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I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y
Oe?a?ie

EE?ANUeEA IAAeE*IA AEAAeAI?ss I?NEssAeEIEIIII? INA?OE
?iai?
I.E.Ooieea

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

*A?AIUeEI Na?a?e Iaea?iae/

OAeE
616.441-006.5-006.6-07-037-089

Ae?AAIINOEEA, OAIAeAIOe?? IAOIII?OICO
? CAOAI?THAAIINO?, I?IAIIC ?ICAEOEO OA
O??O?A?*IA E?EOAAIIss AIAIEUAAI? IAOIEIA??
UEOIAEAeII? CAEICE

14.01.03 – o??o?a?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai
nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo
iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaee/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey IIC Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?
iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ei?ioeee Aaea??e Ieeieaeiae/,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, eaoaae?a aini?oaeueii?
o??o?a?? ?1, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e.Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Caneoaeaiee ae?y/
iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
?aaec?oianueeee Aiaoie?e Iaaeiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o??o?a?? ? ii?eiai?
oai?iae Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??

i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Ooieea IIC
Oe?a?ie;

Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee
Oe?a?ie, eao?aao Aea?aeaaieo i?ai?e

Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie,

i?ioani? Eii?na?aiei ?ai? Aaneeueiae/,
?inoeooo aiaeie?eiieia?? oa iai?io

?a/iaei AII Oe?a?ie, o??o?a?/iee a?aeae?e,
ea??aiee a?aeae?eo;

Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie,
eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie,
aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI ? AII Oe?a?ie, i?ioani?
A?aoonue Aaneeue Aeieo??eiae/,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
I.I. Aiaiiieueoey, eaoaae?a oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a?? ?2, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e; I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. Ae.Aaeeoeueeiai, eaoaae?a

oaeoeueoaonueei? ? caaaeueii? o??o?a??, IIC
Oe?a?ie, i. Euea?a. Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny ” 19
” o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 11-00 aiae.ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii?
?aaee Ae 26.613.02 i?e Ee?anuee?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai?? i?ney-aeeieiiii?
ina?oe ?i. I.E.Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie (254112, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aei?iaiaeeoeueea, 9).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? i?ney-aeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie (254112, i.
Ee?a, aoe. Aei?iaiaeeoeueea, 9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee ” 16 ” ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

e.i.i., aeioeaio
Aaicaeye I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. A?eueoa /anoeia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie iaeaaeeoue
aei aiaeai?/ieo ia cia ?aa?ii?a, aea iaoea? ia iaioa 15 iei ethaeae
(E.O.Iaoana? e niaao., 1998), aea?aeaaia ae i?io?-eaeoeea oeueiai
caoai?thaaiiy a?aeeaoeeany i?aeoe/ii aei ??aiy 40-50 ?ie?a
(TH.I.Noa?ithe oa ni?a-aao., 1995; A.ss.*aa?eiaoe, 1992; A.A.Oaeaioia,
1983). Aea iaa?oue o iaaiaeai?/ieo ia cia e?a?iao aai aea?aeaaao, aea
oey i?iaeaia i?aeoe/ii ae??oaia ca ?aooiie aoaeoeaieo i?io?eaeoe/ieo
caoiae?a, a?ae 30 % aei 50 % aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy iathoue iaoieia?/i?
no?oeoo?i? ci?ie /e ooai?aiiy o ueoiaeaei?e caeic?, ui ?ici?ciathoueny
i?ae /an ?aoaeueiiai oeueo?acaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy (OCAe) /e
nae-oe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, a 4-7 % – ee?i?/i? oi?ie aoceiaiai ciao
(E.E.Aaaoenueyi, A.A.Iao?iaa, 1995; A.A.Aaeaeeia, 1997; S.Roger, J.
Foster, 1995).

Aiaieuaa? oi?ie o?aaeaiiy ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ui ioiieththoue aoceiaee
aiaeai?/iee oa nii?aaee/iee cia, aeia?iye?ni? iooeeie –
a?ia?ooieoe?iioth/? oa aooe?ai?aei? aaeaiiie, ?ae, aeaaaia?aoeai? /e
caiaeuei? e?noici? ooai?aiiy, ina?aaeeia? oi?ie oe?ai?aeeo?a, oa
neeaaeathoue oaeei /eiii iaeaaaeeea?oo /anoeo oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??,
iin?aeathoue ia?oa i?noea na?aae i?e/ei o??o?a?/ieo ao?o-/aiue ia
aiaeie?eiieo caeicao (E.A.Eiienna?aiei, 1996).

Ui?ieo aeeiio?oueny a?eueoa 12000 iia?aoe?e ia ueoiaeaei?e caeic? a
Oe?a?i?, /anoea ae ceiye?nieo iiaiooai?aiue na?aae iia?aoe?eieo
ciao?aeie ia ia?aaeuo? 10 %, a oie /an, ye o i?ia?aeieo o??o?a?/ieo
ee?i?eao ?a?iie oa NOA oeae iieaciee aeinyaa? 30-50% (I.A.Aoeue/ee e
niaao., 1995; N.E.Oaa/aiei e niaao., 1993; S.Roger, J. Foster, 1995;
M.S.Sabel et al., 1997).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy inoaii?o ?ie?a na?ae/aoue i?i iaaieiia c?inoaiiy, ye
ae?enia, oae ? ca ?aooiie e?aui? ae?aaiinoeee (aieiaiei /eiii caaaeyee
oe?ieiio ai?iaaaeaeaiith OCAe ueoiaeaeii? caeice), a Oe?a?i? /anoioe
aiaieuaai? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? – a?eueo, i?ae o 2 ?ace ca 5 ?ie?a
(TH.N.Eeoia/ai-ei oa ni?aaao., 1994; TH.I.Noa?ithe oa ni?aaao., 1995).
Iniaeeai ieeueia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny oe?e i?iaeai? i?ney
*i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe /a?ac i/?eoaaiiy c?inoaiiy
?aae?i?iaeoeiaaieo oi?i oe?ai?aeieo caoai?thaaiue, ia?o ca ana iooeei oa
aooi?ioiiai oe?ai?aeeoo, aiane?aeie o?iiiino? aeeeiooeo o iia?o?y (12-50
IEe ca ??cieie aeaieie) ?aae?i?cioii?a eiaeo aei ueoiaeaeii? caeice
(Ae.Aioiai, 1994; I.Ae.O?iiueei, 1994; A.E.Aeaaeia, E.E.Aeaaeia, 1993).

Aea ?acii c oeei, iaiaaaiiy iiynieoe c?inoaiiy /anoioe iooeeiieo oa
iaiooeeiieo ooai?aiue o ueoiaeaei?e caeic? ae??th ia?aaaaeii iaeeo aeic
?aae?iaeoeaiiai ii?ii?iaiiy caooeeei aaaeeea?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ioeo
oaeoi??a iaoiaaiaco a?ia?ieanoe/ieo oe?ai?aeieo caoai?thaaiue, oei
a?eueoa, ui ?iaioe a?o/eciyieo oa ?iicaiieo aeine?aeiee?a inoaii?o /an?a
aeacothoue ia iie?ao?iei-a?/i?noue oe??? iaoieia?? oa ?? neeaaeiee
iaoiaaiac (A.TH.?iiaiaiei oa ni?aaao., 1994; I.E.?oaeiaa, A.A.Aa?aoeeee,
1992; G.N.Burrow, 1995).

Oae? noi?iie iaoiaaiaoe/iiai i?ioeano, ye aieea ?aaoeyoi?ieo a?aeae?e?a
oeaio?aeueii? ia?aiai? nenoaie, niaaeeiaino?, ae?? aeecaaeaino
i?e?iaeaiaio?a, ui aoee i?aaeiaoii caoe?eaaeaiino? ie?aieo iaoeiaoe?a o
1950-1960 ??. (A.A.Ae?oei, A.E.Aoaneee, 1983; I.I.Eiaaeaa, 1960), ca
inoaii? 2 aeanyoe??//y i?aeoe/ii ia aeine?aeaeoaaeenue.

?acii c oeei o e?eoaaeueieo caeeaaeao nenoaie ioi?iie caei?ia’y
cae??ieany aeaui iaeiiaieee i?aeo?ae aei oa?ai?? iacaaii? iaoieia??,
yeee aei?aaaeiao? o??o?a?/ia ao?o/aiiy i?e aoaeue-yeiio aoc-eiaiio
ooai?aii? o ueoiaeaei?e caeic? oa ia a?aoiao? a i? iiaeeeainoae
no/anieo ae?aaiinoe/ieo cania?a, a i? iniaeeainoae iaoiaaiaco ie?aieo
oi?i oeeo caoai?thaaiue, aoaeo/e ni?yiiaaiei ia?aaaaeii ia o??o?a?/io
iieii?io?eaeoeeo (I.A.Aoeue/ee e niaao., 1995; N.E.Oaa/aiei e
niaao.,1993).

