1

AIEEINUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? EAN? OE?A?IEE

Iae?iii Ieaenaiae? Ieaenaiae?iae/

OAeE 796.0-05

AeEOA?AIOe?EIAAIEE I?AeO?Ae O I?IOeAN?

O?CE*IIAI AEOIAAIIss NOOAeAIO?A

24.00.02 – O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a, o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy

??cieo a?oi ianaeaiiy

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo

Eooeuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aieeinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Oeueinue Aiaoie?e Aaneeueiae/, Aieeinueeee

aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e caei?ia’y ? o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-

ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie A?eue/eianueeee Aaeoa?ae Noai?neaaiae/,
?inoeooo i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy AII Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy;

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio O?a/ Aieiaeeie? Ieoaeeiae/,
Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee ?inoeooo o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e a?io?i??, a?a??ie oa nii?oeaieo nii?oae, i?i?aeoi? c
iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aea?aeaaiee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e ? nii?oo, eaai?aoi??y oi?aae?iiy caei?ia’yi ethaeeie,
Aea?aeaaiee eii?oao Oe?a?ie c o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e ? nii?oo, i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 1 ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo ia 11 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 32.051.02 o Aieeinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee (263021, aoe.Aeiie/aiea, 30).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee (263021,
aoe.Aeiie/aiea.30).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 27 ethoiai 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Oeueinue A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ioaineo?eaoe?y iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano, aeoea?caoe?y oai?/i? ?iaioe, ca?eueoaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue aino?i
iinoaaeee ieoaiiy i?i aeoeaia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a iianyeaeaiia aeeooy
nooaeaio?a o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e oa nii?oo. Aeiaaaeaii, ui nenoaiaoe/i?
caiyooy o?ce/ieie ai?aaaie ci?oeiththoue caei?ia’y, i?aeaeuothoue
ia?aiaiineo?/io no?ee?noue aei aiioe?eieo no?an?a, i?aeo?eiothoue
o?ce/io ? ?icoiiao i?aoeacaeaoi?noue, ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaiith oni?oiino?
nooaeaio?a (E.?. Eoaeoaaa, 1992; A.A.Iaaeueiaaiee, 1993; E.I
Aanaiaoeue., I.?.?aaiiaa, 1997; Biddle, 1995).

I?ioa ca iaoeiaeie aeaieie A.A.Aoe?/ (1986), I.Ae.Aeoaiaae (1995),
I.A.Ae?icae (1998) inoaii?i /anii niinoa??aa?oueny no?eea iia??oaiiy
noaio caei?ia’y nooaeaionueei? iieiae?. Aeyaey?oueny caaaeueia
caeiiii??i?noue ca?eueoaiiy na?oeaai-noaeeiieo caoai?thaaiue, iia??oaiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?aca?a?a i?aai?cio, cieaeaiiy ??aiy o?ce/ii?
i?aeaioiaeaiino?.

Oaeei /eiii aeieeei i?ioe??//y i?ae ??aiai nioe?aeueieo aeiia ?
aoaeoeai?noth o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaionueei? iieiae?. Aeey ae??oaiiy
oeueiai i?ioe??//y o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe iaiao?aeiee eiiieaen
??ciiiai?oieo i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo caoiae?a. Aaeee? iiaeeeaino?
a oeueiio ia? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae, yeee aea? ciiao eiaeiiio
nooaeaioia? i?aoethaaoe a iioeiaeueiiio ?aaeei? ? caaacia/o? iaee?ioee
icaei?ia/ee aoaeo.

Ia iaiao?aei?noue aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei iaa/aiiy aeacoaaee
aeaeaoi? a/ai? ? iaaeaaiae: ss. A.Eiiainueeee (1939), E.Ae.Ooeinueeee
(1988), AE. AE.?onni (1969), A.A.Aiaiue?a (1962). Ie?ai? aniaeoe
aeei?enoaiiy aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? aoco
iiaeai? a aeine?aeaeaiiyo A.Ae.?aeiaea (1997), ?.A.Io?aaiaa (1981),
TH.A.Iiaeoeueeiai (1997), AE.Ae.Oieiaeiaa (1981). A ?iaioao A.A.A?ao’?aa
(1981), E.E.Aeai?aoeueeiai (1995), O.TH.E?ooeaae/ (1981),
O.A.Iao?ianueei? (1981), ?.Oio (1990), A.A.Oo?iaia (1997), ?.I.Oieiaiia
(1996) aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae ?icaeyaea?oueny ye eiiiiiaio
oi?aae?iiy iaa/aiiyi, a yeiio i?ae /an ?iciiae?eo nooaeaio?a ia a?oie
i?iiiio?oueny a?aoiaoaaoe ia eeoa ??aaiue o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo, a e
ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino?, ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino?, aeae nii?oeaii?
niaoe?ae?caoe??. Iniiaia iaoa aeacaieo ?ia?o iieyaa? a iioei?caoe??
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, ia??oiooaaii? iaoiaeeee caiyoue aeey ?icaeoeo
i?ia?aeieo aai a?aenoath/eo o?ce/ieo yeinoae.

Ia cieaeoth/e aeinoaoiuei aeniei? oe?iiino? oeeo oa ?ioeo iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, iio??aii cacia/eoe, ui aiie ia aecia/athoue e?ioeaai?
iaoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nai?o ?ic?iaie a iie?ioaiiy caaaeueiiai noaio
caei?ia’y nooaeaio?a. Ia iiyniththoue i?eioeeie i?aeai?o o?ce/ieo
ai?aa, aeicoaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue a?aeiia?aeii aei o?ce/iiai noaio
iieiae?. O cia/i?e i??? ia ?ic?iaeai? e?eoa??? iiae?eo nooaeaio?a
iaei??? a?eiai? a?oie ia iaeii??aei? i?aea?oie. Ia ciaeoee iaeaaeiiai
ae??oaiiy ? ieoaiiy neeaaeaiiy icaei?ia/eo i?ia?ai o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
nooaeaio?a, niiniae ii?aeiaiiy o?ce/ieo ai?aa ? iaaaioaaeaiue ??cii?
ni?yiiaaiino?.

Oaeei /eiii, aaeeea nioe?aeueia cia/aiiy aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o
i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a ? iaaeinoaoi? eiai
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia ia??oiooaaiiy e coiiaeee oaio aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia ca?aeii caaaeaiiai ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe
Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee ca oaiith
“Ineoieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe c iaaea?iaaieie
?iaeea?aeooiaie a nenoai? ia?iaeii? ina?oe” (iiia? aea?aeaaii?
?a?no?aoe?? 0197 U 0049782, oeo? oaie 21-97).

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy – i?ioean o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a o aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – iaoiaeeea aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o
i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a c icaei?ia/ith ni?yiiaai?noth.

A?iioaca – aeei?enoaiiy o i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?aai?caoe?? oa ci?noo iaa/aeueieo
caiyoue, iiaoaeiaaiiai c o?aooaaiiyi o?ce/iiai noaio nooaeaio?a,
i?aeaeueoue aoaeoeai?noue iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, ni?eyoeia iie?ioaiith
o?ce/ii? i?aoeacaeaoiino? ? ci?oeiaiith caei?ia’y iieiae?.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – oai?aoe/ii ia??oiooaaoe ? aenia?eiaioaeueii
ia?aa??eoe aoaeoeai?noue aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o i?ioean?
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a c icaei?ia/ith ni?yiiaai?noth.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Aeyaeoe ??aaiue o?ce/iiai noaio nooaeaio?a.

2. Aecia/eoe e?eoa??? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo oa iaeii??aei? a?oie
nooaeaio?a.

3. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o o?ce/iiio
aeoiaaii? nooaeaio?a c icaei?ia/ith ni?yiiaai?noth.

