I?AAeAIIIOE?A?INUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IAAeAAIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

(i. IAeANA) ?i. E. Ae. OOEINUeEIAI

NIEIIEI E?E?ss ?IIAI?AIA

OAeE 378.147:681.3.06

AeEAeAEOE*I? OIIAE

CAAACIA*AIIss ONI?OIINO? IAA*AIIss

NOOAeAIO?A IIEIAeOEO EO?N?A

OAOI?*IEO CAEEAAe?A INA?OE

13.00.04 ( oai??y oa iaoiaeeea i?ioan?eii? ina?oe

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Iaeana – 1999 Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a I?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? (i. Iaeana) ?i.E.Ae.Ooeinueeiai, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

EO?EssIAe C?ia?aea Iaoi?aia,

I?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
(i.Iaeana) ?i. E.Ae.Ooeinueeiai,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe – aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

E?/oe Iaae?y Aanee?aia,

?cia?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee ? iaoiaeeee ii/aoeiaiai iaa/aiiy, aeaeai
oaeoeueoaoo i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a;

– eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

NIEAeAOAIEI Ieeiea Ieeieaeiae/, ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee oa
ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – E?eai??cueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny 24a?oaeiy 1999?. i 9 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E41.053.01 i?e
I?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? (i.
Iaeana) ?i. E. Ae. Ooeinueeiai ca aae?anith: 65020, i.Iaeana, aoe.
Noa?iii?oio?aie?anueea, 26.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe?
I?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. E.
Ae. Ooeinueeiai.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 23 eenoiiaaea 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

N.I.Neiiiaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia aeiiaaie aea?aeaaieo
aeieoiaio?a, iio?aaaie ?icaeoeo iaoee, eia?eith ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii?
oai???, a oaeiae i?aeoe/ieie iio?aaaie nenoaie ina?oe o aeyaeaii?
aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia caaacia/aiiy oni?oiino? iaa/aiiy.

Aea?aeaaia i?ia?aia «Ina?oa» aeaco? ia iaiao?aei?noue iiooeo oeyo?a ?
cania?a iaa/aiiy, ui ni?eyoeiooue iaaoooth aeeaieeo oa i?oeieo
ciaiue ? ai?iue o an?e nenoai? iaia?a?aii? ina?oe. Aea aeey
ii?iaeueiiai ia?aa?ao caeiaoooy aeui? ina?oe iio??aii, uia o caeeaae?
na?aaeiuei? ina?oe o/i? canaithaaee iaiao?aei? ciaiiy, ai?iiy oa
iaae/ee, ye? aeaaeooue ?i ciiao oni?oii? iaia?a?aii? ina?oe. C oeueiai
aieo iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a ia iieiaeoeo eo?nao – oea ie?aia i?iaeaia. Naia
ooo iaaeaaiaia? aeiaiaeeoueny iaoe ni?aao c aeoaea iaiaeiaeiaeie ca
??aiai i?aeaioiaeaiino? nooaeaioaie. *eneaii? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i
oa, ui iecueea aoaeoeai?noue iaa/aiiy o caeeaae? aeui? ina?oe
caeaa?eueoiai iia‘ycaia c oei, ui ia caaacia/o?oueny iaeaaeia
i?aeaioiaea oeo, ooi iaa/a?oueny ia iieiaeoeo eo?nao, aei /a?aiaiai
aoaio iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?. Oiaoi ia caaacia/o?oueny noeoii?noue
oiia, ui aaaeooue aei oni?oo oa ye? a?aoiaothoue iayaiee noai
i?aeaioiaee oeo, ooi ia? iaa/aoeny ia ianooiiiio nooiai? iaia?a?aii?
ina?oe – o caeeaae? aeui? ina?oe.

Aeua ina?oa caaa?oo? ia??iae oi?ioaaiiy iieiae? ye niaoe?ae?no?a. Oiio c
iniaeeaith oaaaith o?aaa iinoaaeoeny aei caaacia/aiiy aeey ieo
aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia oni?oiiai i?inoaaiiy o iaa/aii? aaea c ia?oeo
caiyoue. Iaa/aiiy o caeeaae? aeui? ina?oe iiaeiii ? iiaea aooe iaeaea
iaeiaeiai oni?oiei aeey an?o, ooi anooiea aei oeueiai iaa/aeueiiai
caeeaaeo. Aea aeey oeueiai nooaeaioai, ianaiia?aae, o?aaa iaaeaoe
aeiiiiiao – cae?enieoe ia?oee iiooiao aeey ii/aoeo oni?oiiai
iaa/aiiy, aecia/eoe iaeeieoeth aei??o iiaeaeueoiai i?inoaaiiy, iaiiaieoe
?? ci?noii ? oei naiei caaacia/eoe aeinyaiaiiy iio??aii?
eiiiaoaioiino?.

Cae/aeii, aeey aeinyaiaiiy aaaeaii? eiiiaoaioiino? iaiao?aeia oni?oia
iiaioaaiiy aeenoeeie?i o iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae?. Ieoaiiyi i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a naieo ??cieo iai?yie?a caaaeaee i?eae?eyeinue
aaaaoi oaaae. Aaaiiee aianie c?iaeaii aei i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee oeo, ooi
ia? iaa/aoe ?ioeo (A.I.Aeaenthe, N.?.A?oaiaaeuenueeee, N.ss.Aaoeoaa,
A.I.Aiaoo, ?.A.Cycthi, ?.?.Eiaeeyoeueeee, I.A.Eocuei?ia, C.I.Eo?eyiae,
E.E.Ieaoiiia, A.I.Neanoueii?i, ?.?.Oiaethe, O. ?. Oaiiaa oa ?io?). A
inoaii? aeanyoe??//y nai i?ioean i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a aena?oethaaany o
aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ni?aa?o/eciee?a A.I.Aeo?iiaa,
?.I.Aiaaeaiiai?, AI.Aa?oiee, C.Ae.Bi?iaaoeue, E.Ae.Aa?aaiiaa,
I.N.Aioaa?a, A.A.Eeceoe?, A.A.Eocee, A.O.Iaeaia?/oe, I.?.Iiiiia?ueiai?,
E.I.?onaeiai?, I.?.Nae?aa?noiai?, O.A.Nieiaeei?, E.A.O?e?inueei?,
I.A.*aeeoeiai?, I.I.Oanoiiaeiai? oa ?ioeo. Iaoii?noue aeieea?
iaiao?aei?noue aecia/aiiy oa caaacia/aiiy oiia, ui ni?eyoeiooue
aeinyaiaiith naia eiiiaoaioiino? ye iane?aeeo oni?oiiai i?inoaaiiy
nooaeaio?a o iaa/aii? ai?iaeiaae oe??? i?aeaioiaee. Oea e coiiaeei aea??
oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy – “Aeeaeaeoe/i? oiiae
caaacia/aiiy oni?oiino? iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a iieiaeoeo eo?n?a
oaoi?/ieo caeeaae?a ina?oe”.

Ia‘?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy – i?ioean iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a iieiaeoeo eo?n?a.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – aeeaeaeoe/i? oiiae, ui ni?eythoue oni?oiino?
iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a iieiaeoeo eo?n?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy i?ia?aioaaiiy.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe oa aenia?eiaioaeueii
ai?iaoaaoe aeioe?euei?noue aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia, ui caaacia/othoue
oni?oi?noue iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy – iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a aoaea oni?oiei ?
i?aeaeueoue ?oith eiiiaoaioi?noue o aeenoeeie?i?, ui aea/a?oueny, yeui:

— i?ioean iaa/aiiy aoaea aiooaaoeny ca aeiiaaie caaaeueii? oai???
oi?aae?iiy, ye-io: a)aoaeooue aecia/ai? ?aaeuei? oe?e? iaa/aiiy, a ci?no
ina?oe a?aeiia?aeaoeia aecia/ai?e iao?; a)aeyaeaii ii/aoeiaee noai
i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a ye ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy;
a)?ic?iaeaii iaa/ath/o i?ia?aio, ui ia?aaeaa/aoeia iniiai? ia?ao?aei?
noaie ia’?eoa;

— i?ioean iaa/aiiy neeaaeaoeiaoueny c iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaieo aoai?a,
e?ie?a;

— eiaeai e?ie iaa/ath/i? i?ia?aie aoaea noi?iaiaeaeaii aeinyaiaiiyi
ie?aiiai oni?oo;

— iaa/ath/a i?ia?aia ia?aaeaa/aoeia iiaioaaiiy ia o?eueee
niaoe?aeueii-i?aaeiaoieo, a e caaaeueiieia?/ieo oi?iue;

— i?iaiaeeoeiooueny a ?aeiino? oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? caiyooy ye
a?aeiia?aei? aoaie eiaeiiai oe?e?niiai e?ieo iaa/aiiy.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ooi/ieoe ? iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe iiiyooy “oni?oi?noue iaa/aiiy”,
“i?inoaaiiy nooaeaio?a o iaa/aii?”.

Aeyaeoe aeeaeaeoe/i? oiiae, ui aecia/athoue oni?oi?noue i?inoaaiiy o
iaa/aii? nooaeaio?a iieiaeoeo eo?n?a oaoi?/ieo caeeaae?a
ina?oe.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii ai?iaoaaoe aeiaeaeaio noeoii?noue aeeaeaeoe/ieo
oiia.

