoe?? neeaaeieo aeeiai?/ieo
nenoai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

1. Aia?oa aeyaeaii iiaee oei aeeaiiai ao?aeoi?a a noaoe?iia?i?e
iai?ai?ia?aeieeia?e nenoai? a?iiey?ieo iin??a ? aeine?aeaeaii eiai
oa?aeoa?enoeee a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaee/eie ea?oth/iai ia?aiao?o.
Iieacaii, ui o?ainoi?iaoe?y oaciaiai ii?o?aoo a?ae oieono aei
aeeiai?/iiai oaino cae?enith?oueny oeyoii iine?aeiaieo a?oo?eaoe?e
iiaeai?iiy ia??iaeo.

2. Aia?oa iieacaii, ui nenoai? iiiiiiey?ieo iin??a a iai?ai?ia?aeieeo c
ia?aiao?aie a?nai?aeo aae?y i?e iayaiino? ae?aeoiai? iano?eeino?
aeanoeaa ia?ai?aei?noue oaioe/ieo oa aii?yaeeiaaieo noai?a. Ciaeaeaii
iia? oeie ao?aeoi??a ? ?ic?aoiaaii caeaaeiino? ?ici??iino? Oaonaei?oa oa
iaeneiaeueiiai iieacieea Eyioiiaa oaciaeo ii?o?ao?a aeaii? nenoaie a?ae
aaee/eie iai?oaeaiino? ciai?oiueiai aeaeo?e/iiai iiey A0, ye ea?oth/iai
ia?aiao?o. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a aeayeeo ?ioa?aaeao cia/aiue A0 oaciaa oi/ea
iine?aeiaii caeia? iaaaeeea /enei noai?a c /?oei aecia/aieie
eii?aeeiaoaie.

3. Aia?oa aeiaaaeaii, ui aaiethoe?y ianoaoe?iia?ii? nenoaie a?iiey?ieo
iin??a a?aeaoaa?oueny ca noeaia???i iine?aeiaieo iaa?iaieo a?oo?eaoe?e
iiaeai?iiy ia??iaeo ? nooo?ai a?ae??ciy?oueny ye a?ae aeeiai?ee
a?aeiia?aeii? noaoe?iia?ii? nenoaie c aeaiia oeiaie iin??a, oae ? a?ae
aeeiai?ee ianoaoe?iia?ii? iiiiiiey?ii? nenoaie iin??a.

4. Ae?noaei iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie aeine?aeaeaiiy e?eoa???a ooai?aiiy
aeeneiaoeaieo no?oeoo? o nenoai? a?iiey?ieo iin??a i?e aea?ai?e
ai?ieneiaoe?ei?e caeaaeiino? ae?aeoiaeo oaeaeeinoae inoaii?o a?ae
iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. Iieacaii, ui aeeneiaoeai? no?oeoo?e
e??i eeane/iiai aeiaaeeo a?ae’?iii? aeeoa?aioe?eii? i?ia?aeiino?
iiaeooue aeieeaoe ? ia noia?e?i?ei?e ae?eyioe? aieueoaiia?ii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee. C?iaeaii aeiiouaiiy, ui i?e/eiith oaeeo ooai?aiue
iiaeooue aooe eaac?iaeo?aeuei? oaee?, ye? iathoue i?noea a oae?e
nenoai?.

5. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee aeni?an-iaoiae o?ane?oaaiiy o?aaeoi??e
aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy oiiieia?? oaciaeo ii?o?ao?a aeeiai?/ieo nenoai oa ?o
aaiethoe??, ia?aaaaaie yeiai a ii??aiyii? c iieacieeaie Eyioiiaa,
?ici??i?noth Oaonaei?oa ? niaeo?aeueieie u?eueiinoyie oaciaeo ci?iieo ?
a?eueo? ?ioi?iaoeai?noue, iai/i?noue, i?inoioa aeai?eoi?/ii? ?aae?caoe??
oa aeniea oaeaee?noue ?ic?aooie?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a caeeth/a?oueny o
anoaiiaeaii? ?ioa?aae?a cia/aiue ea?oth/eo ia?aiao??a, a yeeo nenoaie
noaoe?iia?ieo ? ianoaoe?iia?ieo iin??a o iai?ai?ia?aeieeao a oiiaao
ae?aeoiai? iano?eeino? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny noaa?euei?noth nai?o
aeanoeainoae a?aeiinii iaeeo cao?aiue. Iia? oeie aeeaieo ao?aeoi??a, ye?
io?eiai? a ?iaio?, i?aaenoaaeythoue oai?aoe/iee ? i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an ?
noeioeththoue iinoaiiaeo iiaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui
ni?eyoeia iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a ? neia?aaoeee.

Oi/a a ?iaio? aeei?enoai? a iniiaiiio ai?iaiaai? ?ai?oa iaoiaeeee
oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooie?a, i?ioa a ?yae? aeiaaee?a aiie aoee
iiaeeo?eiaai?. Oea, cie?aia, noino?oueny aeai?eoi?a ia/eneaiiy
?ici??iino? Oaonaei?oa, yeee aoei ?icoe?aii oa iioei?ciaaii aeey
oaciaiai i?inoi?o ?ici??i?noth aei 16 aeeth/ii, oa iiaoaeiae
a?oo?eaoe?eieo ae?aa?ai, yeee aoei ia?a?iaeaii aeey iaia?a?aieo
aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee aoaeoeaiee aeni?an-iaoiae
o?ane?oaaiiy o?aaeoi??e aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiethoe?? oaciaeo
ii?o?ao?a aeeiai?/ieo nenoai, aeeth/ath/e oaioeciaai? noaie, yeee ?
?ioi?iaoeaiei ? iai/iei, ia? i?inoo aeai?eoi?/io ?aae?caoe?th, ui
iaoiiaeth? aenieo oaeaee?noue ?ic?aooie?a c eiai aeei?enoaiiyi.

Iaoa??ae aeena?oaoe?? oaeiae iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiei aeey niaoeeo?n?a c
o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a ? ae/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee, i?enay/aieo
aena?oeaiith ieoaiue iiaaae?iee ia??aiiaaaeieo aeeiai?/ieo nenoai iin??a
? i?ia?aiii? ?aae?caoe?? /eneiaeo iaoiae?a.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa. O i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe aeena?oaio
i?ia?a aiae?oe/i? ia?aooiee noaoe?iia?ieo noai?a iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai?
nenoaie a?iiey?ieo iin??a oa ?o i?inoi?iai-/aniaeo cao?aiue [1,5] ?
ianoaoe?iia?ieo noai?a nenoai c iaeiei ? aeaiia oeiaie iin??a [3,8],
a?aa o/anoue o iinoaiiaoe? caaea/ aeine?aeaeaiue [3-6,8],
?ic?iaea a?aeiia?aeia i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
oa?aeoa?enoee aeeiai?/ieo nenoai [7], cai?iiiioaaa iaoiae o?ane?oaaiiy
o?aaeoi??e aeey aea/aiiy oiiieia?? oaciaeo ii?o?ao?a oa iniaeeainoae ?o
aaiethoe?? [4] ? aeeiiaa on? /eneia? ?ic?aooiee ia AII [1-13].

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia ianooiieo eiioa?aioe?yo:

· Ia?oa I?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y “Iaoa??aeiciaanoai aeiaciiiae?aieo oa
oaeueeiaai?aeieo iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a” (*a?i?aoe?, 1994 ?.)

· Iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y aeeeaaea/?a, ni?a?ia?oiee?a oa nooaeaio?a,
i?enay/aia 120–??//th canioaaiiy *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
(*a?i?aoe?, 1995 ?.)

· I?aeia?iaeia oeiea-eiioa?aioe?y c o?ce/ieo i?iaeai
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaiai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa (PPMSS’95) (*a?i?aoe?, 1995 ?.)

· XXVI International School on Physics of Semiconducting Compounds
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******************oeueoaoe ?iaioe oaeiae aeiiia?aeaeenue ?
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao oai?aoe/iiai a?aeae?eo ?inoeoooo
o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie ? eaoaae?ao i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee oa o?ce/ii? aeaeo?ii?ee
*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe a?aeia?aaeai? o 13 ioae?eaoe?yo,
?c yeeo 6 – noaoo? a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, 2 — o A?nieeo *a?i?aaoeueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo ? 5 – oace eiioa?aioe?e. Nienie ioae?eaoe?e aeaii o
e?ioe? aaoi?aoa?aoo.

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
o?ueio i?ea?iaeueieo ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
nieneo oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa i’youeio aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia
ia 142 noi??ieao, aeeth/a? 21 ?enoioe ? 114 e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaaiai?th?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe oa
?? ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie ? oaiaie aeine?aeaeaiue, ye?
aeeiiothoueny o *a?i?aaoeueeiio aea?aeoi?aa?neoao?; noi?ioeueiaaii iaoa
? caaea/? ?iaioe, iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a, i?eaaaeai? aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? o ?aieao e?i?eii? iaeiii??ii? iieueiai? iiaeae? aac
aeei?enoaiiy aoaeue-yeeo iaaeeaeaiue ia iiaeeea? cia/aiiy oaeeueiaiai
/enea oa a?aeiioaiiy eiao?oe??io?a aeeooc?? aeaeo?ii?a ? ae??ie i?e
iayaiino? ae?aeoiai? iae?i?eiino? i?iaiaeeoueny iiaiee eiiieaen
eeane/ieo aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei no?eeino? iaeii??aeieo
noaoe?iia?ieo ?iciiae?e?a aeaeo?e/iiai iiey A ? eiioeaio?aoe?e iin??a a
iai?ai?ia?aeieeo a?aeiinii i?inoi?iaeo ? i?inoi?iai-/aniaeo cao?aiue.

?icaeyaea?oueny aeiaaeie, eiee ?oo iin??a a?aeaoaa?oueny acaeiaae a?n?
z, ? ?aoo?oueny, ui aeoeaioi?e oa aeiii?e ? iaeiica?yaeieie ? iiai?noth
?ii?ciaaieie. Oiae? aeo?aeia nenoaia ??aiyiue iaaoaa? aeaeyaeo [5]:
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picscalex76010009000003fa01000003001500000000000500000009020000000004000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(1)
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aea n ? p – eiioeaio?aoe?? aeaeo?ii?a oa ae??ie, vn(E) ? vp(E) — ?o
ae?aeoia? oaeaeeino?, Dn ? Dp – eiao?oe??ioe aeeooc?? iin??a no?oio, Nd
? Na — eiioeaio?aoe?? aeiii??a ? aeoeaioi??a, a — ca?yae ae??ee, t –
/an, e0 — ae?aeaeo?e/ia iino?eia, e — ae?aeaeo?e/ia i?iieeeea?noue
iaoa??aeo iai?ai?ia?aeieea.

I?e caien? (1) ia?aaeaa/aeiny, ui oa?aeoa?i? /ane aaia?aoe?? oa
?aeiia?iaoe?? iin??a aaeee?, oae ui oeeie i?ioeanaie iiaeia ciaoooaaoe.
I?eeiaeinue oaeiae, ui eiao?oe??ioe aeeooc?? Dn i D? ia caeaaeaoue a?ae
/ano, eii?aeeiaoe oa aaee/eie iai?oaeaiino? ciai?oiueiai aeaeo?e/iiai
iiey ? oiio iiaeooue aooe aea?aieie a yeino? ea?oth/eo ia?aiao??a. Aeey
ciaoiaeaeaiiy iaeiicia/ieo ?ica’yce?a nenoaie (1) a?aie/i? oiiae
aeae?aeeny ca?aeii [5].

Aeoiaey/e ?c (1), io?eiaii aiae?oe/i? ae?ace, ye? aeathoue ciiao
aeine?aeaeoaaoe ye noaoe?iia?iee, oae ? cao?ai? noaie
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai? nenoaie a?iiey?ieo iin??a o caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo
oa eiia?iaoe?? ea?oth/eo ia?aiao??a.

Iieacaii, ui o aeiaaeeo ae?aeoiai? iae?i?eiino? noaoe?iia?i?
i?inoi?iai-iaeii??aei? ?iciiae?ee eiioeaio?aoe?e aeaeo?ii?a ? ae??ie oa
iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey acaeiaae c?acea ? iano?eeeie a?aeiinii
i?inoi?iaeo cao?aiue – o a?oo?eaoe?ei?e oi/oe? a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?ia
cacia/aieo ?iciiae?e?a a?ae iiiioiiii? caeaaeiino? aei inoeeethth/i?.

Aeiaaaeaii iayai?noue o noaoe?iia?i?e iai?ai?ia?aeieeia?e nenoai? c
aeaiia oeiaie iin??a aeaio oaeeue i?inoi?iai-/aniaiai cao?aiiy c ??cieie
aeae?aiaioaie caoooaiiy R ? oaciaeie oaeaeeinoyie vo, eio?? iiaeooue
i?eeiaoe ye a?ae’?ii? oae ? aeiaeaoi? cia/aiiy. Oa?aeoa?ii, ui ?niothoue
iaeano? cia/aiue oaeeueiaiai /enea k oa a?aeiioaiiy Dn/Dp, i?e yeeo
oacia? oaeaeeino? iathoue i?ioeeaaeiee iai?yiie, a oaeiae ii??aiyii
iaaaeeeee ?ioa?aae ii k, a yeiio iaeaeaa eieeaaiiy ?iciianthaeaeothoueny
a iaeiiio iai?yieo. Oe?eaai, ui iathoue i?noea oae? eiia?iaoe??
ia?aiao??a, i?e yeeo oaciaa oaeaee?noue iaei??? ?c oaeeue (Vo1), ye
ooieoe?y oaeeueiaiai /enea, oa?ieoue aeaa (i?e Dn/Dp=0) aai iaeei (i?e
Dn/Dp=0.94) no?eaee, a oie /an ye Vo2 anthaee caeeoa?oueny iaia?a?aiith
aaee/eiith.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oaeiae iieacothoue, ui ?niothoue a?aie/i?
cia/aiiy oaeeueiaiai /enea oa a?aeiioaiiy Dn/Dp, i?e yeeo oacia?
oaeaeeino? oa aeae?aiaioe cao?aiue iiiaeeioe? noathoue ??aieie ioeth.
??ai?noue ioeth oaciai? oaeaeeino? na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue noiy/eo
cao?aiue, ye? i?eaiaeyoue aei oi?ioaaiiy ia??iaee/iiai ii e?enoaeo
eaioethaeea i?inoi?iai-/aniaeo no?oeoo?, a oie /an ye ioeueia?
aeae?aiaioe cao?aiue aeiaiaeyoue i?i ?nioaaiiy iaeo?aeueiiai ?aaeeio,
i?e yeiio cao?aiiy ia caaanathoue ? ia c?inoathoue c /anii. ?ioeie
neiaaie, cia/aiiy Vo = 0 oa R = 0 i?aaenoaaeythoue a?aieoe? i?ae
?ooiieie ? ia?ooiieie oa no?eeeie ? iano?eeeie noaiaie. Oe? a?aieoe?
cia?aaeai? ia ?en.1 o aeaeyae? caeaaeiinoae lnDn/Dp= f (k) aeey eiaeii?
?c oaciaeo oaeaeeinoae oa aeae?aiaio?a cao?aiue. Aeaeii, ui aeey
iaea?eueo no?eeiai cao?aiiy R1 iaeo?aeueiee ?aaeei iiaeeeaee i?e
Dn/Dp1, a oie /an ye aeey R2 — i?e an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo aaee/eiao
a?aeiioaiiy Dn/Dp. Aaaeeeai, ui ?niothoue oae? cia/aiiy Dn/Dp ? k, i?e
yeeo iaeii/anii noathoue ??aieie ioeth a?aeiia?aeii Vo1 ? R1 oa Vo2 ?
R2. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe, c iaeiiai aieo, cia/ii aeiiiaiththoue aeniiaee
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, o yeeo aeine?aeaeoaaeeny iniaeeaino?
?iciianthaeaeaiiy oaeeue o nenoai? a?iiey?ieo iin??a a oiiaao ae?aeoiai?
iano?eeino?, iniaeeai, noiniaii iiaeeeaino? ?nioaaiiy noiy/eo cao?aiue
? iayaiino? no?eae?a o cia/aiiyo oaciaeo oaeaeeinoae, oiui, a c ?ioiai –
aeathoue iniiao aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ei?aeoiiai /eneiaiai ?ioaa?oaaiiy
aeo?aeii? nenoaie ??aiyiue (1).