Canoinoaaiiy ie?aieo cania?a ae?aaiinoeee iineoue aacnenoaiiee oa?aeoa?,
ia caaaeo? ni?a-a?aeiioaiiy ?ioi?iaoeaiino? oa aa?oino? iaaieo iaoiae?a,
ui iiaea nooo?ai aieeaaoe ia i?aeoe/io aoaeoeai?noue oaei? ?iaioe a
oiiaao iia??oaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaio iaoi? e?a?ie
(A.A.Aioeth?ei oa ni?aaao., 1998; A.I.Aaaa?eei e niaao., 1994).

Ia ao?a/a? aeooaeueiino? ieoaiiy aeeoa?aioe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee
aeia?iye?nieo oa ceiye?nieo aoceiaeo ooai?aiue na?aae ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i
ca?eueoaiiy ueoiaeaeii? caeice (?.A.Eii?na?aiei oa ni?aaao., 1997;
A.E.Iai/e/ e niaao., 1995; I.I.Iaaeianeee, Ae.A.Iaea?, 1991).

I?aeoe/ii ia ?ic?iaeaia i?iaeaia i?iaiico ?icaeoeo ie?aieo ??ciiaeae?a
aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? oa?ai??,
yea canoiniao?oueny, aecia/aiiy oa?i?io e?eoaaiiy, ui oneeaaeith?oueny
ia?aaaaeii iia?eueiei i?e?iaeiei ia?aa?aii a?eueoino? aeia?iye?nieo oa
ceiye?nieo oe?ai?aeieo caoai?thaaiue (K.Kuma et al., 1992; E.Mazzaferri,
1993).

O??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy, ui ? iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei na?aae ?ioeo iaoiae?a
oa?ai?? aeey caaaeaieo aeua iicieia?/ieo oi?i oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??,
iana c niaith iaaiee ?ecee aaciina?aaei?o (2-32 %) oa a?aeaeaeaieo (6-38
%) oneeaaeiaiue, /anii i?ecaiaey/e aei no?eei? ?iaae?ae?caoe??
iaoe?aio?a, iniaeeai aiane?aeie a?iiia?a- oa a?iioe?aico, ia?aco ai?oai?
(?.A.Eii?na?aiei oa ni?aaao., 1997; I.I.*a?aiue-ei, 1977; A.Ae.A?aoonue
e niaao., 1973; A.I.Ai/, 1994; B.Mentes et al., 1997; S.Harris, 1992).
Iioe?th?oueny caiaaeoi ?aaeeeaeueiee, ia caaaeaee iaa?oioiaaiee oa
iaaei?aaaeaiee c aiaeie?eiieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o i?aeo?ae aei o??o?a?/iiai
ao?o/aiiy ia ueoiaeaei?e caeic?, e?eoa??? aeai?o yeiai iathoue
noia?a/eeao ioe?ieo (I.A.Aoeue/ee e niaao., 1998; N.E.Oaa/aiei e niaao.,
1993; M.Braga et al., 1992; Q.Liu et al., 1998).

Iaeaea a?aenooi? aoaeue-ye? caaaeee i?i aeueoa?iaoeai? aei noaiaea?oiiai
o??o?a?/iiai iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice,
iiaeeea?noue aoaeoeaiiai canoinoaaiiy iaei?iaaceaieo ao?o/aiue, ye?
iaaoee ca inoaii? 5-7 ?ie?a cia/iiai iioe?aiiy o cao?aeieo e?a?iao
(A.I.Eaeeiei, ?.I.Ia?oeiiae/, 1991; J.Hermann, 1997; F. Monzani et al.,
1997).

Ana oea ?iaeoue iai?/aio ?iaioo aeoaea aeooaeueiith o oaia?aoi?o
aeieia?/ii caa?iceeaeo oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii iani?eyoeeaeo oiiaao
aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie oa i?noa Ee?aa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey ? ?
o?aaiaioii iniiaieo iaoeiaeo i?iaeai oi?aa?neoaoo ca 1994-1998 ?iee (?
?o aea?ae?a?noaoe?? 0194U017977 oa 0197U004061).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe aoei i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ae?aaiinoeee ? e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c aiaieuaaith iaoieia??th
ueoiaeaeii? caeice oeyoii ?ic?iaee ae?aaiinoe/iiai aeai?eoio ?
oaoiieia?? e?eoaaiiy ia iniia? iaoiaaiaoe/ii-iaa?oioiaaieo o??o?a?/ieo ?
iaei?iaa-ceaieo iaoiae?a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy cacia/aii? iaoe aoee aenoioo? ianooii? caaea/?.

1. Aecia/eoe iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? o caoai?thaaiino? aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie oa i?noa Ee?aa aiaieuaaith iaoieia??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice,
iniaeeaino? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oeeo caoai?thaaiue, ?o iaoiii?oic ca
inoaii? aeanyoe??//y.

2. I?iaiae?coaaoe o??o?a?/io ae?yeuei?noue aeayeeo i?aeoe/ieo caeeaae?a
ioi?iie caei?ia’y i. Ee?aa (aac iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?inoeooo?a oa
a?aeii/eo onoaiia) noiniaii aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice o
aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy, no?oeoo?i? ci?ie o oe?ai?aei?e o??o?a?? oa
iniaeeaino? e?eo-aaeueii? oaeoeee ca inoaii? 10-15 ?ie?a.

3. Aea/eoe aeaye? iaeia?aeii? aniaeoe iaoiaaiaco a?ia?ieanoe/ieo
aoceiaeo ooai?aiue o ueoiaeaei?e caeic?, a naia: noai ?aaoeyoi?ieo
a?aeae?e?a oeaio?aeueii? ia?aiai? nenoaie oa oea?aa?aeueii?
aaiiaeeiai?ee; iniaeeaino? iae?i- ? i?e?iaeaiaioiiai neeaaeo oe?ai?aeii?
ia?aio?ie i?e ??cieo oi?iao ?? aiaieuaai? iaoieia??; ?ieue oaeoi??a
niaaeeiaino? o aeieeiaii? oa ?icaeoeo aoceiaeo ooai?aiue o ueoiaeaei?e
caeic?.

4. Ae?iaeoe iioeiaeueio ae?aaiinoe/io oaeoeeo i?e aoceiaeo o?aaeaiiyo
ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ?ic?iaeoe ae?aaiinoe/iee aeai?eoi.

5. Aecia/eoe e?eoa??? i?iaiicoaaiiy ?icaeoeo oa aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy
aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice ia iniia? aiae?co
ee?i?ei-aiaiianoe/ieo, eaai?aoi?ii-a?io?i?/ieo oa niaaeeiaeo
iniaeeainoae ?? ia?aa?ao.

6. Ia iniia? aea/aiiy ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo oa iaoiaaiaoe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ie?aieo oi?i aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice o
aei?ineeo aecia/eoe eiioeaioe?th canoinoaaiiy o??o?a?/iiai oa ?ioeo
iaoiae?a ?o e?eoaaiiy.

7. ?ic?iaeoe iia? oa iioei?coaaoe ?nioth/? niiniae o??o?a?/iiai,
iaei?iaaceaiiai ? eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy aiaieuaai? oe?ai?aeii?
iaoieia??.

8. Iae?aneeoe oeyoe i?io?eaeoeee iniiaieo caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii?
caeice, yeei i?eoaiaiiee ia?aaaaeii aiaieuaaee oa?aeoa? ?? o?aaeaiiy, c
o?aooaaiiyi aecia/aieo iiiaio?a ?o iaoiaaiaco ? ia?aa?ao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa aoei aecia/aii oa
ocaaaeueiaii oaiaeaioe?? uiaei caoai?thaaiino? oa no?oeoo?ieo ci?i o
aiaieuaa?e iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice a Oe?a?i? oa i. Ee?a? ca inoaii?
aeanyoe??//y. Aeyaeaii, ui c?inoaiiy iieaciee?a iioe?aiino? ?
caoai-?thaaiino? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??, yea cao?eniaaii a Oe?a?i? ? a
i. Ee?a?, a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie ia?aaaaeii aoceiaeo oi?i
iaoiene/iiai ciao oa aeeoociiai iaoiene/iiai ciao III-IV no., yeee o
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a oaeaeei i?ecaiaeeoue aei aoceiooai?aiiy (ci?oaiee
cia).