?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo iie?ieiai? i?aai?caoe?? noai?aiiy aeai?eoi?a
?ica‘ycaiiy ia/enethaaeueieo oa aeiiii?/ieo caaea/ ca aeiiiiiaith AII.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue o?einionuee?
iieiaeaiiy oai??? i?ciaiiy, ianaiia?aae iieiaeaiiy uiaei aecia/ath/i?
?ie? ae?yeueiino? o noaiiaeaii? iniaenoino?; i?aeo?ae aei iaa/aiiy ye
aei i?ioeano oa ye aei nenoaie; iaoiaeieia?/i? iieiaeaiiy naii?
iaa/aeueii? aeenoeeie?ie, a oaeiae iieiaeaiiy ae?yeuei?niiai
i?aeoiaeo aei iaa/aiiy.

Oai?aoe/iei i?aea?oioyi aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee: oai??y
ieaiii??ii-iiaoaiiiai oi?ioaaiiy ?icoiiaeo ae?e ? iiiyoue
(I.ss.Aaeueia??i, I.O.Oaeec?ia), eiioeaioe?? aca?iii iaa?iaieo iia?aoe?e
oa ca?eueoaieo aeeaeaeoe/ieo iaeeieoeue (I.I.A?aei??a); aaoi?nueea
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ia nenoaia (A.O.Oaoaeia); eiioeaioe?y “a?eiai
yueeo” c oai??? oi?aae?iiy, eiioeaioe?y iaia?a?aii? ina?oe.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy – oai?aoe/i?: aea/aiiy, aiae?c oa
ocaaaeueiaiiy o?einionueeeo, iaaeaaia?/ieo, ineoieia?/ieo,
e?aa?iaoe/ieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae uiaei i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy;
aii??e/i?: niinoa?aaeaiiy, aan?aee (a?oiia? oa ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?),
aieaooaaiiy, iaa/aeueia oanooaaiiy, iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio
(ae?aaiinooth/ee oa oi?ioth/ee), iaa/ath/? eiio?ieuei? ?iaioe,
o?ioeo?iaea a?aeiia?aeae oiui; iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee aeey
ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeiny a o?e aoaie.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1987-1988 ?.?.) aea/aeany e?oa?aoo?a c i?iaeaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aeeny ii/aoeia? oai?aoe/i? iiceoe??, noai?thaaeany
i?ia?aia aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1988-1989 iaa/aeueiee ??e) aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeeny aea? na??? ae?aaiinoe/ieo aenia?eiaio?a,
cae?enithaaeany ia?aa??ea ie?aieo aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1989-1998 ?.?.) aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee cae?eniai?
iniiai? ae?aaiinooth/? oa oi?ioth/? aenia?eiaioe c? nooaeaioaie
??cieo oao?a, ia?aa??yeany oi?aa?naeuei?noue aecia/aii? noeoiiino?
oiia. Oaeiae aiae?coaaeeny oa ocaaaeueithaaeeny ?acoeueoaoe
anueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioethaaeenue aeniiaee, ?ic?iaethaaeeny oa
ai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny o i?aeoeeo iaa/aiiy iaoiaee/i? aeac?aee aeey
nooaeaio?a.

Aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueio ?iaioo i?iaaaeaii ia aac? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, Iineianueeiai
aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/iiai ?inoeoooo (IAN?) oa Iaeanueei? aea?aeaaii?
aeaaeai?? oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e (IAeAOO). O aeine?aeaeaii? acyee o/anoue
196 nooaeaio?a ?aae?ioaoi?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo oa oaeoeueoaoo aeiiii?ee
i?iieneiaino? oa i?aei?e?iieoeoaa Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
ie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo e IAN(, a oaeiae aeeeaaea/? IAeAOO.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny oei, ui a iueiio c
iiceoe?e oai??? ieaiii??ii-iiaoaiiiai oi?ioaaiiy ?icoiiaeo ae?e iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaii aca?iicaeaaei?noue iiiyoue “oni?oe a iaa/aii?” ? “e?ie
o iaa/aii?”; aecia/aii nooi?noue iiiyooy “iie?ieiaa i?inoaaiiy
nooaeaio?a o iaa/aii?” ye iane?aeeo ae?aeaeoe/iiai aca?iica‘yceo
oeeo aeaio aeeaeaeoe/ieo oaiiiai?a, ui caaacia/othoue oni?oi?noue
iaa/aiiy; aecia/aii oa aenia?eiai-oaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii neeaae ?
aeioe?euei?noue eiiieaeno aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia, ui aieeaathoue ia
oni?oi?noue i?inoaaiiy o iaa/aii? nooaeaio?a iieiaeoeo eo?n?a oaoi?/ieo
caeeaae?a aeui? ina?oe; c’yniaaii, ui oeae eiiieaen oiia ? ooieoe?eiith
nenoaiith.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ooi/iaii? nooiino?
oaiiiaio “oni?oi?noue iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a”; o aeyaeaii? noeoiiino?
/eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia aeinyaiaiiy oni?o?a o iaa/aii?; o
aecia/aii? aeeiai?ee iaaoooy oni?o?a nooaeaioaie iieiaeoeo eo?n?a
oi?iaeiaae aea/aiiy ieie oaoi?/ieo aeenoeeie?i.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee
iie?ieiai? i?aai?caoe?? noai?aiiy aeai?eoi?a ?ica‘ycaiiy
ia/enethaaeueieo oa aeiiii?/ieo caaea/ ca aeiiiiiaith AII; o ?ic?iaoe?
aeai?eoi?a niaoe?aeueii-i?aaeiaoieo ae?e, ui aea/athoueny, ? iaa/aeueieo
ea?o ?c oeeie ae?yie oa aeeth/aieie aei ieo ciaiiyie. Iaoa??aee
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeeeaaea/aie ?ioi?iaoeee ?
i?ia?aioaaiiy, iniia aeai?eoi?caoe?? ye aeey i?aeaioiaee ei?enooaa/?a,
aeey yeeo AII ? eeoa aeiiii?aeiei ?ino?oiaioii aeine?aeaeaiue oa
ia/enethaaiue, oae ? aeey oeo, /ey iaeaooiy i?ioan?eia ae?yeuei?noue
iia‘ycaia c i?aai?caoe??th ia?iaee aeaieo ? ?ica‘ycaiiyi caaea/ ca
aeiiiiiaith AII, iacaeaaeii a?ae eiie?aoii? AII oa nenoaie
i?ia?aioaaiiy.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a oa aeniiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia
iaa?oioiaai?noth aeo?aeieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo iieiaeaiue,
canoinoaaiiyi ??ciiiai?oieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaeaeaaoieo
ia‘?eoo, i?aaeiaoo, oa caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueiith ia?aa??eith aenoiooi? a?iioace,
niieo/aiiyi ye?niiai ? e?euee?niiai aiae?c?a caeiaooeo aeaieo,
noaoenoe/iith a??ia?aei?noth ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o aecia/aii? iiiyooy iie?ieiaiai
aeinyaiaiiy oni?oiino? o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy ? eiiiaoaioiino? o aea/aiiio
iaoa??ae?; o ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee iie?ieiaiai i?inoaaiiy o iaa/aii?
i?ia?aioaaiiy ia AII; o noai?aii? noai i???ioiaieo iniia ae?e (IIAe)
anaa?/iiai aiae?co oa iiaeaethaaiiy i?aaeiaoieo caaea/, ye? iathoue aooe
?ica’ycai? ca aeiiiiiaith AII.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny ia i?aeia?iaeieo ?
?anioae?eainueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo (?eaa, 1988; Iineaa, 1989; Iaeana, 1989,
1990, 1997, 1998, 1999).

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeai? o iaa/aeueiee i?ioean (aeaiia ?
cai/ia oi?ie) a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
(2 aeoe i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a?ae 10.11.89?. oa 2 – a?ae 5.02.90?.).

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii o 8 noaooyo oa 7
iaoiaee/ieo iin?aieeao aaoi?a.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo 298 aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
oa aeiaeaoe?a. O ?iaio? ai?uaii 8 oaaeeoeue oa noaio. Caaaeueiee
ianya ?iaioe – 177 noi??iee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe???

O Anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, aecia/a?oueny
ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, a?iioaca, caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eaa?oueny
iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?iaioe, iiaeaii
aeai? uiaei ai?iaaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Iaaeaaia?/i? canaaee caaacia/aiiy oni?oiino?
iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a” ?icaeyaea?oueny i?iaeaia oni?o?a, oni?oiino? oa
iaoni?oiino? iaa/aiiy a ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiio aniaeo?, ?ice?eaathoueny
i?eioeeie caaacia/aiiy oni?oiino? iaa/aiiy ca oiia ea?oaaiiy iei,
no?oeoo?i? e ci?noia? eiiiiiaioe iiiyoue “i?inoaaiiy nooaeaio?a o
iaa/aii?”, “e?ie o iaa/aii?”, ?o oa?aeoa?enoeee, aiae?cothoueny ??ci?
iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae i?io?eaiiy i?ioeano iaa/aiiy, ui i?iiiioaaee
oe?a?inuee? aeine?aeieee a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y.

A eiioaeno? ?noi?e/iiai aiae?co i?iaeaia caaacia/aiiy oni?o?a o
iaa/aii? aoea aeooaeueiith a on? /ane. Oai?aoe/i? canaaee caaacia/aiiy
oni?oiino? iaa/aiiy cono??/athoueny ua a ssia Eiiainueeiai,
?.A.Ianoaeioeoe?, E.Ae.Ooeinueeiai, ye? iaaieiooaaee ia iaiao?aeiino?
ea??aieoeoaa iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii, ia oiio, ui aeaye? /eiieee oni?oiiai
iaa/aiiy iaeii/anii ? e eiai oiiaaie .

