I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y
Oe?a?ie

EE?ANUeEA IAAeE*IA AEAAeAI?ss I?NEssAeEIEIIII? INA?OE
?iai?
I.E.Ooieea

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

*A?AIUeEI Na?a?e Iaea?iae/

OAeE
616.441-006.5-006.6-07-037-089

Ae?AAIINOEEA, OAIAeAIOe?? IAOIII?OICO
? CAOAI?THAAIINO?, I?IAIIC ?ICAEOEO OA
O??O?A?*IA E?EOAAIIss AIAIEUAAI? IAOIEIA??
UEOIAEAeII? CAEICE

14.01.03 — o??o?a?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai
nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo
iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaee/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey IIC Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?
iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ei?ioeee Aaea??e Ieeieaeiae/,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, eaoaae?a aini?oaeueii?
o??o?a?? ?1, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e.Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Caneoaeaiee ae?y/
iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
?aaec?oianueeee Aiaoie?e Iaaeiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o??o?a?? ? ii?eiai?
oai?iae Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??

i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Ooieea IIC
Oe?a?ie;

Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee
Oe?a?ie, eao?aao Aea?aeaaieo i?ai?e

Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie,

i?ioani? Eii?na?aiei ?ai? Aaneeueiae/,
?inoeooo aiaeie?eiieia?? oa iai?io

?a/iaei AII Oe?a?ie, o??o?a?/iee a?aeae?e,
ea??aiee a?aeae?eo;

Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie,
eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie,
aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI ? AII Oe?a?ie, i?ioani?
A?aoonue Aaneeue Aeieo??eiae/,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
I.I. Aiaiiieueoey, eaoaae?a oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a?? ?2, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e; I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. Ae.Aaeeoeueeiai, eaoaae?a

oaeoeueoaonueei? ? caaaeueii? o??o?a??, IIC
Oe?a?ie, i. Euea?a. Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny » 19
» o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 11-00 aiae.ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii?
?aaee Ae 26.613.02 i?e Ee?anuee?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai?? i?ney-aeeieiiii?
ina?oe ?i. I.E.Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie (254112, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aei?iaiaeeoeueea, 9).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? i?ney-aeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie (254112, i.
Ee?a, aoe. Aei?iaiaeeoeueea, 9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 16 » ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

e.i.i., aeioeaio
Aaicaeye I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. A?eueoa /anoeia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie iaeaaeeoue
aei aiaeai?/ieo ia cia ?aa?ii?a, aea iaoea? ia iaioa 15 iei ethaeae
(E.O.Iaoana? e niaao., 1998), aea?aeaaia ae i?io?-eaeoeea oeueiai
caoai?thaaiiy a?aeeaoeeany i?aeoe/ii aei ??aiy 40-50 ?ie?a
(TH.I.Noa?ithe oa ni?a-aao., 1995; A.ss.*aa?eiaoe, 1992; A.A.Oaeaioia,
1983). Aea iaa?oue o iaaiaeai?/ieo ia cia e?a?iao aai aea?aeaaao, aea
oey i?iaeaia i?aeoe/ii ae??oaia ca ?aooiie aoaeoeaieo i?io?eaeoe/ieo
caoiae?a, a?ae 30 % aei 50 % aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy iathoue iaoieia?/i?
no?oeoo?i? ci?ie /e ooai?aiiy o ueoiaeaei?e caeic?, ui ?ici?ciathoueny
i?ae /an ?aoaeueiiai oeueo?acaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy (OCAe) /e
nae-oe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, a 4-7 % — ee?i?/i? oi?ie aoceiaiai ciao
(E.E.Aaaoenueyi, A.A.Iao?iaa, 1995; A.A.Aaeaeeia, 1997; S.Roger, J.
Foster, 1995).

Aiaieuaa? oi?ie o?aaeaiiy ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ui ioiieththoue aoceiaee
aiaeai?/iee oa nii?aaee/iee cia, aeia?iye?ni? iooeeie —
a?ia?ooieoe?iioth/? oa aooe?ai?aei? aaeaiiie, ?ae, aeaaaia?aoeai? /e
caiaeuei? e?noici? ooai?aiiy, ina?aaeeia? oi?ie oe?ai?aeeo?a, oa
neeaaeathoue oaeei /eiii iaeaaaeeea?oo /anoeo oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??,
iin?aeathoue ia?oa i?noea na?aae i?e/ei o??o?a?/ieo ao?o-/aiue ia
aiaeie?eiieo caeicao (E.A.Eiienna?aiei, 1996).

Ui?ieo aeeiio?oueny a?eueoa 12000 iia?aoe?e ia ueoiaeaei?e caeic? a
Oe?a?i?, /anoea ae ceiye?nieo iiaiooai?aiue na?aae iia?aoe?eieo
ciao?aeie ia ia?aaeuo? 10 %, a oie /an, ye o i?ia?aeieo o??o?a?/ieo
ee?i?eao ?a?iie oa NOA oeae iieaciee aeinyaa? 30-50% (I.A.Aoeue/ee e
niaao., 1995; N.E.Oaa/aiei e niaao., 1993; S.Roger, J. Foster, 1995;
M.S.Sabel et al., 1997).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy inoaii?o ?ie?a na?ae/aoue i?i iaaieiia c?inoaiiy, ye
ae?enia, oae ? ca ?aooiie e?aui? ae?aaiinoeee (aieiaiei /eiii caaaeyee
oe?ieiio ai?iaaaeaeaiith OCAe ueoiaeaeii? caeice), a Oe?a?i? /anoioe
aiaieuaai? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? — a?eueo, i?ae o 2 ?ace ca 5 ?ie?a
(TH.N.Eeoia/ai-ei oa ni?aaao., 1994; TH.I.Noa?ithe oa ni?aaao., 1995).
Iniaeeai ieeueia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny oe?e i?iaeai? i?ney
*i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe /a?ac i/?eoaaiiy c?inoaiiy
?aae?i?iaeoeiaaieo oi?i oe?ai?aeieo caoai?thaaiue, ia?o ca ana iooeei oa
aooi?ioiiai oe?ai?aeeoo, aiane?aeie o?iiiino? aeeeiooeo o iia?o?y (12-50
IEe ca ??cieie aeaieie) ?aae?i?cioii?a eiaeo aei ueoiaeaeii? caeice
(Ae.Aioiai, 1994; I.Ae.O?iiueei, 1994; A.E.Aeaaeia, E.E.Aeaaeia, 1993).

Aea ?acii c oeei, iaiaaaiiy iiynieoe c?inoaiiy /anoioe iooeeiieo oa
iaiooeeiieo ooai?aiue o ueoiaeaei?e caeic? ae??th ia?aaaaeii iaeeo aeic
?aae?iaeoeaiiai ii?ii?iaiiy caooeeei aaaeeea?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ioeo
oaeoi??a iaoiaaiaco a?ia?ieanoe/ieo oe?ai?aeieo caoai?thaaiue, oei
a?eueoa, ui ?iaioe a?o/eciyieo oa ?iicaiieo aeine?aeiee?a inoaii?o /an?a
aeacothoue ia iie?ao?iei-a?/i?noue oe??? iaoieia?? oa ?? neeaaeiee
iaoiaaiac (A.TH.?iiaiaiei oa ni?aaao., 1994; I.E.?oaeiaa, A.A.Aa?aoeeee,
1992; G.N.Burrow, 1995).

Oae? noi?iie iaoiaaiaoe/iiai i?ioeano, ye aieea ?aaoeyoi?ieo a?aeae?e?a
oeaio?aeueii? ia?aiai? nenoaie, niaaeeiaino?, ae?? aeecaaeaino
i?e?iaeaiaio?a, ui aoee i?aaeiaoii caoe?eaaeaiino? ie?aieo iaoeiaoe?a o
1950-1960 ??. (A.A.Ae?oei, A.E.Aoaneee, 1983; I.I.Eiaaeaa, 1960), ca
inoaii? 2 aeanyoe??//y i?aeoe/ii ia aeine?aeaeoaaeenue.

?acii c oeei o e?eoaaeueieo caeeaaeao nenoaie ioi?iie caei?ia’y
cae??ieany aeaui iaeiiaieee i?aeo?ae aei oa?ai?? iacaaii? iaoieia??,
yeee aei?aaaeiao? o??o?a?/ia ao?o/aiiy i?e aoaeue-yeiio aoc-eiaiio
ooai?aii? o ueoiaeaei?e caeic? oa ia a?aoiao? a i? iiaeeeainoae
no/anieo ae?aaiinoe/ieo cania?a, a i? iniaeeainoae iaoiaaiaco ie?aieo
oi?i oeeo caoai?thaaiue, aoaeo/e ni?yiiaaiei ia?aaaaeii ia o??o?a?/io
iieii?io?eaeoeeo (I.A.Aoeue/ee e niaao., 1995; N.E.Oaa/aiei e
niaao.,1993).

Canoinoaaiiy ie?aieo cania?a ae?aaiinoeee iineoue aacnenoaiiee oa?aeoa?,
ia caaaeo? ni?a-a?aeiioaiiy ?ioi?iaoeaiino? oa aa?oino? iaaieo iaoiae?a,
ui iiaea nooo?ai aieeaaoe ia i?aeoe/io aoaeoeai?noue oaei? ?iaioe a
oiiaao iia??oaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaio iaoi? e?a?ie
(A.A.Aioeth?ei oa ni?aaao., 1998; A.I.Aaaa?eei e niaao., 1994).

Ia ao?a/a? aeooaeueiino? ieoaiiy aeeoa?aioe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee
aeia?iye?nieo oa ceiye?nieo aoceiaeo ooai?aiue na?aae ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i
ca?eueoaiiy ueoiaeaeii? caeice (?.A.Eii?na?aiei oa ni?aaao., 1997;
A.E.Iai/e/ e niaao., 1995; I.I.Iaaeianeee, Ae.A.Iaea?, 1991).

I?aeoe/ii ia ?ic?iaeaia i?iaeaia i?iaiico ?icaeoeo ie?aieo ??ciiaeae?a
aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? oa?ai??,
yea canoiniao?oueny, aecia/aiiy oa?i?io e?eoaaiiy, ui oneeaaeith?oueny
ia?aaaaeii iia?eueiei i?e?iaeiei ia?aa?aii a?eueoino? aeia?iye?nieo oa
ceiye?nieo oe?ai?aeieo caoai?thaaiue (K.Kuma et al., 1992; E.Mazzaferri,
1993).

O??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy, ui ? iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei na?aae ?ioeo iaoiae?a
oa?ai?? aeey caaaeaieo aeua iicieia?/ieo oi?i oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??,
iana c niaith iaaiee ?ecee aaciina?aaei?o (2-32 %) oa a?aeaeaeaieo (6-38
%) oneeaaeiaiue, /anii i?ecaiaey/e aei no?eei? ?iaae?ae?caoe??
iaoe?aio?a, iniaeeai aiane?aeie a?iiia?a- oa a?iioe?aico, ia?aco ai?oai?
(?.A.Eii?na?aiei oa ni?aaao., 1997; I.I.*a?aiue-ei, 1977; A.Ae.A?aoonue
e niaao., 1973; A.I.Ai/, 1994; B.Mentes et al., 1997; S.Harris, 1992).
Iioe?th?oueny caiaaeoi ?aaeeeaeueiee, ia caaaeaee iaa?oioiaaiee oa
iaaei?aaaeaiee c aiaeie?eiieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o i?aeo?ae aei o??o?a?/iiai
ao?o/aiiy ia ueoiaeaei?e caeic?, e?eoa??? aeai?o yeiai iathoue
noia?a/eeao ioe?ieo (I.A.Aoeue/ee e niaao., 1998; N.E.Oaa/aiei e niaao.,
1993; M.Braga et al., 1992; Q.Liu et al., 1998).

Iaeaea a?aenooi? aoaeue-ye? caaaeee i?i aeueoa?iaoeai? aei noaiaea?oiiai
o??o?a?/iiai iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice,
iiaeeea?noue aoaeoeaiiai canoinoaaiiy iaei?iaaceaieo ao?o/aiue, ye?
iaaoee ca inoaii? 5-7 ?ie?a cia/iiai iioe?aiiy o cao?aeieo e?a?iao
(A.I.Eaeeiei, ?.I.Ia?oeiiae/, 1991; J.Hermann, 1997; F. Monzani et al.,
1997).

Ana oea ?iaeoue iai?/aio ?iaioo aeoaea aeooaeueiith o oaia?aoi?o
aeieia?/ii caa?iceeaeo oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii iani?eyoeeaeo oiiaao
aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie oa i?noa Ee?aa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey ? ?
o?aaiaioii iniiaieo iaoeiaeo i?iaeai oi?aa?neoaoo ca 1994-1998 ?iee (?
?o aea?ae?a?noaoe?? 0194U017977 oa 0197U004061).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe aoei i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ae?aaiinoeee ? e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c aiaieuaaith iaoieia??th
ueoiaeaeii? caeice oeyoii ?ic?iaee ae?aaiinoe/iiai aeai?eoio ?
oaoiieia?? e?eoaaiiy ia iniia? iaoiaaiaoe/ii-iaa?oioiaaieo o??o?a?/ieo ?
iaei?iaa-ceaieo iaoiae?a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy cacia/aii? iaoe aoee aenoioo? ianooii? caaea/?.

1. Aecia/eoe iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? o caoai?thaaiino? aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie oa i?noa Ee?aa aiaieuaaith iaoieia??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice,
iniaeeaino? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oeeo caoai?thaaiue, ?o iaoiii?oic ca
inoaii? aeanyoe??//y.

2. I?iaiae?coaaoe o??o?a?/io ae?yeuei?noue aeayeeo i?aeoe/ieo caeeaae?a
ioi?iie caei?ia’y i. Ee?aa (aac iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?inoeooo?a oa
a?aeii/eo onoaiia) noiniaii aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice o
aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy, no?oeoo?i? ci?ie o oe?ai?aei?e o??o?a?? oa
iniaeeaino? e?eo-aaeueii? oaeoeee ca inoaii? 10-15 ?ie?a.

3. Aea/eoe aeaye? iaeia?aeii? aniaeoe iaoiaaiaco a?ia?ieanoe/ieo
aoceiaeo ooai?aiue o ueoiaeaei?e caeic?, a naia: noai ?aaoeyoi?ieo
a?aeae?e?a oeaio?aeueii? ia?aiai? nenoaie oa oea?aa?aeueii?
aaiiaeeiai?ee; iniaeeaino? iae?i- ? i?e?iaeaiaioiiai neeaaeo oe?ai?aeii?
ia?aio?ie i?e ??cieo oi?iao ?? aiaieuaai? iaoieia??; ?ieue oaeoi??a
niaaeeiaino? o aeieeiaii? oa ?icaeoeo aoceiaeo ooai?aiue o ueoiaeaei?e
caeic?.

4. Ae?iaeoe iioeiaeueio ae?aaiinoe/io oaeoeeo i?e aoceiaeo o?aaeaiiyo
ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ?ic?iaeoe ae?aaiinoe/iee aeai?eoi.

5. Aecia/eoe e?eoa??? i?iaiicoaaiiy ?icaeoeo oa aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy
aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice ia iniia? aiae?co
ee?i?ei-aiaiianoe/ieo, eaai?aoi?ii-a?io?i?/ieo oa niaaeeiaeo
iniaeeainoae ?? ia?aa?ao.

6. Ia iniia? aea/aiiy ee?i?ei-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo oa iaoiaaiaoe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ie?aieo oi?i aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice o
aei?ineeo aecia/eoe eiioeaioe?th canoinoaaiiy o??o?a?/iiai oa ?ioeo
iaoiae?a ?o e?eoaaiiy.

7. ?ic?iaeoe iia? oa iioei?coaaoe ?nioth/? niiniae o??o?a?/iiai,
iaei?iaaceaiiai ? eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy aiaieuaai? oe?ai?aeii?
iaoieia??.

8. Iae?aneeoe oeyoe i?io?eaeoeee iniiaieo caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii?
caeice, yeei i?eoaiaiiee ia?aaaaeii aiaieuaaee oa?aeoa? ?? o?aaeaiiy, c
o?aooaaiiyi aecia/aieo iiiaio?a ?o iaoiaaiaco ? ia?aa?ao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa aoei aecia/aii oa
ocaaaeueiaii oaiaeaioe?? uiaei caoai?thaaiino? oa no?oeoo?ieo ci?i o
aiaieuaa?e iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice a Oe?a?i? oa i. Ee?a? ca inoaii?
aeanyoe??//y. Aeyaeaii, ui c?inoaiiy iieaciee?a iioe?aiino? ?
caoai-?thaaiino? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??, yea cao?eniaaii a Oe?a?i? ? a
i. Ee?a?, a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie ia?aaaaeii aoceiaeo oi?i
iaoiene/iiai ciao oa aeeoociiai iaoiene/iiai ciao III-IV no., yeee o
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a oaeaeei i?ecaiaeeoue aei aoceiooai?aiiy (ci?oaiee
cia).