?en.1. Ae?aa?aie ?nioaaiiy noiy/eo oaeeue ? iaeo?aeueiiai ?aaeeio

eieeaaiue i?e ??cieo cia/aiiyo oaeeueiaiai /enea oa

a?aeiioaiiy Dn/Dp : 1 — R1, 2 — R2, 3 – vO1, 4 – vO2

Aia?oa io?eiaii oiiao ooai?aiiy aeeneiaoeaieo no?oeoo? o
iai?ai?ia?aeieeia?e nenoai? a?iiey?ieo iin??a o iaaeeaeaii?, ui
caeaaeiino? ae?aeoiaeo oaeaeeinoae inoaii?o a?ae iai?oaeaiino?
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey caaeathoueny ae?acii:
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 (2)

aea i0? – ae?aeoia? ?ooeeaino? iin??a o neaaeiio aeaeo?e/iiio iie?, ki —
/eneia? eiao?oe??ioe, aaee/eie yeeo caeaaeeoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e,
aeii?ioth/eo iaoai?ci?a ?icn?thaaiiy iin??a, ciiii? no?oeoo?e
iai?ai?ia?aeieea, oiui, aea ia caeaaeaoue a?ae iai?oaeaiino?
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. I?e oeueiio 0n=0p= 1. *enaeuei? ?ic?aooiee ki ?
aeineoue neeaaeiith caaea/ath ? oiio oe? eiao?oe??ioe /anoi
aeei?enoiaothoueny a yeino? ia?aiao??a caaea/?.

Iieacaii, ui aeeneiaoeai? no?oeoo?e, acaaae? eaaeo/e, e??i eeane/iiai
aeiaaeeo a?ae’?iii? aeeoa?aioe?eii? i?ia?aeiino? iiaeooue aeieeaoe ? ia
noia?e?i?ei?e ae?eyioe? aieueoaiia?ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaio aai o?eueee
iaeiiai oeio iin??a. C?iaeaii aeiiouaiiy, ui i?e/eiith ooai?aiiy
aeeneiaoeaieo no?oeoo? iiaeooue aooe eaac?iaeo?aeuei? oaee?, ye? iathoue
i?noea a aeine?aeaeoaai?e iai?ai?ia?aeieeia?e nenoai? iin??a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? i?iaiaeeoueny iaaiai?aiiy noai?aiiai i?ia?aiiiai
iaeaoo aeey aiae?co ? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiethoe?? aeeiai?/ieo nenoai.
Iaeao caaacia/o? ?ioaa?oaaiiy nenoai aei o?noiaaeoeyoe iae?i?eieo
aeeoa?aioe?eieo ??aiyiue c iiaeaeueoei aeine?aeaeaiiyi caeaaeiinoae
iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo oa?aeoa?enoee aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie a?ae aaee/ei
ea?oth/eo ia?aiao??a. I?ia?aiiee iaeao ia? aeaniee a?ao?/iee ?ioa?oaen c
iiaeoeueiith no?oeoo?ith, ui aeicaiey? i?ino?oa oa nenoaiaoeciaai?oa
i?iaiaeeoe iaiao?aei? ?ic?aooiee. Io?eiai? a?ao?ee oa aeai? iiaeia
caa??aaoe ye o aeaeyae? a?ao?/ieo oaee?a, oae ? a aeae?eueeio oi?iaoao
oaee?a aeaieo aeey iiaeaeueoeo ia/eneaiue oa iiaoaeia c aeei?enoaiiyi
?ioeo i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai. I?ia?aiiee iaeao aea? iiaeeea?noue
aeei?enoiaaoe aeai?, ye? aoee io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeueii, aai ?
?acoeueoaoii ?ic?aooie?a ?ioeo i?ia?ai.

Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaiiai ?ioaa?iaaiiai i?ia?aiiiai iaeaoo i?iaaaeai?
?ic?aooiee aeeiai?ee noai?a ia??aiiaaaeii? noaoe?iia?ii?
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai? nenoaie a?iiey?ieo iin??a. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeathoue ciiao noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui a iai?ai?ia?aeieeia?e nenoai? c aeaiia
oeiaie ia??aiiaaaeieo iin??a ? ae?aeoiaith iae?i?ei?noth i?e iaaieo
cia/aiiyo ea?oth/eo ia?aiao??a i?eoaiaii? neeaaei? eieeaaiiy, ye?
ooai?ththoue iiaee oei aeeaiiai ao?aeoi?a o i?inoi?? oaciaeo ci?iieo. C
aeei?enoaiiyi ??cieo iaoiae?a iaie aeaoaeueii aea/aia aaiethoe?y oeueiai
ao?aeoi?o a?ae oieono aei aeeiai?/iiai oaino i?e ci?i? aaee/eie
ea?oth/iai ia?aiao?o, yea na?ae/eoue, ui a aeine?aeaeoaai?e
iai?ai?ia?aeieeia?e nenoai? a?iiey?ieo iin??a oeae ia?ao?ae
a?aeaoaa?oueny oeyoii a?oo?eaoe?e iiaeai?iiy ia??iaeo. Aeine?aeaeoaaia
nenoaia ? aeineoue aii?yaeeiaaiith, aea ?? aaiethoe?th iaiiaeeeai
iienaoe ca aeiiiiiaith /enea Oaeaaiaaoia [1].