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? XVI no. ieoaiiy aeeaeaeoeee, canaaee eaaeino?
iaa/aiiy oa o/?iiy aea/aa ss.A.Eiiainueeee, yeee ?ice?ea cia/aiiy e
iaiao?aei?noue ea?iaaiiai iaa/aiiy, aeae?eea ie?aiei aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii
oni?o?a o iaa/aii? iayai?noue iiia?aaei?o ciaiue ? ai?iue, icia/ea
oiiae, ui ni?eythoue oni?oai o iaa/aii?. O na?aaeei? OIO no.
E.Ae.Ooeinueeee a?aeiaeoia i?ea?iaeueia oa iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy oni?o?a
o iaa/aii? ye i?ioeano, aeae?eea /eiieee, ui coiiaeththoue aoaeoeaia
i?iaaaeaiiy o?ieo. Ia aeoieo icia/aieo o/aieo, “?aeeiith ?aeath aeey
i?aai?cio iiaea aooe aeina?ae, caeiaooee iaie ca aeiiiiiaith ciai?oi?o
a?ae/ooo?a”. O iao /an iaea?eueo iiaio eeaneo?eaoe?th /eiiee?a
oni?oiino? oe?eueiiai iaa/aiiy aeaa ?.I.I?aeeanee.

No/ani? aeine?aeieee aecia/athoue ieceo /eiiee?a oni?oiino? e
iaoni?oiino? iaa/aiiy. C-iii?ae ieo: caeaoi?noue aei nieneiaiai
ia?aia?ia-eaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? (A.I.E?ooaoeueeee); “iaa/aio
aacii?aaei?noue” (I.Nae?aiai); aeani? cae?aiino? oeo, ooi iaa/a?oueny,
aieueia? coneeey (E.I.O?eaeiai); oiaaiai?noue a oni?oao (?.Aa?in);
ona?aeiieaio oe?eani?yiiaaio ae?yeuei?noue aeeeaaea/a (*.Eoienaae/);
oei, no?oeoo?o caiyooy, iaoiaee oa caniae iaa/aiiy (TH.E.Aaaainueeee);
iiia?aaei? ciaiiy oa ai?iiy ((?,I.I?aeeanee, ?.I.?aeiaa?ae,
O.?.?inooiia, I.I.Naaeianueea, I.O.Oaeec?ia, A.?.*aiae?a oiui).

*eneaii? aaaaoi??/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy (A.I.Aaciaeueei, ?.A.Aieiaea?nueea,
I.ss.Aaeueia??i, A.A.Aeaaeaeia, E.ss.Ci??ia, A.?.Eaaai oa ?.I.Ne/ai?eia,
A.N.Einothe, A.A.E?a?anueeee oa ?.ss.Ea?ia?, A.ss.Eyoae?n,
?.?.Iaoaeoeue, I.I.Ia/a?a, C.I.?aoaoiaa, I.O.Oaeec?ia oa ?i.)
ia?aeiieeai aeiaaee, ui aoaeoeaii ea?oaaoe i?ioeanii iaa/aiiy iiaeia,
yeui aeio?eioaaoeny i?ae /an eiai i?aai?caoe?? iaaieo i?eioeei?a.
Aeioe/ii oeeo i?eioeei?a ie aecia/eee iiiyooy “i?inoaaiiy nooaeaioa o
iaa/aii?”. I?ae i?inoaaiiyi nooaeaioa o iaa/aii? ie ?icoi??ii iie?ieiaee
i?ioean aeinyaiaiiy iei oni?o?a o iaa/aii? aeenoeeie?ie aai ?? /anoeie,
ii/aoeii yeiai ? noai canai?iiy nooaeaioii iiia?aaei?o ciaiue oa
ai?iue, a caaa?oaiiyi – eiai eiiiaoaioi?noue o iaoa??ae?, ui aea/aany .

Uiaei iiiyooy “e?ie o iaa/aii?” ?nio? aaaaoi ??cieo oeoia/aiue ?
i?aeoiae?a. Oae, aeae?eythoue “e?ie o/?iiy” (I.I.Iaothoe?i,
*.Ca??nueeee, O.I.Oaiiaa, ?.I.?aeiaa?ae, A.A.Ianeiaa, Oiian, Aeaa?ae,
Iiaioio, Aa?ae oa ?i.); “e?ie iaa/ath/i? i?ia?aie” (A.A.Aaciaeaiei,
A.I.Aaciaeueei, A.A.Aaoo?ia, A.I.?aoiaiiaa, I.I.Aei?ioeaae/, I.I.I?oo?ia
oa E.A.No?eeae?aa oiui); “e?ie i?ioeano iaa/aiiy” ye ?aei?noue
?ioi?iaoe?? oa ?icoiiaeo iia?aoe?e o/i?a” (A.N.Einothe, ?.I.?aeiaa?ae,
N.A.Oaiiaaeaiei, N.Aeoieo?aneo oa O.Eoiao); e?ie ye “aoai iaa/aiiy”
(I.A.A?aaeeia?iaa oa I.N.Io?eoaaa,) aai “oeeee iaa/aiiy” (
TH.E.Aaaainueeee, E.ss.Ci??ia, I.I.?aeaoeueeee, I.O.Oaeec?ia,
A.?.*aiae?a oa ?.I.I?aeeanee).

Ia iao iiaeyae, iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoiei nooiino? e?ieo ye i?e?iaoaio
i?ioeano iaa/aiiy ? oaea aecia/aiiy: “e?ie-oeeee iaa/aiiy – oea any
noeoii?noue ae?e oiai, ooi iaa/a?, ? oiai, ooi iaa/a?oueny, ui
i?eaiaeeoue nooaeaioa aei canai?iiy iaaiiai ci?noo ina?oe ?c caaeaieie
iieacieeaie, oiaoi aei aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe” (I.O.Oaeec?ia).
No?oeoo?a oeeo ae?e oa ci?no ina?oe aecia/a?oueny o iine?aeiaieo
aoaiao, ui neeaaeathoue i?ioean canai?iiy o ae?yeuei?niiio i?aeoiae?. A
naia: ia?oee aoai – iioeaaoe?eiee, ae?oaee – i???ioiaiee, o?ao?e –
iaoa??ae?ciaaiee, /aoaa?oee – aoai ciai?oiueiai iiaeaiiy (aai ienaiiee),
i’yoee – aoai iiaeaiiy “i?i naaa”, oinoee – ?icoiiaee. I?iaaaeaiiy
ae??, ui aea/a?oueny, ca an?ia aoaiaie ? neeaaea? iaeei e?ie i?ioeano
iaa/aiiy. Ia?o? aeaa aoaie iiaeia iacaaoe oai?aoe/ieie, aiie i?ioiaeyoue
o aeaeyae? eaeoe?e, a inoaii? /ioe?e – aoaie a?aei?aoeueiaoaaiiy ae??.

Iayai?noue oni?o?a ia eiaeiiio oaeiio e?ioe? aaaea aei caaaeueii?
oni?oiino? iaa/aiiy, a oni?oia iie?ieiaa i?inoaaiiy o ?aieao oaie aai
oe?ei? aeenoeeie?ie i?eaiaeeoue nooaeaioa aei eiiiaoaioiino? o i?e. I?e
oeueiio ie ia?ii ia oaac? ia i?ioan?eio eiiiaoaioi?noue, yeo
aecia/athoue ye “i?ioan?eio i?aeaioiaeai?noue e caeaoi?noue noa’?eoa
i?aoe? (oao?aoey /e eieaeoeao) aei aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue oa iaia’yce?a
iianyeaeaiii? ae?yeueiino?” (E.A.Aaoeueoaiiaa oa ?i.), a iioaioe?eio
aioiai?noue ?ica’ycoaaoe i?aaeiaoi? caaea/? ?c ciaiiyi ni?aae.

Iaaoooy eiiiaoaioiino?, a naith /a?ao, ia?aaeaa/a? aeinyaiaiiy
nooaeaioii iaeaaeieo iieaciee?a iaaieo oa?aeoa?enoee caeiaooeo ciaiue,
oi?iue, iaae/ie. O iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? oaeeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aoee
?icoi?iiy e ona?aeiieaiiy ae?yeueiino?, ui aeeiioaaeanue .

O i?aoeyo no/anieo aeine?aeiee?a aiae?co?oueny iecea iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia
i?io?eaiiy iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano. C-iii?ae ieo: oiiae oi?ioaaiiy
ie?aieo ciaiue ? ai?iue, eoeueoo? (I.A.Aeieo?aiei, I.A.Ia/a?aiei,
A.O.Iiiiia?ueiaa, ?.O.Ionoia?eo); oiiae iioei?caoe??, aaeineiiaeaiiy
i?ioeano iaa/aiiy (A.A.Aoiaaeoiaeaea?aa, A??noeaean Aa??iaa?,
A.I.Aa?oiea, A.A.Eo?ianueeee oiui). A/ai? iaiieyaathoue ia oiio, ui
iaeaaaeeea?oith oiiaith oni?oiiai i?io?eaiiy iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano ?
aecia/aiiy e o?aooaaiiy noaio iiia?aaei?o ciaiue ? ai?iue nooaeaioa,
o/iy, aac yeeo iaa?oue “ia ?aae?co?oueny iioea caaacia/aiiy
ae?yeueiino?” (A.?.Caaayceinueeee). O ?aieao ae?yeuei?niiai i?aeoiaeo
na?aae oeeo iiia?aaei?o oi?iue ? ciaiue iathoue aooe e a?aeiia?aei?
i?aaeiaoiei caaaeueiieia?/i? ai?iiy (iaeia aai aeae?eueea).