4. Cae?enieoe aenia?eiaioaeueio ia?aa??eo aoaeoeaiino? ?ic?iaeaii?
iaoiaeeee aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

 aeey ?aae?caoe?? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o o?ce/iiio aeoiaaii?
cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee niin?a iiae?eo nooaeaio?a caeaaeii a?ae ??aiy
?oiueiai o?ce/iiai noaio ia a?oie. Aei ia?oi? a?oie aa?eoee nooaeaioe c
iaaeinoaoiueith aaaith a?aeiia?aeii aei c?inoo, cieaeaieie ianyaaie
/anoei o?ea, ieae/ana?aaei?ie ooieoe?iiaeueieie iiaeeeainoyie, aenieeie
iieacieeaie ?icaeoeo oaeaeeino? oa aio/eino?. Ae?oao a?oio neeaee
nooaeaioe c iioeiaeueieie aaai?inoiaeie iieacieeaie, na?aaei?ie ianyaaie
/anoei o?ea ? ooieoe?iiaeueieie iiaeeeainoyie, aenieei ?icaeoeii
a?aeiinii? neee ? oaeaee?nii-neeiaeo yeinoae. Nooaeaioe o?aouei? a?oie
iathoue iaaeeeoeiao iano o?ea, ia??aiii??ii ?icaeiai? ianyae o?ea,
iaeieae/? (iecuee?) ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino? oa aenie? iieacieee
aaniethoii? neee;

 ae?noaee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ? ia??oiooaaiiy e?eoa???
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy c
icaei?ia/ith ni?yiiaai?noth a iniia? yeeo eaaeaoue ?ic?aooieia?
iieacieee ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio nooaeaio?a (?iaeaen Eaoea,
?aeaaeueia iana o?ea ca Eoia?ii, ?iaeaen i?iii?oe?eiino?, ?iaeaen
o?ce/iiai noaio ca I.ss.I??iaiaith, aaeaioaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae ca
?.I.Aa?anueeei, o?ce/ia i?aoeacaeaoi?noue ?WC170);

 aeiiiaiai? a?aeiiino? i?i o?ce/iee noai nooaeaio?a oa aca?iica’ycee
i?ae aio?iiiiao?e/ieie iieacieeaie, o?ce/iith i?aeaioiaeai?noth ?
ooieoe?iiaeueieie iiaeeeainoyie i?aai?cio.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

 ia??oioiaai? aea?? ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy cania?a o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii aei ??aiy o?ce/iiai noaio nooaeaio?a;

 ?ic?iaeai? ioeuenia? ?aaeeie aeey caiyoue oeeee?/ieie ai?aaaie
nooaeaioaie c ??ciei ??aiai o?ce/iiai noaio;

 ?ic?iaeaia aeicoaaiiy o?ce/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue aeey ?icaeoeo neee ?
aeo?eaaeino? a?aeiia?aeii aei o?ce/ieo iiaeeeainoae nooaeaio?a.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo ai?iaaaeaeaia o
i?aeoeeo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.Ean? Oe?a?iee, Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea, *a?i?a?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.O.A.Oaa/aiea oa
A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.Ieoaeea
Eioethaeinueeiai.

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o i?ioean?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e i?e aeeeaaeaii? iaa/aeueieo
aeenoeeie?i “Oai??y ? iaoiaeeea o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy”, “Oai??y ?
iaoiaeeea icaei?ia/i? ?iaioe”.

Iniaenoee aianie iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai
i?aeoiaeo o i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, ui ia?aaeaa/a? canoinoaaiiy
??cieo cania?a, iaoiae?a ? iaaaioaaeaiue a?aeiia?aeii aei ??aiy
o?ce/iiai noaio nooaeaio?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “O?ce/ia
eoeueoo?a, nii?o oa caei?ia’y iaoe??” (A?iieoey, 1998), ia
Anaoe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo “Eiioeaioe?y i?aeaioiaee
niaoe?ae?no?a o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i?” (Eooeuee, 1994, 1996),
“Iieiaea nii?oeaia iaoea Oe?a?ie” (Euea?a, 1997, 1998), ui??/ieo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee (1991-1998??.), iaeanieo nai?ia?ao oa
eo?nao i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iioae?eiaai? o iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo “I?aai?caoe?y ? iaoiaeeea
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
nooaeaio?a”, i’yoe noaooyo o iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo oa aeaio
iaoa??aeao I?aeia?iaeii? ? Anaoe?a?inueei? eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae,
aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 173 noi??ieao ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo,
i?noeoue 41 oaaeeoeth ? 6 ?enoie?a. O i?aoe? aeei?enoaii 260
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, ?c yeeo 28 – ?iicaiieo.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, aecia/aii ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao, iaoo e caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?iiaaii a?iioaco; ?ice?eoi
iaoeiao iiaecio ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe, iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a;
aeaco?oueny noa?a ai?iaaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iniiae aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai
i?aeoiaeo o i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a” iiaea?oueny
oai?aoe/iee aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy iaoeiaeo i?aoeue c i?iaeaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eaathoueny iniiai? iiiyooy e oa?i?ie, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny o aeena?oaoe??.

Aecia/aii, ui ??aaiue aaeaioaoe?? aei iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? o aoc?,
o?ce/ia i?aeaioiaeai?noue ? noai caei?ia’y nooaeaionueei? iieiae?
iathoue nooo?a? a?aei?iiino?, ui coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

Aiae?c ooiaeaiaioaeueieo a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iieacaa, ui aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae ?icaeyaea?oueny c ??cieo
iiceoe?e: ye iniiaiee can?a iioei?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano
(TH.E.Aaaainueeee, I.I.Iioaoithe, 1984; A.A.Oo?iai, 1991), nai???aeiee
i?io?eaeoe/iee niin?a iiia?aaeaeaiiy a?aenoaaaiiy o iaa/aii?
(A.A.Aoaea?iee, 1965; I.?.Io?i/eianueeee, 1971; O.TH.Nooeuei?ian, 1971),
can?a aeoiaaiiy iniaeno?nieo yeinoae (I.I.Aaaee?ia, 1983; A.A.Aaeanao?a,
1989), iaoai?ci aeoiaaiiy aeniei?ioaeaeooaeueieo ethaeae (E.I.Iaoaee?ia,
1990). O i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniiaia oaaaa aeoeaioo?oueny ia
?icaeaath/? iiaeeeaino? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo (I.A.?oiooai?oia,
1983; I.A.Ae?icae, 1998; A.Ae.?aeiae, 1997). Naia oiio ca inoaii? 10
?ie?a niinoa??aa?oueny ci?ia e?eoa???a aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? a a?e
icaei?ia/i? ni?yiiaaiino?.

Caaaeii aiae?c iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e oa i?aeoeee ?iaioe aoc?a
na?ae/eoue, ui i?iaeaia aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o o?ce/iiio
aeoiaaii? nooaeaio?a eeoa?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiith ? aeiaaa?
iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iaoiaee ? i?aai?caoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy”
ia??oioiao?oueny nenoaia aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ui aaeaeaaoi? ia’?eoo, i?aaeiaoo, iao? ? caaea/ai ?iaioe, iiaea?oueny
i?aai?caoe?y ?iaioe. Aeey ae??oaiiy noi?iiaaieo caaea/ canoiniaoaaeenue
oae? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue: oai?aoe/iee aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, aieaooaaiiy, aio?iiiiao?e/i? iaoiaee,
iaaeaaia?/ia oanooaaiiy, o?c?ieia?/i? iaoiaee, iaaeaaia?/i?
niinoa?aaeaiiy, iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio, iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/ii?
noaoenoeee.

Aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa i?iaiaeeeanue ?c nooaeaioaie ?-?O
eo?n?a Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee
i?ioyaii 1993-1998 ??. ? ioiiethaaea /ioe?e aoaie iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai
iiooeo.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1993-1994 ??.) aea/aeenue iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i? ?
iaoiaee/i? aniaeoe aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei iaa/aiiy, aoee
aecia/ai? iaoa, caaaeaiiy, ia’?eo, i?aaeiao ? i?ia?aia aeine?aeaeaiue,
a?ae?a?ai? oanoe aeey aecia/aiiy o?ce/iiai noaio nooaeaio?a.

Ae?oaee aoai (1995-1996 ??.) aeine?aeaeaiiy aoa i?enay/aiee i?iaaaeaiith
eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo, i?ae /an yeiai aoa aecia/aiee o?ce/iee noai
oa ?ioa?ane nooaeaio?a iniiaii? ? i?aeaioia/i? iaaee/ieo a?oi ?-??
eo?n?a aeiiii?/iiai, th?eaee/iiai, o?ce/iiai oa ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoao?a
(anueiai 2680 /ieia?e).

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1997 ?.) ia??oioiaoaaeany iaoiaeeea
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
nooaeaio?a. Ia iniia? ??aiy ?oiueiai o?ce/iiai noaio aoee ?ic?iaeai?
aaeaioiaai? i?ia?aie, ui ia?aaeaa/aee ??ci? caniae o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy,
iaiaeiaeiaa aeicoaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ? naiino?ei?noue nooaeaio?a.