?ic?aoiaai? niaeo?aeuei? u?eueiino? oaciaeo ci?iieo cana?ae/eee, ui
inoeeeyoe?? ii?iiaaieo eiioeaio?aoe?e iathoue iiae?aio i?e?iaeo ?
nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae inoeeeyoe?e ii?iiaaii? iai?oaeaiino?
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. C ?ic?aoiaaieo caeaaeiinoae ?ici??iino? Oaonaei?oa
aeaeii, ui ia i?ioyc? aeine?aeaeoaaii? iaeano? ci?ie aaee/eie ea?oth/iai
ia?aiao?o a?aie/i? oeeeee iathoue iaeaea iaeiaeiao ?ici??i?noue, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i aenieo noaa?euei?noue nenoaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaeneiaeueiiai iieacieea Eyioiiaa aeicaieeei aecia/eoe iaeano? cia/aiue
ea?oth/iai ia?aiao?a, i?e yeeo aeaia nenoaia ciaoiaeeoueny a no?eeeo
noaiao, ui aaaeeeai aeey ?? i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Cai?iiiiiaaii oaeiae iiaee aeni?an-iaoiae aecia/aiiy aaiethoe?? noai?a
aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie – iaoiae o?ane?oaaiiy o?aaeoi??e, yeee a ii??aiyii?
c ?ici??i?noth Oaonaei?oa, iieacieeaie Eyioiiaa oa a?oo?eaoe?eiith
ae?aa?aiith aieiae?? oe?eith noeoii?noth ia?aaaa, a oaeiae iiaeeo?eiaaii
iaoiae iiaoaeiae a?oo?eaoe?eieo ae?aa?ai ia aeiaaeie iaia?a?aieo
aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue ye?nii ? iai/ii
i?aaenoaaeyoe aeai? i?i aaiethoe?th aeeiai?/ieo nenoai.

Aeey aeeeaaeaiiy nooiino? iaoiaeo o?ane?oaaiiy o?aaeoi??e ?icaeyiaii
oaciao o?aaeoi??th a N-aei??iiio i?inoi??, yea io?eiaia
aenia?eiaioaeueii aai oeyoii /enaeueieo ?ic?aooie?a ? neeaaea?oueny c I
oi/ie. Cae/aeii oi/ee o?aaeoi??? aeayeee /an “aeoeathoue” ia?aae
aeoiaeii ia ao?aeoi?, oiio ia?ai?noeii ii/aoie a?aee?eo a oaeo oi/eo I0
oaciai? o?aaeoi???, yea aeinoaiaiii iaeaaeeoue ao?aeoi?o. I?eeiaii aeey
aecia/aiino?, ui I0=I/2. I?iaaaeaii ii/aoeiaee N-aei??iee aaeoi? c oi/ee
I0 a oi/eo I0+1. Aecia/eii eooe R i?ae ii/aoeiaei aaeoi?ii ? aeia?eueiei
R–oei aaeoi?ii, yeee iiaoaeiaaii i?ae oi/eaie (I0+R, M0+R+1), aea 0RI0.
Iiaoaeo?ii caeaaei?noue aaee/eie cosR a?ae aeiaaeeie ae?eyiee oaciai?
o?aaeoi??? R, yea ? aoaea yaeyoe niaith e?eao o?ane?oaaiiy. I?e oeueiio
cia/aiiy eineiona eooa aeey N-aei??iiai aeiaaeeo aecia/a?oueny
noaiaea?oiei iaoiaeii /a?ac neaey?iee aeiaooie aaeoi??a.

A?oo?eaoe?? iiaeai?iiy ia??iaeo i?eaiaeyoue aei iiaeai?iiy i?e?a ia
e?eaeo o?ane?oaaiiy, i?e/iio a?oo?eaoe?? aeueo ii?yaee?a ii?iaeaeothoue
i?ee iaioi? aenioe. I?e oeueiio e?eaa o?ane?oaaiiy iaeiicia/ii
oa?aeoa?eco? aca?iia iieiaeaiiy oi/ie ao?aeoi?o, oiaoi caeaaeeoue a?ae
oiiieia?? oaciaiai ii?o?aoo. Inoaii?, a naith /a?ao, aea? iiaeeea?noue
?ic??ciyoe ??ci? ao?aeoi?e ca aeaeyaeii oa iiaaae?ieith ?o e?eaeo
o?ane?oaaiiy.

Ia ?en. 2 i?aaenoaaeai? caeaaeiino? aaiethoe?? e?eaeo o?ane?oaaiiy oa
a?oo?eaoe?ei? ae?aa?aie aeey ao?aeoi??a ?ueinea?a [1-3] ?
aeine?aeaeoaaii? noaoe?iia?ii? a?iiey?ii? nenoaie iin??a c ae?aeoiaith
iano?ee?noth a?ae ea?oth/iai ia?aiao?o. Caaaeueiee aeaeyae oeeo
ao?aeoi??a iieacaii ia anoaaeao ?enoie?a. E?eaa o?ane?oaaiiy oaciaiai
ii?o?aoo aeey aeaiiai cia/aiiy ea?oth/iai ia?aiao?o ? aa?oeeaeueiith
e?i??th, eieuei?ii oi/ie yei? i?aaenoaaeaii /eneia? cia/aiiy eineion?a
eoo?a i?ae a?aeiia?aeieie aaeoi?aie, i?e/iio /i?iiio eieuei?o
a?aeiia?aea? cia/aiiy cosR=1, a a?eiio — cosR = -1.

*a?aoaaiiy ae?eyiie ??aii? aeiaaeeie a?eiai oa /i?iiai eieuei??a c
??ceei ia?aoiaeii i?ae ieie, iai?eeeaae, aeey ao?aeoi?a nenoaie
a?iiey?ieo iin??a, na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui aeey aeaii? nenoaie e?eaa
o?ane?oaaiiy ia? aeaeyae iaeaea i?yiieooii? oaee?. Oea iaoiiaeaii oei,
ui aiie?ooaea eieeaaiue ii?iiaaii? iai?oaeaiino? iiey ia ii?yaeie
a?eueoa a?ae aiie?ooae eieeaaiue ?ioeo oaciaeo ci?iieo (ii?iiaaieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e aeaeo?ii?a ? ae??ie). I?e ca?eueoaii? cia/aiue ea?oth/iai
ia?aiao?o niinoa??aa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy ?ici???a ao?aeoi?a, ui iii?oii ca
?icoe?aiiyi oa cnoaii i?e?a e?eaeo o?ane?oaaiiy. I?i i?enooi?noue
a?oo?eaoe?e iiaeai?iiy ia??iaeo eieeaaiue iiaeia noaeeoe ca ci?iith
oe?eie nioa ? eooa ?o iaoeeo.

Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui iaoiae o?ane?oaaiiy o?aaeoi??e ? iiee ui ?aeeiei
iaoiaeii, yeee aea? iiaeeea?noue i?ine?aeeiaoaaoe aaiethoe?th ao?aeoi?a
iaa?oue o oaioe/i?e iaeano?. Ia ?en.2. /?oei aeaeii, ui aeey iaio
ao?aeoi??a a oaioe/ieo noaiao ia? i?noea oa ae no?oeoo?a e?eaeo
o?ane?oaaiiy, ui e i?e no?eeeo noaiao, o?eueee aiie ? aeiaaeeiaei /eiii
ci?uaieie iaeia a?aeiinii iaeii?.