Aeioe/ii icia/aiiai iaoa aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/aei
i?aai?caoe?th oaeeo oiia: i?ioean iaa/aiiy aiooaaany ca aeiiaaie
caaaeueii? oai??? oi?aae?iiy (aecia/ai? ?aaeuei? oe?e? iaa/aiiy,
i?eaaaeaii ci?no ina?oe o a?aeiia?aei?noue aei ieo; aoei aecia/aii
ii/aoeiaee noai i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a; iayaiith aoea
iaa/ath/a i?ia?aia); i?ioean iaa/aiiy neeaaeaany ?c e?ie?a-oeeee?a;
eiaeai e?ie aoa caaacia/aiee a?aeiia?aeieie aei iueiai iaoiaee/ieie
iaoa??aeaie; aei iaa/ath/i? i?ia?aie aoee aeeth/ai? caaaeueiieia?/i?
ae??; oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? caiyooy i?iaiaeeeeny iaeiei
aeeeaaea/ai-aenia?eiaioaoi?ii.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “?aae?caoe?y aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia, ui
caaacia/othoue oni?oi?noue iaa/aiiy” iienaii i?aeaioia/o ?iaioo uiaei
aenia?eiaioo, ?ice?eoi iaoiaeeeo aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe, ?? ci?no,
iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaio?a.

Ia aoai? iiia?aaeiuei? ia?aa??ee ie?aieo aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia aoei
anoaiiaeaii, ui a no/ani?e i?aeoeoe? iaa/aiiy i?ia?aioaaiiy ia
caa?oathoue oaaao ia caaaeueiieia?/i? niiniae ieneaiiy, oei a?eueoa – ia
oi?iothoue ?o o nooaeaio?a ie?aii, ioe?iththoue oni?oi?noue iaa/aiiy
eeoa ca e?ioeaaeie ?acoeueoaoaie.

?aae?caoe?y noeoiiino? aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia ia?aa??yeany i?ioyaii aeaio
aoai?a aeine?aeaeaiiy o ?iaio? c iaeaooi?ie oao?aoeyie aeaio oei?a: oae
caaieie i?ioan?eieie ? iai?ioan?eieie ei?enooaa/aie AII. A aenia?eiaio?
c iai?ioan?eieie ei?enooaa/aie AII – nooaeaioaie-?aae?noaie – aoee
caaacia/ai? oae? oiiae:

1. Oaanue i?ioean iaa/aiiy a?aeiia?aeaa aeiiaai caaaeueii? oai???
oi?aae?iiy, a naia: a)aoei niaoe?aeueii aecia/aii oe?e? iaa/aiiy,
a?aeiia?aeii aei yeeo aeiae?aany ci?no ina?oe; a)aeyaeaii ii/aoeiaee
noai i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a a?aeiinii icia/aiiai ci?noo
ina?oe; a)?ic?iaeaii niaoe?aeueio oi?ioth/o i?ia?aio, yea ia?aaeaa/aea
iniiai? ia?ao?aei? noaie ia’?eoa. ?aaeueiith iaoith iaa/aiiy, c
o?aooaaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a iiia?aaeiueiai aenia?eiaioo, aoei iaa/eoe
nooaeaio?a i?aaeiaoii? ae?yeueiino? noai?aiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy
aeiiii?aeieo aeai?eoi?a i?ae /an ?ica’ycoaaiiy ?iaeaia?ieo caaea/ ca
aeiiiiiaith AII. Aoei ?ic?iaeaii niaoe?aeueio iaa/ath/o i?ia?aio o
aeaeyae? a?eoo?a iii?ieo neaiae?a A.O.Oaoaeiaa aeey eiaeiiai e?ieo
iaa/aiiy (ia aac? iiae?aii? i?ia?aie OAeO) oa na??e niaoe?aeueieo
caaaeaiue aeey eiaeiiai aoaio a?aei?aoeueiaoaaiiy ae?e.

2. Iaa/aiiy i?ioiaeeei ca ie?aieie e?ieaie, ui caaacia/oaaeeny
?aoaeueii i?aeaioiaeaieie oa iiaeaieie ?ioi?iaoe?eieie oa i???ioiaieie
iaoa??aeaie e?ieo: aaeaea ca?aeii c io?eiaieie o ?aieao ae?yeuei?niiai
i?aeoiaeo aeaieie oi?aae?iiy canai?iiyi iiaeiii aooe ni?yiiaaiei
ianaiia?aae ia i???ioiaio /anoeio ae??, a ia ia aeeiiaa/o. Oe? iaoa??aee
iiaeaaaeeny o aeaeyae? eieuei?iaeo a?eoo?a oi?iaoo A1 oa /i?ii-a?eeo
iaoiaee/ie oi?iaoo A4 c a?aeiia?aeieie caaaeaiiyie.

3. Oaea i?aai?caoe?y iaa/aiiy caaacia/oaaea aeinyaiaiiy oni?oo a
e?ioe?, a aioo??oi?e oa ciai?oi?e cai?ioiee ca’ycie aeicaieyee nai?/anii
i?inoaaeoaaoe ca i?inoaaiiyi nooaeaioa.

4. Iaa/ath/a i?ia?aia i?noeea ia o?eueee niaoe?aeueii-i?aaeiaoi?, aea e
caaaeueiieia?/i? ae??, a naia: ii??aiyiiy oa eeaneo?eaoe?th ye iniiai? a
ia?ai?e i?aaeiaoi?e ae?yeueiino?.

5. *eoaiiy eaeoe?e oa ea?oaaiiy a?aei?aoeueiaoaaiiyi ae?e, ui
aea/aeeny, ia i?aeoe/ieo e eaai?aoi?ieo caiyooyo cae?enithaaa iaeei ?
oie naiee aeeeaaea/-aenia?eiaioaoi?.

Iciaee aeinyaiaiiy eiiiaoaioiino? o aea/aiiio iaoa??ae? aeey oeeo
ei?enooaa/?a AII aoee oaeeie: aiie iiaeii? iaieiae?oe iiaith
i?ia?aioaaiiy aenieiai ??aiy c aeei?enoaiiyi eia?/ieo ae?e ii??aiyiiy ?
eeaneo?eaoe??; iaa/eoeny ei?enooaaoeny caniaaie iia?aoe?eii? nenoaie,
iaiao?aeieie aeey i?aeaioiaee e aeeiiaiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai aei i?ioan??
caaaeaiiy ia iaei?e c no/anieo AII. Oiaoi oaeee ei?enooaa/ iiaeiai aoa
oi?oe naiino?eii /anoeiai aai iiai?noth cai?ia?aioaaoe ia/enethaaeueio
caaea/o ia aeinooii?e aeey iueiai iia? i?ia?aioaaiiy. Aeey oeueiai eiio
iio??aii aoei caeeiooe ?icaeaaoe caaea/o ia i?aecaaea/? (oiaoi
iaieiae?oe caaaeueiiiaoeiaei i?aeoiaeii aei ?ica’ycoaaiiy aoaeue-yeeo
caaea/), /anoeio c yeeo iiaeia ?ica’ycaoe c aeei?enoaiiyi aioiaeo
i?ia?aiieo cania?a.

Ae?aaiinooth/ee aenia?eiaio i?ioiaeea i?ae /an eiia?iiaaiiai caiyooy,
yea i?iaiaeeeiny ca i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/iith nenoaiith A.O.Oaoaeiaa.
A aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao 68% nooaeaio?a ? o eiio?ieueieo – 60%
i?eionoeeeny iiieeie o aeine?aeaeoaaieo iia?aoe?yo eia?/ieo ae?e, ui
a?ae?aco a?aeaeeiny ia ?acoeueoaoao i?aaeiaoieo ae?e. Ca aeaieie
ae?aaiinooth/iai aenia?eiaioo aoee aeae?eai? a?oie aeey
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-a?oiiaiai iaa/aiiy: aeey ei?eaoaaiiy ae?e
eeaneo?eaoe?? oa ii??aiyiiy.

I?ae /an oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo c o?aooaaiiyi aaeeeiai ianyao ciaiue ?
ai?iue, ui ? iaiao?aeiei aeey oi?ioaaiiy ia?aii? ae?yeueiino?, i?ioyaii
onueiai ia??iaeo iaa/aiiy, o eiaeiiio e?ioe?, ie aeei?enoiaoaaee
i?eeiie ii??aiyiiy oa eeaneo?eaoe?? ye iniiai?. Iai?ee?ioe? aeeiiaiiy
eiaeiiai e?ieo nooaeaioe aeeiioaaee eiio?ieueio ?iaioo ca iaoa??aeii
e?ieo. A ?nieo? iai?ee?ioe? oeueiai aoaio aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aa??yeeny
ye?ni? oa e?euee?ni? iieacieee canai?iiy iaoa??aeo, oiaoi iaaoooy
eiiiaoaioiino? o iueiio. Oae, ca?aeii c OIO?Ae, ia?oith
oa?aeoa?enoeeith noi?iiaaii? o nooaeaioa ae?? ? oi?ia ?? canai?iiy.
Iicaye eiaeia ae?y oiai, ooi iaa/a?oueny, neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio /anoei
– i???ioiaii?, aeeiiaa/i? oa eiio?ieueii?, – oi?ie aeeiiaiiy oeeo
neeaaeiee?a ie ?icaeyaeaee ie?aii.

sse ? ieaioaaeinue, i???ioiaia /anoeia noi?iiaaieo ae?e aoea aeiaaaeaia
aei oi?ie ?icoiiaiai aeeiiaiiy, a aeeiiaa/a – aei ienaiii?. ?acoeueoaoe
ia?oi? /anoeie oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo iiaeaii a oaae.1.