Aia?oa aoei i?iaaaeaii aiae?c o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy aiaieuaai?
oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? na?aae aei?ineeo o i. Ee?a? ca inoaii? 10-15
?ie?a, yeee cana?ae/ea, ui aeecueei 90 % an?o i?e/ei iia-?aoeaieo
ao?o/aiue neeaaeathoue aeia?iye?ni? caoai?thaaiiy, a iaeaea 1/2 c ieo –
iaaaeee? ca ?ici??ii, iaeineiioiii? aoceia? ciae, e?noe ueoiaeaeii?
caeice, aeiaaeee o?ii?/iiai aooi?ioiiiai oe?ai-?aeeoo, ui ia
noi?iaiaeaeothoueny eiii?an??th i?aai?a oe?; ?acii ?c c?inoaiiyi
e?eueeino? iia?aoe?e ia ueoiaeaei?e caeic? a Oe?a?i? c?inoa?
iioe?ai?noue i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai a?iioe?aico, yeee noaiiaeoue 80 % an?o
ca?a?no?iaaieo aeiaaee?a a?iioe?aico o eeyi.

Aia?oa c?iaeaii aeniiaee uiaei oa?aeoa?ieo ?en iaoiii?oico aiaieuaaeo
oi?i caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice ca inoaii? aeanyoe??//y, ye?
iieyaathoue a oaiaeaioe?? aei cieaeaiiy ooieoe?-iiaeueii? aeoeaiino?
ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa ?aca?a?a ?? eiiiainaoe??, ia?aaaaeaii? aiaieuaaeo
o?a-aeaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice (aieiaiei /eiii iaeineiioiiieo iaaaeeeeo
aoceiaeo cia?a) na?aae ?ioeo oe?ai?aeieo caoai?thaaiue, iinooiiaiio
c?inoaii? a Oe?a?i? ? a Ee?a? ca inoaii? 10 ?ie?a caoai?thaaiino? ia ?ae
ueoiaeaeii? caeice, yeee ca?ac iaeaea aeeeth/ii (a?eueoa, ye ia 95 %)
iaeaaeeoue aei aenieiaeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo a?noieia?/ieo oi?i, a iniiaiee
i?e??no caoai?thaaiino? ia ?ae o i. Ee?a? caaacia/othoue aeiaaeee eiai
ii/aoeiaeo noaae?e.

Aeine?aeaeaii iaa?aeii? ?ai?oa ci?ie ??eoaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o o
noiaao?iaeo, na?aaeiueiiiceiaeo oa ei?eiaeo a?aeae?eao OeIN i?e
a?ia?ieanoe/i?e oe?ai?aei?e iaoieia??, ?o ca’ycie c ooieoe?iiaeue-iei
noaiii ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa iaoiaaiaoe/ia cia/aiiy.

Aia?oa ia iniia? iaoiaeo eieaeueii? eaca?ii? ian-niaeo?iiao??? (EEIN)
aeyaeai? ci?ie iae?i- ? i?e?iaeaiaioiiai neeaaeo oe?ai?aeii? oeaieie i?e
ie?aieo oi?iao ?? aiaieuaai? iaoiei-a??, iniiai? c yeeo iieyaathoue o
cia/iiio ciaioaii? ??aiy ?io?aoe?ai?aeiiai eiaeo (aei iaeaea iia-ii?
a?aenooiino? eiai a ?aeiaeo aoceao) c iaeii/aniei i?aeaeuaiiyi ai?noo
?ioeo aaeiaai?a – ooi?o ? oei?o. Aeai? i?i ai?no o ueoiaeaei?e caeic?
oaeeo aeaiaio?a, ye Al, Si, Sc, Zr, Ba iaaaaeai? aia?oa.

Aia?oa aeiaaaeaii nooo?ao ?ieue oaeoi??a niaaeeiaino? o ?icaeoeo oa
aecia/aii? oa?aeoa?o ia?aa?ao iaaieo ee?i?/ieo oi?i aiaieuaai? iaoieia??
ueoiaeaeii? caeice – aaeaiii, oiene/iiai aoceiaiai ciao, ?aoeeaeeaiiai
aoceiaiai ciao.

Cai?iiiiiaaii iioei?ciaaio ae?aaiinoe/io oaeoeeo oa aeai?eoi i?e
aoceiaeo oi?iao oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??, yea aecia/a? i??i?eoao
caaaeueiiai ee?i?/ii-o?ceeaeueiiai ianoaaeaiiy oa ?aoe?iiaeueia
aeei?enoaiiy no/anii? ?ino?oiaioaeueii? oa eaai?aoi?ii? ae?aaiinoeee,
ia?o ca ana oiieiaieeiai? ani??aoe?eii? ioieoe?eii? a?iin?? (OAIA) oa
OCAe. Aia?oa a Oe?a?i? canoiniaaii eiia?iiaaia iiaea?eia niiia?ao?/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui ii?aeio? OCAe a ?aaeueiiio ianooaa? /ano oa
aeiiea?ianueeo ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th noaeeiieo ooai?aiue, aeey
aeeoa?aioe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee aiaieuaaeo no?oeoo?ieo ci?i o ueoiaeaei?e
caeic?.

Caiaoaioiaaii niin?a i?iaiico aoaeoeaiino? eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy
aoceiaiai iaoie-ne/iiai ciao, ui a?oioo?oueny ia aecia/ai? aeeiai?ee
eiioeaio?aoe?? oe?aiaeiaoe?io (OA) e?ia?.

Oaeineiiaeaia oaoiieia?y e?eoaaiiy ??cieo oi?i aiaieuaai? oe?ai?aeii?
iaoieia??, ui aeic-aieeea ciaioeoe e?euee?noue iaaei?aaaeaieo
iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue, ai?iaaaeeoe i?aaiicaa??aath/ee o??o?a?/iee
i?aeo?ae i?e aeia?iye?nieo caoai?thaaiiyo, i?aeaeueoe aaciaeo oa
aoaeoeai?noue e?eoaai-iy. Aia?oa a Oe?a?i? canoiniaaii eiiieaen
aeueoa?iaoeaieo iaei?iaaceaieo ao?o/aiue i?e aoceiaeo ooai?aiiyo
ueoiaeaeii? caeice o aeiaaeeao aenieiai o??o?a?/iiai ?eceeo /e
iaaeioe?eueiino? noaiaea?oii? a?aee?eoi? iia?aoe??.

Caiaoaioiaaii niin?a iaei?iaaceaiiai e?eoaaiiy e?noicieo oi?i aoceiaiai
ciao.

Aia?oa canoiniaaii iiaee a?o/eciyiee a?iaaeaaceaiee i?aia?ao iie?ia?o
o?a?eio i?ae /an iia?aoe?? ia ueoiaeaei?e caeic? aeey caaacia/aiiy
aaiinoaco, ciaioaiiy ?aiiai? e?ioi-aaii?aa?/ii? i?neyiia?aoe?eii?
nae?aoe?? oa einiaoe/iiai c’?aeiaiiy e?a?a ?aie oe??e.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oeyoii ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, niinoa?aaeaiue ca iaoiii?oicii aiaieuaai? iaoieia??
ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa ?? iaoiaaiaoe/ieie iniaeeainoyie aeiaaaeaia
iaiao?aei?noue iineeaiiy oaaae aei ae?aaiinoeee, aaeaeaaoii? oa?ai?? ?
o??o?a?/ii? i?io?eaeoeee noaee?i?/iiai oa iai?oanoiiai a?iioe?aico i?e
aiaieuaa?e oe?ai?aei?e iaoieia??.

Nooo?aa /anoea iaaaeeeeo ca ?ici??ii iaeineiioiiieo aeia?iye?nieo
aoceiaeo a?ia?iean-oe/ieo oa aooi?ioiieo ooai?aiue o ueoiaeaei?e caeic?,
na?aae i?e/ei o??o?a?/ii? ?acaeoe?? ?? o aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy, ca
iaoa??aeaie aeine?aeaeaiue no?oeoo?e oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? o o?ueio
o??o?a?/ieo ee?i?eao i. Ee?aa, na?ae/eoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoeaieo aeiiia?aoe?eieo iaoiae?a aeeoa?aioe?eii?
ae?aaiinoeee (ia?o ca ana OAIA ? OCAe), iineeaiiy oaaae aei
eiina?aaoeaieo oa iaei?iaaceaieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy oa ?aoaeueiiai
caaaeaiiy iieacaiue aei iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue.