Aia?oa aoei i?iaaaeaii aiae?c o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy aiaieuaai?
oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? na?aae aei?ineeo o i. Ee?a? ca inoaii? 10-15
?ie?a, yeee cana?ae/ea, ui aeecueei 90 % an?o i?e/ei iia-?aoeaieo
ao?o/aiue neeaaeathoue aeia?iye?ni? caoai?thaaiiy, a iaeaea 1/2 c ieo —
iaaaeee? ca ?ici??ii, iaeineiioiii? aoceia? ciae, e?noe ueoiaeaeii?
caeice, aeiaaeee o?ii?/iiai aooi?ioiiiai oe?ai-?aeeoo, ui ia
noi?iaiaeaeothoueny eiii?an??th i?aai?a oe?; ?acii ?c c?inoaiiyi
e?eueeino? iia?aoe?e ia ueoiaeaei?e caeic? a Oe?a?i? c?inoa?
iioe?ai?noue i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai a?iioe?aico, yeee noaiiaeoue 80 % an?o
ca?a?no?iaaieo aeiaaee?a a?iioe?aico o eeyi.

Aia?oa c?iaeaii aeniiaee uiaei oa?aeoa?ieo ?en iaoiii?oico aiaieuaaeo
oi?i caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice ca inoaii? aeanyoe??//y, ye?
iieyaathoue a oaiaeaioe?? aei cieaeaiiy ooieoe?-iiaeueii? aeoeaiino?
ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa ?aca?a?a ?? eiiiainaoe??, ia?aaaaeaii? aiaieuaaeo
o?a-aeaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice (aieiaiei /eiii iaeineiioiiieo iaaaeeeeo
aoceiaeo cia?a) na?aae ?ioeo oe?ai?aeieo caoai?thaaiue, iinooiiaiio
c?inoaii? a Oe?a?i? ? a Ee?a? ca inoaii? 10 ?ie?a caoai?thaaiino? ia ?ae
ueoiaeaeii? caeice, yeee ca?ac iaeaea aeeeth/ii (a?eueoa, ye ia 95 %)
iaeaaeeoue aei aenieiaeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo a?noieia?/ieo oi?i, a iniiaiee
i?e??no caoai?thaaiino? ia ?ae o i. Ee?a? caaacia/othoue aeiaaeee eiai
ii/aoeiaeo noaae?e.

Aeine?aeaeaii iaa?aeii? ?ai?oa ci?ie ??eoaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o o
noiaao?iaeo, na?aaeiueiiiceiaeo oa ei?eiaeo a?aeae?eao OeIN i?e
a?ia?ieanoe/i?e oe?ai?aei?e iaoieia??, ?o ca’ycie c ooieoe?iiaeue-iei
noaiii ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa iaoiaaiaoe/ia cia/aiiy.

Aia?oa ia iniia? iaoiaeo eieaeueii? eaca?ii? ian-niaeo?iiao??? (EEIN)
aeyaeai? ci?ie iae?i- ? i?e?iaeaiaioiiai neeaaeo oe?ai?aeii? oeaieie i?e
ie?aieo oi?iao ?? aiaieuaai? iaoiei-a??, iniiai? c yeeo iieyaathoue o
cia/iiio ciaioaii? ??aiy ?io?aoe?ai?aeiiai eiaeo (aei iaeaea iia-ii?
a?aenooiino? eiai a ?aeiaeo aoceao) c iaeii/aniei i?aeaeuaiiyi ai?noo
?ioeo aaeiaai?a — ooi?o ? oei?o. Aeai? i?i ai?no o ueoiaeaei?e caeic?
oaeeo aeaiaio?a, ye Al, Si, Sc, Zr, Ba iaaaaeai? aia?oa.

Aia?oa aeiaaaeaii nooo?ao ?ieue oaeoi??a niaaeeiaino? o ?icaeoeo oa
aecia/aii? oa?aeoa?o ia?aa?ao iaaieo ee?i?/ieo oi?i aiaieuaai? iaoieia??
ueoiaeaeii? caeice — aaeaiii, oiene/iiai aoceiaiai ciao, ?aoeeaeeaiiai
aoceiaiai ciao.

Cai?iiiiiaaii iioei?ciaaio ae?aaiinoe/io oaeoeeo oa aeai?eoi i?e
aoceiaeo oi?iao oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??, yea aecia/a? i??i?eoao
caaaeueiiai ee?i?/ii-o?ceeaeueiiai ianoaaeaiiy oa ?aoe?iiaeueia
aeei?enoaiiy no/anii? ?ino?oiaioaeueii? oa eaai?aoi?ii? ae?aaiinoeee,
ia?o ca ana oiieiaieeiai? ani??aoe?eii? ioieoe?eii? a?iin?? (OAIA) oa
OCAe. Aia?oa a Oe?a?i? canoiniaaii eiia?iiaaia iiaea?eia niiia?ao?/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui ii?aeio? OCAe a ?aaeueiiio ianooaa? /ano oa
aeiiea?ianueeo ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th noaeeiieo ooai?aiue, aeey
aeeoa?aioe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee aiaieuaaeo no?oeoo?ieo ci?i o ueoiaeaei?e
caeic?.

Caiaoaioiaaii niin?a i?iaiico aoaeoeaiino? eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy
aoceiaiai iaoie-ne/iiai ciao, ui a?oioo?oueny ia aecia/ai? aeeiai?ee
eiioeaio?aoe?? oe?aiaeiaoe?io (OA) e?ia?.

Oaeineiiaeaia oaoiieia?y e?eoaaiiy ??cieo oi?i aiaieuaai? oe?ai?aeii?
iaoieia??, ui aeic-aieeea ciaioeoe e?euee?noue iaaei?aaaeaieo
iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue, ai?iaaaeeoe i?aaiicaa??aath/ee o??o?a?/iee
i?aeo?ae i?e aeia?iye?nieo caoai?thaaiiyo, i?aeaeueoe aaciaeo oa
aoaeoeai?noue e?eoaai-iy. Aia?oa a Oe?a?i? canoiniaaii eiiieaen
aeueoa?iaoeaieo iaei?iaaceaieo ao?o/aiue i?e aoceiaeo ooai?aiiyo
ueoiaeaeii? caeice o aeiaaeeao aenieiai o??o?a?/iiai ?eceeo /e
iaaeioe?eueiino? noaiaea?oii? a?aee?eoi? iia?aoe??.

Caiaoaioiaaii niin?a iaei?iaaceaiiai e?eoaaiiy e?noicieo oi?i aoceiaiai
ciao.

Aia?oa canoiniaaii iiaee a?o/eciyiee a?iaaeaaceaiee i?aia?ao iie?ia?o
o?a?eio i?ae /an iia?aoe?? ia ueoiaeaei?e caeic? aeey caaacia/aiiy
aaiinoaco, ciaioaiiy ?aiiai? e?ioi-aaii?aa?/ii? i?neyiia?aoe?eii?
nae?aoe?? oa einiaoe/iiai c’?aeiaiiy e?a?a ?aie oe??e.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oeyoii ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, niinoa?aaeaiue ca iaoiii?oicii aiaieuaai? iaoieia??
ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa ?? iaoiaaiaoe/ieie iniaeeainoyie aeiaaaeaia
iaiao?aei?noue iineeaiiy oaaae aei ae?aaiinoeee, aaeaeaaoii? oa?ai?? ?
o??o?a?/ii? i?io?eaeoeee noaee?i?/iiai oa iai?oanoiiai a?iioe?aico i?e
aiaieuaa?e oe?ai?aei?e iaoieia??.

Nooo?aa /anoea iaaaeeeeo ca ?ici??ii iaeineiioiiieo aeia?iye?nieo
aoceiaeo a?ia?iean-oe/ieo oa aooi?ioiieo ooai?aiue o ueoiaeaei?e caeic?,
na?aae i?e/ei o??o?a?/ii? ?acaeoe?? ?? o aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy, ca
iaoa??aeaie aeine?aeaeaiue no?oeoo?e oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? o o?ueio
o??o?a?/ieo ee?i?eao i. Ee?aa, na?ae/eoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoeaieo aeiiia?aoe?eieo iaoiae?a aeeoa?aioe?eii?
ae?aaiinoeee (ia?o ca ana OAIA ? OCAe), iineeaiiy oaaae aei
eiina?aaoeaieo oa iaei?iaaceaieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy oa ?aoaeueiiai
caaaeaiiy iieacaiue aei iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue.

??cea ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ?io?aoe?ai?aeiiai eiaeo oa i?aeaeuaiiy
ai?noo ?ioeo aaeiaai?a (ooi?o ? oei?o) i?e aeayeeo aiaieuaaeo o?aaeaiiyo
ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeacothoue ia o?eueee ia ?o iaoiaaiaoe/io ?ieue, aea
? ia iiaeeea? iai?yiee i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a oeyoii caiia?aaiiy aieeao
F- oa Cl-oo?eioth/eo niieoe ? ?a/iaei oa caaacia/aiiy aeinoaoiueiai
niiaeeaaiiy eiaeo.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy /anoiai n?iaeiiai iaeiie/aiiy oa i/aaeaeiiai aieeao
niaaeeiaino? i?e aeayeeo oi?iao aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice
(aaeaiiie, aoceiaee oiene/iee cia, ?aoee-aeeaiee aoceiaee cia) aeaco? ia
iaiao?aei?noue iaia’yceiaiai caeo/aiiy aaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a
aeine?ae-aeaiiy (oi/a a o aeaeyae? ee?i?ei-aaiaaeia?/iiai iaoiaeo) i?e
ianoaaeaii? oai?eo ?c caaaeaiith iaoi-eia??th aeey ?? a?eueo aoaeoeaii?
ae?aaiinoeee oa e?eoaaiiy.

?ic?iaeaia noaia ee?i?ei-?ino?oiaioaeueii? ae?aaiinoeee ?
aeeoa?aioe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee aoceiaeo i?ioean?a o ueoiaeaei?e caeic?,
a?aoiaoth/e iaaecae/aeio iioe?ai?noue ?o na?aae aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie, aeicaieeoue i?e a?aeiia?aei?e ii?ioi?iiaaiino? e?ea??a oe?ieiai
i?io?eth oa niaoe?ae?no?a ciaioeoe aei i?i?ioio e?euee?noue
ae?aaiinoe/ieo iiieeie, iaa/anii ae?aaiinoiaaieo iioe?aieo oi?i ?aeo oa
iaaei?aaaeaieo iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue.

Cai?iiiiiaaiee iiaee niin?a i?iaiico aoaeoeaiino? eiina?aaoeaiiai
e?eoaaiiy aoceiaeo oi?i iaoiene/iiai ciao aeicaiey? /?oei aecia/eoe a
iaai? no?iee a?oio iaoe?aio?a c i/?eoaaiei iiceoeaiei aoaeoii
noi?aneaii? oa?ai??, a oaeiae oai?eo, aei yeeo aiane?aeie iani?eyoeeaiai
i?i-aiico oa?ai?? iaiao?aeii canoiniaoaaoe o??o?a?/i? aai iaei?iaaceai?
iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy.

?ic?iaeaiee iiaee niin?a iaei?iaaceaiiai e?eoaaiiy e?noicieo oi?i
aoceiaiai ciao aeicaiey? aeinyaoe e?eoaaeueiiai aoaeoo i?inoei ?
aacia/iei oeyoii, oieeiooe a?aee?eoi? iia?aoe?? o 5-10 % iaoe?aio?a,
yeeo iia?othoue c i?eaiaeo aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy aeia?iye?nieo oi?i
aoceiaeo o?aaeaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice ?iaeoue e?eoaaeueiee i?ioean
a?eueo aio/eei ? aacia/iei, iniaeeai na?aae iaoe?-aio?a a?oie aenieiai
o??o?a?/iiai ?eceeo.

?ic?iaeaia a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? oaoiieia?y o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy,
ui a?oioo?oueny ia i?aoeec?ei?e oaoi?oe? iia?oaaiiy, noaoanoe?aeuei?e
?acaeoe?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa caa?aaeaii? ?? ooieoe?iioth/i?
caei?iai? ia?aio?ie i?e aeia?iye?nieo o?aaeaiiyo, canoinoaaii?
a?iaaeaaceaiiai i?aia?aoo iie?ia?o o?a?eio (c iaoith ?io?aiia?aoe?eiiai
aaiinoaco oa ciaioaiiy i?neyiia?aoe?e-ii? e?ioiaaii?aa?/ii? ?aiiai?
nae?aoe??), einiaoe/iiio c’?aeiaii? e?a?a iia?aoe?eii? ?aie
(ao?aa-iaoe/iei oiaiei iaoa??aeii /e a?ieia?/iei o?a?eiiaei eea?i)
?iaeoue iia?aoe?th aacia/i?oith, o?eaae?noue i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai
iaeoaeaiiy iaioith, a a?aeaeaeai? oneeaaeiaiiy iaei?iia??ieie.

Cai?iiiiiaai? a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiaee ae?aaiinoeee, ae?aaiinoe/iee
aeai?eoi, niiniae iaei-?iaaceaiiai ? o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy iaoieia??
ueoiaeaeii? caeice ai?iaaaeaeai? o i?aeoeeo e?eo-aaeueieo onoaiia i.
Ee?aa, Oa?eiaa, Aei?i?iiao?ianueea. Aeaeai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
(1992).

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? caeo/ai? aei eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a oa
o/aiaeo ieai?a aeeeaaeaiiy aini?oaeueii? o??o?a?? nooaeaioai 5-ai oa
6-ai eo?n?a Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, o??o?aai-?ioa?iai, ee?i?/iei i?aeeiaoi?ai oa
ani??aioai.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii iniaenoi ia iniia? aiae?co
e?oa?aoo?e aoei aecia/aii iai?yiie, iaoo oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aea?? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia?iaea iaoa??ae?a ianoaaeaiue oa
e?eoaaiiy, oai?aoe/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy, iaa?oiooaaiiy aeniiae?a ?
i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c?iaeai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii. Aeena?oaioia?
iaeaaeeoue aeeiiaiiy anueiai ianyao ee?i?/ii? oa o??o?a?/ii? ?iaioe,
aaciina?aaeiy o/anoue o i?iaaaeaii? a?eueoino? ae?aaiinoe/ieo
i?ioeaaeo?, a oiio /ene? ? o aeeiiaii? i?ea?iaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue —
aeaeo?iaioeaoaeia?ao?? (AAA), ei?ioei- oa aeiaaieaoaioieo neooiaeo
aeeeeeaieo iioaioe?ae?a (ENAI, AeNAI), ?aiaioeaoaeia?ao?? (?AA),
eieaeueii? eaca?ii? ian-niaeo?iiao??? (EEIN).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oea?aa?aeueii? aaiiaeeiai?ee, AAA, ENAI oa AeNAI
i?iaiaeeeeny caeiaoaa/ai o eaai?aoi??? i?ioan?eieo ii?ooaiue neooo
Ee?anueeiai IAe? ioiea?eiaieia?? i?ae ea??aieoeoaii ? ca ni?eyiiy
aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?a O.A.Oeaeeianueei?.*

Aei??thaaiiy aoiiiiai neeaaeo oe?ai?aeii? ia?aio?ie i?iaiaeeeinue
aaoi?ii ca iaoiaeeeith EEIN, ?ic?iaeaiith ia eaoaae?? e??iaaiii?
i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? O.A.Oaa/aiea i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a ?ic?iaee — eaiaeeaeaoa o?ce/ieo iaoe, noa?oiai
iaoeiaiai ni?a?ia?oieea A.I.Ceeiaa.*

?ic?iaea oaoiieia?? io?eiaiiy oa caaaeueieo iiaeeeainoae ee?i?/iiai
canoinoaaiiy a?iei-a?/iiai aaeaaceaiiai i?aia?aoo iie?ia?o o?a?eio
iaeaaeeoue aeieoi?o a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?o E.I.Aa?ai??ieo*
(eaai?aoi??y a?io?i?? Ee?anueeiai IAe? ioiea?eiaieia?? IIC Oe?a?ie).
Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a o noi?niiio aeiaoiae? ( “Niin?a
iaei?iaaceaiiai o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy e?noicieo oi?i aoceiaiai ciao”)
neeaaea? 80 % ? iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe? iiaiai iai?yieo canoinoaaiiy
i?aia?aoo, iaoiaeeee eiai i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy, ee?i?/i?e ai?iaaoe??
iaoiaeo.

I?aeaioiaea iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e (1992) oa iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?e o
aeo?iae? “Ee?i?/ia o??o?a?y”(1991, 1992, 1996) aeeiioaaeanue o
ni?aaaoi?noa? c I.I.*a?aiueei, TH.A.?aiaoianueeei oa A.?.Aioii?aei
(1996) c ??aiith /anoeith iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? o/ano? eiaeiiai. Aaoi?o
iaeaaeeoue i?iaaaeaiiy 30 % e?eoaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, iaoeiaa
iaa?oiooaaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue oa aanue ianya aiae?-oe/ii? ?iaioe,
noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a, ?aaeaaoaaiiy oaenoo.