Cai?iiiiiaaiee aeni?an-iaoiae aeicaiey? oaeaeei ? ye?nii aeine?aeaeoaaoe
o?ainoi?iaoe?th oaciaeo ii?o?ao?a nenoaie a caeaaeiino? a?ae ci?ie
ea?oth/eo ia?aiao??a. Ca eiai aeiiiiiaith aia?oa aeiaaaeaii, ui iaa?oue
o noai? aeaoa?i?iiaaiiai oaino nenoaia i?noeoue ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i nai?
iiaeeea? aii?yaeeiaai? noaie. Iaoiae o?ane?oaaiiy o?aaeoi??e oaeiae aea?
iiaeeea?noue iaeii/anii i?iaiaeeoe niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ci?iith e?i?eieo
?ici???a oaciaeo

?en.2. Caeaaeiino? a?ae cia/aiue ea?oth/eo ia?aiao??a oa?aeoa?enoee
ao?aeoi?a ?ueinea?a (a,a) ? ao?aeoi?a noaoe?iia?ii? nenoaie a?iiey?ieo
iin??a (a,a): a), a) — a?oo?eaoe?eia ae?aa?aia; a), a) — aaiethoe??
e?eaeo o?ane?oaaiiy. Ii in? i?aeeiao a?aeeeaaeaii aeiaaeeio a?ae??ceo
oaciai? o?aaeoi??? R, ui o?ane?o?oueny

ii?o?ao?a ? i?ine?aeeoaaoe iine?aeiai?noue a?oo?eaoe?e iiaeai?iiy
ia??iaeo aei /aoaa?oiai-i’yoiai ii?yaee?a aeeth/ii. Aei ia?aaaa
aeni?an-iaoiaeo oaeiae ne?ae a?aeianoe aenieo iai/i?noue io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a, i?inoioo eiai aeai?eoi?/ii? ?aae?caoe??, ui caaacia/o?
aaeeeo oaeaee?noue ?ic?aooie?a, ?, cae/aeii, oie oaeo, ui e?ea?
o?ane?oaaiiy oa?aeoa?ecothoue aanue oaciaee ii?o?ao a oe?eiio, oiaoi
i?noyoue a nia? ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i aeae inoeeeyoe?e an?o oaciaeo ci?iieo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? nii/aoeo i?eaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
aaiethoe?? noai?a aeaeo?ii?a o n-GaAs, a oaeiae o?ainoi?iaoe?? noai?a
ianoaoe?iia?ii? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai? nenoaie aeaeo?ii?a ? ae??ie a oiiaao
ae?aeoiai? iano?eeino?.

?ica’ycie nenoaie ??aiyiue (1) ciaoiaeeany noaiaea?oiei iaoiaeii o
aeaeyae? ?iceeaaeo oaciaeo ci?iieo o ?yae Oo?’? iiaeeco ?o iaeii??aeieo
?iciiae?e?a acaeiaae c?aceo [1]:
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 (3)

aea AmR oa EmI, pmR oa pmI, nmR oa nmI – ooeai? ae?eni? oa oyai?
aiie?ooaee i?e m-oeo aa?iii?eao aeaeo?e/iiai iiey oa eiioeaio?aoe?e
iin??a, k0=2/L, aea L – aeiaaeeia c?acea. Ae?ac aeey ae?aeoiai?
oaeaeeino? iin??a aeey a?iiey?ii? nenoaie aeae?aany o aeaeyae? (2), a
aeey n-GaAs – ca?aeii c [5].

I?aenoaaeyth/e (3) a (1) ? iaiaaeoth/enue o e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao?
aeaiia ia?oeie aa?iii?eaie, io?eia?ii aeey ianoaoe?iia?ii? a?iiey?ii?
nenoaie iin??a ianooiio nenoaio ??aiyiue a?aeiinii aiie?ooae:

p1I/ t = -k(a1f01 + kp1I),

n1I/ t = (Dn/Dp)k(a1a3h01 – kn1I),

p1R/ t = -k(a1g01 + kp1R),

n1R/ t = (Dn/Dp) k(a1a3j01 – kn1R),p2I/ t = -2k(a1f02+2kp2I),

n2I/ t = 2(Dn/Dp) k(a1a3h02-2kn2I),

p2R/ t = -2k(a1g02+2kp2R),

n2R/ t = 2(Dn/Dp) k(a1a3j02-2kn2R), A1R = ( a31p1I – a32n1I )/k,

A1I = ( -a31p1R + a32n1R )/k,A2R = ( a31p2I – a32n2I )/2k,

A2I = ( -a31p2R + a32n2R )/2k,?0(t) = a32/a31n0(t)= const f (t),
(4)

aea = Dpt0/L02 (t0 oa L0 – a?aeiia?aeii, ii?ioth/? ianooaae /ano ?
aeiaaeeie), k – oaeeueiaee aaeoi?, f0n, h0n, j0n, g0n (n=1,2) – neeaaei?
ooieoe??, ui caeaaeaoue a?ae ooeaieo aiie?ooae, a oaeiae ia?aiao??a
caaea/?. Inoaiiy ??ai?noue o (4) i?eaiaeeoue aei aeeiiaiiy oiia ia’?iii?
aeaeo?iiaeo?aeueiino? e?enoaeo.

C (4) aeaeii, ui i?e c?iaeaieo iaaeeaeaiiyo aeine?aeaeoaaia nenoaia
a?iiey?ieo iin??a ? ainueie, a ia aeaaiaaeoeyoeaei??iith, oae ye
aiie?ooaee i?e aa?iii?eao aeaeo?e/iiai iiey iaeiicia/ii e?i?eiei /eiii
aecia/athoueny /a?ac aiie?ooaee aa?iii?e aeey eiioeaio?aoe?? iin??a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui nenoaia iiiiiiey?ieo iin??a o
iai?ai?ia?aeieeo c ia?aiao?aie n-GaAs a oiiaao ?nioaaiiy ae?aeoiai?
iano?eeino? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ia?ai?aei?noth oaioe/ieo noai?a (yeei
i?eoaiaiiee ia?ao?ae a?ae ii?yaeeo aei oaino oeyoii a?oo?eaoe?e
iiaeai?iiy ia??iaeo ? ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieei ??aiai
“caooieaiino?”) c aii?yaeeiaaieie noaiaie. Aeyaeaii oaeo ??cei? ci?ie
inoeeeyoe?e oaciaeo ci?iieo ia “eaaioiaai?” noaie, eiee oaciaa oi/ea
iine?aeiaii caeia? iaaaeeea /enei noai?a c /?oei aecia/aieie
eii?aeeiaoaie.

Ianoaoe?iia?ia nenoaia a?iiey?ieo iin??a ? a?eueo no?eeith oa
aii?yaeeiaaiith. I?e c?iaeaieo iaaeeaeaiiyo ?? ainueieaei??iee oaciaee
ii?o?ao (?en.3) iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaiee ye noeoii?noue aeaio
/ioe?ueioaei??ieo ii?o?ao?a c ??ciith oiiieia??th.