Oaaeeoey 1.

?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy

?c caaacia/aiiyi noeoiiino? i?iiiiiaaieo oiia

Ioe?iee E?euee?noue nooaeaio?a o a?oiao, %

aenia?eiaioaeuei? eiio?ieuei?

5

4

3

2 57

36

7

– 11

43

36

Na?aaei?e aae 4.50 3.72

sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe?, a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao 57% nooaeaio?a
io?eiaee ia ?nieo? “5”, 36% – “4”, 7% – “3”. Na?aaei?e aae o oeeo a?oiao
– 4.50. O eiio?ieueieo a?oiao 11% nooaeaio?a io?eiaee “5”, 43%
io?eiaee “4” oa 36% – “3”. Na?aaei?e aae o oeeo a?oiao – 3.72.

Aeey ia?aa??ee noaoenoe/ii? a??ia?aeiino? caeiaooeo ?acoeueoao?a ie
ei?enooaaeeny ?ioa?aaeueiei ioe?ithaaiiyi. Oiaoi ioe?ieith a??ia?aeiino?
aoa /enaeueiee ?ioa?aae (“?ioa?aae aeia??e”), o yeiio cina?aaeeeany
a?eueo?noue niinoa?aaeaieo cia/aiue aeiaaeeiai? aaee/eie – na?aaeiueiai
aaeo. Iaae?eiee ?ioa?aae aeey aenia?eiaioaeueii? aea??ee iieacaa, ui
aeey aaia?aeueii? noeoiiino? ca oiia iaa/aiiy, iiae?aii iaoiai,
na?aaei?e aae aoaea a iaaeao (4.253 – 4.747), a ca oiia iaa/aiiy a
eiio?ieueieo a?oiao – o iaaeao (3.435 – 4.00). Oiaoi c a??ia?aei?noth
iaae?eiino? 0.95 iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui na?aaei?e aae ca oiia
iaa/aiiy a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao cia/ii ia?aaeuo? na?aaei?e aae,
yeee iiaeia io?eiaoe ca oiia iaa/aiiy eiio?ieueieo a?oi. Aei oiai ae
iaae? oeeo aae?a iaa?oue ia ia?ae?eaathoueny, ui icia/a? iacaeaaei?noue
?iia??iinoae iaeia a?ae iaeii?: ca oiia aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy
na?aaei?e aae caaaeaee aoaea cia/ii aeuei. Oea aeicaiey? noaeeoe i?i
aeioe?euei?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o iaa/aiiy naia cai?iiiiiaaii? nenoaie
aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia, ui ni?eythoue oni?oiino?.

A aenia?eiaio? c i?ioan?eieie ei?enooaa/aie AII – iaeaooi?ie
iaiaaeaea?aie – aoei aeaui ?ioa iaiiaiaiiy oiia, a naia: ?aaeueiith
iaoith iaa/aiiy aoei iaa/eoe nooaeaio?a “oaeiai i?aeoiaeo aei caaea/?,
ca yeiai caaea/a aenooia? ye ia’?eo ?aoaeueiiai aea/aiiy, a ??
?ica’ycaiiy – ye ia’?eo eiino?othaaiiy” (E.I.O?eaeiai). Cai?noue a?eoo?a
iii?ieo neaiae?a (“EIN”) iaoa??aeueiith iniiaith iaa/aiiy aenooieee
ae?oeiaai? iaa/aeuei? ea?oee aeey eiaeiiai e?ieo iaa/aiiy oa na???
niaoe?aeueieo caaaeaiue. C caaaeueiieia?/ieo i?eeii?a aoei ia?aii aiae?c
caaea/? oa iiaeaethaaiiy ye iniiai? a aeai?e i?aaeiaoi?e ae?yeueiino?.
Oiiaa ae ?aeiino? aeeeaaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eii? /anoeie e?ieo ? i?iaaaeaiiy
a?aei?aoeueiaoaaiiy ai?iue aoea ii?ooaia oei, ui eaeoe?? a?a ?ioee
aeeeaaea/. A oiiaao ?aaeueiiai i?ioeano iaa/aiiy iniaeeao oaaao aoei
i?eae?eaii aioo??oiueiio cai?ioiiio ca’yceo o e?ieao, eiai
iaoa??ae?caoe?? ia ia?oeo aoaiao.

Iciaeaie aeinyaiaiiy eiiiaoaioiino? o oae?e ae?yeueiino? aoee: oi?ia
aiae?co caaea/? – ?icoiiaa, iiaeae? ye eiai ?acoeueoao –
iaoa??ae?ciaai?. Nooi?iue ocaaaeueiaiiy ioiiethaaa iaa/aeuei? caaea/?
ia?iaee aaeeeeo noeoiiinoae aeaieo (oaeeo, ye ianeae oa oaeee). I??a
cai?iooino? ae?yeueiino? aiae?co i?iyaeyeany o iayaiino? a?aeiia?aeieo
iiaeaeae, a ai?iiy ?icai?iooe ae?yeuei?noue – o ai?ii? iiynieoe, yeeie
e?ieaie ? /iio naia oae caeiaoo? oe? ?acoeueoaoe.

Caeeth/iei neeaaeieeii eiaeiiai e?ieo oaeiae aoee eiio?ieuei? ?iaioe.
Aiie iieacaee ia aeoaea aenie? ?acoeueoaoe, iicaye ia aoei caaacia/aii
anth nenoaio oiia. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oeueiai aoaio aenia?eiaioo
iiaeaii o oaae. 2.

Oaaeeoey 2

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe caeeth/iiai aoaio oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo

Aeinyaiooee ??aaiue E?euee?noue nooaeaio?a o a?oiao, %

eiiiaoaioiino? aenia?eiaioaeuei? eiio?ieuei?

Aenieee

Aeinoaoi?e

Na?aaei?e

Iecueeee 57

11

28.5

3.5 7

25

28

28

Na?aaei?e aae 4.07 3.00

sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe?, 57% nooaeaio?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi aeyaeee
aenieee ??aaiue eiiiaoaioiino?, 11% – aeinoaoi?e, 28.5% – na?aaei?e oa
3.5% – iecueeee. O eiio?ieueieo a?oiao oe? ??ai? a?aeiia?aeii aoee
oaeeie: 7% iieacaee aenieo eiiiaoaioi?noue, 25% – aeinoaoith oa ii 28% –
na?aaeith oa iecueeo. A?aeiia?aei? na?aaei? aaee – 4.07 oa 3.00.

Oae? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui cai?iaaaeaeai?
aeeaeaeoe/i? oiiae iaaiith i??ith i?aeaeuothoue oni?oi?noue iaa/aiiy:
aaeaea a?eueoa 2/3 nooaeaio?a aenia?eiai-oaeueieo a?oi aeinyaee
aeinoaoiuei aeniei? ? aeniei? eiiiaoaioiino? o iaoa??ae?, ui aea/aany.
Iaae?eiee ?ioa?aae aeey aenia?eiaioaeueii? aea??ee iaaoa aeaeyaeo (3.72
– 4.42). A?aeiia?aeiee “?ioa?aae aeia??e” aeey eiio?ieueii? aea??ee iaa
iaae? (2.67 – 3.32). Iaia?ae?eai? iaae?ei? ?ioa?aaee na?ae/aoue i?i oa,
ui iacaeaaei?noue aei?iaoaaiue ii a?oiao oa noaoenoe/ia a??ia?aei?noue
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aenie?. Aea ii??aiyii ?c ?acoeueoaoaie
iiia?aaeiueiai aoaio oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo aeaeii, ui na?aaei?e aae
aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi noaa ieae/ei ia 10.5% oa iaa?oue o eiio?ieueieo
a?oiao – ia 8%. Ioaea, oea ua ?ac aeaco? ia oa, ui i?iaaaeaiiy a
?aeiino? oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue – ? aaaeeeaith aeeaeaeoe/iith
oiiaith caaacia/aiiy oni?oiino? iaa/aiiy, a cai?iiiiiaaia noeoii?noue
oiia ? nenoaiith ?c aca?iica’ycaieie aeaiaioaie.

O Aeniiaeao aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, iniiai? c ieo oae?:

Oni?oi?noue ? iaei??th c iaeaieiai?oeo oa?aeoa?enoee iaa/aiiy ? iio?aao?
iaaii? nenoaie aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia aeey ?? caaacia/aiiy. Noai?aiiy ae
ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey oni?oiiai, aoaeoeaiiai iaa/aiiy aenooia? iaeiei ?c
i?eioeei?a iaa/aiiy ? aaaea aei iaaoooy eiiiaoaioiino?.

I?ioan?eia eiiiaoaioi?noue – oea i?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaeai?noue e
caeaoi?noue noa’?eoa i?aoe? aei aeeiiaiiy iaia’yce?a iianyeaeaiii?
ae?yeueiino?. O ?iaio? c? nooaeaioaie iieiaeoeo eo?n?a aeioe?eueii
aeiiiaoeny ?oiuei? eiiiaoaioiino? o a?eueo aocueeiio niene?, a naia: o
iaoa??ae?, ui aea/a?oueny. A oea icia/a?, ui aiie iathoue aooe
iioaioe?eii aioia? ?ica’ycoaaoe i?aaeiaoi? caaea/? ?c ciaiiyi ni?aae.