*aoaa?oee aoai (1997-1998 ??.) ia?aaeaa/aa aenia?eiaioaeueio ia?aa??eo
aoaeoeaiino? cai?iiiiiaaii? nenoaie aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei
iaa/aiiy. Aenia?eiaio i?iaiaeeany ?c thiaeaie 2 eo?no aeiiii?/iiai oa
?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoao?a Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ean?
Oe?a?iee. Anueiai aoei caeo/aii 175 /ieia?e, ?c yeeo 94 nooaeaioe
neeaee aenia?eiaioaeueio, 81 – eiio?ieueio a?oie. A aenia?eiaioaeuei?e
a?oi? o i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaany
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei nooaeaio?a ca?aeii ?c cai?iiiiiaaiith
iaoiaeeeith. Caiyooy a eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? i?iaiaeeeeny ca o?aaeeoe?eiith
nenoaiith. Aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei iaa/aiiy aecia/aeany oeyoii ii??aiyiiy o?ce/iiai noaio
nooaeaio?a eiio?ieueii? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oi a e?ioe?
aenia?eiaioo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “??aaiue o?ce/iiai noaio nooaeaio?a aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a” iiaeathoueny iaoa??aee eiinoaooth/iai
aenia?eiaioo.

?acoeueoaoe oanooaaiiy iieacaee, ui ??aaiue o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo
nooaeaio?a iaaenieee ? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aaeeeith iaiaeii??aei?noth
?acoeueoao?a. Cie?aia, iani-?inoiaee ?iaeaen Eaoea o 37,66% nooaeaio?a
iioeiaeueiee, o 48,05% – ieae/ee a?ae ii?ie, a o 14,29% – aeuee.
?ic?aooiie ?aeaaeueii? iane o?ea (ca oi?ioeith E.Eoia?a) iieacaa, ui
46,01% nooaeaio?a iathoue iioeiaeueio iano o?ea, 36,85% – iaaeinoaoith ?
17,14 – iaaeeeoeiao.

Ia iniia? aei??thaaiue ianya?a oe?, iea/a, ia?aaeie?//y, oae??, oaca,
noaaia, aii?eee ? cai’ynoy o nooaeaio?a aecia/aeanue aa?iii?ei?noue
?icaeoeo ioneoeaoo?e, ui ia?aaeaa/aa na?aaei?e ? aeuee noaiaea?o
aoeaoe/iiai ?icaeoeo. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui ca
an?ia ianyaaie /anoei o?ea nooaeaioe, caaaeii, ia aeinyaathoue
na?aaeiueiai noaiaea?oo aa?iii?eiiai aoeaoe/iiai ?icaeoeo. Iaeieae/a
?icaeiaia ioneoeaoo?a iea/a (?aaeueiee ??aaiue – 27,68 ni, na?aaei?e
noaiaea?o – 34,90 ni), ia?aaeie?//y (a?aeiia?aeii 23,96 ni ? 29,04 ni),
a?oaeae (89,47 ni ? 101,69 ni). Ianyae oe?, oae??, noaaia
iaaeeaeathoueny aei na?aaeiueiai noaiaea?oo (a?aeiia?aeii 35,62 ? 37,65;
76,89 ? 76,95; 53,72 ? 54,60).

Aeyaey?oueny aeineoue nai???aeia ea?oeia: o? ianyae ?icaeoeo i’yc?a,
yeei, i?aeoe/ii, ia i?eae?ey?oueny oaaaa (ia?aaeie?//y, oey, oae?y,
noaaii), iathoue aeineoue aenieee ?iaeaen ?icaeoeo, a o?, ui ?
oeaio?aeueieie a aoeaoe/i?e a?iianoeoe? (iea/a, a?oaee), i?aeoe/ii ia
?icaeiai?. Niinoa??aa?oueny iaaia aeenaa?iii?y ?icaeoeo ioneoeaoo?e
??cieo /anoei o?ea. Oiio o i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a
iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe niaoe?aeuei? o?ce/i? ai?aae c iaoith
ei?aeoe?? ?o aoaeiae o?ea.

??aaiue o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? nooaeaio?a iaaenieee. Iaeieae/a
?icaeiai? neea, aeo?eaae?noue ? oaeaee?nii-neeia? yeino?. Aeaui aeuee
?icaeoie iathoue aio/e?noue ? oaeaee?noue. Nooaeaioe iaei??? a?eiai?
a?oie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aaeeeith iaiaeii??aei?noth o?ce/ii?
i?aeaioiaeaiino?. Oae, 36,25% nooaeaio?a iathoue iecueeee ??aaiue
?icaeoeo neee, 12,5% – ieae/a na?aaeiueiai ? 18,75% – na?aaei?e, 11,25%
– aeua na?aaeiueiai ? 21,25% – aenieee. Iiae?aia oaiaeaioe?y
caa??aa?oueny ? a ?icaeoeia? ?ioeo o?ce/ieo yeinoae.

Ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino? nooaeaio?a oaeiae oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aaeeeei
?iceeaeii ?acoeueoao?a. Nenoiee/iee a?oa??aeueiee oene nooaeaio?a, a
na?aaeiueiio, noaiiaeoue 128,31 ii ?o.no., ae?anoiee/iee oene – 71,81 ii
?o.no. Na?aaei? aaee/eie nenoiee/iiai ? ae?anoiee/iiai oeneo nooaeaio?a
ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao ii?ie (a?aeiia?aeii 100-129 ii ?o.no., 60-79 ii
?o.no.). I?ioa a ie?aieo nooaeaio?a niinoa??aa?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy
a?oa??aeueiiai oeneo. Oae, o 27,5 % nooaeaio?a a?aei?/a?oueny
i?aeaeuaiiy nenoiee/iiai oeneo aei 5 % a?ae ii?ie; o 8,75 % nooaeaio?a –
aei 10 % ? 2,5 % nooaeaio?a – a?eueoa 10 %. I?aeaeuaiiy ae?anoiee/iiai
oeneo aei 5 % a?ae ii?ie niinoa??aa?oueny o 10,0 % nooaeaio?a; aei 10 %
– o 2,5 % nooaeaio?a, a?eueoa 10 % – o 6,25 % nooaeaio?a.

?ic?aooiie aaeaioaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo nenoaie e?iaiia?ao aei oaeoi??a
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ca ?.I.Aa?anueeei iieacaa, ui o nooaeaio?a
niinoa??aa?oueny c?ea aaeaioaoe??. ?iaeaen o?ce/iiai noaio ca
I.ss.I??iaiaith o nooaeaio?a neeaaea? 0,505 oi.iae., ui a?aeiia?aea?
iecueeiio ??aith. ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee ?iciiae?e iieacaa, ui 57,5 %
nooaeaio?a iathoue iecueeee ??aaiue o?ce/iiai noaio, 40,0 % – na?aaei?e
? eeoa 2,5 % – aeua na?aaeiueiai. Aenieee ??aaiue o?ce/iiai noaio ia
aeyaeaiee o aeiaeiiai nooaeaioa.

O?ce/ia i?aoeacaeaoi?noue (PWC170) nooaeaio?a ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao
123,51 Ao. Noiniaii aei aaae o?ea, o?ce/ia i?aoeacaeaoi?noue noaiiaeoue
1,9 Ao/ea. Oe? iieacieee aeacothoue ia ieae/a na?aaei?e ??aaiue o?ce/ii?
i?aoeacaeaoiino? nooaeaio?a.

Noai caei?ia’y nooaeaionueei? iieiae? ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei iineaaeaiiy.
O i?ioean? iaa/aiiy o aoc? ciaioo?oueny e?euee?noue nooaeaio?a iniiaii?
a?oie (ia 23,15%), a ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue i?aeaioia/i? (ia 10,3%)
? niaoe?aeueii? (ia 10,2%). Iae/ano?oa nooaeaioe iathoue caoai?thaaiiy
i?aai?a aeeoaiiy, ia?aiai? nenoaie, i?aai?a /oooy, i?aai?a o?aaeaiiy. Ca
inoaii? ?iee a?aeaoeeny cia/i? ci?ie o oa?aeoa?? caoai?thaaiue.
Ciaioeeanue e?euee?noue oai?ia ia?aiai? nenoaie, i?aai?a /oooy, nenoaie
e?iaiia?ao, i?aai?a o?aaeaiiy, e?noeiai-i’yciai? nenoaie. I?ioa cia/ii
c?inea e?euee?noue oai?ia i?aai?a aeeoaiiy. Oea ni?e/eieei caaaeueia
c?inoaiiy caoai?thaaiino? nooaeaio?a ca /ioe?e inoaii? ?iee ia 55,58%.