??cea ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ?io?aoe?ai?aeiiai eiaeo oa i?aeaeuaiiy
ai?noo ?ioeo aaeiaai?a (ooi?o ? oei?o) i?e aeayeeo aiaieuaaeo o?aaeaiiyo
ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeacothoue ia o?eueee ia ?o iaoiaaiaoe/io ?ieue, aea
? ia iiaeeea? iai?yiee i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a oeyoii caiia?aaiiy aieeao
F- oa Cl-oo?eioth/eo niieoe ? ?a/iaei oa caaacia/aiiy aeinoaoiueiai
niiaeeaaiiy eiaeo.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy /anoiai n?iaeiiai iaeiie/aiiy oa i/aaeaeiiai aieeao
niaaeeiaino? i?e aeayeeo oi?iao aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice
(aaeaiiie, aoceiaee oiene/iee cia, ?aoee-aeeaiee aoceiaee cia) aeaco? ia
iaiao?aei?noue iaia’yceiaiai caeo/aiiy aaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a
aeine?ae-aeaiiy (oi/a a o aeaeyae? ee?i?ei-aaiaaeia?/iiai iaoiaeo) i?e
ianoaaeaii? oai?eo ?c caaaeaiith iaoi-eia??th aeey ?? a?eueo aoaeoeaii?
ae?aaiinoeee oa e?eoaaiiy.

?ic?iaeaia noaia ee?i?ei-?ino?oiaioaeueii? ae?aaiinoeee ?
aeeoa?aioe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee aoceiaeo i?ioean?a o ueoiaeaei?e caeic?,
a?aoiaoth/e iaaecae/aeio iioe?ai?noue ?o na?aae aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie, aeicaieeoue i?e a?aeiia?aei?e ii?ioi?iiaaiino? e?ea??a oe?ieiai
i?io?eth oa niaoe?ae?no?a ciaioeoe aei i?i?ioio e?euee?noue
ae?aaiinoe/ieo iiieeie, iaa/anii ae?aaiinoiaaieo iioe?aieo oi?i ?aeo oa
iaaei?aaaeaieo iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue.

Cai?iiiiiaaiee iiaee niin?a i?iaiico aoaeoeaiino? eiina?aaoeaiiai
e?eoaaiiy aoceiaeo oi?i iaoiene/iiai ciao aeicaiey? /?oei aecia/eoe a
iaai? no?iee a?oio iaoe?aio?a c i/?eoaaiei iiceoeaiei aoaeoii
noi?aneaii? oa?ai??, a oaeiae oai?eo, aei yeeo aiane?aeie iani?eyoeeaiai
i?i-aiico oa?ai?? iaiao?aeii canoiniaoaaoe o??o?a?/i? aai iaei?iaaceai?
iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy.

?ic?iaeaiee iiaee niin?a iaei?iaaceaiiai e?eoaaiiy e?noicieo oi?i
aoceiaiai ciao aeicaiey? aeinyaoe e?eoaaeueiiai aoaeoo i?inoei ?
aacia/iei oeyoii, oieeiooe a?aee?eoi? iia?aoe?? o 5-10 % iaoe?aio?a,
yeeo iia?othoue c i?eaiaeo aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy aeia?iye?nieo oi?i
aoceiaeo o?aaeaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice ?iaeoue e?eoaaeueiee i?ioean
a?eueo aio/eei ? aacia/iei, iniaeeai na?aae iaoe?-aio?a a?oie aenieiai
o??o?a?/iiai ?eceeo.

?ic?iaeaia a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? oaoiieia?y o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy,
ui a?oioo?oueny ia i?aoeec?ei?e oaoi?oe? iia?oaaiiy, noaoanoe?aeuei?e
?acaeoe?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa caa?aaeaii? ?? ooieoe?iioth/i?
caei?iai? ia?aio?ie i?e aeia?iye?nieo o?aaeaiiyo, canoinoaaii?
a?iaaeaaceaiiai i?aia?aoo iie?ia?o o?a?eio (c iaoith ?io?aiia?aoe?eiiai
aaiinoaco oa ciaioaiiy i?neyiia?aoe?e-ii? e?ioiaaii?aa?/ii? ?aiiai?
nae?aoe??), einiaoe/iiio c’?aeiaii? e?a?a iia?aoe?eii? ?aie
(ao?aa-iaoe/iei oiaiei iaoa??aeii /e a?ieia?/iei o?a?eiiaei eea?i)
?iaeoue iia?aoe?th aacia/i?oith, o?eaae?noue i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai
iaeoaeaiiy iaioith, a a?aeaeaeai? oneeaaeiaiiy iaei?iia??ieie.

Cai?iiiiiaai? a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiaee ae?aaiinoeee, ae?aaiinoe/iee
aeai?eoi, niiniae iaei-?iaaceaiiai ? o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy iaoieia??
ueoiaeaeii? caeice ai?iaaaeaeai? o i?aeoeeo e?eo-aaeueieo onoaiia i.
Ee?aa, Oa?eiaa, Aei?i?iiao?ianueea. Aeaeai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
(1992).

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? caeo/ai? aei eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a oa
o/aiaeo ieai?a aeeeaaeaiiy aini?oaeueii? o??o?a?? nooaeaioai 5-ai oa
6-ai eo?n?a Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, o??o?aai-?ioa?iai, ee?i?/iei i?aeeiaoi?ai oa
ani??aioai.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii iniaenoi ia iniia? aiae?co
e?oa?aoo?e aoei aecia/aii iai?yiie, iaoo oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aea?? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia?iaea iaoa??ae?a ianoaaeaiue oa
e?eoaaiiy, oai?aoe/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy, iaa?oiooaaiiy aeniiae?a ?
i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c?iaeai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii. Aeena?oaioia?
iaeaaeeoue aeeiiaiiy anueiai ianyao ee?i?/ii? oa o??o?a?/ii? ?iaioe,
aaciina?aaeiy o/anoue o i?iaaaeaii? a?eueoino? ae?aaiinoe/ieo
i?ioeaaeo?, a oiio /ene? ? o aeeiiaii? i?ea?iaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue –
aeaeo?iaioeaoaeia?ao?? (AAA), ei?ioei- oa aeiaaieaoaioieo neooiaeo
aeeeeeaieo iioaioe?ae?a (ENAI, AeNAI), ?aiaioeaoaeia?ao?? (?AA),
eieaeueii? eaca?ii? ian-niaeo?iiao??? (EEIN).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oea?aa?aeueii? aaiiaeeiai?ee, AAA, ENAI oa AeNAI
i?iaiaeeeeny caeiaoaa/ai o eaai?aoi??? i?ioan?eieo ii?ooaiue neooo
Ee?anueeiai IAe? ioiea?eiaieia?? i?ae ea??aieoeoaii ? ca ni?eyiiy
aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?a O.A.Oeaeeianueei?.*

Aei??thaaiiy aoiiiiai neeaaeo oe?ai?aeii? ia?aio?ie i?iaiaeeeinue
aaoi?ii ca iaoiaeeeith EEIN, ?ic?iaeaiith ia eaoaae?? e??iaaiii?
i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? O.A.Oaa/aiea i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a ?ic?iaee – eaiaeeaeaoa o?ce/ieo iaoe, noa?oiai
iaoeiaiai ni?a?ia?oieea A.I.Ceeiaa.*

?ic?iaea oaoiieia?? io?eiaiiy oa caaaeueieo iiaeeeainoae ee?i?/iiai
canoinoaaiiy a?iei-a?/iiai aaeaaceaiiai i?aia?aoo iie?ia?o o?a?eio
iaeaaeeoue aeieoi?o a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?o E.I.Aa?ai??ieo*
(eaai?aoi??y a?io?i?? Ee?anueeiai IAe? ioiea?eiaieia?? IIC Oe?a?ie).
Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a o noi?niiio aeiaoiae? ( “Niin?a
iaei?iaaceaiiai o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy e?noicieo oi?i aoceiaiai ciao”)
neeaaea? 80 % ? iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe? iiaiai iai?yieo canoinoaaiiy
i?aia?aoo, iaoiaeeee eiai i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy, ee?i?/i?e ai?iaaoe??
iaoiaeo.

I?aeaioiaea iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e (1992) oa iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?e o
aeo?iae? “Ee?i?/ia o??o?a?y”(1991, 1992, 1996) aeeiioaaeanue o
ni?aaaoi?noa? c I.I.*a?aiueei, TH.A.?aiaoianueeei oa A.?.Aioii?aei
(1996) c ??aiith /anoeith iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? o/ano? eiaeiiai. Aaoi?o
iaeaaeeoue i?iaaaeaiiy 30 % e?eoaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, iaoeiaa
iaa?oiooaaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue oa aanue ianya aiae?-oe/ii? ?iaioe,
noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a, ?aaeaaoaaiiy oaenoo.