?en. 3 I?iaeoe?? oaciaiai ii?o?aoo nenoaie ia ieiueie p1Rn1R (aa?oi?e
?yae) oa p2Rn2R (ieaei?e ?yae) i?e ??cieo cia/aiiyo ea?oth/iai
ia?aiao?o

a2 = jnnom0p/ jpnom0n: a) a2 = 0.9549, a) a2 = 0.9556, a) a2 = 0.9594

Ia?o? aa?iii?ee eieeaaiue ooai?ththoue o i?inoi?? oaciaeo ci?iieo
neaaiaii?yaeeiaaio ?icaoeo, yea ia? ia?io e?euee?noue iaethnoie ??cii?
u?eueiino?. I?e ci?i? ea?oth/iai ia?aiao?o e?euee?noue iaethnoie
ciaioo?oueny aaea?/? i?e eiaei?e iaa?iai?e a?oo?eaoe?? iiaeai?iiy
ia??iaeo. Oa?aeoa?iei ? oa, ui iaethnoee, ia yeeo oaciaa oi/ea ia?aaoaa?
/ano?oa, ?niothoue o nenoai? aeiaoee i?ii?aeie /ano. Aa?iii?ee ae?oaiai
ii?yaeeo ooai?ththoue aeeaiee ao?aeoi? c aenieei noaiaiai
aii?yaeeiaaiino? inoeeeyoe?e oaciaeo ci?iieo, yeee aeaui iiae?aiee aei
ao?aeoi?a Ei?aioea i?enooi?noth aeaio aeaiooeo a?aie/ieo oeeee?a, ui
ceeaathoueny nai?ie e?aei?ie /anoeiaie.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae ao?aeoi?a Ei?aioea, aeaiee ao?aeoi? ? a?eueo
noaa?eueiei ooai?aiiyi, yea i?ae /an ci?ie ea?oth/iai ia?aiao?o a iaaeao
noi?niino? nenoaie ci?ith?oueny neaai ye oiiieia?/ii, oae ? ca e?i?eieie
?ici??aie. I?ney /a?aiai? iaa?iaii? a?oo?eaoe?? iiaeai?iiy ia??iaeo
iaeei c a?aie/ieo oeeee?a cieea?. Aaaeeeai, ui iaeaeaa oacia? ii?o?aoe
nenoaie ianoaoe?iia?ieo a?iiey?ieo iin??a i?ioiaeyoue iiae?ai? aoaie
aaiethoe?? i?e ci?i? ea?oth/iai ia?aiao?o ?, cae/aeii, a?aeiia?aeii aei
nai?? oiiieia??. Ne?ae oaeiae iniaeeai a?aei?oeoe, ui yeui o aeiaaeeo
noaoe?iia?ii? nenoaie i?e ca?eueoaii? aaee/eie ea?oth/iai ia?aiao?o
niinoa??aaeenue a?oo?eaoe?? iiaeai?iiy ia??iaeo, oiaoi nenoaia
?icaeaaeanue a?ae i?inoeo oi?i aei neeaaeieo, oi o aeiaaeeo
ianoaoe?iia?ii? nenoaie niinoa??aa?oueny noiaeee noeaia??e aaiethoe??,
aea a cai?ioiueiio iai?yieo – /a?ac noeoii?noue iine?aeiaieo iaa?iaieo
a?oo?eaoe?e iiaeai?iiy ia??iaeo.

Aeniiaee oa iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe

1. Iaeiii??ia iieueiaa iiaeaeue, ui iieno? iiaaae?ieo
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai? nenoaie c aeaiia oeiaie iin??a i?e iayaiino?
ae?aeoiai? iae?i?eiino? aeaiiino?o? neeaaeio aeeiai?eo iano?eeinoae ?
iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia a yeino? aaciai? iiaeae? i?e ae??oaii? caaea/
neia?aaoeee.

2. Io?eiaii aiae?oe/i? ae?ace, ye? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
aeine?aeaeoaaoe noaoe?iia?i? oa cao?ai? noaie ??aiiaaaeii? ?
ia??aiiaaaeii? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo nenoai a?iiey?ieo iin??a a
caeaaeiino? a?ae cia/aiue ea?oth/eo ia?aiao??a.

3. Iieacaii, ui o aeine?aeaeoaai?e iai?ai?ia?aeieeia?e noaoe?iia?i?e
nenoai? c aeaiia oeiaie iin??a iayai? aea? caoooath/? o /an? oaee?
i?inoi?iai-/aniaiai cao?aiiy, eio?? ?iciianthaeaeothoueny c ??cieie
oaciaeie oaeaeeinoyie. I?e oeueiio ?niothoue oae? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
eiao?oe??io?a aeeooc?? aeaeo?ii?a ? ae??ie oa cia/aiiy oaeeueiaiai
/enea, i?e yeeo ?oo o nenoai? aoaeoue eieeaiee oa?aeoa?. C?iaeaii
aeiiouaiiy, ui i?e/eiith ooai?aiiy aeeneiaoeaieo no?oeoo? o
aeine?aeaeoaai?e nenoai? iiaeooue aooe eaac?iaeo?aeuei? oaee?.

4. Aeyaeaii ? iienaii iiaee aeae aeeaiiai ao?aeoi?a a
iai?ai?ia?aeieeia?e noaoe?iia?i?e nenoai? c aeaiia oeiaie iin??a.
?ic?aoiaai? ?ici??iinoue Oaonaei?oa, iaeneiaeueiee iieaciee Eyioiiaa,
niaeo?aeuei? u?eueiino? oaciaeo ci?iieo oa a?oo?eaoe?ei? ae?aa?aie
aeaii? nenoaie i?e ci?i? ea?oth/iai ia?aiao?o. I?ine?aeeiaaii
aaiethoe?th nenoaie a?ae oieono aei aeeiai?/iiai oaino, yea
a?aeaoaa?oueny ca noeaia???i iine?aeiaieo a?oo?eaoe?e iiaeai?iiy
ia??iaeo, aea ia iieno?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith /enea Oaeaaiaaoia.

5. A nenoai? iiiiiiey?ieo iin??a o iai?ai?ia?aeieeo c ia?aiao?aie
a?nai?aeo aae?y i?e iayaiino? aoaeoo Aaiia ciaeaeaii iiaee oei aeeaiiai
ao?aeoi?a. ??ce? ia?aoiaee i?ae oaioe/ieie oa aii?yaeeiaaieie noaiaie c
ye?nii ?ioith oiiieia??th na?ae/aoue, ui aeai?e nenoai? aeanoeaa
ia?ai?aei?noue oaioe/ieo oa aii?yaeeiaaieo noai?a.

6. Anoaiiaeaii ? aeine?aeaeaii iiaee oei aeeaiiai ao?aeoi?a a
iai?ai?ia?aeieeia?e ianoaoe?iia?i?e nenoai? a?iiey?ieo iin??a.
I?ine?aeeiaaii o?ainoi?iaoe?th aeine?aeaeoaaii? nenoaie a?ae
aeeiai?/iiai oaino aei oieono ? iieacaii, ui aiia a?aeaoaa?oueny ca
noeaia???i iine?aeiaieo iaa?iaieo a?oo?eaoe?e iiaeai?iiy ia??iaeo.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaiethoe?y iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai? ianoaoe?iia?ii? nenoaie
a?iiey?ieo iin??a nooo?aei /eiii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aaiethoe??
noaoe?iia?ii? nenoaie a?iiey?ieo ? ianoaoe?iia?ii? nenoaie iiiiiiey?ieo
iin??a.

7. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee aeni?an-iaoiae o?ane?oaaiiy o?aaeoi??e aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy oiiieia?? oaciaeo ii?o?ao?a aeeiai?/ieo nenoai ? ?o
aaiethoe??, yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iai/i?noth oa i?inoioith
aeai?eoi?/ii? ?aae?caoe??, ui iaoiiaeth? aenieo oaeaee?noue ?ic?aooie?a.
Ai?iaaoe?y oeueiai iaoiaeo aeey ao?aeoi??a Ei?aioea ? ?ueinea?a iieacaea
eiai aenieo oi/i?noue aeey aecia/aiiy iieiaeaiiy oi/ie a?oo?eaoe?e ?
iiaeeea?noue niinoa?aaeaiiy oiiieia?/i? no?oeoo?e oaciaiai ii?o?aoo
iaa?oue o oaioe/ieo noaiao nenoaie.

8. Noai?aii i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeey eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ioean?a naiii?aai?caoe?? a neeaaeieo aeeiai?/ieo nenoaiao. I?ia?aiiee
iaeao aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe ?ic?aooiee ?ici??iino? Oaonaei?oa,
iaeneiaeueiiai iieacieea Eyioiiaa, niaeo?aeueieo u?eueiinoae eiiiiiaio,
e?eaeo o?ane?oaaiiy oaciaeo ii?o?ao?a nenoaie oa aea/aoe ?o caeaaeiino?
a?ae aaee/ei ea?oth/eo ia?aiao??a, a oaeiae aeine?aeaeoaaoe aaiethoe?th
nenoai, aeei?enoiaoth/e aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aai aeai?,
?ic?aoiaai? ?ioeie i?ia?aiaie.

Nienie oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e:

1. Ieeieen A., I?eaiaeei E. Naiii?aaiecaoeey a ia?aaiiaaniuo nenoaiao. —
I.: Ie?, 1979. — 512n.

2. Oaeai A. Neia?aaoeea: ea?a?oee iaonoie/eainoae a naiii?aaiecothueony
nenoaiao e ono?ienoaao. — I.: Ie?, 1985. — 423n.

3. A?iieaaa TH.E., Naiei A.E. Yeaeo?iiiay neia?aaoeea. — E.: Ecae.
Eaieia?aaeneiai oieaa?neoaoa, 1989. — 248n.

4. O?eeue Y. Naiii?aaiecaoeey a iieoi?iaiaeieeao: ia?aaiiaaniua oaciaua
ia?aoiaeu a iieoi?iaiaeieeao, iaoneiaeaiiua aaia?aoeeiiii —
?aeiiaeiaoeeiiiuie i?ioeannaie. — I.: Ie?, 1991. — 463n.

5. Eaaeiooaei I.A., Iiaeaea TH.E., Oo? I.N. Yooaeo Aaiia. — I.:
Nia.?aaeei, 1975. — 288n.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeai? a ianooiieo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Ai?eae I.I., Ai?eae I.I., Oii/oe I.I. No?aiiue aoo?aeoi? a
ia?aaiiaaniie nenoaia n aeaoiy ni?oaie iineoaeae // Ienueia a AEOO,
1996, 22, ?20, n.82-86

2. Ai?eae I.I., Ai?eae I.I., ?iaeaeanoaaineay I.A. Oaiia?aoo?iay e
eiioeaio?aoeeiiiay caaeneiinoe i?ioeannia naiii?aaiecaoeee a
iieoi?iaiaeieeao // Iai?aaie/aneea iaoa?eaeu, 1997, 33, ?2, n.242-245

3. Ai?eae I.I., Ai?eae I.I., Oii/oe I.I. Ia?aiaaeaaiinoue ninoiyiee
ia?aaiiaaniuo iineoaeae a n-GaAs // Ienueia a AEOO, 1998, 24, ?9,
n.32-37

4. Ai?eae I.I., Ai?eae I.I., Oii/oe I.I. O?anne?iaea o?aaeoi?ee – iiaue
iaoiae enneaaeiaaiey yaiethoeee ninoiyiee aeeiaie/aneeo nenoai //
Ienueia a AEOO, 1999, 25,?1, n.17-25

5. Ai?eae I.I., Ai?eae I.I., Oii/oe I.I. Aaiethoe?y noai?a
ia??aiiaaaeii? nenoaie c aeaiia oeiaie iin??a // OOAE, 1999, 44, ?3, n.
357-365

6. Ai?eae I.I., Ai?eae I.I., Oii/oe I.I. Aeeiaieea ia?aoiaea
ii?yaeie-oain a iieoi?iaiaeieeiaie nenoaia ia?aaiiaaniuo iineoaeae i?e
iaee/ee yooaeoa Aaiia // Iai?aaie/aneea iaoa?eaeu, 1999, 35, ?5, n.
464-467

7. Ai?eae I.I. ?ioaa?iaaiee i?ia?aiiee iaeao aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ioean?a naiii?aai?caoe?? o aeeiai?/ieo nenoaiao // Iaoe. a?niee
*a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, O?ceea, 1998, aei.30, n.74-79

8. Ai?eae I.I., Ai?eae I.I., ?a?aiei ?.I. O?ainoi?iaoe?y noai?a
ianoaoe?iia?ii? nenoaie c aeaiia oeiaie iin??a // Iaoe. a?niee
*a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, O?ceea, 1998, aei.40, n.32-35

9. Aa/eineee A.A., Ai?eae I.I., Ai?eae I.I., ?iaeaeanoaaineay I.A. I
oieiaie iaonoie/eainoe i?e iaee/ee oaea?iie eiiecaoeee a oaeeo?a // ?
I?aei. eiio. “Iaoa??aeiciaanoai aeiaciiiae?aieo oa oaeueeiaai?aeieo
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a”, *a?i?aoe?, 4-6 aeiaoiy 1994 ?., oace oii II, c.94

10. Ai?eae I.I., Ai?eae I.I., ?iaeaeanoaainueea I.A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ioean?a naiii?aai?caoe?? a oaeo?? i?e iayaiino? ae?aeoiai? iano?eeino?
// Iaoa??aee iaoe. eiio. aeeeaaea/?a, ni?a?ia?oiee?a oa nooaeaio?a,
i?ena. 120 –??//th canioa. *AeO, 4-6 o?aaiy 1995 ?., oii 2, n.19

11. Gorley P.M., Horley P.P., Bukatar I.O., Rozhdestvens’ka M.G. The
temperature and concentration dependencies of the processes of
self-organization in semiconductors // International School-Conf. on
Phys. Problems in Material Science of Semicond., Chernivtsi, Ukraine,
11th-16th of September, 1995, Abstract booklet, p. 63

12. P.M. Gorley, P.P. Horley, P.M. Tomchuk Self-Organization of
Nonequilibrium Carriers in n-GaAs // XXVI International School on Phys.
of Semicond. Compounds Jaszowiec’97, Poland, June 6-13, 1997, Abstract
booklet, p. 138

13. P.P. Horley, I.M. Rarenko, P.M. Tomchuk The Scenery of Order-Chaos
Transition in System of Nonequilibrium Carriers in Semiconductor under
Gunn’s Effect // Second International School-Conf. on Physical Problems
in Material Science of Semicond., Chernivtsi, Ukraine, September 8-12,
1997, Abstract booklet, p. 264