O noi?niiio aeine?aeaeaii? ia?aiao??a OeIN oa neooiai? ooieoe?? o oai?eo
c a?ia?ieanoe/iith iaoieia??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice (AEAIAO, 1998, ?6)
ni?aaaoi?o O.A.Oeaeeianuee?e iaeaaeeoue aoae?ieia?/ia /anoeia ?iaioe,
yea ia aoea i?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Iniaenoee aianie

___________________________

* Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o aaey/i?noue on?i aeuacaaaeaiei o/aiei ca
aeiiiiiao a ?iaio?. caeiaoaa/a noaiiaeoue 80 % — ?aeay iai?yieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ia ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo, a?eueoa /anoeia
aeaeo?i-iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue OeIN oa iiceiai?
aaiiaeeiai?ee, aiae?-oe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a oa i?aeaioiaea
ioae?eaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Ai?iaaoe?y aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
i?iaaaeaia ia can?aeaii? ai?iaaoe?eii? ?aaee “Caaaeueia o??o?a?y”
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? ii?eethaeiai? ia V c’?cae?
aiaeie?eiieia?a Oe?a?ie (1994), ? oa ?? eiia?anao o??o?a?a Oe?a?ie
(1994, 1998), ?? c’?cae? aianoac?ieia?aOe?a?ie (1992); IV, V, VII
eiia?anao NOOEO (1992, 1994, 1998), ?? iaoe?iiaeueiiio eiia?an?
aa?iioieia?a ? aa??ao??a Oe?a?ie (1994), V?? a?io?i?/iiio c’?cae?
Oe?a?ie (1997), O ?a?iiaenueeiio eiia?an? aianoac?ieia?a (1998),
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? aiaeie?eiieia?a i. Ee?aa 15.10.1998 ?. a
i?nuee?e ee?i?/i?e aiaeie?eiieia?/i?e e?ea?i?, 12 iaoe?iiaeueieo oa
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo oa n?iiic?oiao.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 13 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o o
i?io?eueieo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo, ui ?aeiiaiaeiaai? AAE Oe?a?ie (c ieo
— 9 naiino?eieo) oa io?eiaii 2 iaoaioe Oe?a?ie ia aeiaoiaee, iia’ycai? c
aeena?oaoe??th. Oaeiae iioae?eiaaii 2 naiino?ei? noaoo? o ca??ieeao
iaoeiaeo ?ia?o oa 22 ?iaioe o iaoa??aeao oa oacao aeiiia?aeae iaoeiaeo
c’?cae?a oa eiioa?aioe?e. Aeaeai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
“Oe?o?ae/aneia ea/aiea yiaeaie/aneiai e aeeooociiai oiene/aneiai ciaa”.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, caeeth/aiiy, aeniiae?a ? i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoeo. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe??
noaiiaeoue 371 noi??ieo iaoeiiieno, a oiio /ene? 40 ?enoie?a ia 17
noi??ieao, 36 oaaeeoeue ia 25 noi??ieao, aeiaeaoie ia 4 noi??ieao oa
nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ia 56 noi??ieao, yeee ia?aoiao? 583
iaeiaioaaiiy, a oiio /ene? 351 — ?iicaiieo aaoi??a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?iaioa ? ?acoeueoaoii ee?i?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy 341 oai?iai c aiaieuaaith iaoieia??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice,
yeei i?ioyaii 1991-1997 ??. aoea aeeiiaia o??o?a?/ia iia?aoe?y ia
ueoiaeaei?e caeic? a ee?i?oe? aini?oaeueii? o??o?a?? IIO, a oaeiae 138
oai?eo c cacia/aiith iaoieia??th, ye? i?ioyaii 1994-1997 ??. ia?aaoaaee
i?ae aiaoeaoi?iei iaaeyaeii o i?nueeiio aiaeie?eiieia?/iiio aeeniaina??
oa o ee?i?oe? aini?oaeueii? o??o?a?? ? e?eoaaeenue oeyoii canoinoaaiiy
eiina?aaoeaieo oa iaei?iaaceaieo o??o?a?/ieo iaoiae?a. An? iaoe?aioe
aoee aei?ineiai a?eo (18-83 ?ie?a), ae?iie — 444, /ieia?e?a — 35.

Aei a?oie caoai?thaaiue, ui aoee ia’?aeiai? oa?i?iii aiaieuaai?
oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? a?aeia-nai? oae? iicieia?/i? oi?ie (ca
I?aeia?iaeiith noaoenoe/iith eeaneo?eaoe??th oai?ia, o?aai oa i?e/ei
nia?o? 9 ia?aaeyaeo — IEO 9 ), ye aoceiaee oa aaaaoiaoceiaee iaoiene/iee
cia, e?noe ueoiaeaeii? caeice (ia?aaaaeii iaeeii/i?), oiene/i? aaeaiiie
(aoceiaee oiene/iee cia) oa aaaaoiaoceiaee oiene/iee cia, aiaieuaa?
oi?ie o?ii?/iiai aooi?ioiiiai oe?ai?aeeoo oa i?aeaino?iai o?ai?aeeoo Aea
Ea?aaia, ?ae ueoiaeaeii? caeice. E??i iicieia?/ii? eeaneo?eaoe??
oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? ie ?iciiae?eyee oai?eo ca nooi?iith ca?eueoaiiy
ueoiaeaeii? caeice /e ca ?ici??ii iaoieia?/ieo aiaieu. A iaoeo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo ie ei?enooaaeenue o?aaeeoe?eiith eeaneo?eaoe?th ciao ca
5-nooiaiaaith oeaeith, yeui iaeeii/ia /e iiiaeeiia aiaieuaaa ooai?aiiy a
ueoiaeaei?e caeic? aeeeeeaei ooiauaiiy oe? (??? no.) /e ?? aeaoi?iaoe?th
(IV no.) aai a ??aee?nieo aeiaaeeao aeinyaaei cia/ieo ?ici???a (V no.).
I?e iaioeo ?ici??ao aoceiaiai ooai?aiiy (ia?aaaaeii iaeeii/iiai), ui
aeia?a i?iiaoeoaaeinue oa i?eaeecii a?aeiia?aeaei ?-?? no.ciao (ae?aiao?
1-1,5 ni /e 1,5-2 ni), aaaaeaee a?eueo aeioe?eueiei canoinoaaiiy
a?aaeaoe?? ca oeaeith TNM /e iaaaaeaiiy oi/iiai ?ici??o o ni (ca aeaieie
OCAe /e ee?i?/ii). Aiaieuaa? o?aaeaiiy, ui /?oei ia iaeueioaaeenue, a
a?coae?coaaeenue ca aeiiiiiaith ?ino?oiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a, ie iaceaaee
noaee?i?/ieie — aiie ia?aaaaeii iaee ae?a-iao? iaioee 1 ni — oa
niinoa??aaee ca aeiiiiiaith OCAe (oaeeo oai?eo aei a?oie
aeine?aeaeoaaieo iaoe?aio?a ie ia aeeth/aee).

Noaoenoeei-ai?aeai?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ia iniia?
aea/aiiy oa ia?iaee iaoa??ae?a aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? noaoenoeee IIC
Oe?a?ie ca 1988-1997 ??., iaoa??ae?a ca?oii? noaoenoe/ii? aeieoiaioaoe??
AOIC i. Ee?aa oa i?nueeiai aiaeie?eiieia?/iiai aeeniaina?o ca i?iaeaiith
oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? ca 1988-1997 ??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e o??o?a?/ii? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? oa ??
aeeiai?ee ca inoaii? aeanyoe??//y i?iaiaeeeeny ia aac? aea/aiiy a?o?aii?
oa noaoenoe/ii? aeieoiaioaoe?? oi?aa?neoaonueeeo ee?i?e, ui caeiathoueny
o?eaaeee /an e?eoaaiiyi oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??, a naia: o??o?a?/ieo
a?aeae?eaiue ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? ? 3 oa Ee?anueeiai i?nueeiai oeaio?o
o??o?a?? oa ?aaa?e?oaoe?? oai?eo c iaoieia??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice
(EIOeO?OIUC), ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? ? 15 oa ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? ? 4 i. Ee?aa
ca ia??iae 1982-1997 ??. oa aea??eiai ca 1954 ?. oa 1978 ?. (ee?i?/ia
e?ea?iy ? 15). Aei noaoenoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia caeo/aeenue iaoa??aee
?inoeoooo aiaeie?eiieia?? oa iai?io ?a/iaei AII Oe?a?ie oa ?ioeo
a?aeii/eo onoaiia. Aea/ai? iaoa??aee ioiieththoue a?eueoa 70 %
o??o?a?/ieo oe?ai?aeieo oai?eo i. Ee?aa (aeecueei 20 000 iia?aoe?e ) oa
aeinoaoiuei iiaii a?aeaeaathoue oa?aeoa? ? iniaeeaino? oeueiai aeaeo
o??o?a?/ii? aeiiiiiae aei?ineiio ianaeaiith i. Ee?aa.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? iaoiaaiaoe/ii? ?ie? ii?ooaiue OeIN i?e
a?ia?ieanoe/i?e iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa ?o iiaeeeaiai ca’yceo c
?aae?aoe?eiei ii?ii?iaiiyi aiane?aeie aaa??? ia *AAN aoei noi?iiaaii
a?oio c 25 oai?eo c a?ia?ieanoe/iith oe?ai?aeiith iaoieia??th (aoceiaee
oa ci?oaiee iaoiene/iee cia), ye? caciaee ae?? ?aae?iaeoeaiiai
ii?ii?iaiiy o iaaeao iaeeo aeic ye e?ea?aeaoi?e *i?iiaeeuenueei? aaa???
oa iaoeaioe? ?aae?iaeoeaii caa?oaeiaieo oa?eoi??e Ee?anueei? iaeano?.
?acoeueoaoe aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue OeIN (AAA, AeNAI oa
ENAI, ?AA) ii??aithaaee c 25 oai?eie, ui ia caciaee aieeao ?aae?aoe??, a
oaeiae c 25 iniaaie aac iciae oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??, ui io?eiaee
ciai?oi? oa aioo??oi? ii?ii?iiiy o iaeeo aeicao /a?ac aaa??th ia *AAN.
Ie?aii aeine?aeaeoaaee ci?ie o OeIN na?aae oai?eo c a?iioe?aicii oa
ii?iaeueiith oe?ai?aeiith ooieoe??th.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?iaeaiaioiiai neeaaeo oe?ai?aeii? ia?aio?ie iaoiaeii
EEIN i?iaiaeeeiny o 23 oai?eo, ui aoee iia?iaai? c i?eaiaeo aoceiaiai
iaoiene/iiai ciao, aaeaiii ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa ?aeo. Eiio?ieai aoa
naeoe?eiee iaoa??ae — o?aaiaioe ueoiaeaeii? caeice 5 in?a aac iciae
oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??, ui caaeioee aiane?aeie o?aaie.

O?aaeeoe?eia ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ia aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?eo aeiiiaithaaee
iaoiaeaie a?coae?caoe?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa aecia/aiiy ??
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio. Aeey oeueiai ei?enooaaeenue
?aae?i?ioii-eia?/iei ,?ioii?aae?iiao?e/iei oa ?ioiioa?iaioiei aiae?cii,
canoiniaoth/e eiia?oe?ei? iaai?e ?aaeoea?a o??ie “Boehringer-Mannheim”
(I?ia//eia), “Amersham” (Aaeeeia?eoai?y) oa ?aae?i?io-iieia?/ieo iaai??a
“?EI-O3-IA”, “?EI-O4-IA”, “?EI-OOA-IA”, “?EI-OA-125J” (EAIO, Aaea?onue)
aeey aecia/aiiy ??ai?a caaaeueieo oa a?eueieo oi?i oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a
a oaeiae oe?aio?iiiiai ai?iiio (OOA) oa oe?aiaeiaoe?io (OA). E??i
oeueiai ie aecia/aee ?aae?i?ioiieia?/iei iaoiaeii ??ai? aioeoe?ai?aeieo
aioeo?e — i?ioe oe?aiaeiaoe?io oa i?ioe oe?ai?aeii? ia?ieneaeace.

Oeueo?acaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy (OCAe) ueoiaeaeii? caeice i?iaiaeeee ia
aia?aoao “Siemens Sonoline SL-1” oa “Toshiba-SSA 380” ?c canoinoaaiiyi
e?i?eieo aeao/ee?a c /anoioith aei?ii?ith-aaiiy 7,5 IAoe. E??i oeueiai
inoaii?e aia?ao aeei?enoiaoaaee aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ueoiaeaeii? caeice
oa ?? noaeei o ?aaeei? eieuei?iaiai aeiiea?ianueeiai neaioaaiiy oa
aeoieaeniiai (ia’?aeiaiiai) nea-ioaaiiy o A- oa CDC- ?aaeeiao. Ca
iaaieie iieacaiiyie ie aeei?enoiaoaaee oano iaeiie/aiiy eiaeo, a oaeiae
?aae?i?cioiiio noeeio?a?ao?th (?N) ?c canoinoaaiiyi ?cioii?a eiaeo-131,
-123 oa oaoia-oe?th-99m ca aeiiiiiaith ?aae?iiao?a ?E-107 “Aaiia” oa
neaia?a “Noeeio?ea?o” IA 8100 (Oai?ueia).

C ?aioaaiieia?/ieo iaoiae?a o aeiaaeeao i?aeic?e ia iicaa?oaeieiia
iioe?aiiy ciao /e iooeei ia?aaaao a?aeaeaaaee eiii’thoa?i?e oiiia?ao??
(EO) oe? oa aa?oiueiai iaaeeno?iiy, yeo i?i-aiaeeee ia aia?ao? “NO -9000
General Electric” (COA).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oea?aa?aeueii? aaiiaeeiai?ee i?iaiaeeeiny ?c
canoinoaaiiyi iaoiaeo ?aiaioeaoa-eia?ao?? ca aeiiiiiaith 4-eaiaeueii?
?aia?ao?/ii? i?enoaaee 4?A-2I oa ?a?no?oth/iai i?eno?ith — 8-eaiaeueiiai
aeaeo?iaioeaoaeia?aoo “A?ine?eio” (I?ia//eia).

Aeaeo?iaioeaoaeia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeenue ca aeiiiiiaith
14-eaiaeueiiai aeaeo?iaioeaoaeia?aoa «Nihon Kohden» (ssiiiiy) oa
16-eaiaeueiiai — o??ie “Medicor” (Oai?ueia).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy neooiaeo aeeeeeaieo iioaioe?ae?a i?iaiaeeeinue c
aeei?enoaiiyi aiae?coth/i? nenoaie IE-6 o??ie “Amplaid” (?oae?y) a
ae?aiiaai?e caoei?cieueiaai?e eaia?? a cao?eniaaiiio iai?aneaey/iio
iieiaeaii?. Aeeeeeaia aeaeo?e/ia aeoeai?noue aecia/aeanue o a?aeiia?aeue
ia ?ineeaoa-?aeueio iiiao?aeueio noeioeyoe?th. ENAI ?a?no?oaaee o
a?aeiia?aeue ia eeaoeaiiy o?eaae?noth 100 ien c /anoioith 21 a 1 n,
?ioaineai?noth 80 aeA iaae noa’?eoeaiei ii?iaii /ooeeaino?. AeNAI
?a?no?oaaee o a?aeiia?aeue ia oiiaeuei? iineeee o?eaae?noth 300 in,
?ioaineai?noth 40 aeA iaae noa’?eoeaiei ii?i-aii /ooeeaino? c /anoioith
caiiaiaiiy 1 oa 4 eAoe (/an c?inoaiiy ? niaaeo — 20 in). Aiae?c e?eaeo
i?iaiaeeany c aeei?enoaiiyi i?ia?aie iiaoaeiae iiaeae? o??ie “Amplaid”.
I?e aiae?c? e?eaeo i?eeiaeenue aei oaaae eaoaioi? ia??iaee i?e?a oaeeue
?1, N1, P2 i N2 AeNAI oa I, II, III, IV ? V oaeeue ENAI, a oaeiae
i?aei?eia? ?ioa?aaee I-III, III-V, I-V ENAI.

Aei??thaaiiy aoiiiiai neeaaeo oe?ai?aeii? ia?aio?ie i?iaiaeeee ca
iaoiaeeeith EEIN ia i?ea?iaeueiiio i?eeaae? — eaca?iiio
ian-niaeo?iiao??. Iaoiae aeia?a naith aenieo /ooeea?noue oa
aoaeoeai?noue i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ?ioeo oeaiei — e?noeiaee iicie, e?ia
(A.A.Cueia e niaao, 1988), aea a ?iaio? c ueoiaeaeiith caeicith ?ai?oa
ia aeei?enoiaoaaany. Ai?no ??cieo aeaiaio?a aei??thaaany o a?aenioeao
a?aeiinii nooi? iane ?a/iaeie. Aieia?noue i?aia?ao?a eieeaaeanue o
iaaeao 73-77%.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeoi??a niaaeeiaino? i?e aiaieuaa?e iaoieia??
ueoiaeaeii? caeice i?iaiaeeeiny ca aeiiiiiaith ee?i?ei-aaiaaeia?/iiai
iaoiaeo, c canoinoaaiiyi o?aaeeoe?eieo oi?i io?eiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? —
ia?niiaeueiiai iaeyaeo ? iieooaaiiy i?iaaiae?a, ?o ?iaee/?a, aieaooaaiiy
ca niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaiith noaiith, a oaeiae — neeaaeaiiy ?iaeiaiae?a
i?e aeyaeaiiio n?iaeiiio iaeiie/aii?.