Iieacieee o?ce/iiai noaio nooaeaio?a oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaaieie
aca?iica’yceaie. Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue a??ia?aeieo aca?iica’yce?a
niinoa??aa?oueny i?ae aio?iiiiao?e/ieie iieacieeaie i?aai?cio.
Iaeo?ni?oa aca?iiiia’ycai? i?ae niaith iana o?ea, aeiaaeeia o?ea, ianya
a?oaeii? ee?oee, ianyae iea/a, ia?aaeie?//y, oae??, oaca, noaaia,
aii?eee, cai’ynoy, oiaueia oe??ii-aee?iaeo neeaaeie a?oeaina oa iaae
eeoaiaith e?noeith. Ie?ai? iieacieee o?ce/iiai noaio iathoue cai?ioi?
ca’ycee. Cie?aia, o?eaae?noue aeno ia c?aiooeo ?oeao ia? a?ae’?iio
ei?aeyoe?th ?c aeiaaeeiith o?ea, ianith o?ea, ianyaii a?oaeii? ee?oee,
ianyaaie oe?, ia?aaeie?//y, oae??, oaca, noaaia, aii?eee, oiaueiith
oe??ii-aee?iaeo neeaaeie a?oeaina, iaae eeoaiaith e?noeith.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “?aae?caoe?y aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai
i?aeoiaeo o o?ce/iiio aeoiaaii? nooaeaio?a” i?iaaaeaii ia??oiooaaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueii? oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy, aena?oeththoueny iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe canoinoaaiiy aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o i?ioean?
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a.

Aiane?aeie eeanoa?iiai aiae?co o?ce/iiai noaio nooaeaio?a aeyaeeiny, ui
iaee?aua aeae?eythoueny eeanoa?e ca ?ic?aooieiaeie e?eoa??yie (?iaeaen
Eaoea, ?aeaaeueia iana o?ea ca Eoia?ii, ?iaeaen i?iii?oe?eiino?,
aaeaioaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae ca ?.I.Aa?anueeei, ?iaeaen o?ce/iiai noaio ca
I.ss.I??iaiaith, o?ce/ia i?aoeacaeaoi?noue PWC170). Oea iiaeia iiynieoe
oei, ui aiie a?aeia?aaeathoue eiiieaen oaeoe/ieo iieaciee?a i?aai?cio,
?o aca?iica’ycee, a, ioaea, ? a?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieie oa aoaeoeaieie aeey
aeei?enoaiiy ye e?eoa???a aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo. Ia iniia?
aecia/aieo e?eoa???a aoei aeae?eaii i’youe eeanoa??a (a?oi nooaeaio?a).
Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaa, ui ae?oaee ? /aoaa?oee
eeanoa?e ? ia?ao?aei? ? noaoenoe/ii ia a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae e?aei?o
a?oi. Oiio ie i?e?aeiaee ?o aei ia?oiai ? i’yoiai. Aiane?aeie oaeeo ae?e
ie aecia/eee o?e a?oie nooaeaio?a, ye? ae?noaee oiiai? iacae: ia?oa,
ae?oaa ? o?aoy. I?aeoe/ii ca an?ia iieacieeaie i?aaenoaaieee a?oi
a??ia?aeii a?ae??ciyeeny iaeia a?ae iaeii? (oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1

??aaiue o?ce/iiai noaio nooaeaio?a ??cieo a?oi

IieacieeeA?oie nooaeaio?aIa?oaAe?oaaO?aoy?iaeaen Eaoea,
a/ni322,982,63373,372,15428,262,26?aeaaeueia iana o?ea ca Eoia?ii,
ea66,770,3167,910,4869,380,53Iaaeeeoeiaa aaaa, ea-
10,30,510,980,663,050,44?iaeaen i?iii?oe?eiino?,
%49,570,2350,430,1950,690,19?icaeoie i’yc?a ia?aaeie?//y,
ni28,280,1328,720,1729,400,15?icaeoie i’yc?a iea/a,
ni33,990,1534,520,2135,330,18?icaeoie i’yc?a a?oaeae,
ni99,020,45100,570,61102,930,54?icaeoie i’yc?a oae??,
ni74,930,3476,110,4670,417,9?icaeoie i’yc?a noaaia,
ni53,160,2454,00,3355,270,29?icaeoie i’yc?a aii?eee,
ni35,410,1635,970,3336,820,19Aeeiaiiiao??y eeno?,
ea36,130,2339,850,0739,870,02Noaiiaa neea,
ea122,650,06128,520,19140,330,73Aen ia c?aiooeo ?oeao,
n43,40,0547,460,1643,130,04No?eaie o aeiaaeeio c i?noey,
ni216,670,63222,620,93218,550,27I?aeoyaoaaiiy ia ia?aeeaaeei?,
?ac?a7,520,038,650,068,390,01??aiiaaaa, ?ac?a ca 1
oa2,00,011,810,0071,940,004*iaieeiaee a?a
10o5i,n12,090,0212,390,0112,450,01Iaoee aia?aae c iieiaeaiiy neaey/e,
ni27,00,0218,130,1416,90,02I?aei?iaiiy a n?ae ca 30 n,
?ac?a27,130,1224,580,0423,580,03I?iaeiaaeaiiy oaae.1

*anoioa iinooeoaaiiy, e-noue oeeee?a9,260,029,320,039,410,06AI ca
?.I.Aa?anueeei, oi.iae.7,410,056,610,057,780,05Na?aaei?e oene,
ii.?o.no.88,440,5990,420,6991,00,84?ON ca I.ss.I??iaiaith,
oi.iae.0,500,010,540,010,470,007Aeneo?n?y a?oaeii? ee?oee,
ni6,400,265,610,146,130,18O?ce/ia i?aoeacaeaoi?noue (PWC170),
Ao105,783,32159,270,7888,322,32

Nooaeaioe, ui iaeaaeaoue aei ia?oi? a?oie, iathoue iaaeinoaoith iano
o?ea a?aeiia?aeii aei c?inoo, cieaeai? ianyae /anoei o?ea,
ieae/ana?aaei? ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino?, aenie? iieacieee ?icaeoeo
oaeaeeino? oa aio/eino?.

I?aaenoaaieee ae?oai? a?oie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iioeiaeueieie
aaai?inoiaeie iieacieeaie, na?aaei?ie ianyaaie /anoei o?ea oa
ooieoe?iiaeueieie iiaeeeainoyie, aenieei ?icaeoeii a?aeiinii? neee ?
oaeaee?nii-neeiaeo yeinoae.

Nooaeaioe o?aouei? a?oie iathoue iaaeeeoeiao iano o?ea, ia??aiii??ii
?icaeiai? ianyae o?ea (ianyae, i’yce yeeo aaciina?aaeiuei aa?ooue
o/anoue o o?aioaaii? (iea/a, a?oaee), ?icaeiai? neaai, ?, iaaiaee,
ianyae oae??, noaaia iathoue aeineoue aaeee? ?ici??e), iaeieae/?
ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino? oa aenie? iieacieee aaniethoii? neee.

A?aoiaoth/e ??ciee ??aaiue o?ce/iiai noaio iieiae?, ie, ia iniia?
aeine?aeaeaiue E.ss.?aauaiei (1988, 1997) ?ic?iaeee ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
cania?a icaei?ia/eo caiyoue ie?aii aeey eiaeii? a?oie nooaeaio?a (oaae.
2).

Oaaeeoey 2

Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy cania?a icaei?ia/iai o?aioaaiiy nooaeaio?a c ??ciei
??aiai o?ce/iiai noaio

Ni?yiiaai?noue ai?aaA?oie nooaeaio?aIa?oaAe?oaaO?aoyE?eue-e?noue aiaeei%
a?ae caaa-eueii? o?eaa-eino?E?eue-e?noue aiaeei% a?ae caaaeue-ii?
o?eaa-eino?E?eue-e?noue aiaeei% a?ae caaaeue-ii?
o?eaa-eino?Aeo?eaae?noue (aa?iaiee ?aaeei)423042307050Neea ? neeiaa
aeo?eaae?noue705056403525I?iaeiaaeaiiy oaae.2

Oaeaee?noue ? oaeaee?nia
aeo?eaae?noue757575Ni?eoi?noue141021151410Aio/e?noue7514101410

?acoeueoaoe oaaeeoe? iieacothoue, ui o nooaeaio?a ia?oi? a?oie 50 % /ano
a?ae caaaeueii? o?eaaeino? caiyoue a?aeaiaeeoueny ia aeeiiaiiy ai?aa
aeey ?icaeoeo neee ? neeiai? aeo?eaaeino?. Oea coiiaeth?oueny oei, ui
oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth nooaeaio?a oe??? a?oie ? iaaeinoaoiy aaaa
noiniaii c?inoo, iae? ianyae ??cieo /anoei o?ea. Neeiaa o?aioaaiiy
aeicaieeoue ?i ca?eueoeoe aaao ca ?aooiie ?icaeoeo i’yciai? nenoaie.