O noi?niiio aeine?aeaeaii? ia?aiao??a OeIN oa neooiai? ooieoe?? o oai?eo
c a?ia?ieanoe/iith iaoieia??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice (AEAIAO, 1998, ?6)
ni?aaaoi?o O.A.Oeaeeianuee?e iaeaaeeoue aoae?ieia?/ia /anoeia ?iaioe,
yea ia aoea i?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Iniaenoee aianie

___________________________

* Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o aaey/i?noue on?i aeuacaaaeaiei o/aiei ca
aeiiiiiao a ?iaio?. caeiaoaa/a noaiiaeoue 80 % – ?aeay iai?yieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ia ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo, a?eueoa /anoeia
aeaeo?i-iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue OeIN oa iiceiai?
aaiiaeeiai?ee, aiae?-oe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a oa i?aeaioiaea
ioae?eaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Ai?iaaoe?y aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
i?iaaaeaia ia can?aeaii? ai?iaaoe?eii? ?aaee “Caaaeueia o??o?a?y”
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? ii?eethaeiai? ia V c’?cae?
aiaeie?eiieia?a Oe?a?ie (1994), ? oa ?? eiia?anao o??o?a?a Oe?a?ie
(1994, 1998), ?? c’?cae? aianoac?ieia?aOe?a?ie (1992); IV, V, VII
eiia?anao NOOEO (1992, 1994, 1998), ?? iaoe?iiaeueiiio eiia?an?
aa?iioieia?a ? aa??ao??a Oe?a?ie (1994), V?? a?io?i?/iiio c’?cae?
Oe?a?ie (1997), O ?a?iiaenueeiio eiia?an? aianoac?ieia?a (1998),
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? aiaeie?eiieia?a i. Ee?aa 15.10.1998 ?. a
i?nuee?e ee?i?/i?e aiaeie?eiieia?/i?e e?ea?i?, 12 iaoe?iiaeueieo oa
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo oa n?iiic?oiao.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 13 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o o
i?io?eueieo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo, ui ?aeiiaiaeiaai? AAE Oe?a?ie (c ieo
– 9 naiino?eieo) oa io?eiaii 2 iaoaioe Oe?a?ie ia aeiaoiaee, iia’ycai? c
aeena?oaoe??th. Oaeiae iioae?eiaaii 2 naiino?ei? noaoo? o ca??ieeao
iaoeiaeo ?ia?o oa 22 ?iaioe o iaoa??aeao oa oacao aeiiia?aeae iaoeiaeo
c’?cae?a oa eiioa?aioe?e. Aeaeai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
“Oe?o?ae/aneia ea/aiea yiaeaie/aneiai e aeeooociiai oiene/aneiai ciaa”.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, caeeth/aiiy, aeniiae?a ? i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoeo. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe??
noaiiaeoue 371 noi??ieo iaoeiiieno, a oiio /ene? 40 ?enoie?a ia 17
noi??ieao, 36 oaaeeoeue ia 25 noi??ieao, aeiaeaoie ia 4 noi??ieao oa
nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ia 56 noi??ieao, yeee ia?aoiao? 583
iaeiaioaaiiy, a oiio /ene? 351 – ?iicaiieo aaoi??a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?iaioa ? ?acoeueoaoii ee?i?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy 341 oai?iai c aiaieuaaith iaoieia??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice,
yeei i?ioyaii 1991-1997 ??. aoea aeeiiaia o??o?a?/ia iia?aoe?y ia
ueoiaeaei?e caeic? a ee?i?oe? aini?oaeueii? o??o?a?? IIO, a oaeiae 138
oai?eo c cacia/aiith iaoieia??th, ye? i?ioyaii 1994-1997 ??. ia?aaoaaee
i?ae aiaoeaoi?iei iaaeyaeii o i?nueeiio aiaeie?eiieia?/iiio aeeniaina??
oa o ee?i?oe? aini?oaeueii? o??o?a?? ? e?eoaaeenue oeyoii canoinoaaiiy
eiina?aaoeaieo oa iaei?iaaceaieo o??o?a?/ieo iaoiae?a. An? iaoe?aioe
aoee aei?ineiai a?eo (18-83 ?ie?a), ae?iie – 444, /ieia?e?a – 35.

Aei a?oie caoai?thaaiue, ui aoee ia’?aeiai? oa?i?iii aiaieuaai?
oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? a?aeia-nai? oae? iicieia?/i? oi?ie (ca
I?aeia?iaeiith noaoenoe/iith eeaneo?eaoe??th oai?ia, o?aai oa i?e/ei
nia?o? 9 ia?aaeyaeo – IEO 9 ), ye aoceiaee oa aaaaoiaoceiaee iaoiene/iee
cia, e?noe ueoiaeaeii? caeice (ia?aaaaeii iaeeii/i?), oiene/i? aaeaiiie
(aoceiaee oiene/iee cia) oa aaaaoiaoceiaee oiene/iee cia, aiaieuaa?
oi?ie o?ii?/iiai aooi?ioiiiai oe?ai?aeeoo oa i?aeaino?iai o?ai?aeeoo Aea
Ea?aaia, ?ae ueoiaeaeii? caeice. E??i iicieia?/ii? eeaneo?eaoe??
oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? ie ?iciiae?eyee oai?eo ca nooi?iith ca?eueoaiiy
ueoiaeaeii? caeice /e ca ?ici??ii iaoieia?/ieo aiaieu. A iaoeo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo ie ei?enooaaeenue o?aaeeoe?eiith eeaneo?eaoe?th ciao ca
5-nooiaiaaith oeaeith, yeui iaeeii/ia /e iiiaeeiia aiaieuaaa ooai?aiiy a
ueoiaeaei?e caeic? aeeeeeaei ooiauaiiy oe? (??? no.) /e ?? aeaoi?iaoe?th
(IV no.) aai a ??aee?nieo aeiaaeeao aeinyaaei cia/ieo ?ici???a (V no.).
I?e iaioeo ?ici??ao aoceiaiai ooai?aiiy (ia?aaaaeii iaeeii/iiai), ui
aeia?a i?iiaoeoaaeinue oa i?eaeecii a?aeiia?aeaei ?-?? no.ciao (ae?aiao?
1-1,5 ni /e 1,5-2 ni), aaaaeaee a?eueo aeioe?eueiei canoinoaaiiy
a?aaeaoe?? ca oeaeith TNM /e iaaaaeaiiy oi/iiai ?ici??o o ni (ca aeaieie
OCAe /e ee?i?/ii). Aiaieuaa? o?aaeaiiy, ui /?oei ia iaeueioaaeenue, a
a?coae?coaaeenue ca aeiiiiiaith ?ino?oiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a, ie iaceaaee
noaee?i?/ieie – aiie ia?aaaaeii iaee ae?a-iao? iaioee 1 ni – oa
niinoa??aaee ca aeiiiiiaith OCAe (oaeeo oai?eo aei a?oie
aeine?aeaeoaaieo iaoe?aio?a ie ia aeeth/aee).