Ii?oieia?/ia ae?aaiinoeea i?iaiaeeeanue oeyoii a?noieia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iia?aoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo oeaieie ueoiaeaeieo caeic,
oeeoieia?/iiai ? a?noieia?/iiai aiae?co ioieoe?eiiai aeiiia?aoe?eiiai
iaoa??aeo, io?eiaiiai oeyoii OAIA aai o?aiai-a?iin??. Iacee o?enoaaee o
96° aoeeiaiio nie?o? c ianooiiei caaa?aeaiiyi aaiaoieneeei-aic?iii /e ca
iaoiaeii Iaiai?eieao. A?noieia?/i? i?aia?aoe oa?aoaaee aaiaoienee?iii ?
aic?iii oa aeine?aeaeoaaee ia i?e?ineii? DM RB-Leica (I?ia//eia).
A?noieia?/iee aiae?c i?iaiaeeany o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei i?aeia?iaeii?
eeaneo?eaoe?? iooeei ueoiaeaeii? caeice. A?noieia?/i? oa oeeoieia?/i?
i?aia?aoe eiinoeueooaaeenue e.i.i. ?.E.Aaao?n’yi (caa. eaai?aoi???th
ii?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue EIOeO?OIUC).

Iaeiei ?c iiaeo iai?yie?a o o??o?a?/iiio ? iaei?iaaceaiiio e?eoaaii?
oai?eo c aiaieuaaith oe?ai?aeiith iaoieia??th a iao?e ?iaio? noaei
canoinoaaiiy iiaiai a?o/eciyiiai a?iaaeaacea-iiai i?aia?aoo iie?ia?o
o?a?eio, ui io?eio?oueny c i?e?iaeieo eiiiiiaio?a e?ia? ethaeeie.
I?ae-noaaaie aeey ee?i?/iiai aei?iaoaaiiy i?aia?aoo “A?iaaeaacea” aoee,
ye iaoa??aee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ee?i?/iiai
canoinoaaiiy iie?ia?o o?a?eio a ?ioeo aaeocyo iaaeeoeeie ? o??o?a??
(E.I.Aa?ai??iei oa ni?aaao., 1996), oae ? aeaniee aeina?ae aeei?enoaiiy
i?aia?aoo i?e o??o?a?/-iiio e?eoaaii? caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice a
iaiaaeai?e e?eueeino? ee?i?/ieo niinoa?aaeiue.

Noaoenoe/i? ia?iaeo io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaee
ca caaaeueiii?eeiy-oeie iaoiaeaie iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee c
canoinoaaiiyi ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee — ia?niiaeueiiai eiii’thoa?a IBM
PC-486/100. A??ia?aei?noue ci?i ? a?aei?iiinoae i?ae ii??aithaaeueieie
iieacieeaie ioe?ithaaee ca aeiiiiiaith aeueoa?iaoeaiiai, aa??aoe?eiiai
oa ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co c aeei?enoaiiyi t-e??oa??th Nouethaeaioa oa
2 c iii?aaeith Eaonaia.

?acoeueoaoe iniaenoeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeeeaaeai? o 4 i?ae?icae?eao
a?aeiia?aeii aei iniiaieo iai?yie?a iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie.

Ia?oee c ieo — 3.1. “Iaoieia?y ueoiaeaeii? caeice a Oe?a?i? oa i.
Ee?a?: no?oeoo?i? ci?ie, oaiaeaioe?? caoai?thaaiino?, iaoiii?oic
aiaieuaaeo oi?i ca inoaii? aeanyoe??//y” i?enay/aiee
noaoenoeei-ai?aeai?ieia?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi oa aiae?co iniaeeainoae
o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy cacia/aieo oi?i caoai?thaaiue na?aae aei?ineiai
ianaeaiiy i. Ee?aa.

Iiaiaeaeoth/enue c aeoieith A.N. I?ieii/oea (1985), ui iaoiii?oic ciao ?
aaaaoieiiiiiai-oiei iiiyooyi, yea noino?oueny ia eeoa ee?i?/ieo oa
ii?oieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae, aea e ai?aeai?i-eia??, ao?ieia?? oa
iaoiaaiaco caoai?thaaiiy, ie ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia
noaoenoe/iiio, aeaniiio oa a?o?aiiio iaoa??ae? noi?ioethaaee ia’?eoeaio
ocaaaeueiaio ea?oeio iaoiii?oico aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice
ca inoaii? aeanyoe??//y, ui iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:

— c?inoaiiy iioe?aiino? ? caoai?thaaiino? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??, ui
aeinyaei ca io?oe?eieie aeaieie a Ee?a? 135 oa 39 ia 10000 ianaeaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii (oea iaeaea aaea?/? aeua iieaciee?a Oe?a-?ie),
a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie ia?aaaaeii aoceiaeo oi?i iaoiene/iiai ciao oa
aeeoociiai iaoiene/iiai ciao III-IV no., yeee o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a
oaeiae i?ecaiaeeoue aei aoceiooai?aiiy;

— i?ine?aeeiao?oueny /?oea oaiaeaioe?y aei cieaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii?
aeoeaiino? ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa ?aca?a?a ?? eiiiainaoe??, ye a?aeiinii
an??? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? a Oe?a?i? ?, a ua a?eueo?e i???, a Ee?a?
(nooo?aa iinooiiaa ciaioaiiy /anoioe aeiaaee?a a?ia?oe?ai?aeiiai ciao c
iaeii/aniei oaeaeeei i?ia?anoaaiiyi caoai?thaaiino? ia a?iioe?aic oa
o?ii?/iee aooi?ioiiee oe?ai?aeeo), oae ? o iaaeao aiaieuaai? iaoieia??,
ui i?iyaey?oueny o ciaioaii? /anoee aoceiaiai oiene/iiai ciao, iiya?
ii?oieia?/ieo iciae aeniaaeaiiy eiiiainaoi?ii? a?ia?ieac?? ? a?ia?o?io??
c iioe?aiiyi aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?io?/ieo oa aooi?ioiieo ii?oieia?/ieo
ci?i;

— aeii?ioth/ith a?oiith oe?ai?aeieo caoai?thaaiue ia nueiaiaeiyoi?e
aeaiue ? aiaieuaa? o?aaeaiiy ueoiaeaeii? caeice: aoceia? oi?ie ciao,
aeia?iye?ni? oa ceiye?ni? iooeeie, ina?aaeeia? oi?ie oe?ai?aeeo?a, ye?
noaiiaeyoue iniiaio i?e/eio o??o?a?/ieo ao?o/aiue, ye ia ueoiaeaei?e
caeic?, oae ? na?aae an?o aiaeie?eiieo oai?ia;

— na?aae aoceiaeo oi?i ciao a inoaii? ?iee ia?aaaaeathoue iaeineiioiii?
iaaaeee? (c iaoiei-a?/ieie aiaieuaie aei 1-3 ni) aoceia? oa
aaaaoiaoceia? ciae, ui aeyaeythoueny ia?aaaaeii ca aeiii-iiaith OCAe,
na?aae yeeo nooo?aa i?noea caeiathoue e?noici? aocee iniaeeai o in?a
iieiaeiai a?eo; /anoea oiene/iiai aoceiaiai ciao cia/ii ciaioeeany;

— iinooiiai c?inoa? a Oe?a?i? ? a Ee?a? caoai?thaai?noue ia ?ae
ueoiaeaeii? caeice (c 1,8 oa 3,1 aei 3,8 oa 8,0 ia 100000 ianaeaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii ca 10 ?ie?a), yeee iaeaea aeeeth/ii (a?eueoa, ye ia 95 %)
iaeaaeeoue aei aenieiaeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo iai?ey?ieo oa oie?eoey?ieo
a?noieia?/ieo oi?i; iniiaiee i?e??no caoai?thaaiino? ia ?ae o i. Ee?a?
na?aae aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy caaacia/othoue aeiaaeee ii/aoeiaeo noaae?e
iai?ey?iiai ?aeo;

— iaea?eueo /anoei iaoiaeii e?eoaaiiy aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii?
caeice caeeoa-?oueny o??o?a?/ia iia?aoe?y, oi/a aeecueei 90 % an?o
i?e/ei iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue neeaaeathoue aeia?i-ye?ni? caoai?thaaiiy, a
iaeaea 1/2 c ieo — iaaaeee?, iaeineiioiii? aoceia? ciae, e?noe
ueoiaeaeii? caeice, aeiaaeee o?ii?/iiai oe?ai?aeeoo, ui ia
noi?iaiaeaeothoueny eiii?an??th i?aai?a oe?; — ia
iacaaeia?eueiiio ??ai? caeeoa?oueny aeoeaia ae?aaiinoeea aiaieuaai?
oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? oa aeeoa?aioe?eia ?? ae?aaiinoeea, ia ui aeaco?
aeoaea iaea /anoea caoai?thaaiue, ui aeyaeythoueny oeyoii i?ioiaeyae?a,
nooo?aa ieoiia aaaa aeiaaee?a ?aeo iioe?aieo noaae?e, iaaaeeeee
a?aenioie ni?aaaei?o iooeeiieo i?ioean?a na?aae i?e/ei o??o?a?/ieo
ao?o/aiue, /ano? aeiaaeee iaeia?aoiaioi-aaieo oe?ai?aeieo iia?aoe?e i?e
iaaaeeeeo aeia?iye?nieo a?ia?ieanoe/ieo /e caiaeueieo i?ioeanao;
— ?acii ?c c?inoaiiyi e?eueeino? iia?aoe?e ia ueoiaeaei?e caeic? a
Oe?a?i? c?inoa? iioe?a-i?noue i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai a?iioe?aico, yeee
noaiiaeoue 80 % an?o ca?a?no?iaaieo aeiaaee?a a?iioe?aico o i. Ee?a?.

O ianooiieo i?ae?icae?eao aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeieoeuee? coneeey aoee
cina?aaeaeai? ia iiooeo iiaeeeaeo i?e/ei aeyaeaieo no?eeeo ?en
iaoiii?oico aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa oeyo?a iiaeieaiiy
iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e o ?? ae?aaiinoeoe? oa e?eoaaii?.

Oae o i?ae?icae?e? 3.2. “Aeaye? iaeiaeine?aeaeai? oaeoi?e iaoiaaiaco
iaeiioe?ai?oeo oi?i aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice” ie
ni?iaoaaee iiaeeaeoe ?icoi?iiy iaoai?ci?a ?ic-aeoeo a?ia?ieanoe/ii?
aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice oeyoii aeine?aeaeaiiy oeo
iiiaio?a iaoiaaiaco, ?ice?eooy yeeo aeiiiiaaaei a o aeai?? iioeiaeueii?
e?eoaaeueii? oaeoeee /e aecia/aii? i?iaiico ?icaeoeo caoai?thaaiue
ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny. Aeey oeueiai ie coieieeenue ia
ieoaiiyo iaoiaaiaco, ui iaeaea ia i?aei?iaeeny o iaoeia?e e?o?aoo??
inoaiiueiai aeanyoe??//y, a naia: 1) ?ieue ii?ooaiue ?aaoeyoi?ieo
no?oeoo? oeaio?aeueii? ia?aiai? nenoaie (ei?eiaiai, i?ii?aeiiai oa
noiaao?iaiai a?aeae?e?a iiceo) o aeieeiaii? /e noeioethaaii? ?icaeoeo
a?ia?ieanoe/ii? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice; 2) ai?no i?e?i- ?
iae?iaeaiaio?a o oeaiei? ii?iaeueii? oa iaoieia?/ii ca?eueoaii? (ca
aiaieuaaei oeiii) ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ?o iiaeeeaa iaoiaaiaoe/ia ?ieue oa
i?iaiinoe/ia cia/aiiy; 3) cia/aiiy oaeoi??a niaaeeiaino? aeey ?icaeoeo
aiaieuaaeo caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa iniaeeainoae ?o
ee?i?/iiai ia?aa?ao.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue OeIN oa
oea?aa?aeueii? aaiiaeeia-i?ee na?ae/aoue, ui a iaoiaaiac? ii?oieia?/ieo
oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaoieia?/ieo ci?i o ueoiaeaei?e caeic?, ye? ee?i?/ii
i?iyaeythoueny aiaieuaaeie /e aeeoocieie a?ia?ieanoe/ieie i?ioeanaie
(aoc-eiaee, aaaaoiaoceiaee, ci?oaiee /e aeeoociee iaoiene/iee cia ??-IV
no.) ?c noeeuei?noth aei a?iioe-?aico aai caa?aaeaiiyi aooe?ai?aeiiai
noaio, nooo?ao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue ii?ooaiiy oeaio?aeueieo ?aaoeyoi?ieo
eaiie ia?aiai? nenoaie (ae?aioeaoaeueii?, ei?eiai? oa noiaao?iai? ciie)
?acii ?c ?iceaaeaie o oea?aa?aeuei?e aaiiaeeiai?oe?. Iaea?eueo
oa?aeoa?iei c aeine?aeaeoaaieo ia?aiao??a aoei iiaeiaaeaiiy eaoaioiino?
V oaee? ENAI (iaeneiaeueii — aei 5,98±0,04 in i?e ii?i? 5,63±0,03 in).
Ca?eueoaieie aoee ? i?aei?eia? ?ioa?aaee I-V, ye? c?inee o ii??aiyii? c
ii?iith (3,97±0,02 in) aei 4,18 ± 0,02 — 4,31±0,01 in. Oea na?ae/eoue
i?i caoe?eaaeai?noue noiaao?iaeo no?oeoo? iiceo, ui a a?eueo?e i???
noino?oueny oai?eo c oe?ai?aeiith iaoieia??th, ye? iaee iaaia
?aae?aoe?eia ii?ii?iaiiy. A oe?e aea a?oi? iaoe?aio?a ca aeaieie AeNAI a
a?eueo?e i??? no?aaeaeaa ? ei?eiaee a?aeae?e OeIN.

Aea/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee iiceiaiai e?iaiia?ao ca aeaieie ?AA aeyaeei
cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy oiiono oea?aa?aeueieo noaeei, a oaeiae nooo?aa
cao?oaeiaiiy aaiiciiai a?aeoieo. I?e oeueiio iiceiaee e?iaiia?a oaeiae a
iaea?eueo?e i??? aoa ii?ooaiei o a?oi? oai?eo c a?ia?ieanoe/iith
oe?ai?aeiith iaoieia?th, ui caciaee nooo?aiai ?aae?iaeoeaiiai aieeao.