O nooaeaio?a ae?oai? a?oie oaeiae aeineoue aenieee a?aenioie /ano (40%)
a?aeaiaeeoueny ia ?icaeoie neee, ui coiiaeth?oueny ?ioa?anii nooaeaio?a
aei oeeo caiyoue, aaeeeith aeoeai?noth i?ae /an aeeiiaiiy ai?aa.
Nooaeaioai o?aouei? a?oie ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ia neeiao i?aeaioiaeo
cao?a/oaaoe 25% iaa/aeueiiai /ano. I?e/iio niin?a aeeiiaiiy iiaeiai
i?ioiaeeoe a aa?iaiiio ?aaeei?.

Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth nooaeaio?a o?aouei? a?oie ? oa, ui o ieo
iaeieae/ee ??aaiue o?ce/iiai noaio ? o?ce/ii? i?aoeacaeaoiino?,
coiiaeaiee, ye i?aaeei, iaaeeeoeiaith ianith o?ea ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy
aee?iai? oeaieie. Oiio ?i iio??ai? ai?aae, ye? a ia o?eueee iie?iooaaee
o?ce/io i?aoeacaeaoi?noue ? ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino? i?aai?cio, aea e
ni?eyee cieaeaiith iane o?ea. Naia oiio o i?ia?ai? caiyoue aeey
nooaeaio?a o?aouei? a?oie ia?aaaaeathoue iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui ?icaeaathoue
aeo?eaae?noue (50%).

Cia/ia oaaaa aa?iaiei ai?aaai a ?ioeo a?oiao iiynith?oueny
iaiao?aei?noth ?icaeoeo ooieoe?iiaeueieo iiaeeeainoae i?aai?cio
nooaeaio?a, caaaeueiee ??aaiue yeeo ieae/a na?aaeiueiai aai na?aaei?e.

Niaoeeo?ea aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo iieyaa? o aeei?enoaii? ??ciiai
ianyao oa ?ioaineaiino? iaaaioaaeaiue, iaiaeiaeiaei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi
cania?a icaei?ia/iai o?aioaaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi ??aiii??iiai,
ia?ai?iiiai ? iiaoi?iiai iaoiae?a o?aioaaiiy caeaaeii a?ae o?ce/iiai
noaio nooaeaio?a. Iioeiaeuei? ioeuenia? ?aaeeie aeey nooaeaio?a i?ae /an
aa?iaieo iaaaioaaeaiue iiaeai? a oaae.3.

?acoeueoaoe, iiaeai? a oaaeeoe?, iieacothoue, ui a?aie/ii aeiionoeiee
ioeuen o nooaeaio?a noaiiaeoue 202 oae/oa. Ioeueniaee ?aaeei aeey
a?aeiiaethaaeueieo iaaaioaaeaiue (oo?eci, ?caea ia aaeineiaae?,
aaneoaaiiy oiui) ia iiaeiai ia?aaeuoaaoe 120 oae/oa (aeey ia?oi? ?
o?aouei? a?oi) ? 130 oae/oa (aeey ae?oai? a?oie).

Oaaeeoey 3

Ioeuenia? ?aaeeie aeey caiyoue nooaeaio?a oeeee?/ieie ai?aaaie

A?oie noo-aeaio?aA?a-ie/ii aeiion-oeiee ioeuenAeey a?aeiia-ethth/eo
iaaai-oaaeaiueAeey iaaaioaaeaiue o?aioaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o10

oa20

oa30

oa40

oa50

oa60 oaIa?oa202 120177167157147137127Ae?oaa202
130180172162152142132O?aoy202 120172162152142132120

Ioeueniaee ?aaeei aeey iaaaioaaeaiue o?aioaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ??ciee a
caeaaeiino? a?ae o?eaaeino? aeeiiaiiy o?ce/ii? ai?aae. Iai?eeeaae, aeey
20- oaeeeiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ioeueniaee ?aaeei iiaeiai ciaoiaeeoenue a
iaaeao 167 oae/oa aeey nooaeaio?a ia?oi? a?oie, 172 oae/oa – aeey
ae?oai? a?oie ? 152 oae/oa – aeey o?aouei? a?oie, a aeey 50-oaeeeiiiai –
a?aeiia?aeii 137, 142 ? 132 oae/oa.

?icaeoie neee ? neeiai? aeo?eaaeino? i?iaiaeeany ca aeiiiiiaith ai?aa
aoeaoe/ii? a?iianoeee, o?ce/ieo ai?aa c iaoyaeaiiyi oa ia a?iianoe/ieo
i?eeaaeao. Caaaeath/e ia iniaeeaino? o?ce/iiai noaio nooaeaio?a, ye?
iaeaaeaoue aei ??cieo a?oi, ie, a?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai, ?ic?iaeee
aeicoaaiiy neeiaeo iaaaioaaeaiue.

Aeey ca?eueoaiiy i’yciai? neee nooaeaio?a ia?oi? a?oie ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
aeeiioaaoe aoeaoe/i? ai?aae a 5-6 i?aeoiaeao. Eiaeia ai?aaa
iiaoi?th?oueny 8-12 ?ac?a, o?eaae?noue a?aeii/eieo i?ae na??yie 1,5-3,0
oa. Ai?aae aeeiiothoueny o iia?eueiiio ? na?aaeiueiio oaiiao (?aaeei
ca?eueoaiiy i’yciai? iane).

Nooaeaioai ae?oai? a?oie ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeeiioaaoe ai?aae o 4-5
i?aeoiaeao c aaee/eiith iaoyaeaiue 8-12 ?ac?a ? o?eaae?noth a?aeii/eieo
1,0-2,0 oa. Oaii aeeiiaiiy – na?aaei?e.

Iaoiaeeea ?icaeoeo neee aeey i?aaenoaaiee?a o?aouei? a?oie aeaui
a?ae??ciy?oueny: e?euee?noue i?aeoiae?a ciaioo?oueny aei 3-4 ?ac?a, a
e?euee?noue iiaoi?aiue ca?eueoo?oueny aei 15-25 ?ac?a. Ai?aae
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeeiioaaoe o oaeaeeiio oaii? c o?eaae?noth ia?a?a i?ae
i?aeoiaeaie 40-60 n (?aaeei ciaioaiiy aee?iai? oeaieie).

Iio??aii caoaaaeeoe, ui ci?ia oaiio aeeiiaiiy neeiaeo ai?aa, /a?aoaaiiy
?o ?c ai?aaaie ia aio/e?noue ? ?icneaaeaiiy neeaaeathoue aaeee?
iiaeeeaino? aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy ?ooiaiai ? aanoeaoey?iiai aia?aoo. A
naith /a?ao, eiiieaene neeiaeo ai?aa ie /a?aoaaee c iioeiaeueieie
oeeee?/ieie ? oaeaee?nieie ai?aaaie, ui aeaaaei oi?ioee aoaeo ?icaeoeo
aeo?eaaeino?.

Iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio iieacaa aenieo aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaii?
iaoiaeeee aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o o?ce/iiio aeoiaaii?
nooaeaio?a. I?aaenoaaieee aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie iaee a??ia?aeii aeuee
o?ce/iee noai, i?ae eiio?ieueii? (oaae.4).