Noaoenoeei-ai?aeai?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ia iniia?
aea/aiiy oa ia?iaee iaoa??ae?a aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? noaoenoeee IIC
Oe?a?ie ca 1988-1997 ??., iaoa??ae?a ca?oii? noaoenoe/ii? aeieoiaioaoe??
AOIC i. Ee?aa oa i?nueeiai aiaeie?eiieia?/iiai aeeniaina?o ca i?iaeaiith
oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? ca 1988-1997 ??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e o??o?a?/ii? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? oa ??
aeeiai?ee ca inoaii? aeanyoe??//y i?iaiaeeeeny ia aac? aea/aiiy a?o?aii?
oa noaoenoe/ii? aeieoiaioaoe?? oi?aa?neoaonueeeo ee?i?e, ui caeiathoueny
o?eaaeee /an e?eoaaiiyi oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??, a naia: o??o?a?/ieo
a?aeae?eaiue ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? ? 3 oa Ee?anueeiai i?nueeiai oeaio?o
o??o?a?? oa ?aaa?e?oaoe?? oai?eo c iaoieia??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice
(EIOeO?OIUC), ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? ? 15 oa ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? ? 4 i. Ee?aa
ca ia??iae 1982-1997 ??. oa aea??eiai ca 1954 ?. oa 1978 ?. (ee?i?/ia
e?ea?iy ? 15). Aei noaoenoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia caeo/aeenue iaoa??aee
?inoeoooo aiaeie?eiieia?? oa iai?io ?a/iaei AII Oe?a?ie oa ?ioeo
a?aeii/eo onoaiia. Aea/ai? iaoa??aee ioiieththoue a?eueoa 70 %
o??o?a?/ieo oe?ai?aeieo oai?eo i. Ee?aa (aeecueei 20 000 iia?aoe?e ) oa
aeinoaoiuei iiaii a?aeaeaathoue oa?aeoa? ? iniaeeaino? oeueiai aeaeo
o??o?a?/ii? aeiiiiiae aei?ineiio ianaeaiith i. Ee?aa.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? iaoiaaiaoe/ii? ?ie? ii?ooaiue OeIN i?e
a?ia?ieanoe/i?e iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa ?o iiaeeeaiai ca’yceo c
?aae?aoe?eiei ii?ii?iaiiyi aiane?aeie aaa??? ia *AAN aoei noi?iiaaii
a?oio c 25 oai?eo c a?ia?ieanoe/iith oe?ai?aeiith iaoieia??th (aoceiaee
oa ci?oaiee iaoiene/iee cia), ye? caciaee ae?? ?aae?iaeoeaiiai
ii?ii?iaiiy o iaaeao iaeeo aeic ye e?ea?aeaoi?e *i?iiaeeuenueei? aaa???
oa iaoeaioe? ?aae?iaeoeaii caa?oaeiaieo oa?eoi??e Ee?anueei? iaeano?.
?acoeueoaoe aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue OeIN (AAA, AeNAI oa
ENAI, ?AA) ii??aithaaee c 25 oai?eie, ui ia caciaee aieeao ?aae?aoe??, a
oaeiae c 25 iniaaie aac iciae oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??, ui io?eiaee
ciai?oi? oa aioo??oi? ii?ii?iiiy o iaeeo aeicao /a?ac aaa??th ia *AAN.
Ie?aii aeine?aeaeoaaee ci?ie o OeIN na?aae oai?eo c a?iioe?aicii oa
ii?iaeueiith oe?ai?aeiith ooieoe??th.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?iaeaiaioiiai neeaaeo oe?ai?aeii? ia?aio?ie iaoiaeii
EEIN i?iaiaeeeiny o 23 oai?eo, ui aoee iia?iaai? c i?eaiaeo aoceiaiai
iaoiene/iiai ciao, aaeaiii ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa ?aeo. Eiio?ieai aoa
naeoe?eiee iaoa??ae – o?aaiaioe ueoiaeaeii? caeice 5 in?a aac iciae
oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??, ui caaeioee aiane?aeie o?aaie.

O?aaeeoe?eia ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ia aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?eo aeiiiaithaaee
iaoiaeaie a?coae?caoe?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa aecia/aiiy ??
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio. Aeey oeueiai ei?enooaaeenue
?aae?i?ioii-eia?/iei ,?ioii?aae?iiao?e/iei oa ?ioiioa?iaioiei aiae?cii,
canoiniaoth/e eiia?oe?ei? iaai?e ?aaeoea?a o??ie “Boehringer-Mannheim”
(I?ia//eia), “Amersham” (Aaeeeia?eoai?y) oa ?aae?i?io-iieia?/ieo iaai??a
“?EI-O3-IA”, “?EI-O4-IA”, “?EI-OOA-IA”, “?EI-OA-125J” (EAIO, Aaea?onue)
aeey aecia/aiiy ??ai?a caaaeueieo oa a?eueieo oi?i oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a
a oaeiae oe?aio?iiiiai ai?iiio (OOA) oa oe?aiaeiaoe?io (OA). E??i
oeueiai ie aecia/aee ?aae?i?ioiieia?/iei iaoiaeii ??ai? aioeoe?ai?aeieo
aioeo?e – i?ioe oe?aiaeiaoe?io oa i?ioe oe?ai?aeii? ia?ieneaeace.

Oeueo?acaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy (OCAe) ueoiaeaeii? caeice i?iaiaeeee ia
aia?aoao “Siemens Sonoline SL-1” oa “Toshiba-SSA 380” ?c canoinoaaiiyi
e?i?eieo aeao/ee?a c /anoioith aei?ii?ith-aaiiy 7,5 IAoe. E??i oeueiai
inoaii?e aia?ao aeei?enoiaoaaee aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ueoiaeaeii? caeice
oa ?? noaeei o ?aaeei? eieuei?iaiai aeiiea?ianueeiai neaioaaiiy oa
aeoieaeniiai (ia’?aeiaiiai) nea-ioaaiiy o A- oa CDC- ?aaeeiao. Ca
iaaieie iieacaiiyie ie aeei?enoiaoaaee oano iaeiie/aiiy eiaeo, a oaeiae
?aae?i?cioiiio noeeio?a?ao?th (?N) ?c canoinoaaiiyi ?cioii?a eiaeo-131,
-123 oa oaoia-oe?th-99m ca aeiiiiiaith ?aae?iiao?a ?E-107 “Aaiia” oa
neaia?a “Noeeio?ea?o” IA 8100 (Oai?ueia).

C ?aioaaiieia?/ieo iaoiae?a o aeiaaeeao i?aeic?e ia iicaa?oaeieiia
iioe?aiiy ciao /e iooeei ia?aaaao a?aeaeaaaee eiii’thoa?i?e oiiia?ao??
(EO) oe? oa aa?oiueiai iaaeeno?iiy, yeo i?i-aiaeeee ia aia?ao? “NO -9000
General Electric” (COA).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oea?aa?aeueii? aaiiaeeiai?ee i?iaiaeeeiny ?c
canoinoaaiiyi iaoiaeo ?aiaioeaoa-eia?ao?? ca aeiiiiiaith 4-eaiaeueii?
?aia?ao?/ii? i?enoaaee 4?A-2I oa ?a?no?oth/iai i?eno?ith – 8-eaiaeueiiai
aeaeo?iaioeaoaeia?aoo “A?ine?eio” (I?ia//eia).

Aeaeo?iaioeaoaeia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeenue ca aeiiiiiaith
14-eaiaeueiiai aeaeo?iaioeaoaeia?aoa “Nihon Kohden” (ssiiiiy) oa
16-eaiaeueiiai – o??ie “Medicor” (Oai?ueia).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy neooiaeo aeeeeeaieo iioaioe?ae?a i?iaiaeeeinue c
aeei?enoaiiyi aiae?coth/i? nenoaie IE-6 o??ie “Amplaid” (?oae?y) a
ae?aiiaai?e caoei?cieueiaai?e eaia?? a cao?eniaaiiio iai?aneaey/iio
iieiaeaii?. Aeeeeeaia aeaeo?e/ia aeoeai?noue aecia/aeanue o a?aeiia?aeue
ia ?ineeaoa-?aeueio iiiao?aeueio noeioeyoe?th. ENAI ?a?no?oaaee o
a?aeiia?aeue ia eeaoeaiiy o?eaae?noth 100 ien c /anoioith 21 a 1 n,
?ioaineai?noth 80 aeA iaae noa’?eoeaiei ii?iaii /ooeeaino?. AeNAI
?a?no?oaaee o a?aeiia?aeue ia oiiaeuei? iineeee o?eaae?noth 300 in,
?ioaineai?noth 40 aeA iaae noa’?eoeaiei ii?i-aii /ooeeaino? c /anoioith
caiiaiaiiy 1 oa 4 eAoe (/an c?inoaiiy ? niaaeo – 20 in). Aiae?c e?eaeo
i?iaiaeeany c aeei?enoaiiyi i?ia?aie iiaoaeiae iiaeae? o??ie “Amplaid”.
I?e aiae?c? e?eaeo i?eeiaeenue aei oaaae eaoaioi? ia??iaee i?e?a oaeeue
?1, N1, P2 i N2 AeNAI oa I, II, III, IV ? V oaeeue ENAI, a oaeiae
i?aei?eia? ?ioa?aaee I-III, III-V, I-V ENAI.

Aei??thaaiiy aoiiiiai neeaaeo oe?ai?aeii? ia?aio?ie i?iaiaeeee ca
iaoiaeeeith EEIN ia i?ea?iaeueiiio i?eeaae? – eaca?iiio
ian-niaeo?iiao??. Iaoiae aeia?a naith aenieo /ooeea?noue oa
aoaeoeai?noue i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ?ioeo oeaiei – e?noeiaee iicie, e?ia
(A.A.Cueia e niaao, 1988), aea a ?iaio? c ueoiaeaeiith caeicith ?ai?oa
ia aeei?enoiaoaaany. Ai?no ??cieo aeaiaio?a aei??thaaany o a?aenioeao
a?aeiinii nooi? iane ?a/iaeie. Aieia?noue i?aia?ao?a eieeaaeanue o
iaaeao 73-77%.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeoi??a niaaeeiaino? i?e aiaieuaa?e iaoieia??
ueoiaeaeii? caeice i?iaiaeeeiny ca aeiiiiiaith ee?i?ei-aaiaaeia?/iiai
iaoiaeo, c canoinoaaiiyi o?aaeeoe?eieo oi?i io?eiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? –
ia?niiaeueiiai iaeyaeo ? iieooaaiiy i?iaaiae?a, ?o ?iaee/?a, aieaooaaiiy
ca niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaiith noaiith, a oaeiae – neeaaeaiiy ?iaeiaiae?a
i?e aeyaeaiiio n?iaeiiio iaeiie/aii?.