Iaea?eueo ae?aci? ii?ooaiiy aecia/aieo ia?aiao??a OeIN oa iiceiai?
aaiiaeeiai?ee ca?a-?no?iaai? o oai?eo c a?iioe?aicii i?e iaeiaeiaeo
ii?oieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoeeao iaoieia??. Ae?aci? AAA-ci?ie ??eoaoeaiiai
oa?aeoa?o c oaiaeaioe??th aei aeaneio?ii?caoe?? oa aeaci?aai?caoe?? a
ae?ai-oeaoaeueii-noiaao?iaeo oa ei?eiaeo no?oeoo?ao iiceo aeyaeai?
iaeaea o o?aoeie (32,1±8,9 %) iaoe?-aio?a c a?iioe?ai?aeiei noaiii, ui
oaeiae nooo?ai a?eueoa, i?ae o a?oi? c ii?iaeueiith ooieoe??th
ueoiaeaeii? caeice (?<0,05). O a?oi? aeine?aeaeoaaieo oai?eo c a?iioe?aicii iae/ano?oa ? a?eueoa i?ae o iieiaeie (53,6±9,6%) aoea aeyaeaia caoe?eaaeai?noue ? ae?aioeaoaeueieo oa ei?eiaeo a?aeae?e?a aieiaiiai iiceo, ui aeinoia??ii ia?aaeuo? a?aeiia?aeiee iieaciee a?oie aooe?ai?aeieo iaoe?aio?a (P<0,05). Aeyaeai? ii?ooaiiy ae?thoue ia ueoiaeaeio caeico c iaea?eueoith ?iia??i?noth /a?ac iae?i-aiaeie?eii? a?iioaeyii-a?iio?ca?i? iaoai?cie ?aaoeyoe??, oi/a ia iiaeia aeeeth/eoe ? iaaiiai i?y-iiai aieeao ia ueoiaeaeio caeico aoa?aioieo ia?aiaeo ?iioeuen?a. Oi/a cai?ioiee aieea a?iioe-?aico ia aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/i? oa oea?aa?aeueii-aaiiaeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e ae?yeueiino? OeIN ? oe?eeii ?iia??iei, aea iayai?noue cacia/aieo ci?i o ?aaoeyoi?ieo a?aeae?eao aieiaiiai iiceo oa iiceiaiio e?iaiia?ao o oai?eo ?c caa?aaeaiith aooe?ai?aeiith ooieoe??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeaco? ia iaoiaa-iaoe/io ia?aeii?noue naia iiceiaeo ii?ooaiue o iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo. I?ioa aacia?a/ii, ui oe? iae?iooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie OeIN cia/iith i??ith iiaeeaeththoueny i?e a?iioe?aic? ca ?aooiie ii-neaaeaiiy ia?eoa?e/ii? ae?? oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a ye ia ee?oeiiiio ??ai?, oae ? /a?ac aaiiaeeiai?/i? ii?ooaiiy. Oiaoi ooai?th?oueny ii?i/ia eiei, ui ?icoeoo? aaea ?icaaeainiaai? ?ioeie /eiieeaie iae?i-aiaeie?eii? aca?iia?aeiineie oa noai?th? ae?ae iani?eyoeea? oiiae ye aeey eiiiainaoi?iii-i?enoinoaaeueieo ?aaeoe?e i?aai?cio, oae ? aeey oe?eani?yiiaaieo e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a. Ae?oaa iai?aaeaiiy iaoiaaiaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaaei o aecia/aii? o?i?/iiai neeaaeo caei?iai? oa iaoieia?/ii ci?iaii? oe?ai?aeii? i?aio?ie ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo EEIN. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeee iacae/aei? aeey i?aai?cio a oe?eiio ? aeey ueoiaeaeii? caeice a iniaeeaino? ??aee?ni? i?e?iaeaiaioe o aeineoue aenieeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo (10-2-10-3 %): Sc, As, Zr, Sb, Ba, - ??aaiue yeeo ca e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie ciaoiaeeoueny o iaaeao 10-4-10-9 % nooi? iane ?a/iaeie (TH.E.Iineaeaa, 1985; A.I.Aaoeui e niaao., 1991, E.?.Iicae?thoeia, 1977). A?aei?iiino? a eiioeaio?aoe?? 14 c 26 aeyaeaieo o oe?ai?aei?e ia?aio?i? aeaiaio?a iii?ae ??c-ieie c?aceaie aeyaeeeny aeineoue nooo?aeie. O ii??aiyii? c na?aaei?ie ii?iaeueieie eiioeao?aoe?y-ie aeaiaio?a o ueoiaeaei?e caeic? ie aeyaeee cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy ??ai?a F, Cl, Cu i Zn o caei?ia?e oe?ai?aei?e ia?aio?i? ( a 2-3 ?ace aeey F i Cl, oa a 7 i 20 ?ac?a aeey Zn i Cu a?aeiia?aeii). A iaoieia?/i?e oeaiei? aeia?iye?nieo ooai?aiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice a?aeoeeaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? oeeo aeaiaio?a ua a?eueo iiaeeaethaaeenue, i?e/iio iaeiie/aiiy aaeiaai?a (F i Cl) a?eueo aeoeaii a?aeaoaaeinue a aaeaiiiao, i?ae a aoceao eiei?aeiiai ciao, a Zn ? Cu - iaaiaee. Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui aeai? i?i ai?no Al, Si, Sc, Zr, Ba a ueoiaeaei?e caeic? acaaae? a?aenooi? na?aae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae. Aeey an?o c?ace?a iaoieia?/ii? oeaieie aoei oa?aeoa?iei aeniaaeaiiy caian?a eiaeo a oe?ai?aei?e ia?aio?i?, a?ae aeineoue nooo?aiai i?e aaeaiii? aei i?aeoe/ii iiaiiai cieeiaiiy i?e iai?ey?i?e aaeaiiea?oeeiii?. Ii??aiyeueiee ian-niaeo?aeueiee aiae?c iiaeoey?ii? oa ia?aiiaeoey?ii? (caei?iai?) ia?aio?ie ueoiaeaeii? caeice na?ae/eoue i?i iiaeeeao ?ieue aeayeeo o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a o iaoiaaiac? ?? aiaieuaaeo caoai?thaaiue. Aaeaea iaeaea aeey an?o ?icaeyiooeo aeua aeaiaio?a (F, Al, Si, Cl, Co, Cu, As, Sb, I, Ba) oa?aeoa?ia a??ia?aeia a?aei?ii?noue iieaciee?a iaoieia?/ii? oa caei?iai? oeaieie. Oea noino?oueny ia?aaaaeii aeia?iye?nii? aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice. Ia?aio?ia ?aeiaeo aoce?a aeyaeeany aeoaea a?aeiith ia ai?no a?eueoino? i?e?iaeaiaio?a, ye o ii??aiyii? c ia?aiiaeoey?iith oeaieiith, oae ? c ?ioith oe?ai?aeiith iaoieia??th. Oaeei /eiii, ??cea ciaioaiiy ai?noo ? a oeaiei? iooeeiiiiae?aieo oa iooeeiieo aoce?a ueoiaeaeii? caeice c iaeii/aniei eiieo?aioiei ca?eueoaiiyi Cl i F, iiaea aenooiaoe oaeoi?ii iaoiaaiaco a?ia?ieanoe/ieo caoai?thaaiue. I?aeaeuaia eiioeaio?aoe?y aeayeeo iaoae?a (Al, Mg, Sc, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Zr, Ba) a oeaiei? aeia?iye?nieo oe?ai?aeieo aoce?a ia ia? iaaiiai iiyniaiiy ? iio?aao? iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy; aea oea iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i aieea eiiieaeno iani?eyoeeaeo aeieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ia noai ueoiaeaeii? caeice iaoe?aio?a. O?ao?i iai?yieii iaoiaaiaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoei i?iaaaeaiiy ee?i?ei-aaiaaeia?/ieo ?ic?iaie na?aae oai?eo c aiaieuaaith iaoieia??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeey iiyniaiiy iniaeeainoae iaoiaaiaco iacaaieo oe?ai?aeieo caoai?thaaiue oa iioei?caoe?? ?o e?eoaaiiy. I?ney iiia?aaeiueiai i???ioiaiiai a?aeai?o ie i?iaaee ee?i?ei-aaiaaeia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy o 49 c 341 oai?eo, ui aoee iia?iaai? a ee?i?oe? c 1991 ii 1998 ??. oa o 29 c 138 aiaoeaoi?ieo oai?eo, ui e?eoaaeenue eiina?aa-oeaii /e ca aeiiiiiaith iaei?iaaceaieo iaoiae?a. Eiio?ieue noaiiaeee 100 nooaeaio?a 23-34 ?ie?a aac iciae oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? oa /eaie ?o ?iaeei. Aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a cana?ae/ea ianiiae?aaii aenieee a?aenioie o??o?a?/ieo oai?eo c aiaieuaaith iaoieia??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ye? iaee ?iaeeiia iaeiie/aiiy caoai?thaaiiy oa niaaeeia? ia?aaeoiiae aeey eiai aeieeiaiiy. Eiaeiee 5-e iaoe?aio ca aeaieie ee?i?ei-aaiaaeia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaeaaeaa aei oe??? a?oie. Iaaaaaoi iaioa /anoea iaoe?aio?a ?c caoe?eaaeai?noth niaaeeiaeo iaoai?ci?a iaoiaaiaco niinoa??aaeanue o a?oi? aiaoeaoi?ieo oai?eo c aiaieuaaith iaoieia??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ye? e?eoaaeenue eiina?aaoeaieie oa iaei?iaaceaieie iaoiaeaie ? iaee ia?a-aaaeii iaaaeeeo nooi?iue ca?eueoaiiy ueoiaeaeii? caeice. Oey /anoea neeaaeaea anueiai 2,9±1,43 % ? i?aeoe/ii ia a?ae??ciyeanue a?ae aiaeia?/iiai iieacieea eiio?ieueii? a?oie, aea iayai?noue n?iaeieo caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice ca?a?no?iaaia o 3,0±1,7 % (? > 0,05).