Oaaeeoey 4

??aaiue o?ce/iiai noaio nooaeaio?a eiio?ieueii? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii?
a?oi i?ney aenia?eiaioo

Oanoia? ai?aaeA?oie nooaeaio?aA??ia?ae-i?noue ??cieoe?Eiio?ieueia

O SxAenia?eiai-oaeueia OSxIana o?ea, ea68,840,7572,360,690,05Aeiaaeeia
o?ea, ni177,210,98177,340,860,05Ianya a?oaeii? ee?oee,
niniie?e89,450,5693,520,590,001aaeeo95,610,6198,810,70,001aeaeeo88,810,5
789,910,540,05Ianyae,
niiea/a27,640,3930,530,290,001noaaia53,740,3153,850,410,05oae??76,910,58
77,010,640,05Aen ia c?aiooeo ?oeao,
n45,381,1756,241,090,001I?aeoyaoaaiiy o aen?,
?ac?a9,450,2114,090,180,001No?eaie o aeiaaeeio c i?noey,
ni219,452,08242,561,850,001A?a 100i, n14,010,1213,450,140,05A?a 3000i,
oa, n13,480,1213,020,10,05Iaoee aia?aae ?c iieiaeaiiy neaey/e,
ni17,240,4617,350,240,05RWC170, Ao124,185,31143,874,190,05?ON ca
I.ss.I??iaiaith, oi.iae.0,5060,010,7260,020,001AI ca ?.I.Aa?anueeei,
oi.iae.6,250,074,240,060,001

?acoeueoaoe, iiaeai? a oaaeeoe?, iieacothoue, ui o nooaeaio?a
aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieueiith iaea?eueoa c?inee
ianyae a?oaeii? ee?oee o noai? niieith ? ia aaeeoo, ianya iea/a (?
0,001) oa iana o?ea (? 0,05). I?aeaeuaiiy ianya?a oeeo /anoei o?ea
iiynith?oueny c?inoaiiyi i’yciai? iane ca ?aooiie aoeaoe/iiai
o?aioaaiiy. Ianyae noaaia ? oae?? o nooaeaio?a ia a?ae??ciythoueny, ui
coiiaeaii ?o c?inoaiiyi o i?aaenoaaiee?a ia?oi? a?oie ? cieaeaiiyi –
o o?ao?e a?oi?. Aeiaaeeia o?ea nooaeaio?a eiio?ieueii? oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oi oaeiae a??ia?aeii ia a?ae??ciy?oueny (?
0,05), ui coiiaeaii cieaeaiiyi oaii?a ?inoo o?ea o ethaeae a?eii 18-20
?ie?a.

?iaeea?aeoaeueiee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a iaaeaaia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo
iieacaa, ui iaeaeuee c??no ianya?a ? iane o?ea niinoa??aa?oueny o
i?aaenoaaiee?a ia?oi? a?oie; iaeieae/ee – o o?ao?e a?oi?.

?icaeoie o?ce/ieo yeinoae o nooaeaio?a aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie
a??ia?aeii aeuee. Iaea?eueoa ??cieoey niinoa??aa?oueny ca neeiaeie ?
oaeaee?nii-neeiaeie yeinoyie (? 0,001), aeaui iaioa ca oaeaee?noth ?
aeo?eaae?noth (? 0,05). A?aenooi?noue ??cieoe? i?ae i?aaenoaaieeaie
eiio?ieueii? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oi o ?icaeoeo aio/eino?
iiynith?oueny iaioith oaaaith aeoiaaiiy oe??? yeino?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino?
nooaeaio?a aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie oaeiae aeu? i?ae o eiio?ieuei?e.
Iaea?eueoa ??cieoey niinoa??aa?oueny ca ?iaeaenii o?ce/iiai noaio ?
aaeaioaoe?eiei iioaioe?aeii nenoaie e?iaiia?ao aei oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua (? 0,001), aeaui iaioa – ca o?ce/iith i?aoeacaeaoi?noth
(? 0,05). I?aeaeuaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo iiaeeeainoae nooaeaio?a
aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie iiynith?oueny ci?noii iaa/aeueieo caiyoue.

Aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o
o?ce/iiio aeoiaaii? nooaeaio?a aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe ?o iioeaaoe?th aei
caiyoue, aeoeai?noue i?ae /an aeeiiaiiy o?ce/ieo ai?aa ?, a oe?eiio,
?ioa?an aei o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e.

Oaeei /eiii, iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio iieacaa aenieo aoaeoeai?noue
cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o o?ce/iiio
aeoiaaii? nooaeaio?a, ui ? iniiaith aeey oe?ieiai ?? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o
iaa/aeueiee i?ioean aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? “Aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy”
io?eiai? o?e a?oie aeaieo: i?aeoaa?aeaeoth/? (1 a?oia); aeai?, ui
aeiiiaiththoue ?nioth/? ?ic?iaee (2 a?oia) oa aaniethoii iia? c aeaii?
i?iaeaie (3 a?oia).

O aeine?aeaeaii? i?aeoaa?aeaeai? aeai? i?i iaaenieee ??aaiue o?ce/iiai
?icaeoeo ? o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? nooaeaio?a, iaiaeii??aei?noue
o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? iieiae?, aca?iica’ycee i?ae iieacieeaie
o?ce/iiai noaio, ui anoaiiaeai? a i?aoeyo A.Ae.?aeiaea (1997),
I.A.Ae?icae (1998), O.A.Ee?e/aiea (1998), E.O.Oae? (1996),
TH.A.Iiaeoeueeiai (1997), Ae.I.I?neiai? (1996).

Aei ae?oai? a?oie io?eiaieo aeaieo iaeaaeaoue ?acoeueoaoe uiaei ??aiy
ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? ? caei?ia’y nooaeaio?a, ?o noaaeaiiy
aei o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e, ci?no icaei?ia/eo i?ia?ai c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

Aaniethoii iiaeie ? ?ic?iaeai? e?eoa??? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o
o?ce/iiio aeoiaaii? nooaeaio?a c icaei?ia/ith ni?yiiaai?noth,
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy cania?a icaei?ia/iai o?aioaaiiy ? aeicoaaiiy
iaaaioaaeaiue aeey nooaeaio?a c ??ciei ??aiai o?ce/iiai noaio.

AENIIAEE

1. Ia iniia? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae anoaiiaeaii, ui
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae o o?ce/iiio aeoiaaii? nooaeaio?a ?
aoaeoeaiei caniaii iie?ioaiiy o?ce/iiai noaio ? caei?ia’y nooaeaio?a.
Iaoeiaeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie cai?iiiiiaai? caniae ? iaoiaee
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo, e?eoa??? iiae?eo nooaeaio?a ia
iaeii??aei? a?oie a?aeiia?aeii aei o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo, o?ce/ii?
i?aeaioiaeaiino?, nii?oeaieo aeinyaiaiue, oeio ia?aiai? nenoaie.
Iaaea/aieie eeoathoueny ieoaiiy iiooeo iioeiaeueieo e?eoa???a
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o o?ce/iiio aeoiaaii? nooaeaio?a c
icaei?ia/ith ni?yiiaai?noth, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy cania?a, iaoiae?a ? oi?i
iaa/aiiy, aeicoaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue a?aeiia?aeii aei ??aiy o?ce/iiai
noaio iieiae?.

2. ??aaiue o?ce/iiai noaio nooaeaio?a aoc?a iaaenieee, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
cia/iith iaiaeii??aei?noth ?acoeueoao?a ? ia? ?aca?ae aeey iie?ioaiiy.

Na?aaei? aaee/eie o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo nooaeaio?a ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao
ii?ie. ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? iieacieee o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo iieiae?
iaiaeii??aei? ? iathoue aaeeeo ?ica?aei?noue. Cie?aia, ?iaeaen Eaoea o
37,66% nooaeaio?a iioeiaeueiee, o 47,05% – ieae/ee a?ae ii?ie, a o
14,29% – aeuee.

Caaaeueiee ??aaiue o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? nooaeaio?a iaaenieee.
Iaeieae/a ?icaeiai? neea, aeo?eaae?noue ? oaeaee?nii-neeia? yeino?.
Aeaui aeuee ?icaeoie iathoue aio/e?noue ? oaeaee?noue. Nooaeaioe iaei???
a?eiai? a?oie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaiaeii??aei?noth o?ce/ii?
i?aeaioiaeaiino?. Caaaeii, 37% iieiae? iathoue iecueeee ??aaiue o?ce/ii?
i?aeaioiaeaiino?, 48% – na?aaei?e ? 15% – aenieee, ui iaoiiaeth?
iaiao?aei?noue aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o o?ce/iiio aeoiaaii?.

Ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino? nooaeaio?a iaaenie?. Oae, ?iaeaen o?ce/iiai
noaio (ca I.ss.I??iaiaith) a?aeiia?aea? iecueeiio ??aith, aaeaioaoe?eiee
iioaioe?ae nenoaie e?iaiia?ao aei oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua (ca
?.I.Aa?anueeei) ciaoiaeeoueny o oac? c?eao, o?ce/ia i?aoeacaeaoi?noue
(PWC170) ia? ??aaiue ieae/a na?aaeiueiai.