C iiceoe?e nenoaie iaia?a?aii? ina?oe iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a ia
iieiaeoeo eo?nao caeeaae?a aeui? ina?oe ? neeaaeiith i?iaeaiith, iicaye
aiie ?icii/eiathoue iaa/aiiy c iaiaeiaeiaei ??aiai
i?aeaioiaeaiino?. Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e oa ?acoeueoao?a aieaooaaiiy
aeina?ae/aieo aeeeaaea/?a ??cieo i?aaeiao?a ia iieiaeoeo eo?nao iieacaa,
ui ii/aoeiaee noai ciaiue oa ai?iue nooaeaio?a uiaei iaa/aeueiiai
iaoa??aeo, yeee aiie iathoue canai?oe, ? iaeaieeaia?oei /eiieeii
oni?oiino? iaa/aiiy. Naia c o?aooaaiiy ??aiy ciaiue ? ai?iue iiaeiii
cae?enithaaoeny ea?oaaiiy i?ioeanii iaa/aiiy, oiio iniaeeaa oaaaa ia
ii/aoeo iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a o caeeaae? aeui? ina?oe ia? i?eae?eyoeny
aecia/aiith icia/aiiai ii/aoeiaiai noaio ciaiue ? ai?iue. Iicaye noai
oeae a?aeiiniee, a naia – a?aeiiniee uiaei iiaiai ci?noo ina?oe, oi
ea?iaaia iaa/aiiy iio?aao? na?eicii? i?aeaioiaee c aieo aeeeaaea/a.

Oni?oi?noue – oea iayai?noue oni?o?a, a oni?oi?noue iaa/aiiy
aeinyaa?oueny ie?aieie oni?oaie i?ioyaii ea?iaaiiai iinooiaeueiiai
i?inoaaiiy o iueiio. I?inoaaiiy a iaa/aii? – oea aeeiai?/ia yaeua,
i?ioean. A eiaeai i?ioean neeaaea?oueny c? noaae?e, aoai?a aai
e?ie?a. A?ae oiai, yeeie aoaeooue oe? noaae??, e?iee –
caeaaeeoue ? oni?oi?noue naiiai i?ioeano. A?aeiia?aeue ia oea caieoaiiy
ciaeaeaii i?ioyaii aeine?aeaeaiiy o oai??? ieaiii??ii-iiaoaiiiai
oi?ioaaiiy ?icoiiaeo ae?e ? iiiyoue (OIO?Ae): e?ieo – oea oeeee
iaa/aiiy ae??, ui aea/a?oueny, yeee ii/eia?oueny c i?iaeaiiiai,
iioeaaoe?eiiai aoaio oa cae?i/o?oueny ?icoiiaei aoaiii ??
oi?ioaaiiy.

Oa?aeoa?enoeeaie e?ieo-oeeeeo iaa/aiiy ? eiai no?oeoo?a, ci?no,
aaee/eia. Ca no?oeoo?ith a?i ia? oae? neeaaeieee: o?noue aoai?a OIO?Ae
(iioeaaoe?eiee oa i???ioiaiee – oai?aoe/i?, /ioe?e aoaie
a?aei?aoeueiaoaaiiy ae?? – i?aeoe/i?) ? eiio?ieueio /anoeio. Ca
?ioi?iaoe?eiei ci?noii e?ie neeaaea?oueny c? noai i???ioiaieo iniia ae?e
(IIAe, ui i?noyoue ? iia? ciaiiy) oa a?aeiia?aeieo aei aoai?a caaea/.
Noaie IIAe iathoue aooe iiaeaieie o no?oeoo?iaaiiio aeaeyae?. Eiaeai
aoai e?ieo iaa/aiiy ia? aeaiaioe – e?iee o/?iiy. Aaee/eia e?ieo o/?iiy
ci?ith?oueny i?ioyaii iiaoaiiiai oi?ioaaiiy: ia ia?oeo aoaiao a?i
aei??aith? iaei?e ie?ai?e iia?aoe??, a iio?i ca?eueoo?oueny. Ia aaee/eio
e?ieo o/?iiy aieeaa? iayaiee ??aaiue iiia?aaei?o ciaiue oa ai?iue
nooaeaioa, yeee iiaea aeiaaaoe ei?eaoaaiiy. Oei naiei ci?ith?oueny
aaee/eia e?ieo iaa/aiiy: a?i iiaea o?eaaoe aiaeeio, caiyooy aai
aeae?eueea caiyoue. Oe?e?niee e?ie-oeeee iaa/aiiy aeiaaa? i?iaaaeaiiy a
?aeiino? an?o eiai aoai?a. Iicaye ea?oaaiiy iaa/aiiyi iiaeiii
ni?yiiaoaaoeny ianaiia?aae ia i???ioiaio /anoeio e?ieo o/?iiy,
“oai?aoe/iee” aoai iiia?aaeiueiai i???iooaaiiy o iiaiio iaoa??ae? –
iaeaaaeeea?oee c on?o. Naia ia iueiio noai?th?oueny ?acii c? nooaeaioaie
noaia IIAe, aiie aa/aoue c?acie aeeiiaiiy ae??, yeo iathoue iiaiiaoaaoe
ia i?aeoe/ieo caiyooyo. Ii?ooaiiy oiiae ?aeiino? oai?aoe/ieo ?
i?aeoe/ieo eiai aoai?a aea? iii?oia iia??oaiiy ?acoeueoao?a oi?ioaaiiy.

I?ae /an eiinoaooth/eo aenia?eiaio?a ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaea
“neioaciaaii? ae?yeueiino?” aoei aeyaeaii, ui na?aae iaeaooi?o
iai?ioan?eieo ei?enooaa/?a AII eeoa 67.5% nooaeaio?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo
a?oi (AA) oa 64% eiio?ieueieo a?oi (EA) ciiaee aeeiiaoe ae?th
“eeaneo?eaoe?y” oa 73% nooaeaio?a(AA) ? 74.5% (EA) – ae?th
”ii??aiyiiy” c ?o neeaaeieeaie. Ia ioe?ieao ca eiio?ieueio ?iaioo (c
o?aooaaiiyi oaea niaoe?aeueii-i?aaeiaoieo ciaiue oa ai?iue) oea
noaiiaeua a?aeaeeiny oaeei /eiii. Ioe?iee “a?aei?iii” oa “aeia?a”
io?eiaee 57% nooaeaio?a (AA) oa 69.5% (EA), ioe?iee “caaeia?eueii” oa
“iacaaeia?eueii” io?eiaee a?aeiia?aeii 43% (AA) oa 30.5% (EA). Na?aae
iaeaooi?o i?ioan?eieo ei?enooaa/?a AII ae?aaiinoe/i? caaaeaiiy, ui
aacoaaeeny ia caaaeueiieia?/i?e ae?? “aiae?c”, aeyaeee oaeo ea?oeio.
Aenieiai ??aiy aeeiiaiiy ia aeinya aeiaeai nooaeaio ai?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo, ai? eiio?ieueieo a?oi, aeinoaoiueiai ??aiy aeinyaee
14% nooaeaio?a (AA) oa 16.5% (EA). Na?aaeiueiai ??aiy oni?oiino?
aeinyaee 32% nooaeaio?a (AA) oa 16.5% (EA), oa iecueeiai – 54% oa 67%
a?aeiia?aeii. Na?aaei? aaee aeeiiaiiy ae?aaiinoe/ieo caaaeaiue aeyaeeeny
oaeeie: 3.00 a aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa 2.91 – o eiio?ieueieo a?oiao.

7. Ia oi?ioth/iio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiiy (ia?oa iieiaeia eiai – ?iaioa c
iai?ioan?eieie ei?enooaa/aie AII) aoei ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo iiaoaeiae
aeai?eoio c “yae?a”, ia?ae?ee caieoaiue aeey “iie?oiiai” e ienaiiiai
iieooaaiue (ca Oaoaeiaei A.O.), niaoe?aeuei? caaea/? a?aeiia?aeii aei
eiaeiiai aoaio oa e?ieo iaa/aiiy. Aeey i?aea?oi nooaeaio?a, ui
iiieeyeeny o caaaeueiieia?/ieo ae?yo, aoei ?ic?iaeaii niaoe?aeuei?
ei?eaoth/? i?ia?aie. Iaie aoei oaeiae ?ic?iaeaii iieacieee
eiiiaoaioiino? o iaa/aeueiiio iaoa??ae?, ui aea/aany. O ?iaio? c
iaeaooi?ie i?ioan?eieie ei?enooaa/aie AII aoee noai?ai? iaa/aeuei? ea?oe
a?aeiia?aeii aei eiaeii? ae??, ui aea/aeany, caniae caaacia/aiiy
aioo??oiueiai cai?ioiiai ca’yceo, iaoiaee/eo c iie?ieiai? ?ic?iaee
aeai?eoi?a, iaeyaei? a?eoo? oi?iaoo A1 (ye? c’?aeioaaee an? e?iee
iaa/aiiy), a oaeiae niaoe?aeuei? caaea/? ca aoaiaie e?ie?a.

8. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie eiio?ieueiiai aenia?eiaioo c iai?ioan?eieie
ei?enooaa/aie AII nooaeaioe iaea?aeaee oae? ioe?iee ia ?nieo? (ui
i?noeee ? e?euee?ni?, ? ye?ni? iieacieee aeinyaiooi? eiiiaoaioiino?).
“A?aei?iii” iaea?aeaee 57% nooaeaio?a a AA oa 11% – o EA, “aeia?a” – 36%
oa 43% a?aeiia?aeii, ui neeaaea? 93% aeinyaiaiiy aenieiai ??aiy
eiiiaoaioiino? nooaeaioaie aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi oa 54% – nooaeaioaie
eiio?ieueieo a?oi. Ioe?iee “caaeia?eueii” io?eiaee 7% nooaeaio?a AA oa
26% – EA, “iacaaeia?eueii” – aeiaeii?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui noai?ai?
aeey nooaeaio?a aeeaeaeoe/i? oiiae (ea?iaaia ca aeiiaaie aeaio iaoe
iaa/aiiy) caaacia/othoue oni?oi?noue ?o iaa/aiiy oa iaaoooy
eiiiaoaioiino? o aea/aiiio iaoa??ae?. Iaeaooi? i?ioan?ei? ei?enooaa/?
AII ia eiio?ieueiiio aenia?eiaio? iieacaee oae? ?acoeueoaoe. Aenieiai
??aiy eiiiaoaioiino? iaaoee 57% nooaeaio?a AA oa 8% – EA, aeinoaoiueiai
– 11% oa 28% a?aeiia?aeii, oiaoi aenieiai oa aeinoaoiuei aenieiai ??aiy
o AA iaaoee 68% nooaeaio?a, a o EA – eeoa 36%.. Na?aaeith
eiiiaoaioi?noue aeyaeee 28.5% nooaeaio?a AA oa 32% – EA, iecueeo – 3.5%
(AA) oa 32% (EA), ui neeaaea? ?acii 32% a AA oa 64% – a EA. Iaa/ath/?
i?ia?aie oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo ni?eyee iiaioaaiith ia o?eueee
niaoe?aeueii-i?aaeiaoieo, a e caaaeueiieia?/ieo oi?iue, i?i ui na?ae/eei
aeineoue a?eueia (o ?aieao iaaooi? eiiiaoaioiino?) iia?oaaiiy nooaeaio?a
ieie i?ae /an eiio?ieueiiai aenia?eiaioo.

9.Aenia?eiaioaeueia aei?iaoaaiiy an??? noeoiiino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo
oiia iieacaei, ui a ?ac? ?? aeio?eiaiiy i?aaeth?oueny iaaaoeaiee aieea
aeayeeo /eiiee?a iaa/aiiy, a aei?aaeaiiy iaaeinoaoiueiai ??aiy
iiia?aaei?o ciaiue ? ai?iue naia e noa? iiooiaoii, c yeiai
?icii/eia?oueny oni?oia i?inoaaiiy aei aeinyaiaiiy
eiiiaoaioiino?. ?aae?caoe?y icia/aieo aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia cana?ae/eea, ui
cai?iiiiiaaia iecea oiia noai?th? iaaio ooieoe?eio nenoaio, a ye?e
aeeo/aiiy aoaeue-yei? oiiae i?ecaiaeeoue aei iia??oaiiy ?acoeueoao?a.

Ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie aaa/a?ii o c’ynoaaii?
oiia aeinyaiaiiy oni?oiino? iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a noa?oeo eo?n?a ii
niaoe?aeueieo aeenoeeie?iao; o caaacia/aii? oiia oni?oiiai iaa/aiiy
nooaeaio?a aoiai?oa?ieo niaoe?aeueiinoae; o aeine?aeaeaii?
aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia caaacia/aiiy oni?oiiai aeeiiaiiy oai?/eo caaaeaiue
nooaeaioaie oiui.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

Aiaeec caaea/e eae iniiaiie eiae/aneee i?eai, iiaeeaaeauee onaiaieth
//Ia?niaeoeae. – 1997. – ?1. – N. 77-79 .

Canoa??eiio iiiyooth – iiaa iaaeaaia?/ia iaiiaiaiiy // A?niee
Iaeanueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa. – 1998. – ?3. – N.177-180.

Iaa/aeueia iiaeaethaaiiy ye aoai ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/? ca aeiiiiiaith
AII //Iaoeiaee a?niee I?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. – Iaeana, 1999. – Aei. 3. – N.16 8-172.

E iao/aieth i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe ii i?aaiecaoeee
aaiaea-auaiaea eioi?iaoeee n iiiiuueth YAI // Iaaeaaiae/aneea e
ineoieiae/aneea aniaeou eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee ia?aciaaiey: Oacenu
aeieeaaeia ananithciie iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneie eiioa?aioeee. 25 – 27
ieoya?y 1988, ?eaa: ?IE. – *.1 – N. 130-131.

Eecoiiaa I.I., Nieiiei E.?. Iiaeoiaeu e i?iaeaia oaaa iao/aiey. – I.:
IEE AO, 1987. – 28 i.n. (?oe. aeai., ?1566 – 87).

Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eco/aieth iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu e
iniiaiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey YAI AN 1066 ia eaai?aoi?iuo caiyoeyo
ii eo?no «Aeai?eoie/aneea ycuee e i?ia?aiie?iaaiea». – Iaeanna: IIE,
1991. – 24 n.

Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey, i?ia?aiia e eiio?ieueiua caaeaiey ii eo?no
«Aeai?eoie/aneea ycuee e i?ia?aiie?iaaiea». – Iaeanna: IIE, 1991. – 32n.

Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey ii aeenoeeieeia «I?eeeaaeiia i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea»: Iioaaiaay aeaoaeecaoeey aeai?eoiia e oanoe?iaaiea
i?ia?aii. – Iaeanna: Oaoie/aneia ath?i «Aeyoa THA», 1996. – 54 n.

Iaeioi?ua aii?inu iiaeaioiaee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iieueciaaoaeae YAI. –
I.: IEE AO, 1988. – 8 i.n. – ?oe. aeai., ?622-88, 4.05.88.

Ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneea iniiau i?acaioaoeee niaea?aeaiey ia?aciaaiey a
oaaa iao/aiey n eniieueciaaieai AIN // Iooe aeoeaecaoeee
naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aaiou nooaeaioia – E.: OIE AI i?e Ieiaoca ONN?, 1990.
– N. 45-55.

Iooe e n?aaenoaa aeinoeaeaiey oeaee oaaa iao/aiey // I?iaeaiu aunoae
oeieu. – E., 1991. – Aui.75. – N. 73-77.

Nieiiei E.?., AEoeianeee I.A. Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey e i?aeoe/aneei
caiyoeyi ii eo?no «Iniiau aeai?eoiecaoeee e aeaiycuee»: Iaeioi?ua
aii?inu nia?aiaiiie oaoiieiaee i?ia?aiie?iaaiey. – Iaeanna: IIE, 1983. –
72 n.

Nieiiei E.?., Iiaeaeoaiay O.I. Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey e naiinoiyoaeueiie
?aaioa ii i?ia?aiie?iaaieth ia aeai?eoie/aneii ycuea OI?O?AI 77: Eenou
iii?iuo neaiaeia e caaeaiey e iei. – Iaeanna: IIE, 1991. – 35n.

Nieiiei E.?., Iiaeaeoaiay O.I. Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey e naiinoiyoaeueiie
?aaioa ii i?ia?aiie?iaaieth ia aeai?eoie/aneii ycuea OI?O?AI 77:
Iiyniaiey e eenoai iii?iuo neaiaeia; caaea/e; iaoiaeeea ninoaaeaiey
aeai?eoiia. – Iaeanna: IIE, 1991. – 52 n.

Nieiiei E.?. Aeeaeaeoe/i? oiiae caaacia/aiiy oni?oiino? iaa/aiiy
nooaeaio?a iieiaeoeo eo?n?a oaoi?/ieo caeeaae?a ina?oe. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.04 – oai??y oa iaoiaeeea i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe. – I?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
(i.Iaeana) ?i. E.Ae.Ooeinueeiai. – Iaeana, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?iaeaia caaacia/aiiy aeeaeaeoe/ieo
oiia, ui ni?eythoue oni?oiino? iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a iieiaeoeo eo?n?a
oi?iaeiaae aea/aiiy ieie oaoi?/ii? aeenoeeie?ie. Aecia/aii iiiyooy
“i?inoaaiiy o iaa/aiiy” ? caeiaooi ?acoeueoaoe oni?oiiai i?inoaaiiy
nooaeaio?a o iaa/aii?, oiaoi iie?ieiaiai aeinyaiaiiy oni?o?a. Aecia/ai?
aeeaeaeoe/i? oiiae, ca yeeo iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a ? oni?oiei. Iaoa??aee
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue oai?aoeei-iaaeaaia?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy
iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a caeeaae? aeui?
ina?oe.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oni?oi?noue iaa/aiiy, e?ie iaa/aiiy, e?ie o/?iiy,
i?inoaaiiy o iaa/aii?, eiiiaoaioi?noue, aeeaeaeoe/i? oiiae.

Liliya Solomko. D?dact?c conditions of ensuring the educational
successfulness of technical junior students. – Manuscr?pt in Ukrainian.

Ohe Thesis for a Candidate’s Degree of Pedagogical Sciences, speciality
13.00.04. – Theory and Methods of Professional Education.
South-Ukrainian Pedagogical State University named after K.D.Ushinsky,
Odessa, 1999.

The thesis deals with the problems of ensuring didactic conditions that
promote educational successfulness of junior-years students in time of
learning technical branch of science. The author determined a
pedagogical conception and received the results of successful
educational advancement of the students. Materials of the research give
theoretic-pedagogical bases for further improvement of educational
process at the Higher School.

Key words: educational successfulness, step of educational process,
step of learning, educational advancement, competency, didactic
conditions.