A?eueo aeaoaeueiee aiae?c aieeao niaaeeiaino? ia ?icaeoie ie?aieo oi?i
aiaieuaai? iaoiei-a?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeaco? ia cia/io
iaiaeii??aei?noue ??cieo a?oi iaoe?aio?a ca oe??th iciaeith. Oae, yeui o
caaaeuei?e a?oi? oai?eo, ui iia?oaaeenue c i?eaiaeo aoceiaiai oa
aaaaoiaoceiaiai iaoiene/-iiai ciao (ia a?aoiaoth/e aaeaiiie,
?aoeeaeeaiee cia, e?noe), ?iaeeiia iaeiie/aiiy caoai?thaaiiy
niinoa??aaeinue o iaaaeeei? ?o /anoee — 14,9±3,0 %, a na?aae oai?eo c
iiiaeeiieeie e?noicieie aoc-eaie acaaae? aoei a?aenooi?, oi a?aeiia?aei?
iieacieee aeey aaeaiii ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa ?aoeeaeea-iiai aoceiaiai
ciao neeaaeaee aaea 37,3±5,3 % oa 46,2±13,8 % (?<0,05). Oaeiae /anoi c’yniaoaaeanue ?iaeeiia noeeuei?noue aei caoai?thaaiiy i?e aaaaoiaoceiaiio oiene/iiio cia? - 29,6±8,8 %. A?aeiinii iaaaeeeee oa noaoenoe/ii iaaeinoia??iee o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai oa a?oiith ai-aoeaoi?ieo iaoe?aio?a a?aenioie oai?eo ?c n?iaeiith niaaeeia?noth aoei aeyaeaii na?aae aiaieuaaeo oi?i aooi?ioiiiai oe?ai?aeeoo - 15,0±7,9 %. AEiaeiiai aeiaaeeo n?iaeii? niaaeeiaino? ia ca?a?no?i-aaii i?e i?aeaino?iio oe?ai?aeeo? Aea Ea?aaia. Eeoa 1 c 27 (3,7±3,6 %) aeiaaee?a ?aeo ueoiaeaeii? caeice iiaeia aoei a?aeianoe aei niaaeeiai? oi?ie iaoieia??. Aaaeeeaei iiiaioii aoei oa, ui i?e niaaeeiaeo oi?iao aoceiaiai iaoiene/iiai ciao niinoa??aaeinue nooo?aa (P<0,05) ciaioaiiy /anoee aeiaaee?a, ui i?aeaeaaaeenue eiina?aaoeaiiio e?eoaaiith i?aia?aoaie oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a (c 80,9±4,8 % aei 25,0±21,7 %). Oea ua ?ac na?ae/eoue i?i i?ia?anoth/ee, ia?aaaaeii iacai?ioiee oa?aeoa? iaoiii?oieia?/ieo ci?i o ueoiaeaei?e caeic? i?e aaiaoe/ii aeaoa?i?iiaaieo aa??aioao oe?ai?aeii? a?ia?ieanoe/ii? iaoieia??, ia ei?enoue /iai na?ae/eei ? a?eueo oaeaeea ca?eueoaiiy ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ? aeieeiaiiy caoai?thaaiiy o a?eueo iieiaeiio a?oe? o ii??aiyii? c nii?aaee/ieie aa??aioaie iaoieia??. Oiio i?e aiaieuaaeo o?aaeai-iyo ueoiaeaeii? caeice (aoceiaee aooe?ai?aeiee /e oiene/iee cia, aaeaiiie) ?c cia/iith niaaeeiai-aaiaoe/iith eiiiiiaioith iaoiaaiaco ia?aaaao ne?ae a?aeaeaaaoe o??o?a?/iiio e?eoaaiith /a?ac ia-ni?eyoeeaee i?iaiic eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy. Iine?eueee ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei? aca?iia?aeiine-ie o oaeeo oai?eo cia/iith i??ith neiii?iiaoiaai?, a iia?aoe?y ua a?eueoa iiaeeaeth? oe? ?aaoey-oi?i? ?iceaaee, oi i?ney o??o?a?/ii? ?acaeoe?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice iaiao?aeii i?eae?eyoe iniaeeao oaaao i?io?eaeoeoe? ?aoeeaeea?a caoai?thaaiiy, ?ecee aeieeiaiiy yeeo o oaeeo iaoe?aio?a iaeaeuee. A i?ae?icae?e? 3.3. “?aoe?iiaeueia ae?aaiinoeea ? aeeoa?aioe?eia ae?aaiinoeea aoceiaeo ooai?aiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice, iiaeeeaino? i?iaiicoaaiy ia?aa?ao caoai?thaaiiy” a ia?oo /a?ao aoei i?iaaaeaii aiae?c a?aeiinii? aoaeoeaiino? ??cieo iaoiae?a ae?aaiinoeee i?e aeine?aeaeaii? aoceiaeo ooai?aiue a ueoiaeaei?e caeic?, yeee i?aeoaa?aeea i??i?eoao ee?i?ei-o?ceeaeueieo iaoiae?a ianoaaeaiiy, iniaeeai ia aeiee?i?/iiio ??ai?. ?aoaeueiee ca?? aiaiiaco, nea?a oai?iai, iaeyae, iaeueiaoe?y oe? iathoue ia?oi/a?aiaa cia/aiiy ye aeey ia?aeiiiai ?iciiae?eo oai?eo ia ae?aaiinoe/i? iioiee, oae ? iiaea-eoaee aeey inoaoi/iiai ae?aaiico oa aeai?o i?eioeeiiaiai iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy. Ae?aaiinoe/ia oi/i?noue oa ?ioi?iaoeai?noue iaeiioe?ai?oeo iaoiae?a a?coae?caoe?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice (OCAe, EO, ?N) iaiaeiaeiaa aeey ??cieo iicieia?/ieo oi?i aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ? ? a?eueo niaoeeo?/iith aeey aeia?iye?nieo i?ioean?a, i?ae aeey aeyaeaiiy ?aeo ueoiaeaeii? caeice. Oae c aenieith oi/i?noth ca aeaieie OCAe ae?aaiinoothoueny e?noe ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ye? ia ianooue o nia? nooo?aiai iieieia?/iiai ?eceeo, oae naii, ye ? /?oei a?aeie?aieai? a?ia?- oa ?ciaoiaaii? iaeii??aei? aocee, ye? ia?aaaaeii a?ae-iia?aeathoue oe?ai?aeiei aaeaiiiai. O?aaa i?aee?aneeoe a?aeiinii iecueeo /ooeea?noue OCAe ueoiaeaeii? caeice noiniaii aieiaii? ae?aaiinoe/ii? i?iaeaie - a?aeie?aieaiiy aeia?iye?nieo oa ceiye?nieo aiaieuaaeo ooai?aiue. Iaaaaaoi aoaeoeai?oei, ia iao iiaeyae, ? aeeiai?/ia niinoa?aaeaiiy ca i?aeic??eeie aiaieuaie no?oeoo?ieo ci?i, c ?a?no?aoe??th oaeeo ia?aiao??a, ye ?ici??, oi?ia, no?oeoo?a, aoi-u?euei?noue, /?oe?noue a?aeiaaeoaaiiy. Iniaeeai ei?enia oea aeeiai?/ia niinoa?aaeaiiy o aeiaaeeao aiaieuaaeo oi?i oe?ai?aeeo?a, ye? ca ee?i?/ieie iciaeaie /anoi ca?aathoueny c ?aei-aeie iooeeiaie. Naia ae?acia aeeiai?ea oa aaoa?iaaii?noue niiia?ao?/ieo ci?i i?ioyaii 1-2 i?nyoe?a e?eoaaiiy ? niaoeeo?/iith iciaeith aeey o?ii?/iiai ?, iniaeeai, i?aeaino?iai oe?ai?aeeo?a. Aeiaeaoeiao ?ioi?iaoe?th iiaeia io?eiaoe ca aeiiiiiaith aeiiea?ianueeiai OCAe, ui aeicaiey? aeine?aeaeoaaoe ia??eoe c ??aeeiith, ui ?ooa?oueny, oiaoi - noaeeie. Ie aia?oa na?aae a?o/eciaieo aeine?aeiee?a canoinoaaee iaoiae eieuei?iai? aeiiea?ia?ao?? a aeeoa?aioe?ei?e ae?aaiinoeoe? e?noicieo oa noaeeiieo ooai?aiue a ueoiaeaei?e caeic?. Canoinoaaiiy OCAe aeey a?eueo oi/iiai iaaaaeaiiy ani??aoe?eii? aieee i?e aeeiiaii? OAIA cia/ii i?aeaeuo? aoaeoeai?noue a?iin??. Iao aeina?ae canoinoaaiiy ?aae?i?cioiiii? noeeio?a?ao??, ye iaoiaeo a?coae?caoe?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice, na?ae/eoue i?i ?? iecueeo ?icae?eue/o caeaoi?noue oa iaiaaeaio ?ioi?iaoeai?noue o ae?aaiinoeoe? iooeei ueoiaeaeii? caeice. Aea ?N caeeoa?oueny ?aeeiei iaoiaeii, yeee aeicaiey? aecia/eoe ooieoe?iiaeueio aeoeai?noue ??cieo ae?eyiie ueoiaeaeii? caeice. C iiaeyaeo ia oea ie aaaaea?ii aeioe?eueiei canoinoaaiiy ?N eeoa o oeo aeiaaeeao aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ui ii?aeiothoueny c oe?aioieneeicii aai iiiaeeiieeo aoceiaeo ooai?aiue c iaaecia/aiei oeeoieia?/iei ae?aaiicii oa i?ioeiieacaiiyo aei iia?aoe??. Oea aea? ciiao aee?eoe ooieoe?iiaeueii aeoeai? (“aa?y/?”) aocee, ui iathoue iaeaea aeeeth/ii aeia?iye?niee oa?aeoa? oa a?aeiia?aeathoue oiene/iei aaeaiiiai. Eiii’thoa?ia oiiia?ao?y iaaea? oi?eaeueio ?ioi?iaoe?th uiaei iaae ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oe?ai?ae-ii? oeaieie, oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/ieo aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae ueoiaeaeiith caeicith oa noi?aeieie i?aaiaie oa no?oeoo?aie, nooiaiy ?o o?aaeaiiy /e noeniaiiy, iiaeeeaino? aeeiiaiiy ?aaeeeaeueii? iia?aoe??. ?? canoinoaaiiy iniaeeai aeioe?eueia o oai?eo iioeeiai a?eo c o?eaaeei aiaiiacii ciao /a?ac iiaeeea?noue aee?eooy /anoiai a oe?e a?eia?e a?oi? iicaa?oaeieiiiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oe?ai?ae-ieo aoce?a ?c noeniaiiyi aeeoaeueieo oeyo?a oa e?oiieo aai, ui ? iieacaiiyi aei iia?aoe??. Na?aae iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iiiaeueii? aeoeaiino? ueoiaeaeii? caeice ia?aaaao a?aeaea-?ii, ye ia?oiio oanoia?, aecia/aiith ??aiy a?eueiiai oe?ieneio oa aacaeueiiai ??aiy OOA iaeiei c aeniei/ooeeaeo iaoiae?a. Aecia/aiiy inoaiiueiai iieacieea aaaaea?ii oaeiae aeniei?ioi?iaoea-iei aeey ae?aaiinoeee i?eoiaaiiai oe?aioieneeico /e oe?ai?aeii? aaoiiii?? o iaoe?aio?a iioeeiai a?eo /e c o?eaaeei aiaiiacii ciao, na?aae yeeo oey iaoieia?y iaea?eueo ?iia??ia ca iaoeie aeaieie. Iii?oia oaiaeaioe?y aei aeniaaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae i?aeo?eiee oe?ai?aeiiai aiiainoaco o aeiaaeeao aoceiaiai oa aaaaoiaoceiaiai iaoiene/iiai ciao. Oae na?aae 207 oai?eo oeeo a?oi noaee?-i?/iee a?iioe?aic niinoa??aaany o 25 (12,1 %), iai?oanoiee - o 5 (2,4 %), iaeaea an? aiie (24 iniae - 80 %) iaeaaeaee aei a?eiai? a?oie iiiaae 60 ?ie?a oa iaee o?eaaeee aiaiiac caoai?thaaiiy ? iao-eaiiy a a?aei?e ia eiae i?noeaaino?. Noaee?i?/iee oa ee?i?/iee a?iioe?aic niinoa??aaany o a?eueoino? (58 %) oai?eo c aiaieuaaith oi?iith o?ii?/iiai aooi?ioiiiai oe?ai?aeeoo, an? aiie iaee o?eaa-eee aiaiiac caoai?thaaiiy. O a?oi? oai?eo ia ?ae ueoiaeaeii? caeice niinoa??aaeeny caaaeii ii?iaeuei? ??ai? oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a oa OOA. Aeniei/ooeeaei oa aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii eaai?aoi?ii? ae?aaiinoeee aiaieuaaeo oi?i o?i-i?/iiai aooi?ioiiiai oa , o iaio?e i???, i?aeaino?iai oe?ai?aeeoo aeyaeeiny aeine?aeaeaiiy aioeoe?a-i?aeieo aioeo?e - aei OA oa ia?ieneaeace. Aiie aoee i?enooi? o oeo?ao aeueo 1:100 (/e 100 Iae/ie) o 85-95 % oai?eo ia aiaieuaao oi?io o?ii?/iiai aooi?ioiiiai oe?ai?aeeoo ia a?aei?io a?ae iacaiaeue-ieo aiaieuaaeo o?aaeaiue, aea oeae iieaciee ia ia?aaeuoaaa 3,7 % (?<0,05). Oaeei /eiii, iecueea /ooeea?noue ? niaoeeo?/i?noue iaoiae?a a?coae?caoe?? oa ee?i?/iiai ianoa-aeaiiy o ae?aaiinoeoe? aiaieuaaeo oi?i oe?ai?aeeo?a iaaiith i??ith eiiiaino?oueny eaai?aoi?ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie ??ai?a OA oa aioeoe?ai?aeieo aioeo?e, i?aeaeuai? ??ai? yeeo, oae naii, ye ? i?aeae-uaia eiioeaio?aoe?y oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a i?e oe?ai?aeeo? Aea Ea?aaia oa ia ii/aoeia?e noaae?? o?i-i?/iiai aooi?ioiiiai oe?ai?aeeoo, oa?aeoa?i? naia aeey caiaeueieo i?ioean?a o ueoiaeaei?e caeic?. Oiieiaieeiaa ani??aoe?eia ioieoe?eia oa o?aiai-a?iin?y (OAIA, OA) ? iaea?eueo /ooeeaeie oa niaoeeo?/ieie c ?ino?oiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a ae?aaiinoeee o aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? a?eueoino? ceiye?nieo iooeei oa aeia?iye?nieo aiaieuaaeo i?ioean?a ueoiaeaeii? caeice. Iaaeinoaoiuei oe?iea ai?iaaae-aeaiiy OAIA coiiaeaia cia/iith i??ith aeao?oeeoii aeina?ae/aieo oeeoiii?oieia?a. Iieacaiiyie aei OAIA aaaaea?ii an? aiaieuaa? ooai?aiiy ueoiaeaeii? caeice o in?a c a?oie i?aeaeuaiiai iieieia?/iiai ?eceeo, aoceia? ooai?aiiy, ui aeinyaee 10 ii aai aeia?a i?iiaoeo-thoueny o iaoe?aio?a aeeoy/iai, thiaoeueeiai oa iioeeiai a?eo, an? iiiaeeiie? aoceia? ooai?aiiy, ye? iaeueiothoueny oa iathoue iaaecia/ai? OC /e ?N iciaee (oiaoi ca aeiyoeii ni?aaaei?o e?no, oiene/ieo aaeaiii, eeane/ieo oi?i aino?iai oa i?aeaino?iai oe?ai?aeeo?a), aaaaoiaoceia? oi?ie ciao - i?e iayaiino? ie?aieo ae?eyiie /e aiaieu, ui aeae?eythoueny ca nai?ie aeanoeainoyie a?ae ?aooe caeice oa iathoue i?aeic??e? ia ?ae ?ene. Iieacaiiyie aei OA aaaaea?ii ia?ioi?iaoeai?noue /e iaaecia/ai?noue ?acoeueoao?a OAIA i?e aiaieuaaeo i?ioeanao, ui a?eueii iaeueiothoueny, u?eueia aai oaa?aea eiin?noaioe?y oaeeo ooai?aiue, ui ai/aaeaeue ia?aaeaa/a? a?aeiee ani??aoe?eiee iaoa??ae, aeniea ?iia??i?noue ?aeo ueoiaeaeii? caeice i?e aaaiieo i?ioeiieacaiiyo aei iia?aoe??, ?aoeeaeeaoth/? e?noe ueoiaeaeii? caeice c aeia?iye?nieie ?acoeueoaoaie oeeoieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy - aeey aea/aiiy eainoee ooai?aiiy. Oi/i?noue, /ooeea?noue oa niaoeeo?/i?noue OAIA oa OA aoea aeey ?aeo ueoiaeaeii? caeice a?aeiia?aeii 98,3 %, 100 %, 98,3 %. Iieacaiiy aei ?io?aiia?aoe?eii? aeni?ana?iin?? ie iaiaaeo?ii aeiaaeeaie iaa?aeiia?aeiino? aeiiia?aoe?eiiai ae?aaiico iae?ineii?/i?e ea?oei? ueoiaeaeii? caeice, i?aeic?ith ia oe?ai?aeiee ?ae oa eiai ?aa?iia?i? iaoanoace, ci?oaieo oi?i oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??. Iae?ineii?/i?e ?io?aiia?aoe?ei?e ae?aaiinoeoe? i?eae?ey?ii aeoaea aaeeeo oaaao. ?? oi/i?noue iaeaea ni?aiaaea? c oi/i?noth a?noieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, a a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao ? iaiao?aeiei aeiiiaiaiiyi inoaiiueiai. Aieiaieie iae?ineii?/ieie iciaeaie ceiye?niino? aocea ? c?iuaiiy eiai c ioi/oth/eie oeaieiaie, iai?aaeeueia oi?ia oa oaa?ae?noue, ao?aoa oe?ai?aeii? no?oeoo?e ia ?icoei?, n??ee /e n??i-ao?iaaoee, no?ieaoee eie?? oeaieie iooeeie oa iayai?noue ??ciiai ?ici??o oieon?a aeano?oeoe?? ??, eaeueeinoa?eo?a, a?aenooi?noue /e iaea ae?aaeai?noue eainoee. A?noieia?/ia ae?aaiinoeea oe?ai?aeii? iieiiaoieia??, ui aaaaea?oueny iaei??th c iaeneeaaei?oeo i?iaeai aeey an?o iaoiii?oieia?a na?oo, aeiaaa? aaeeeiai aeina?aeo iaoiii?oieiaa. sseui iniaeeaeo o?oaeiiu?a o aa??o?eaoe?? a?noieia?/iiai ae?aaiico aoceiaiai iaoiene/iiai ciao, e?noe ueoiaeaeii? caeice, oe?ai?aeeo?a o iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ia aeieeaei, oi aeeoa?aioe?eia ae?aaiinoeea aacaaeia?o?oee?iaaiiai aoceiaiai ciao oa iai?ey?iiai ?aeo aeiaaaea iiooeo aeiaeaoei-aeo e?eoa???a ceiye?niino? - ?iaac?? aei noaeei /e eainoee caeice. Iaea?eueo neeaaeieie aeey ae?aaiico aoee oie?eoey?i? ea?oeeiiie c i?i?iaeueiith ?iaac??th, iooeeie c ee?oei Aoe?iac?-Ath?oea, ci?oai? oi?ie iaoieia?? (iai?ey?iee ?ae ia oii? aaaaoiaocei-aiai oiene/iiai ciao, iai?ey?iee ?ae ia oii? o?ii?/iiai oe?ai?aeeoo oiui). Oaeei /eiii, canoinoaaiiy no/anieo cania?a ae?aaiinoeee i?e iaoiaee/iiio ianoaaeaii? oai?eo aeicaiey? c aenieith oi/i?noth (o na?aaeiueiio - 99,5±0,4 %) oa /ooeea?noth (a na?aaeiueiio - 96,8±0,9 %) anoaiiaeoe ae?aaiic eiie?aoii? aiaieuaai? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??. Caaaeueia noaia ae?aa-iinoe/iiai aeai?eoio i?e aiaieuaa?e iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice, yeee aeicaiey? c iaea?eueoith aoaeoeai?noth aeei?enoiaoaaoe iiaeeeaino? ??ciiiai?oieo iaoiae?a ianoaaeaiiy, c i?eioeeiiaeie ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie uiaei aeai?o iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy iieacaia ia ?en.1. Ia ?acoeueoaoe ae?aaiinoeee ? e?eoaaiiy aiaieuaai? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??, ?o aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue nooo?ai aieeaa? canoinoaaiiy i?iaiinoe/ieo e?eoa???a ia an?o aoaiao oeueiai i?ioeano. Ia aoai? ee?i?/ii? ae?aaiinoeee o?aooaaiiy oaeoi??a i?iaiico aeieeiaiiy oa ?icaeoeo o??? /e ?ioi? aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny i?iaeai? aeeoa?aioe?eii? -ae?aaiinoeee oeeo caoai?thaaiue, ia?o ca ana ioe?ioe? ?eceeo aeyaeaiiy ?aeo na?aae aoceiaeo ooai?aiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice. Oeeoieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a OAIA aiaieuaaeo o?aaeaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice ia? aooe iniiaith aeeoa?aioe?eiiai ae?aaiico, aea i?e a?aenooiino? ca iaaieo i?e/ei i?iaaaeaiiy OAIA aai OA /e ?o iaaecia/aieo (noii?aieo) ?acoeueoaoao oaeeie aaaeeeaeie oaeoi?aie i?aeaeuaiiai iieieia?/iiai oe?ai?aeiiai ?eceeo ie aaaaea?ii: 1) na?aae aiaiianoe/ieo aeaieo - ?iaeeiia iaeiie-/aiiy iieieia?/ieo caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa ?ioeo aiaeie?eiieo i?aai?a (aa??aioe IAI -?? neiae?iio, aaeaiiie, iaaeoey?iee oa iai?ey?iee ?ae ueoiaeaeii? caeice), a oaeiae n?iaeiee iie?-iic, neiae?ii Aa?aeia?a; ii?ii?iaiiy ueoiaeaeii? caeice, aieiae oa oe? o aeeoeinoa? oa thia-/iio a?oe?; oaeaeea c?inoaiiy iooeeiiiai ooai?aiiy ia oe?; /ieia?/a noaoue (iniaeeai o iioeeiio a?oe? c iaeeii/ieie aoceiaeie ooai?aiiyie); a?e aei 30 oa i?ney 60 ?ie?a; 2) na?aae nea?a oai?eo - a?eue o ae?eyioe? ia?aaeiuei? iiaa?oi? oe?; no?eea ci?ia oaia?o aieino, cao?eie?noue; 3) na?aae o?ceeaeueieo aeaieo - iiiaeeiie? aiaieuaa? o?aaeaiiy; oaa?ae? oa iaei?ooeea? oe?ai?aei? aocee, iai?aaeeueii? AOCEIA? OOAI?AIIss A UEOIAEAeI?E CAEIC? iieooaaiiy NEIIOIII? aai oae?, ui IAEUeIOTHOUeNss iaeyae AACNEIIOIII?, NOAEE?I?*I? iaeueiaoe?y NEIIOIIE EIII?AN?? ICIAEE ?IAAC?? /e OOIEOe?IIAEUeI? IAAAEEEEE A?OIA IIEI- CAAAEUeIA I?AAI?A OE?, AAEEEEE IA??OIEAEUeIIAI II?OOAIIss ?ICI?? (1-3 ni) ?ECEEO A?OIA ?ICI??, IICAA?OAeEIIA CAIAEAIIss A?AeNOOI?NOUe ?ICOAOOAAIIss AO4,OOA EE?I?EE A/O aioeo?ea A?II- A?IA?- IAeEI. IIIAE. OCAe, EO, OAIA OCAe, OAIA ( OA) OCAe, ?N OAIA OCAe OCAe OCAe A/O - aioeo?ea OAIA OCAe OAIA oieiaei? aa?y/? OA AOCEIAEE CIA, E?NOA OE?AI?AeEOE ?AE AIC OIEN. AAeAIIIA AIC IOOEEIE, OAO NO?OI?O AAeAIIIA IIIAEEIIA E?NOE AAOIIII?ss i?iaiic i?iaiic IOIEOe?ss EIINA?A. ?-131, NOI?AN. NIIN- IIA?AOe?ss ANI??AOe?ss NOI?ANEAIA IIA?AOe?ss O?I?*IA OA?AI?ss OA?A- NEEA?ICOAAIIss OA?AI?ss, AeANO?OEOe?ss AEAIIss I?AAeI?CIEII aioeoe?ai?aeia oa?ai?y ?en.1. I?eioeeiiaee ae?aaiinoe/ii-e?eoaaeueiee aeai?eoi i?e aiaieuaa?e iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice.oi?ie aai c ia??aiith iiaa?oiath; ca?eueoai? ie?ai? e?ioaoe/i? aocee oe?; 4) na?aae OCAe- oa ?N-neiioii?a - a?iiaoiaaii?, ia/?oei a?aeiaaeiaai? aocee; noeeo?a?ao?/ii “oieiaei?” aocee; 5) na?aae oeeoieia?/ieo aeaieo - Ath?oea-ee?oeii? c?acee; oie?eoey?ia iaiieac?y. O?aooaaiiy iayaiino? oeeo oaeoi??a (i?enooi?noue iaa?oue aeaio-o?ueio c ??cieo iacaaieo eaoaai??e cia/ii i?aeaeuo? ?iia??i?noue ?aeiaiai o?aaeaiiy ueoiaeaeii? caeice) aeicaieeoue a/anii ae??-oeoe ieoaiiy o??o?a?/ii? iia?aoe??, iacaeaaeii a?ae i?iaaaeaiiy aeiiia?aoe?eiiai ii?oieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa eiai ?acoeueoao?a. Ia aoai? aeai?o iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy ieoaiiy i?iaiico iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aaea ae?aaiinoiaa-ii? aiaieuaai? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? oa aoaeoeaiino? oa?aiaaoe/iiai e?eoaaiiy noi?oue iaea?eueo aeooaeueii. Iaie ?ic?iaeaii ? caiaoaioiaaii niin?a i?iaiicoaaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiina?aaoea-iiai e?eoaaiiy iaoiene/iiai aoceiaiai ciao ia iniia? aecia/aiiy aeeiai?ee ??aiy ne?iaaoeiaiai OA (iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 17296 A). Oi?ioea cai?iiiiiaaiiai niiniao i?iaiicoaaiiy aoaeoeaiino? noi?aneaii? oa?ai?? oe?ai?aeieie ai?iiiaie aoceiaiai iaoiene/iiai ciao iieyaa? o aecia/aii? a e?ia? oai?iai eiioeaio?aoe?? OA aei ? i?ney 6-i?ny/iiai e?eoaaiiy ? i?e cieaeaii? ii/aoeiai i?aeae-uaiiai ??aiy OA ia 50 % oa a?eueoa /e ii?iae?caoe?? eiai aei 0-50 ia/ie i?ney 6-i?ny/iiai e?eo-aaiiy i?iaiicothoue yoaeoeai?noue iiaeaeueoiai e?eoaaiiy oe?ai?aeieie ai?iiiaie, a i?e a?aenoo-iino? ciaioaiiy oeueiai iieacieea /e cieaeaii? eiai iaio, i?ae ia 50 % i?iaiicothoue iaaoaeoea-i?noue iiaeaeueoi? oa?ai??. Niin?a aeiiiiaaa? aecia/aoe no?iee oa iieacaiiy aei iia?aoe??, a oaeiae oieeiooe caeaeo iia?aoe?e o iaaii? /anoeie iaoe??io?a c aoceiaei iaoiene/iei ciaii. I?ae?icae?e 3.4. “E?eoaaiiy aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice” i?enay/aiee iioei?-caoe?? e?eoaaeueiiai i?ioeano, ?ic?iaoe? /?oeeo iieacaiue aei ie?aieo o??o?a?/ieo oa eiina?aaoeaieo iaoiae?a oa ?o oaoiieia??. Iniiaiei e?eoaaeueiei iaoiaeii a oe?e aaeee?e oa iaiaeii??aei?e ca iaoieia?/iith nooi?noth a?oi? caoai?thaaiue, ui ia’?aeio?oueny aiaieuaaei (ia??aiii??iei iaaeeoociei) oa?aeoa?ii o?aaeaiiy oe?ai?aeii? ia?aio?ie, ? o??o?a?/iee, ye iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiee oa caeaoiee o iaeei?iooee oa?i?i aeinyaoe no?oeoo?ii? oa ooieoe?iiaeueii? iaeii??aeiino? caei?iai? oeaieie ueoiaeaeii? caeice aai aeeeth/eoe iiaeeea?noue iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo ?aeiai? iooeeie. Aea e??i iueiai ca iaaieie iieacaiiyie iiaeia c oni?oii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaei?iaaceai? o??o?a?/i? oa eiina?aaoeai? iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy, a oaeiae oa?ai?th ?aae?iaeoeaiei eiaeii. Iieacaiiyi aei o?aaeeoe?eii? o??o?a?/ii? iia?aoe?? aaaaea?ii: 1) oeeoieia?/ii aai a?noiei-a?/ii (ca aeaieie a?iin??) aeiaaaeai? aeiaaeee ?aeo ueoiaeaeii? caeice; 2) aeiaaeee iaa?oioiaaii? i?aeic?e ia iae?ai?caoe?th ca aeaieie eiiieaeniiai ee?i?ei-?ino?oiaioaeueii-eaai?aoi?iiai ianoaaeaiiy (iacaeaaeii a?ae ?acoeueoao?a OAIA) /e iaaecia/ai? (i?aeic??e? ia ?ae) ?acoeueoaoe OAIA na?aae aoaeue yeeo aoceiaeo ooai?aiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ui iaeueiothoueny;( o aeiaaeeo i?ioeiieacaiue aei o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy /e a?aeiiae oai?iai aeeiio?ii OA /e iiaoi?io OAIA ? i?e iaaaoeaieo ?acoeueoaoao inoaii?o i?iaiaeeii eiina?aaoeaia e?eoaaiiy /e niinoa?aaeaiiy i?ioyaii 3-6 i?nyoe?a c ianooiiei ianoaaeaiiyi oa OAIA; a a?oi? i?aeaeuaiiai iiei?eceeo iaiieyaa?ii ia iia?aoe??); 3) aoceiaee oa aaaaoiaoceiaee cia aaeeeiai ?ici??o (a?eueoa 3-4 ni aai IV-V nooiaiy ca a?o/eciy-iith eeaneo?eaoe??th), aeeth/ath/e oeeii-iicaa?oaeieiiee cia oa oaeee, ui ni?e/eiy? i?noeaao neiioiiaoeeo (iciaee eiii?an?? i?aai?a ? no?oeoo? oe?) ca aeiyoeii iaeeii/ieo e?noicieo aoce?a; 4) oiene/iee aoceiaee oa aaaaoiaoceiaee cia c oe?aioieneeicii na?aaeiueiai /e aaaeeiai nooiaiy, ca aeiyoeii oiene/ieo aaeaiii o iaoe?aio?a c aenieei o??o?a?/iei ?eceeii (ca a?eiaeie /e niiaoe/ieie e?eoa??yie, ?aoeeaeeaiei ciaii c iayai?noth iioeiaeaeaiiy i?ae /an ia?oi? iia?aoe?? ai?oaiieo ia?a?a aai i?eueoiaeaeieo caeic); 5) aeiaaeee aoceiai? /e inaaaeiaoceiai? oi?ie o?ii?/ii-ai aoooi?ioiiiai oe?ai?aeeoo, ui ni?e/eiy? eiii?an?th i?aai?a /e no?oeoo? oe? oa ia i?aeaea?oueny eiina?aaoeaiiio e?eoaaiith (ia?aaaaeii - o?a?ineea?ioe/ia noaae?y i?ioeano); 6) ??aee?ni? aeiaaeee o?ii?/iiai o?a?icii-?iaaceaiiai oe?ai?aeeoo ??aeaey c iciaeaie eiii?an?? noi?aeieo i?aai?a /e aino?iai ai?eiiai oe?ai?aeeoo c oi?ioaaiiyi aanoeano ueoiaeaeii? caeice. Iieacaiiyie aei iaei?iaaceaieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy aaaaea?ii: 1) an? aeiaaeee /enoi e?noic-ieo aoce?a aai ia?aaaaeii e?noicieo (c oiieei ia??oa??eiei oa?ii aeaaaia?iaaii? oe?ai?aeii? ia?aio?ie aac iciae ceiye?niino? ca aeaieie OAIA ? OCAe) - ?i i?iaiaeeoueny e?eoaaiiy ioieoe?eii-ani??aoe?eiei oeyoii ca iaei??th c iaaaaeaieo ieae/a iaoiaeee; 2) oiene/i? aaeaiiie (iaeiiaoceiaee oiene/iee cia) o oai?eo c i?ioeiieacaiiyie aei iia?aoe?? /e aenieei ?eceeii o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy; a oeueiio aeiaaeeo i?iaiaeeoueny e?eoaaiiy oeyoii o?i?/ii? aeano?oeoe?? ia?aio?ie aoce?a 96° aoeeiaei nie?oii; 3) ie?ai? aeiaaeee neiioiiieo iaoiene/ieo iaeeii/ieo aoce?a o oai?eo, ui ia iiaeooue aooe iia?iaai? c ??cieo i?e/ei, i?ney oeeoieia?/iiai i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ?o aeia?iye?niino? oa iaaoaeoeaiino? eiina?aaoeaii? noi?aneaii? oa?ai?? oaeiae iiaeooue aooe e?eiaai? ?inoeeyoe??th nie?oo a ia?aio?io aocea c iaoith eiai neea?icoaaiiy oa ciaioaiiy. Eiina?aaoeaia e?eoaaiiy ? iieacaiei: 1) o an?o aeiaaeeao iaoiene/iiai aoceiaiai oa aaaaoiaoceiaiai ciao ?ici??ii aei 3-4 ni aai ?-??? nooiaiy ca a?o/eciyiith eeaneo?eaoe??th i?ney aa??o?eaoe?? eiai aeia?iye?niino? oa a?aenooiino? eiii?an?eieo oneeaaeiaiue (noi?aneaia oa?ai?y i?aia?aoaie oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a c ia??iaee/iei eiio?ieai ca ?? aoaeoeai?noth oa ioe?ieith i?iaiico); 2) aeey an?o aeiaaee?a aiaieuaaeo oi?i o?ii?/iiai aooi?ioiiiai /e i?aeaino?iai oe?ai?aeeo?a i?e a?aenooiino? i?aeic?e iae?ai?caoe?? oa eiii?an?? i?aai?a oa no?oeoo? oe? (noi?aneaia oa?ai?y, ei?ioeino?ieia? eo?ne aetheiei?oeei?ae?a o ia??iaee caaino?aiiy caiaeueieo yaeu); 3) oai?ei c aoceiaei oa aaaaoiaoceiaei oiene/iei ciaii ?-??? nooiaiy oa eaaeei oe?aioieneeicii (aioeoe?ai?aei? i?aia?aoe, b-aae?aiiaeieaoi?e), ye aeueoa?iaoeaa o??o?a?/iiio e?eoaaiith, a i?e aaaeeiio /e na?aaeiuei? aaaeeino? oe?aioieneeic? - aeey i?aeaioiaee aei iia?aoe??; 4) noi?aneaia iiaeeoo?aa oa?ai?y i?ecia/a?oueny i?ney iia?aoe?? oai?ei c aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei oe?ai?aeiei ?aeii oa ia iaiaaeaiee no?ie (o na?aaeiueiio - 6-12 i?nyoe?a) - an?i, ooi ia?ai?n ?acaeoe?th ueoiaeaeii? caeice c ?ioiai i?eaiaeo. ?aae?i?cioiiia e?eoaaiiy ?c canoinoaaiiyi i?aia?ao?a eiaeo-131 aaaaea?ii iieacaiei:1) oai?ei c iioe?aieie oi?iaie aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai ?aeo ueoiaeaeii? caeice (O4), aai i?e aoaeue-ye?e noaae?? ia?aeiii? iooeeie i?e iayaiino? a?aeaeaeaieo /e ?aa?iia?ieo iaoanoac?a (M1, N1) i?ney oe?ai?aeaeoii??; 2) ie?aiei oai?ei o a?oe? iiiaae 45 ?ie?a c ?aoeeaeeaiei oiene/iei aoceiaei /e aaaaoiaoceiaei ciaii, yeui i?ae /an ia?oi? iia?aoe?? aoee ooeiaeaeai? ai?oaii? ia?ae aai i?eueoiaeaei? caeice, a oaeiae ?ioei oai?ei oeacaiiai a?eo c aoceiaei oiene/iei ciaii, ye? ia iiaeooue ia?aianoe o??o?a?/io iia?aoe?th /e a?aeiiaeythoueny a?ae ia?. Iaie ?ic?iaeai? iniiai? i?eioeeie eiaeiiai c iacaaieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy, ca aeiyoeii ?aae?ieiaeoa?ai??, ui ? i?a?iaaoeaith ?aae?ieia?a. O??o?a?/ia iia?aoe?y ia ueoiaeaei?e caeic? i?e ?? aiaieuaa?e iaoieia?? iiaeiia aeeiioaa-oenue ca oiia aeinyaiaiiy aooe?ai?aeiiai noaio oai?iai, caaacia/oaaoe iiaeeea?noue a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? caeice i?ney iia?aoe??, yeui oea ia ii?ooo? i?eioeeie iieieia?/ii? ?aaeeeaeueiino?, aeei-?enoiaoaaoe i?aoeec?eio oaoi?eo iia?oaaiiy aiane?aeie u?eueiiai ?icoaooaaiiy aaaaoueio aeeoo?ai-aaaeeeaeo no?oeoo? a cii? ao?o/aiiy, ne?oioeueiciee eiio?ieue aaiinoaco, ye oiiao cieaeaiiy ?eceeo iia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue, a?aeiia?aeaoe aeiiaai einiaoe/ii? o??o?a??, a?aoiaoth/e oa, ui a?eueo?noue iaoe?aio?a - ae?iee, a oey ? i?noeai iniaeeai? einiaoe/ii? oaaae. Aaaaea?ii, ui iaoiaeii aeai?o i?e caaacia/aii? ciaaieaiiy iia?aoe?e ia ueoiaeaei?e caeic? ia? aooe aaaaoieiiiiiaioiee aioo??oiueiaaiiee /e ?iaaeyoe?eiee ia?eic c i?i?aeaenaioaie oa ?iooaaoe??th o?aoa?. Iiaeooue aooe aeeiiai? i?ae i?noeaaei ciaaieaiiyi o ii?aeiaii? c iae?ieaioaiae-aac??th /e ?ioei naaeaoeaiei i?ee?eooyi iia?aoe?? i?e aeia?iye?nieo ?ooiieo aiaieuaaeo o?aaeai-iyo ueoiaeaeii? caeice oeeii? eieae?caoe??, ye? ia iio?aaothoue oioaeueii? oe?ai?aeaeoii??. Anueiai na?aae 341 oai?iai , ui aoee i?iiia?iaai? c i?eaiaeo aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoi-aeaeii? caeice, aiaeio?aoaaeueiee ia?eic c i?i?aeaenaioaie oa aioo??oiueiaaiiee ia?eic aac ooo/-iiai aeeoaiiy aoei canoiniaaii o 125 oai?eo (36,7±2,6 %), a i?noeaaa ciaaieaiiy c iae?ieaioaiaeaac??th /e aac ia? - o 216 oai?eo (63,3±2,6 %). Aea yeui a ia?oee ia??iae niinoa?aaeaiue (1991-1993 ??.) ia?eic aoei canoiniaaii o 13,5±2,8 % aeiaaee?a - 21 c 156 oai?eo , oi o ae?oaiio (1994-1997 ??.) - aaea o 55,7±3,6 % - 103 c 185 oai?eo (?<0,01). Nooo?ai? ??cieoe? o /anoio? iia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue i?ae a?oiaie c ??ciei oeiii ciaaieaiiy ia iii?/aii. Aeiyoie neeaaea? ??cieoey o /anoio? iao??o?a?/ieo (na?oeaai-eaaaiaaeo) i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue i?ae a?oiaie c i?noeaaei oa caaaeueiei ciaaieaiiyi na?aae oai?eo noa??oeo ca 60 ?ie?a. Oae na?aae 31 iaoe?aioa, ui aoa iia?iaaiee i?ae aiaeio?aoaaeueiei ia?eicii, niinoa??aaeiny 5 (16,1±6,6%) aeiaaee?a oaeeo oneeaaeiaiue, a na?aae 38 oai?eo, ye? iia?oaaeenue i?ae i?noeaaei ciaaieaiiyi oaeeo ia iii?/aii (?<0,05). Eaoaeueieo aeiaaee?a ia aoei. I?e an?o aeia?iye?nieo oi?iao aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice iia?aoe?y iiaeiia iineoe i?aaiicaa??aath/ee oa?aeoa?, oiaoi iaeii/anii c aeeo/aiiyi iaoieia?/ieo aiaieu iaia-o?aeia iaeneiaeueia caa?aaeaiiy iae?ineii?