Noai caei?ia’y nooaeaionueei? iieiae? ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei iineaaeaiiy.
O i?ioean? iaa/aiiy o aoc? ciaioo?oueny e?euee?noue nooaeaio?a iniiaii?
a?oie (ia 23,15%), a ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue i?aeaioia/i? (ia 10,3%)
? niaoe?aeueii? (ia 10,2%). Ca inoaii? ?iee a?aeaoeeny cia/i? ci?ie o
oa?aeoa?? caoai?thaaiino?. Ciaioeeanue e?euee?noue oai?ia ia?aiai?
nenoaie, i?aai?a /oooy, nenoaie e?iaiia?ao, i?aai?a o?aaeaiiy,
e?noeiai-i’yciai? nenoaie. I?ioa cia/ii c?inea e?euee?noue oai?ia
i?aai?a aeeoaiiy. Oea ni?e/eieei caaaeueia c?inoaiiy caoai?thaaiino?
nooaeaio?a ca /ioe?e ?iee ia 55,58%.

3. Ia iniia? eeanoa?iiai aiae?co o?ce/iiai noaio nooaeaio?a aecia/ai?
e?eoa??? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o o?ce/iiio aeoiaaii? nooaeaio?a
c icaei?ia/ith ni?yiiaai?noth. Aiie neeaaeathoueny ?c ?ic?aooieiaeo
iieaciee?a ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?aai?cio (?iaeaen
Eaoea, ?aeaaeueia iana o?ea ca Eoia?ii, ?iaeaen i?iii?oe?eiino?, ?iaeaen
o?ce/iiai noaio ca I.ss.I??iaiaith, aaeaioaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae ca
?.I.Aa?anueeei, o?ce/ia i?aoeacaeaoi?noue PWC170), ui eiiieaenii
a?aeia?aaeathoue noai i?aai?cio nooaeaio?a, a, ioaea, ? a?eueo
?ioi?iaoeaieie.

4. ?aae?caoe?y aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o i?ioean? o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a ia?aaeaa/a? ia iniia? aecia/aieo e?eoa???a iiae?e
iieiae? ia o?e a?oie.

Nooaeaioe, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei ia?oi? a?oie, iathoue iaaeinoaoith aaao
noiniaii aei c?inoo, cieaeai? ianyae /anoei o?ea, ieae/ana?aei?
ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino?, aenie? iieacieee ?icaeoeo oaeaeeino? oa
aio/eino?.

I?aaenoaaieee ae?oai? a?oie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iioeiaeueieie
aaai?inoiaeie iieacieeaie, na?aaei?ie ianyaaie /anoei o?ea oa
ooieoe?iiaeueieie iiaeeeainoyie, aenieei ?icaeoeii a?aeiinii? neee ?
oaeaee?nii-neeiaeo yeinoae.

Nooaeaioe o?aouei? a?oie iathoue iaaeeeoeiao iano o?ea, ia??aiii??ii
?icaeiai? ianyae /anoei o?ea, iecuee? ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino? oa
aenie? iieacieee aaniethoii? neee.

5. O i?ioean? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ??cia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy cania?a icaei?ia/iai o?aioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii aei ??aiy
ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio nooaeaio?a. Aeey nooaeaio?a ia?oi? a?oie
50% /ano a?ae caaaeueii? o?eaaeino? caiyoue a?aeaiaeeoueny ia aeeiiaiiy
ai?aa aeey ?icaeoeo neee ? neeiai? aeo?eaaeino?, 30% – aeo?eaaeino?, 10%
– ni?eoiino? ? 10% – oaeaeeino? ? aio/eino?. Nooaeaioai, ye? iaeaaeaoue
aei ae?oai? a?oie, 40% /ano ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny a?aeaiaeeoe aeey ?icaeoeo
neee, 30% – aeo?eaaeino?, 15% – ni?eoiino?, 10% – aio/eino? ? 5% –
oaeaeeino?. I?aaenoaaieee o?aouei? a?oie 50% /ano aeo?a/athoue ia
?icaeoie aeo?eaaeino?, 25% – neee ? neeiai? aeo?eaaeino?, 20% –
ni?eoiino? ? aio/eino?, 5% – oaeaeeino?.

6. O i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy c icaei?ia/ith ni?yiiaai?noth a?aie/ii
aeiionoeiee ioeuen nooaeaio?a ia iiaeiai ia?aaeuoaaoe 202 oae/oa.
Ioeueniaee ?aaeei aeey a?aeiiaethth/eo iaaaioaaeaiue ciaoiaeeoueny a
iaaeao 120 oae/oa (aeey nooaeaio?a ia?oi? ? o?aouei? a?oi) ? 130 oae/oa
(aeey nooaeaio?a ae?oai? a?oie). Ioeueniaee ?aaeei aeey oeeee?/ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue o?aioaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ??ciee caeaaeii a?ae o?eaaeino?
aeeiiaiiy o?ce/ieo ai?aa. Oae, aeey 20-oaeeeiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
ioeueniaee ?aaeei iiaeiai aooe o iaaeao 167 oae/oa aeey nooaeaio?a
ia?oi? a?oie, 172 oae/oa – aeey nooaeaio?a ae?oai? a?oie ? 152 oae/oa –
aeey nooaeaio?a o?aouei? a?oie.

7. Aeicoaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue aeey ?icaeoeo neee ? neeiai? aeo?eaaeino?
caeaaeeoue a?ae ??aiy o?ce/iiai noaio nooaeaio?a ? ni?yiiaaiino?
o?aioaaiiy. Aeey ?icaeoeo neee o nooaeaio?a ia?oi? a?oie
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeeiioaaoe aoeaoe/i? ai?aae o 5-6 i?aeoiaeao. Eiaeia
ai?aaa iiaoi?th?oueny 8-12 ?ac?a, o?eaae?noue a?aeii/eieo i?ae na??yie
1,5-3 oa. Ai?aae aeeiiothoueny o iia?eueiiio ? na?aaeiueiio oaii?
(?aaeei ca?eueoaiiy i’yciai? iane). Nooaeaioe ae?oai? a?oie aeeiiothoue
ai?aae o 4-5 i?aeoiaeao c aaee/eiith iaoyaeaiue 8-12 iiaoi?aiue ?
o?eaae?noth a?aeii/eieo 1-2 oa. Oaii aeeiiaiiy – na?aaei?e. Aeey
nooaeaio?a, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei o?aouei? a?oie, e?euee?noue i?aeoiae?a
ciaioo?oueny aei 3-4 ?ac?a, a e?euee?noue iiaoi?aiue ca?eueoo?oueny aei
15-25. Ai?aae aeeiiothoueny o oaeaeeiio oaii? c o?eaae?noth a?aeii/eieo
i?ae na??yie 40-60 n (?aaeei ciaioaiiy aee?iai? oeaieie).

8. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o
i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a cia/ii i?aeaeuo? ?o ianyae
a?oaeii? ee?oee, iea/a (? 0,001), iano o?ea (? 0,05), ?icaeoie neeiaeo,
oaeaee?nii-neeiaeo yeinoae (? 0,001), oaeaeeino? ? aeo?eaaeino? (?
0,05), ?iaeaen o?ce/iiai noaio, aaeaioaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae nenoaie
e?iaiia?ao aei oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua (? 0,001), o?ce/io
i?aoeacaeaoi?noue (? 0,05), a oaeiae iioeaaoe?th aei nenoaiaoe/ieo
caiyoue o?ce/ieie ai?aaaie oa ?ioa?an aei o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia i?aoaiaeo? ia ae/a?iia aea/aiiy an?o
aniaeo?a ia?aii? i?iaeaie. Iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iio?aao? aea/aiiy
iioeaaoe?? nooaeaio?a c ??ciei ??aiai o?ce/iiai noaio aei
o?ceoeueoo?ii-icaei?ia/i? ae?yeueiino?, anoaiiaeaiiy aca?iica’yceo
ineo?/iiai ? o?ce/iiai caei?ia’y nooaeaio?a, neeaaeaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo i?ia?ai icaei?ia/iai o?aioaaiiy c iaaieo aeae?a
o?ce/ieo ai?aa.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Iae?iii I.I. I?aai?caoe?y ? iaoiaeeea aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o
i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a / Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??. –
Eooeuee: Iaaenoe?’y, 1998. – 33 n.

2. Iae?iii I.I. Iaiao?aei?noue aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo a i?ioean?
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a // Iieiae?aeiee iaoeiaee a?niee AAeO. –
1997. – ? 1. – N.44-48.

3. Iae?iii I.I. Noai caei?ia’y nooaeaio?a // Iaaeaaia?ea, ineoieia?y oa
iaaeeei-a?ieia?/i? i?iaeaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo: Ca??ea
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. – Oa?e?a: OOI?, 1998. – ? 2. – N.3-5.

4. Iae?iii I.I. Aca?iica’ycee iieaciee?a o?ce/iiai noaio nooaeaio?a //
Iaaeaaia?ea, ineoieia?y oa iaaeeei-a?ieia?/i? i?iaeaie o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo: Ca??ea iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. – Oa?e?a: OOI?, 1998. – ?
4. – N.3-5.