Nieiiei Eeeey. Aeeaeaeoe/aneea oneiaey iaania/aiey oniaoiinoe iao/aiey
nooaeaioia ieaaeoeo eo?nia oaoie/aneeo aocia. – ?oeiienue ia oe?aeineii
ycuea.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.04 – oai?ey e iaoiaeeea i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey. THaeiioe?aeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee
oieaa?neoao (a. Iaeanna) ei.E.Ae.Ooeineiai. – Iaeanna, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeiaaeanue i?iaeaia iaania/aiey aeeaeaeoe/aneeo
oneiaee, niinianoaothueo oniaoiiio iao/aieth nooaeaioia ieaaeoeo eo?nia
i?e eco/aiee eie oaoie/aneie aeenoeeieeiu. Ineoieiae/aneee aniaeo yoie
i?iaeaiu oanii naycai n aii?inaie ?acaeoey iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe e iiciaaaoaeueiiai eioa?ana a/a?aoieo oeieueieeia,
i?iaeieaeathueo iao/aiea ia i/a?aaeiie nooiaie iai?a?uaiiai
ia?aciaaiey. A aeeaeaeoe/aneii aniaeoa ?anniio?aia aiciiaeiinoue
aeinoeaeaiey aunieiai o?iaiy onaiaiey o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea, o.a.
eiiiaoaioiinoe a iai, i?e oneiaee i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeaiey iao/aieai ia
iniiaa iieiaeaiee aeaoo iaoe – eeaa?iaoeee (oai?ee oi?aaeaiey e
eiioeaioeee “aaeiai yueea”) e aeayoaeueiinoiie oai?ee o/aiey (oai?ey
ieaiiia?ii-iiyoaiiiai oi?ie?iaaiey oinoaaiiuo aeaenoaee e iiiyoee –
OIOOAe). N iiceoeee nenoaiu iai?a?uaiiai ia?aciaaiey iao/aiea nooaeaioia
ia ieaaeoeo eo?nao – yoi ioaeaeueiay i?iaeaia, oae eae o?iaaiue ?acaeoey
iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe (a /anoiinoe, iauaeiae/aneeo i?eaiia) o
ieo e?aeia iaiaeeiaeia. Ia?ainoaiaiiay aaaeiinoue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo aeey
aunoaai ia?aciaaiey ciaiee e oiaiee a/a?aoieo oeieueieeia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaia e ?acoeueoaoaie aieaoe?iaaiey iiuoiuo i?aiiaeaaaoaeae
?acee/iuo aeenoeeieei ia ieaaeoeo eo?nao. I?aiaeieaiea i?ioeai?a/ey
iaaeaeo iaee/iuie ciaieyie e oiaieyie e oaie, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu aeey
oniaoiiai i?iaeieaeaiey ia?aciaaiey, aeaao oie/ie e iinooiaoaeueiiio
i?iaeaeaeaieth nooaeaioa a iao/aiee. Oeaeue yoiai i?iaeaeaeaiey –
aeinoeaeaiea eiiiaoaioiinoe a eco/aaiii iaoa?eaea. I?eciaee aa
?acee/iu, caaenyo io naiiai iaoa?eaea, ii nooue inoaaony iaeciaiiie:
yoi iioaioeeaeueiay aioiaiinoue ?aoaoue niioaaonoaothuea eco/aiiiio
iaoa?eaeo caaea/e ni ciaieai aeaea. A ?aaioa ii?aaeaeaia nouiinoue
iiiyoey “i?iaeaeaeaiea a iao/aiee” /a?ac ae?oaie aeeaeaeoe/aneee oaiiiai
– “oaa a iao/aiee”, eiathuee iaiaeiicia/iia oieeiaaiea n?aaee ?aciuo
enneaaeiaaoaeae e i?aeoeeia iao/aiey. A ?acoeueoaoa aeaoaeueiiai e
ianoiyoaeueiiai aiaeeca i?iaeaiu oaaa a iao/aiee i?eiyoi, /oi “oaa a
iao/aiee” – yoi, i?aaeaea anaai, oa aaeeieoea, eioi?ie neaaeoao
ecia?youe i?iaeaeaeaiea a iao/aiee. nii?iaiaeaeaaiia oniaoaie e
i?eaiaeyuaa e eiiiaoaioiinoe a eco/aaiii iaoa?eaea. Oaeoth ?ieue a
i?ioeanna iao/aiey ea?aao oeeee – i?iaaaeaiea oi?ie?oaiie aeayoaeueiinoe
/a?ac oeaiue iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo yoaiia OIOOAe. O?aaiaio niaea?aeaiey
ia?aciaaiey a eaaeaeii oaaa i?aaenoaaeyaony a aeaea no?oeoo?e?iaaiiuo
noai i?eaioe?iai/iuo iniia (IIAe) oi?ie?oaiuo aeaenoaee. “Oai?aoe/aneea”
e “i?aeoe/aneea” yoaiu oaaa aeieaeiu i?iaiaeeoueny a aaeeinoaa eae
iaiouaieaiua /anoe oeaeinoiiai oeeeea iao/aiey. A eiinoaoe?othuai
yenia?eiaioa enneaaeiaaiey auei ii?aaeaeaii enoiaeiia ninoiyiea
iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe nooaeaioia-?aaeenoia –
iai?ioanneiiaeueiuo iieueciaaoaeae YAI iaoiaeii “neioace?iaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe”, eioi?ue iicaieee n iiiiuueth iaeieo e oao aea
aeeaaiinoe/aneeo caaeaiee auynieoue noi?ie?iaaiiinoue e iauaeiae/aneeo,
e niaoeeaeueii-i?aaeiaoiuo aeaenoaee. Ii ?acoeueoaoai n?aca auee
auaeaeaiu a?oiiu nooaeaioia aeey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iao/aiey –
ei??aeoe?iaee, au?aaieaaiey enoiaeiiai ninoiyiey eo iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. A yoie /anoe oi?ie?othuaai yenia?eiaioa auea iaania/aia
any nenoaia i?aaeeiaeaiiuo aeeaeaeoe/aneeo oneiaee oniaoiiai iao/aiey,
a eiaiii: 1) i?ioeann iao/aiey aue i?aaieciaai ii o?aaiaaieyi oai?ee
oi?aaeaiey (ii?aaeaeaii enoiaeiia ninoiyiea oi?aaeyaiiai iauaeoa,
ii?aaeaeaia oeaeue oi?aaeaiey e niaea?aeaiea ia?aciaaiey i?eaaaeaii a
niioaaonoaea n iae, auea ?ac?aaioaia iao/athuay i?ia?aiia, o/eouaaaoay
ana ia?aoiaeiua ninoiyiey iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey); a oaeaea – 4) a
iao/athuoth i?ia?aiio auee aeeth/aiu e iauaeiae/aneea aeaenoaey; 2)
i?ioeann iao/aiey ninoiye ec iao/ii-iainiiaaiiuo oaaia; 3) ia eaaeaeii
oaaa iao/athuae i?ia?aiiie auei iaania/aii aeinoeaeaiea oniaoa; 5)
“oai?aoe/aneea” e “i?aeoe/aneea” yoaiu oaaia i?iaiaeee iaeie e oio aea
i?aiiaeaaaoaeue-yenia?eiaioaoi?. Iao/aiea i?e anae niaieoiiinoe oneiaee
iieacaei, /oi a yoii neo/aa ieaaee?oaony iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea iaeioi?uo
oaeoi?ia aai oniaoiinoe, a au?aaieaaiea iaaeinoaoi/iiai o?iaiy
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo ciaiee e oiaiee noaiiaeony oai “oie/eii”, n eioi?iai
ia/eiaaony oniaoiia i?iaeaeaeaiea e aeinoeaeaieth eiiiaoaioiinoe n
caaeaiiuie iieacaoaeyie.

Eiinoaoe?othuee n?ac o?iaiy i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo ciaiee e oiaiee aoaeoueo
iaiaaeaea?ia -i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iieueciaaoaeae YAI – iieacae, /oi
aunieiai o?iaiy auiieiaiey caaeaiee, eioi?ua aace?iaaeenue ia
iauaeiae/aneeo aeaenoaeyo, ia aeinoea ieeoi, a aeinoaoi/iiai, n?aaeiaai
e ieceiai – i?eia?ii ii iaeeiaeiaiio eiee/anoao nooaeaioia a
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo e eiio?ieueiuo a?oiiao. A yoie /anoe oi?ie?othuaai
yenia?eiaioa, e?iia ianeieueei eiiai “iaiieiaiey” oneiaee, eiie auea e
naia eo niaieoiiinoue, a eiaiii: oneiaea aaeeinoaa “oai?aoe/aneeo” e
“i?aeoe/aneeo” yoaiia oaaia iao/aiey ia auei auiieiaii, /oi iaiaaeeaiii
neacaeinue ia ?acoeueoaoao oi?ie?iaaiey: oieueei 68% nooaeaioia
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo a?oii aeinoeaee aunieiai e aeinoaoi/iiai o?iaiae
eiiiaoaioiinoe (a eiio?ieueiuo a?oiiao – 36%) i?ioea 93% a ia?aie /anoe
yenia?eiaioa. Oaeea ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey iicaieytho naeaeaoue
auaiaeu i oeaeaniia?aciinoe i?aaeeiaeaiiie niaieoiiinoe aeeaeaeoe/aneeo
oneiaee oniaoiinoe iao/aiey, a oaeaea i oii, /oi iie i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie ooieoeeiiaeueioth nenoaio ni anaie auoaeathueie ec yoiai
iineaaenoaeyie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oniaoiinoue iao/aiey, oaa iao/aiey, oaa o/aiey,
i?iaeaeaeaiea a iao/aiee, eiiiaoaioiinoue, aeeaeaeoe/aneea oneiaey.

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