Ii?oieia?/ia ae?aaiinoeea i?iaiaeeeanue oeyoii a?noieia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iia?aoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo oeaieie ueoiaeaeieo caeic,
oeeoieia?/iiai ? a?noieia?/iiai aiae?co ioieoe?eiiai aeiiia?aoe?eiiai
iaoa??aeo, io?eiaiiai oeyoii OAIA aai o?aiai-a?iin??. Iacee o?enoaaee o
96° aoeeiaiio nie?o? c ianooiiei caaa?aeaiiyi aaiaoieneeei-aic?iii /e ca
iaoiaeii Iaiai?eieao. A?noieia?/i? i?aia?aoe oa?aoaaee aaiaoienee?iii ?
aic?iii oa aeine?aeaeoaaee ia i?e?ineii? DM RB-Leica (I?ia//eia).
A?noieia?/iee aiae?c i?iaiaeeany o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei i?aeia?iaeii?
eeaneo?eaoe?? iooeei ueoiaeaeii? caeice. A?noieia?/i? oa oeeoieia?/i?
i?aia?aoe eiinoeueooaaeenue e.i.i. ?.E.Aaao?n’yi (caa. eaai?aoi???th
ii?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue EIOeO?OIUC).

Iaeiei ?c iiaeo iai?yie?a o o??o?a?/iiio ? iaei?iaaceaiiio e?eoaaii?
oai?eo c aiaieuaaith oe?ai?aeiith iaoieia??th a iao?e ?iaio? noaei
canoinoaaiiy iiaiai a?o/eciyiiai a?iaaeaacea-iiai i?aia?aoo iie?ia?o
o?a?eio, ui io?eio?oueny c i?e?iaeieo eiiiiiaio?a e?ia? ethaeeie.
I?ae-noaaaie aeey ee?i?/iiai aei?iaoaaiiy i?aia?aoo “A?iaaeaacea” aoee,
ye iaoa??aee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ee?i?/iiai
canoinoaaiiy iie?ia?o o?a?eio a ?ioeo aaeocyo iaaeeoeeie ? o??o?a??
(E.I.Aa?ai??iei oa ni?aaao., 1996), oae ? aeaniee aeina?ae aeei?enoaiiy
i?aia?aoo i?e o??o?a?/-iiio e?eoaaii? caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice a
iaiaaeai?e e?eueeino? ee?i?/ieo niinoa?aaeiue.

Noaoenoe/i? ia?iaeo io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaee
ca caaaeueiii?eeiy-oeie iaoiaeaie iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee c
canoinoaaiiyi ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee – ia?niiaeueiiai eiii’thoa?a IBM
PC-486/100. A??ia?aei?noue ci?i ? a?aei?iiinoae i?ae ii??aithaaeueieie
iieacieeaie ioe?ithaaee ca aeiiiiiaith aeueoa?iaoeaiiai, aa??aoe?eiiai
oa ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co c aeei?enoaiiyi t-e??oa??th Nouethaeaioa oa
2 c iii?aaeith Eaonaia.

?acoeueoaoe iniaenoeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeeeaaeai? o 4 i?ae?icae?eao
a?aeiia?aeii aei iniiaieo iai?yie?a iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie.

Ia?oee c ieo – 3.1. “Iaoieia?y ueoiaeaeii? caeice a Oe?a?i? oa i.
Ee?a?: no?oeoo?i? ci?ie, oaiaeaioe?? caoai?thaaiino?, iaoiii?oic
aiaieuaaeo oi?i ca inoaii? aeanyoe??//y” i?enay/aiee
noaoenoeei-ai?aeai?ieia?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi oa aiae?co iniaeeainoae
o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy cacia/aieo oi?i caoai?thaaiue na?aae aei?ineiai
ianaeaiiy i. Ee?aa.

Iiaiaeaeoth/enue c aeoieith A.N. I?ieii/oea (1985), ui iaoiii?oic ciao ?
aaaaoieiiiiiai-oiei iiiyooyi, yea noino?oueny ia eeoa ee?i?/ieo oa
ii?oieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae, aea e ai?aeai?i-eia??, ao?ieia?? oa
iaoiaaiaco caoai?thaaiiy, ie ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia
noaoenoe/iiio, aeaniiio oa a?o?aiiio iaoa??ae? noi?ioethaaee ia’?eoeaio
ocaaaeueiaio ea?oeio iaoiii?oico aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice
ca inoaii? aeanyoe??//y, ui iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:

– c?inoaiiy iioe?aiino? ? caoai?thaaiino? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??, ui
aeinyaei ca io?oe?eieie aeaieie a Ee?a? 135 oa 39 ia 10000 ianaeaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii (oea iaeaea aaea?/? aeua iieaciee?a Oe?a-?ie),
a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie ia?aaaaeii aoceiaeo oi?i iaoiene/iiai ciao oa
aeeoociiai iaoiene/iiai ciao III-IV no., yeee o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a
oaeiae i?ecaiaeeoue aei aoceiooai?aiiy;

– i?ine?aeeiao?oueny /?oea oaiaeaioe?y aei cieaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii?
aeoeaiino? ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa ?aca?a?a ?? eiiiainaoe??, ye a?aeiinii
an??? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? a Oe?a?i? ?, a ua a?eueo?e i???, a Ee?a?
(nooo?aa iinooiiaa ciaioaiiy /anoioe aeiaaee?a a?ia?oe?ai?aeiiai ciao c
iaeii/aniei oaeaeeei i?ia?anoaaiiyi caoai?thaaiino? ia a?iioe?aic oa
o?ii?/iee aooi?ioiiee oe?ai?aeeo), oae ? o iaaeao aiaieuaai? iaoieia??,
ui i?iyaey?oueny o ciaioaii? /anoee aoceiaiai oiene/iiai ciao, iiya?
ii?oieia?/ieo iciae aeniaaeaiiy eiiiainaoi?ii? a?ia?ieac?? ? a?ia?o?io??
c iioe?aiiyi aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?io?/ieo oa aooi?ioiieo ii?oieia?/ieo
ci?i;

– aeii?ioth/ith a?oiith oe?ai?aeieo caoai?thaaiue ia nueiaiaeiyoi?e
aeaiue ? aiaieuaa? o?aaeaiiy ueoiaeaeii? caeice: aoceia? oi?ie ciao,
aeia?iye?ni? oa ceiye?ni? iooeeie, ina?aaeeia? oi?ie oe?ai?aeeo?a, ye?
noaiiaeyoue iniiaio i?e/eio o??o?a?/ieo ao?o/aiue, ye ia ueoiaeaei?e
caeic?, oae ? na?aae an?o aiaeie?eiieo oai?ia;

– na?aae aoceiaeo oi?i ciao a inoaii? ?iee ia?aaaaeathoue iaeineiioiii?
iaaaeee? (c iaoiei-a?/ieie aiaieuaie aei 1-3 ni) aoceia? oa
aaaaoiaoceia? ciae, ui aeyaeythoueny ia?aaaaeii ca aeiii-iiaith OCAe,
na?aae yeeo nooo?aa i?noea caeiathoue e?noici? aocee iniaeeai o in?a
iieiaeiai a?eo; /anoea oiene/iiai aoceiaiai ciao cia/ii ciaioeeany;

– iinooiiai c?inoa? a Oe?a?i? ? a Ee?a? caoai?thaai?noue ia ?ae
ueoiaeaeii? caeice (c 1,8 oa 3,1 aei 3,8 oa 8,0 ia 100000 ianaeaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii ca 10 ?ie?a), yeee iaeaea aeeeth/ii (a?eueoa, ye ia 95 %)
iaeaaeeoue aei aenieiaeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo iai?ey?ieo oa oie?eoey?ieo
a?noieia?/ieo oi?i; iniiaiee i?e??no caoai?thaaiino? ia ?ae o i. Ee?a?
na?aae aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy caaacia/othoue aeiaaeee ii/aoeiaeo noaae?e
iai?ey?iiai ?aeo;