5. Iae?iii I.I. Iniaeeaino? o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaeaiino? nooaeaio?a //
Iaaeaaia?ea, ineoieia?y oa iaaeeei-a?ieia?/i? i?iaeaie o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo: Ca??ea iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. – Oa?e?a: OOI?, 1999. – ?
1. – N.17-18.

6. Iae?iii I.I. Ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaeeeaino? nooaeaio?a // Iaaeaaia?ea,
ineoieia?y oa iaaeeei-a?ieia?/i? i?iaeaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo:
Ca??ea iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. – Oa?e?a: OOI?, 1999. – ? 1. – N.18-19.

7. Iae?iii I.I. Iniaeeaino? nii?oeaii? ? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a aoc?a // O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a, nii?o oa caei?ia’y iaoe??:
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. – *.1. – Ee?a-A?iieoey, 1998. – N.71-73.

8. Iae?iii I.I. Aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
nooaeaio?a // Iaoa??aee ae?oai? Anaoe?a?inueei? eiioa?aioe?? ani??aio?a
“Iieiaea nii?oeaia iaoea Oe?a?ie”. – Euea?a: EAe?OE, 1998. – N.211-217.

AIIOAOe??

Iae?iii I.I. Aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae o i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
nooaeaio?a. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 24.00.02 – O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a,
o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy ??cieo a?oi ianaeaiiy. – Aieeinueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee, Eooeuee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi i?aai?caoe?? ? iaoiaeeee
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o i?ioean? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a
aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe. A aeena?oaoe?? ia??oioiaai? e?eoa???
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo o o?ce/iiio aeoiaaii? nooaeaio?a c
icaei?ia/ith ni?yiiaai?noth, a iniia? yeeo eaaeaoue ?ic?aooieia?
iieacieee o?ce/iiai noaio nooaeaio?a (?iaeaen Eaoea, ?aeaaeueia iana
o?ea ca Eoia?ii, ?iaeaen i?iii?oe?eiino?, ?iaeaen o?ce/iiai noaio ca
I.ss.I??iaiaith, aaeaioaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae ca ?.I.Aa?anueeei, o?ce/ia
i?aoeacaeaoi?noue PWC170). Aecia/ai? iaeii??aei? ca
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieie iieacieeaie a?oie nooaeaionueei? iieiae?.
?ic?iaeai? caniae o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, ioeuenia?
?aaeeie aeey oeeee?/ieo ai?aa, aeicoaaiiy neeiaeo iaaaioaaeaiue
a?aeiia?aeii aei o?ce/ieo iiaeeeainoae nooaeaio?a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?aeoeeo ?iaioe aoc?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy, aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae,
nooaeaioe, o?ce/iee noai, aeicoaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue.

Malimon O.O. Differential approach in the process of physical education
of students. Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate degree in physical culture and sports by
specialty 24.00.02 – physical culture, physical education of various
groups of population. – Lesya Ukrainka Volyn State University, Lutsk,
1999.

The dissertation deals with the questions of organization and procedure
of differential approach in the process of physical education of
students of higher educational establishments. It is ascertained that
the level of physical development, the degree of physical proficiency
and functional capability of students is low and is characterized by a
great inhomogeneity of results. Young people’s condition of health tends
to get worse. The number of students of main groups falls (23,15%) while
the number of students of preparatory and special groups increases
(10,3% and 10,2% correspondingly). Substantial changes have taken place
of late in the character of sickness. The number of cases of nervous
diseases, diseases of sense organs, of the system of blood circulation,
of digestive organs, diseases of osteomuscular system has declined but
the number of diseases of respiratory organs has considerably increased.
It caused the general students’ sickness rate which increased for the
last four years up to 55,58%.

On the basis of the claster analysis of students’ physical condition
criteria of the differential approach in physical education with the
health-improvement direction are determined. They consist of calculation
indicators of morphofunctional characteristics of a human organism
(Ketle index, ideal body mass after Cooper, proportion index, physical
condition index after O.Ya. Pirogova, adaptive potential after R.M.
Bayevsky, physical fit for work PWC. On the basis of these criteria
three homogenious groups of students are defined. To the first group
belong the students who have an inadequate weight correlatively with
their height, reduced volumes of parts of body, lower than medium-level
functional capability, high rates of the development of speed and
flexibility. Representatives of the second group are characterized by
optional weight and height indicators, medium volumes of parts of body
and functional capabilities, high development of relative strength,
speed and strength characteristics. Students of the third group have an
extra body mass, unevenly developed body parts, low functional
capability and high indicators of absolute strength.

Taking into account different levels of physical condition of young
people means of physical education and their correlation were elaborated
for each group of students — pulse modes for cyclic training, dosage of
strength loading. For the students of the first group 50% of the total
time should be dedicated to doing lessons for the development of
strength, 30% — for the development of endurance, 10% — for the
development of adroitness and 10% — of speed and flexibility. It’s
recommended that the students of the second group should dedicate 40% of
the time to the development of strength, 30% — of endurance, 15% — of
adroitness, 10% — of flexibility and 5% — of speed. The representatives
of the third group should use 50% of their time for the development of
endurance, 25% — of strength, 20% — of adroitness and flexibility, 5% —
of speed. During the recreation training marginal admissible pulse
should not exceed 202 beats per minute. Pulse regime for restoring
loading should be within 120 beats per minute for students of the first
and the third groups and 130 for the students of the second group. Pulse
regime for cyclic loading of training character is different and it
depends on the duration of physical exercises. Thus, for 20 minutes
loading pulse regime should be within 167 beats per minute for the
students of the first group, 172 beats per minute for the students of
the second group and 152 beats per minute for the students of the third
group. With the purpose of developing strength students of the first
group are recommended to do athletic exercises in 5-6 attempts. Each
exercise should be repeated 8-12 times, the rest interval should last
1,5-3 minutes. Exercises should be done at a slow and medium rate
(regime of increasing muscle mass). Students of the second group should
do exercises in 4-5 attempts, repeating them 8-12 times with 1-2 minutes
rest intervals. For the students of the third group the quantity of
attempts decreases to 3-4 times, but the quantity of repetitions
increases to 15-25. Exercises should be done at a quick rate with rest
intervals of 40-60 seconds (regime of gaining sebacic tissue).

The obtained results are introduced into practice in institutions of
higher learning.

Key words: physical education, differential approach, students,
physical condition, dosage of loading.

Iaeeiii A.A. Aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue iiaeoiae a i?ioeanna oece/aneiai
ainieoaiey nooaeaioia. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe ii
oece/aneiio ainieoaieth e nii?oo ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 24.00.02 –
Oece/aneay eoeueoo?a, oece/aneia ainieoaiea ?aciuo a?oii ianaeaiey. –
Aieuineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eane Oe?aeiee, Eooee, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai i?aaiecaoeee e iaoiaeeee
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai iiaeoiaea a i?ioeanna oece/aneiai ainieoaiey
nooaeaioia aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa iainiiaaiu e?eoa?ee aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai
iiaeoiaea oece/aneiai ainieoaiey nooaeaioia n icaei?iaeoaeueiie
iai?aaeaiiinoueth, a iniiao eioi?uo iieiaeaiu ?an/aoiua iieacaoaee
oece/aneiai ninoiyiey nooaeaioia (eiaeaen Eaoea, eaeaaeueiay ianna oaea
ii Eoia?o, eiaeaen i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe, eiaeaen oece/aneiai ninoiyiey
ii A..ss.Ie?iaiaie, aaeaioaoeeiiiiai iioaioeeaea ii ?.I.Aaaaneiio,
oece/aneie ?aaioiniiniaiinoe PWC170).

Ii?aaeaeaiu iaeii?iaeiua a?oiiu nooaeaioia niioaaonoaaiii eo
ii?oiooieoeeiiaeueiui iieacaoaeyi. ?ac?aaioaiu n?aaenoaa oece/aneiai
ainieoaiey e eo niioiioaiea, ioeueniaua ?aaeeiu aeey oeeeee/aneeo
oi?aaeiaiee, aeice?iaaiea neeiauo iaa?ocie niioaaonoaaiii oece/aneeo
aiciiaeiinoae nooaeaioia. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey aiaae?aiu a
i?aeoeeo ?aaiou aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oece/aneia ainieoaiea, aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue iiaeoiae,
nooaeaiou, oece/aneia ninoiyiea, aeice?iaaiea iaa?ocie.

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