Ai?eae I.I. Aeeiai?/iee oain ? naiii?aai?caoe?y a a?iiey?ieo
iai?ai?ia?aeieeao c ae?aeoiaith iano?ee?noth.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.10 – o?ceea
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a ? ae?aeaeo?ee?a. — *a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao, *a?i?aoe?, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii anoaiiaeaiith aeeiai?ee ia?aoiaeo a?ae
eieeaieo aei oaioeciaaieo noai?a a?iiey?ii? noaoe?iia?ii? ?
ianoaoe?iia?ii? nenoai iin??a o iai?ai?ia?aeieeo a oiiaao ae?aeoiai?
iano?eeino?. Aeyaeaii ? iienaii iia? oeie aeeaieo ao?aeoi??a a
noaoe?iia?i?e oa ianoaoe?iia?i?e iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo nenoaiao c aeaiia
iin??a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e iayaiino? aoaeoo Aaia nenoai? aeaeo?ii?a a
n-GaAs aeanoeaa ia?ai?aei?noue oaioe/ieo oa aii?yaeeiaaieo noai?a.
Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee aeni?an-iaoiae o?ane?oaaiiy o?aaeoi??e aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy oiiieia?? oaciaeo ii?o?ao?a ? ?o aaiethoe??, yeee
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iai/i?noth oa i?inoioith aeai?eoi?/ii? ?aae?caoe??, ui
iaoiiaeth? aenieo oaeaee?noue ?ic?aooie?a, a oaeiae noai?aii i?ia?aiia
caaacia/aiiy aeey eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a naiii?aai?caoe??
a neeaaeieo aeeiai?/ieo nenoaiao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iai?ai?ia?aeiee, ae?aeoiaa iano?ee?noue,
naiii?aai?caoe?y, aeeneiaoeai? no?oeoo?e, aeeiai?/iee oain.

Ai?eae I.I. Aeeiaie/aneee oain e naiii?aaiecaoeey a aeiiey?iuo
iieoi?iaiaeieeao n ae?aeoiaie iaonoie/eainoueth.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.10 – oeceea
iieoi?iaiaeieeia e aeeyeaeo?eeia. — *a?iiaeoeeee ainoaea?noaaiiue
oieaa?neoao, *a?iiaoeu, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth aeeiaieee ia?aoiaea io
eieaaaoaeueiuo e oaioe/aneei ninoiyieyi aeiiey?iie noaoeeiia?iie e
ianoaoeeiia?iie iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo nenoai iineoaeae a oneiaeyo
ae?aeoiaie iaonoie/eainoe. Ec iieo/aiiuo aiaeeoe/aneeo au?aaeaiee e
?acoeueoaoia /eneaiiuo ?an/aoia neaaeoao, /oi a noaoeeiia?iie nenoaia
ia?aaiiaaniuo yeaeo?iiia e aeu?ie i?enoonoaotho aeaa caoooathuea aieiu
i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiuo aiciouaiee, ?ani?ino?aiythueony n ?aciuie
oaciauie nei?inoyie aaeieue iieoi?iaiaeieea. I?e yoii nouanoaotho oaeea
niioiioaiey aieiiaiai /enea e eiyooeoeeaioia aeeooocee iineoaeae, i?e
eioi?uo aeaeaeaiea a enneaaeoaiie nenoaia ia?anoaao auoue
eieaaaoaeueiui. Auyaeaiu e iienaiu iiaua aeaeu no?aiiuo ao?aeoi?ia a
noaoeeiia?iie e ianoaoeeiia?iie iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo nenoaiao n aeaoiy
oeiaie iineoaeae. Aeieacaii, /oi i?e eciaiaiee oi?aaeythueo ia?aiao?ia
ia?aoiae io oii?yaei/aiiuo e oaioe/aneei ninoiyieyi i?ienoiaeeo /a?ac
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeoo?eaoeee oaeaiaiey ia?eiaea, i?e/ai aeey
noaoeeiia?iie nenoaiu yoio ia?aoiae i?ienoiaeeo io iaiaa oii?yaei/aiiuo
ninoiyiee e aieaa oii?yaei/aiiui, a aeey ianoaoeeiia?iie – a ia?aoiii
iai?aaeaiee. A iaieo neo/ayo nouanoaotho cia/aiey oi?aaeythuaai
ia?aiao?a, i?e eioi?uo nenoaia iineoaeae onoie/eaa, /oi iiaeao auoue
eniieueciaaii a i?aeoe/aneeo oeaeyo. Noaoeeiia?iay e ianoaoeeiia?iay
nenoaiu yeaeo?iiia e aeu?ie ioiineoaeueii oii?yaei/aiu, i /ai
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ieceea cia/aiey iaeneiaeueiiai iieacaoaey Eyioiiaa e
?acia?iinoe Oaonaei?oa. Oaciaue ii?o?ao ianoaoeeiia?iie nenoaiu
aeiiey?iuo iineoaeae a ainueieia?iii oaciaii i?ino?ainoaa iiaeao auoue
i?aaenoaaeai eae noia?iiceoeey aeaoo /aou?aoia?iuo oaciauo ii?o?aoia n
ea/anoaaiii ?aciie oiiieiaeae, ioaa/athuei ?aciui ii?yaeeai aiciouaiee
noaoeeiia?iiai ninoiyiey a nenoaia. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e iaee/ee yooaeoa
Aaiia yeaeo?iiai a n-GaAs i?enoua ia?aiaaeaaiinoue oaioe/aneeo e
oii?yaei/aiiuo ninoiyiee. Iniaue eioa?an a yoii neo/aa i?aaenoaaeyao
oaciaue ii?o?ao nenoaiu, ninoiyuee ec iaaieueoiai /enea ?ac?aoaiiuo
ninoiyiee, eioi?ua ii i/a?aaee iinauathony oaciaie oi/eie. I?aaeeiaeaii
iiaue yeni?ann-iaoiae o?anne?iaee o?aaeoi?ee aeey enneaaeiaaiey
oiiieiaee oaciauo ii?o?aoia e eo yaiethoeee, eioi?ue oa?aeoa?ecoaony
iaaeyaeiinoueth, i?inoioie aeai?eoie/aneie ?aaeecaoeee e aunieie
nei?inoueth ?an/aoia. Ana au/eneaiey a aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa auee
i?iaaaeaiu n eniieueciaaieai nicaeaiiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey,
eioi?ia i?aaeiacia/aii aeey eiiieaeniiai enneaaeiaaiey i?ioeannia
naiii?aaiecaoeee a neiaeiuo aeeiaie/aneeo nenoaiao.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iieoi?iaiaeiee, ae?aeoiaay iaonoie/eainoue,
naiii?aaiecaoeey, aeenneiaoeaiua no?oeoo?u, aeeiaie/aneee oain.

Horley P.P. Dynamic chaos and self-organization in bipolar
semiconductors with drift instability.- Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 01.04.10 – Physics of
Semiconductors and Dielectrics. – Chernivtsi State University,
Chernivtsi, 1999.

Dissertation is devoted to determination of evolution scenery from
oscillation to chaotic states in the stationary and nonstationary
bipolar carriers systems in semiconductor with drift instability. New
types of strange attractors have been discovered and investigated in
stationary and nonstationary semiconductor system with two types of
carriers. Rapid changes from ordered to chaotic states are peculiar to
electron system of n-GaAs under Gunn’s effect. New trajectory tracing
express-method was proposed for investigation of phase portraits
topology and its evolution. This method is very efficient and easy for
programming implementation that cause fast calculations. Software for
complex study of selforganization processes in complicated dynamic
systems was created.

Key words: semiconductor, drift instability, self-organization,
disipative structures, dynamic chaos.

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