– iaea?eueo /anoei iaoiaeii e?eoaaiiy aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii?
caeice caeeoa-?oueny o??o?a?/ia iia?aoe?y, oi/a aeecueei 90 % an?o
i?e/ei iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue neeaaeathoue aeia?i-ye?ni? caoai?thaaiiy, a
iaeaea 1/2 c ieo – iaaaeee?, iaeineiioiii? aoceia? ciae, e?noe
ueoiaeaeii? caeice, aeiaaeee o?ii?/iiai oe?ai?aeeoo, ui ia
noi?iaiaeaeothoueny eiii?an??th i?aai?a oe?; – ia
iacaaeia?eueiiio ??ai? caeeoa?oueny aeoeaia ae?aaiinoeea aiaieuaai?
oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? oa aeeoa?aioe?eia ?? ae?aaiinoeea, ia ui aeaco?
aeoaea iaea /anoea caoai?thaaiue, ui aeyaeythoueny oeyoii i?ioiaeyae?a,
nooo?aa ieoiia aaaa aeiaaee?a ?aeo iioe?aieo noaae?e, iaaaeeeee
a?aenioie ni?aaaei?o iooeeiieo i?ioean?a na?aae i?e/ei o??o?a?/ieo
ao?o/aiue, /ano? aeiaaeee iaeia?aoiaioi-aaieo oe?ai?aeieo iia?aoe?e i?e
iaaaeeeeo aeia?iye?nieo a?ia?ieanoe/ieo /e caiaeueieo i?ioeanao;
– ?acii ?c c?inoaiiyi e?eueeino? iia?aoe?e ia ueoiaeaei?e caeic? a
Oe?a?i? c?inoa? iioe?a-i?noue i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai a?iioe?aico, yeee
noaiiaeoue 80 % an?o ca?a?no?iaaieo aeiaaee?a a?iioe?aico o i. Ee?a?.

O ianooiieo i?ae?icae?eao aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeieoeuee? coneeey aoee
cina?aaeaeai? ia iiooeo iiaeeeaeo i?e/ei aeyaeaieo no?eeeo ?en
iaoiii?oico aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa oeyo?a iiaeieaiiy
iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e o ?? ae?aaiinoeoe? oa e?eoaaii?.

Oae o i?ae?icae?e? 3.2. “Aeaye? iaeiaeine?aeaeai? oaeoi?e iaoiaaiaco
iaeiioe?ai?oeo oi?i aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice” ie
ni?iaoaaee iiaeeaeoe ?icoi?iiy iaoai?ci?a ?ic-aeoeo a?ia?ieanoe/ii?
aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice oeyoii aeine?aeaeaiiy oeo
iiiaio?a iaoiaaiaco, ?ice?eooy yeeo aeiiiiaaaei a o aeai?? iioeiaeueii?
e?eoaaeueii? oaeoeee /e aecia/aii? i?iaiico ?icaeoeo caoai?thaaiue
ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny. Aeey oeueiai ie coieieeenue ia
ieoaiiyo iaoiaaiaco, ui iaeaea ia i?aei?iaeeny o iaoeia?e e?o?aoo??
inoaiiueiai aeanyoe??//y, a naia: 1) ?ieue ii?ooaiue ?aaoeyoi?ieo
no?oeoo? oeaio?aeueii? ia?aiai? nenoaie (ei?eiaiai, i?ii?aeiiai oa
noiaao?iaiai a?aeae?e?a iiceo) o aeieeiaii? /e noeioethaaii? ?icaeoeo
a?ia?ieanoe/ii? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice; 2) ai?no i?e?i- ?
iae?iaeaiaio?a o oeaiei? ii?iaeueii? oa iaoieia?/ii ca?eueoaii? (ca
aiaieuaaei oeiii) ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ?o iiaeeeaa iaoiaaiaoe/ia ?ieue oa
i?iaiinoe/ia cia/aiiy; 3) cia/aiiy oaeoi??a niaaeeiaino? aeey ?icaeoeo
aiaieuaaeo caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa iniaeeainoae ?o
ee?i?/iiai ia?aa?ao.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue OeIN oa
oea?aa?aeueii? aaiiaeeia-i?ee na?ae/aoue, ui a iaoiaaiac? ii?oieia?/ieo
oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaoieia?/ieo ci?i o ueoiaeaei?e caeic?, ye? ee?i?/ii
i?iyaeythoueny aiaieuaaeie /e aeeoocieie a?ia?ieanoe/ieie i?ioeanaie
(aoc-eiaee, aaaaoiaoceiaee, ci?oaiee /e aeeoociee iaoiene/iee cia ??-IV
no.) ?c noeeuei?noth aei a?iioe-?aico aai caa?aaeaiiyi aooe?ai?aeiiai
noaio, nooo?ao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue ii?ooaiiy oeaio?aeueieo ?aaoeyoi?ieo
eaiie ia?aiai? nenoaie (ae?aioeaoaeueii?, ei?eiai? oa noiaao?iai? ciie)
?acii ?c ?iceaaeaie o oea?aa?aeuei?e aaiiaeeiai?oe?. Iaea?eueo
oa?aeoa?iei c aeine?aeaeoaaieo ia?aiao??a aoei iiaeiaaeaiiy eaoaioiino?
V oaee? ENAI (iaeneiaeueii – aei 5,98±0,04 in i?e ii?i? 5,63±0,03 in).
Ca?eueoaieie aoee ? i?aei?eia? ?ioa?aaee I-V, ye? c?inee o ii??aiyii? c
ii?iith (3,97±0,02 in) aei 4,18 ± 0,02 – 4,31±0,01 in. Oea na?ae/eoue
i?i caoe?eaaeai?noue noiaao?iaeo no?oeoo? iiceo, ui a a?eueo?e i???
noino?oueny oai?eo c oe?ai?aeiith iaoieia??th, ye? iaee iaaia
?aae?aoe?eia ii?ii?iaiiy. A oe?e aea a?oi? iaoe?aio?a ca aeaieie AeNAI a
a?eueo?e i??? no?aaeaeaa ? ei?eiaee a?aeae?e OeIN.

Aea/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee iiceiaiai e?iaiia?ao ca aeaieie ?AA aeyaeei
cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy oiiono oea?aa?aeueieo noaeei, a oaeiae nooo?aa
cao?oaeiaiiy aaiiciiai a?aeoieo. I?e oeueiio iiceiaee e?iaiia?a oaeiae a
iaea?eueo?e i??? aoa ii?ooaiei o a?oi? oai?eo c a?ia?ieanoe/iith
oe?ai?aeiith iaoieia?th, ui caciaee nooo?aiai ?aae?iaeoeaiiai aieeao.

Iaea?eueo ae?aci? ii?ooaiiy aecia/aieo ia?aiao??a OeIN oa iiceiai?
aaiiaeeiai?ee ca?a-?no?iaai? o oai?eo c a?iioe?aicii i?e iaeiaeiaeo
ii?oieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoeeao iaoieia??. Ae?aci? AAA-ci?ie ??eoaoeaiiai
oa?aeoa?o c oaiaeaioe??th aei aeaneio?ii?caoe?? oa aeaci?aai?caoe?? a
ae?ai-oeaoaeueii-noiaao?iaeo oa ei?eiaeo no?oeoo?ao iiceo aeyaeai?
iaeaea o o?aoeie (32,1±8,9 %) iaoe?-aio?a c a?iioe?ai?aeiei noaiii, ui
oaeiae nooo?ai a?eueoa, i?ae o a?oi? c ii?iaeueiith ooieoe??th
ueoiaeaeii? caeice (? 0,05).

A?eueo aeaoaeueiee aiae?c aieeao niaaeeiaino? ia ?icaeoie ie?aieo oi?i
aiaieuaai? iaoiei-a?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeaco? ia cia/io
iaiaeii??aei?noue ??cieo a?oi iaoe?aio?a ca oe??th iciaeith. Oae, yeui o
caaaeuei?e a?oi? oai?eo, ui iia?oaaeenue c i?eaiaeo aoceiaiai oa
aaaaoiaoceiaiai iaoiene/-iiai ciao (ia a?aoiaoth/e aaeaiiie,
?aoeeaeeaiee cia, e?noe), ?iaeeiia iaeiie/aiiy caoai?thaaiiy
niinoa??aaeinue o iaaaeeei? ?o /anoee – 14,9±3,0 %, a na?aae oai?eo c
iiiaeeiieeie e?noicieie aoc-eaie acaaae? aoei a?aenooi?, oi a?aeiia?aei?
iieacieee aeey aaeaiii ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa ?aoeeaeea-iiai aoceiaiai
ciao neeaaeaee aaea 37,3±5,3 % oa 46,2±13,8 % (?0,05Iaeeii/i? e?noici?
aocee149,0±2,363,2±1,30,05Aaaaoiaoceiaee oiene/iee
cia1710,9±2,5105,4±1,7>0,05OAO106,4±1,9105,4±1,7>0,05I?aeaino?ee
oe?ai?aeeo Aea Ea?aaia85,1±1,821,1±0,7

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