/ii caei?iai? oe?ai?aeii? ia?aio?ie. Iioeiaeueii caee-oaoe iano eoene ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ui aei??aith? i?eaeecii ?? ia’?io o ni3, ia iaioa 10-15 a. Iciaee aeaaaia?aoeaii-neea?ioe/ieo ?oaoeueiaeo i?ioean?a o ueoiaeaei?e caeic? oa ?? e?ioi?aeia ?io?eueo?aoe?y cia/ii ciaioothoue ooieoe?iiaeuei? oa ?aaaia?aoi?i? iiaeeeaino? ?? ia?aio?ie. Aaaaea?ii, ui iia?aoe?y ca noaoanoe?aeueiith iaoiaeeeith, ?ic?iaeaiith I.A.I?eiea?aei, caaacia/o? i?e ?? i?aaeeueiiio aeeiiaii? i?i?iaeueiee ?ecee aaciina?aaeiueiai eiioaeoo c ai?oai-ieie ia?aaie oa i?eueoiaeaeieie caeicaie, ui ? iaee?auith i?io?eaeoeeith ?o ooeiaeaeaiiy. A?aenooia?ii a?ae ia? o aeiaaeeao aaaaoiaoceiaiai eiiaeiia?aoiiai ciao, eiee aeaeaeaiiy eiiaei-ia?ao?a eiei?aeieo aoce?a cae?enith?oueny o noaei?oeeaeueiiio oa?? iaoieia?/ii ci?iaii? ueoiaeaeii? caeice, oiaoi i?ae ciai?oiueith iiaa?oiath aeanii? neea?ioe/ii? eainoee aoce?a oa i?ioa?eii ao?io?/ii? ia?eoa??eii? oe?ai?aeii? ia?aio?ie. Aei ?io?aeainoey?ieo ?acaeoe?e (aeaeaeaiiy iaoieia?/ii? oeaieie cna?aaeeie iiaiooai?aii? ?oaoeueiai? eainoee, a ia i?ae oanoe??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice) aaea?iiny i?e ?aoeeaeeaiiio aoceiaiio cia? aeey oieeiaiiy iioeiaeaeaiiy ai?oaiieo ia?a?a, ye? /anoi a oaeeo aeiaaeeao o?eniaai? oa i?aeoyaioo? aei iiaa?oi? ueoiaeaeii? caeice. I?e iaeiiaoceiaeo aaeaiiiaoicieo iaoiene/ieo ciaao aaaaea?ii iioeiaeueiei ia’?iii iia?aoe?? eiaaeoii?th (aai?oe?ai?aeaeoii?th), yea caa??aa? o a?eueoino? oai?eo ii?iaeueio ooieoe?th ueoiaeaeii? caeice ? aiiaeii/an ? aeinoaoiueith c iieieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o iia?aoe??th, yeui inoaoi/-iei a?noieia?/iei ae?aaiicii iieieoueny aenieiaeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee oe?ai?aeiee ?ae. I?e iaeiiaoceiaiio oiene/iiio cia? (oiene/i?e aaeaiii?) aeeiio?ii noaoioaeueio ?acaeoe?th o?aaeaii? /anoee caeice, aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui ?ae o oaeeo aoceao i?aeoe/ii ia cono??/a?oueny, a ?ecee a?iioe?aico /a?ac ao?io?th ?aooe oe?ai?aeii? ia?aio?ie ? i?aeaeuaiei. Oioaeueio oe?ai?aeaeoii?th o aeiaaeeao inaaaeiaoceiaaoi? oi?ie o?ii?/iiai aooi?ioiiiai oe?ai?aeeoo aeeiio?ii o?eueee i?e oioaeueii o?a?ineea?ioe/ii ci?iai?e ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa ?nio-th/iio aaea a?iioe?aic?. A on?o ?ioeo n?ooaoe?yo, eiee a?aenooiy i?aeic?a ia iae?ai?caoe?th, i?iaiaeeii ?icoe?aio ?acaeoe?th iaio /anoie ueoiaeaeii? caeice c ia?aoeeeii aeey aeaeiii?an?? o?aoa?. I?e iia?aoe?yo c i?eaiaeo i?aeaino?iai oe?ai?aeeoo Aea Ea?aaia, yeee ia aaeaeiny iaae?eii a?ae-aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe a?ae ?aeiaiai o?aaeaiiy aei iia?aoe??, aea ?io?aiia?aoe?eiee ae?aaiic ia aeeeeea? noii?ao, ia ne?ae iaiaaaoeny aeeiiaoe oioaeueio eiaaeoii?th /e a?eueoo ca ianyaii iia?aoe?th, ai oea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aenieei ?eceeii ooeiaeaeaiiy ai?oaiieo ia?a?a, ui i?aeoyaothoueny ca ?aooiie caiaeueiiai i?ioeano aei eainoee caeice. Ia 10 iia?aoe?e c i?eaiaeo i?aeaino?iai oe?ai?aeeoo ie niinoa??aaee 2 aeiaaeee iaeiia?/iiai iioeiaeaeaiiy cai?ioiiai ai?oaiiiai ia?aa. Ii?aaoe?th o?aaa iaiaaeoaaoe noaoioaeueiith ?acaeoe??th /anoee c iaia’yceiaei aeni?an-a?noieia?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi. Iia?aoe?y o ?ac? ae?aaiinoiaaiiai /e cai?aeic?thaaiiai aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai ?aeo ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeeiio?oueny ca aeno?aoanoe?aeueiith iaoiaeeeith. I?i?iaeueiee ianya iia?aoe?? i?e aeniei-aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo ea?oeeiiiao noaiiaea aai?oe?ai?aeaeoii?th (i?e iooeeiao O1N0M0). I?e iaeii-oieonieo iooeeiao ae?aiao?ii aei 3-3,5 ni aeeiioaaee eiaaeoii?th c noaoioaeueiith ?acaeoe??th i?i-oeeaaeii? /anoee, a i?e aaaaoioieonieo iooeeiao /e o?aaeaiiyo O3-4N0-1M0-1 - oioaeueio oe?ai-?aeaeoii?th. Ao?o/aiiy ia ?aa?iia?ieo e?ioaoe/ieo eieaeoi?ao aeeiioaaee i?e aeiaaaeaieo ee?-i?/ii oa a?noieia?/ii iaoanoacao. O 3 aeiaaeeao i?iaiaeeee ia?ao?aoaaeueio oa eaoa?aeueio iaeii-a?/io e?ioaaeaiaeoii?th, o 5 - i?a- ? ia?ao?aoaaeueio e?ioaaeaiaeoii?th. AEiaeiiai ?aco ia canoini-aoaaee aeaia?/io eaoa?aeueio /e iiaeeo?eiaaio aeenaeoe?th oe?, oae naii, ye ? iia?aoe?th E?aeey, ? ia niinoa??aaee ?aoeeaeea?a ?aeo o e?ioaoe/ieo aoceao /e ia i?noe? caeice /a?ac 3-8 ?ie?a i?ney 27 ?aaeeeaeueieo iia?aoe?e. Ia aoei oaeiae ca oeae ia??iae ?aoeeaeea?a iooeeie o i?ioeeaaei?e caeeoai?e /anooe? aai eoen? /anoee i?ney i?aaiicaa??aath/eo ao?o/aiue. A?noieia?/ia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy iaoanoac?a o aeaeaeaieo e?ioaoe/ieo aoceao io?eiaee o?eueee o 4 aeiaaeeao. An? aeiaaeee ?aeo ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ui oa?eoee aei iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, noinoaaeeny aei?ineeo oa aeyaeai? i?ney 1986 ?ieo. Ci?i o ee?i?/ieo iniaeeainoyo ia?aa?ao oa iioe?aiiy aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo ea?oeeiii ueoiaeaeii? caeice o oe?e a?eia?e a?oi? oai?eo ca inoaii? aeanyoe??//y iaie ia iii?/aii, oiae? ye e?oa?aoo?i? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i cia/iee iaoiii?oic aenieiaeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai ?aeo ueoiaeaeii? caeice o ae?oae a i?ney/i?iiaeeuenuee? ?iee (?.A.Eii?na?aiei oa ni?aaao., 1997), yeee iieyaa? o ?o noeeueiino? aei ?iaaceaiiai ?inoo oa oaeaeeiai iaoanoacoaaiiy, ui iio?aao? a?eueo ?aaeeeaeueieo o??o?a?/ieo ? ?aae?ieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a. O aeiaaeeao iaaeoey?iiai oa iaaeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai ?aeo ueoiaeaeii? caeice iia?aoe?y iiaeiia aeeiioaaoenue o ia’?i? oioaeueii? aeno?aoanoe?aeueii? oe?ai?aeaeoii?? iacaeaaeii a?ae ?ici??o iooeeie. Aeanieo niinoa?aaeaiue oaeeo a?noieia?/ieo oi?i ?aeo ca inoaii? 8 ?ie?a ia ia?ii. Cacia/ai? aeua aeiiae aei o??o?a?/ii? iia?aoe?? e??i nooi oaoi?/ieo iiiaio?a, ao?aaiaoe/-iiai iia?oaaiiy, i?aaiicaa??aath/iai i?aeoiaeo caaacia/oaaeenue canoinoaaiiyi (aia?oa o aaeoc? oe?ai?aeii? o??o?a??) iiaiai a?o/eciyiiai i?aia?aoo iie?ia?o o?a?eio “A?iaaeaacea” c iaoith oieeiaiiy eai?ey?ii? oa ia?aioeiaoicii? e?iaioa/? iai?ee?ioe? iia?aoe?? oa ?aiiai? na?icii-aaii?aa?/ii? oa e?ioaoe/ii? aenoaeaoe?? oa ?? iane?aee?a o i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?. Oae i?e aeei?enoaii? “A?iaaeaaceao” iai?ee?ioe? iia?aoe?? o e?eueeino? 1,5-2 ie ia eiaeio iia?iaaio /anoeo ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa 1 ie ia ?aiueiao iiaa?oith aa?oiueiai oe??ii-ee?oeiaeiiiai eeaioy ie ia niinoa??a?ee aeiaeiiai aeiaaeeo eai?ey?ii? e?iaioa/? c i`yeeo oeaiei oe? aai eoene caeice, ui aeiaaaa ae aeiaeaoeiaeo ae?e uiaei ?? i?eieiaiiy (i?eoeneaiiy oaiiiiii, eiaaoeyoe?y, i?ioeaaiiy ie?aieo ae?eyiie oanoe?e, i`yc?a /e ia?aioeie caeice), ye? ianooue c niaith aeiaeaoeiaee ?ecee ooeiaeaeaiiy ai?oaiieo ia?a?a. Iaiao?aei?noue ?io?aiia?aoe?eiiai aeiaeaoeiaiai eiio?ieth aaiinoaco aeieeaea o eiaeiiai /aoaa?oiai oai?iai eiio?ieueii? a?oie. Iaea?eueo iieaciaei aoaeoii canoinoaaiiy a?iaaeaaceaiiai i?aia?aoo aoei cia/ia ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? ?aiiaiai na?icii-aaii?aa?/iiai aeae?eaiiy i?ney iia?aoe?e ?c canoinoaaiiyi iie?-ia?o o?a?eio o ii??aiyii? c iia?aoe?yie, ui aeeiioaaeenue aac aeiaeaoeiaeo i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a. Oaea nae?aoe?y ciaioeeanue a?eueo, ye oaea?/? oa o?eaaea nooo?ai iaioee /an i?ney iia?aoe??. Aaaaea?ii, ui naia c oeei iia`ycaii ? cia/ia nei?i/aiiy o?eaaeino? iaa?yeo aa?oiueiai eeaioy iia?aoe?eii? ?aie (iaeaea a 2 ?ace), ui cae/aeii o?eaa? o oai?eo a?eueo, ye 2 oeaeiy ? caaaea? ?i aeiaeaoeiaeo nea?a. Aeiaaee?a iaaii?iiy iia?aoe?eii? ?aie, i?neyiia?aoe?eii? e?iaioa/? ia aoei i? a aeine?aei?e, i? a eiio?ieuei?e a?oi?; 1 aeiaaeie i?aeoe??ii? aaiaoiie aoa o eiio?ieuei?e a?oi?. I?e cae?eoo? ?aie oe??e ia?aaaao a?aeaea?ii iaeeaaeaiith ?io?aaea?iaeueiiai aacia?a?aiiai oaa oiieith (?1-0) neioaoe/iith ieoeith (“Prolen”, “Novafil” /e ?io?) ia ao?aaiaoe/i?e aieoe?. I?e caaaeueieo aa?ieo einiaoe/ieo ?acoeueoaoao o 85 oai?eo ie niinoa??aaee 3 (3,4 %) aeiaaeee ?icaeoeo eaei?aeieo ?oaoe?a, ye? ie a?aeiineii ia ?aooiie iiae?aciaiiy ?inoeiaiai neith oe??e ieoeith, o?aaioaaiiy eiai i?ioeaoii o in?a noeeueieo aei eaei?aeiooai?aiiy. Ie ni?iaoaaee iie?ioeoe iane?aeee o??o?a?/iiai ?icoeio oeaiei oe? ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy aaeaaceaieo aeanoeainoae i?aia?aoo iie?ia?o o?a??io aeey c`?aeiaiiy e?a?a ?aie oe??e. Aeey oeueiai, i?ney aeaaaeaiiy ae?aiaaea o eooo ?aie, ia i?aeoe??io ee?oeiaeio ? iiaa?oiaao oanoe?th iaeeaaeaee 3-4 aaeaiooth/eo aoceiaeo oae c oiieiai eai?iio (1-0). Aeae? ia iaeei c e?a?a ?aie oe??e iaiineee oiieee oa? “A?iaaeaaceao”, i?ney /iai e?ay oe??e noeneoaaee ceaaea oe?ieeie eai/anoeie i?ioeaoaie ? oo?eioaaee i?ioyaii 10-15 oaeeei. Eeaeiaee oia i?aee??iethaaee ca aeiiiiiaith aeae?eueeio aocueeeo eeieiieanoe?ieo nioaeie. Ioe?iea a?aeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a (/a?ac 6 i?nyoe?a i?ney iia?aoe??, eiee i?aeoe/ii cae?i/othoueny iniiai? i?ioeane oi?ioaaiiy ?oaoey) aeaiiino?o? ia?aaaao canoiniaaiiai iaoiaeo iaae o?aaeeoe?eiei ca ye?noth ? einiaoe/i?noth noi?iiaaiiai ?oaoey caaaeyee eiai iaeneiaeuei?e ao?aaiaoe/iino? ? o?c?ieia?/iino?. Ie ia niinoa??aaee aeiaeiiai aeiaaeeo a?ia?o?io?/ieo, eaei?aeieo /e a?oaeo aai iaeiaeanoe/ieo ?oaoe?a, ui noi?iaiaeaeoaaeenue ae nea?aaie i?noeaaiai ii?yaeeo (?o /anoioa o caaaeuei?e a?oi? neeaaeaea 3 %). Caaaeueia /anoioa iaeiia?/iiai iioeiaeaeaiiy ai?oaiieo ia?a?a neeaea 1,5±0,2 % (ia?aaaaeii ca ?aooiie iia?aoe?e i?e i?aeaino?eo oa o?ii?/ieo oe?ai?aeeoao), a?iiia?aoe?aic cono??/anany o 0,3±0,3 % o aeaeyae? o?aiceoi?ii? a?iieaeueoe?ai??, caiaeuei? oneeaaeiaiiy o?aieyeeny o 0,9±0,5 %, c oaeith ae /anoioith aeieeaee aaiaoiie i?aeoe??iiai eeaioy. I?aaiicaa??aath/ee i?aeo?ae aei iia?aoe?? ?acii c a/aniith aaeaeaaoiith oa eaai?aoi?ii eiio?ieueiaaiith cai?niith oa?ai??th aeicaiey? i?i?i?coaaoe iiaeeea?noue ?icaeiaiiy oyaeeeo oi?i a?iioe?aico. Na?aae 23 oai?eo (6,7±1,2 %) c i?neyiia?aoe?eiei a?iioe?aicii aoei ca?a?no?iaaii 14 aeiaaee?a noaee?i?/iiai a?iioe?aico oa 9 - na?aaeiuei? aaaeeino?. Oi/a io?eiai? iaie aaciina?aaei? oa a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe iia?aoe?e ciaoiaeyoueny ia ??ai? e?aueo na?oiaeo iieaciee?a, aea iaea?eueo nooo?aei aianeii o ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue ie aaaaea?ii ?ic?iaeaio iaie aeaaaeaio ? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaio oaeoeeo o naiiio i?ecia/aii? iia?aoe??, ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? iaaei?aaaeaieo ao?o/aiue, ?ic?iaeo aeueoa?iaoeaieo o??o?a?/ieo iaei?iaaceaieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy. ?ic?iaeaiee ? caiaoaioiaaiee iaie iiaee niin?a iaei?iaaceaiiai e?eoaaiiy e?noicieo oi?i aoceiaiai ciao (iaoaio Oe?a?ie ?.24223 A) iieyaa? a ioieoe?? e?noe (i?ney aa??o?eaoe?? aeia?iye?niino? oeyoii ioieoe?eii? a?iin??, OCAe), ani??aoe?? ?? ai?noo ? ianooiiiio aaaaeaii? o ii?iaeieio /a?ac oo ae naio ioieoe?eio aieeo i?aia?aoo iie?ia?o o?a?eio o e?eueeino?, ui aei??aith? 1/4 ia`?io aeaeaeaii? ??aeeie, c eieaeueiith eiii?an??th i?noey ioieoe?? i?ioyaii 25-35 oaeeei. Canoinoaaiiy o?a?eiiaiai eeath iaaea? iiaeeeaino? e?ea?aeoaaoe inoaoi/io ii?iaeieio e?noe ye ca ?aooiie aaeaac?? ?? no?iie, oae ? cai?uaiiy oeaieie e?noe i?aeiei niieo/ii-oeaieiiei ?oaoeai caaaeyee noeioethaaiith aeoeaiino? o?a?iaeano?a, ui caaacia/o? no?eeee e?eoaaeueiee aoaeo.Ia a?aei?io a?ae oeueiai i?e i?ino?e ani??aoe?? e?noe caeeoa?oueny ?? ii?iaeieia oa ai?oae?e, ui nae?aoo? eiei?ae, a aaaaeaiiy o?i?/ieo /eiiee?a aeey iae?oa?aoe?? e?noe (oao?aoeeee?i, nie?o oa ?io?) iiaea i?ecaanoe aei iae?ico ioi/oth/eo oeaiei oa oi?ioaaiiy a?oaiai ?oaoey. Ca aeuaaeacaiith iaoiaeeeith e?eoaaee 13 oai?eo 39-72 ?ie?a ae?ii/i? noao?, c e?noicieie oi?iaie aooe?ai?aeiiai aoceiaiai ciao c ?ici??ii aoce?a 1,4-5,2 ni. Eeoa a iaeiiio aeiaaeeo i?ioeaaeo?o i?eeoeiny iiaoi?eoe /a?ac 2 oeaei? /a?ac oaeaeea a?aeiiaeaiiy e?noicii? ii?iaeieie. A on?o ?ioeo oai?eo iai?ioeyoe?y aoea iaeiie?aoiith. Iaaeyae ca iaoe?aioaie i?iaiaeeee i?ioyaii 12-49 i?nyoe?a i?ney iia?aoe??. A ia?o? 5-7 i?nyoe?a oai?? io?eioaaee noi?aneaio aeico L-oe?ieneio (a na?aaeiueiio - 100 iea ia aeiao). ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i aenieo aoaeoeai?noue niiniao, eiai ia?aaaao iaae a?aeiieie iaei?iaaceaieie iaoiaeaie (/anoioa ?aoeeaeea?a aeinoia??ii ciaioeeany c 44,5±17,5 % aei 7,7±7,7 % (?<0,05). E??i oiai o aeiaaeeao a?aenooiino? i?aia?aoo iie?ia?o o?a?eio (“A?iaaeaacea ”), yeee ae?iaey?oueny iiee ui o?eueee iaaaeeeeie aeine?aeieie ia?o?yie, ie aeei?enoiao?ii aaaaeaiiy aei ii?iae-ieie e?noe 96° aoeeiaiai nie?oo o e?eueeino? 1/4-1/8 ia’?io aocea i?ney ani??aoe?? ?? ai?noo, ui aea? ciiao io?eiaoe oaeiae iaiiaai? ?acoeueoaoe, oi/a a oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeiaiaeeoueny aeeiioaaoe i?ioea-aeo?o aeae?eueea ?ac?a (o na?aaeiueiio 2,5). ?aoeeaeea aeiee o 1 oai?iai c 8 (12,5 %), a a?aei?ii? ?acoeue-oaoe ca?a?no?iaai? /a?ac 1 ??e o 62,5 %. ?ioeo oneeaaeiaiue ia aoei. Ua iaeiei aa??aioii iaei?iaaceaiiai ao?o/aiiy, yea aeicaiey? oieeiooe iaiao?aeiino? noaiaea?oii? iia?aoe?? o iaaii? eaoaai??? oai?eo c aenieei o??o?a?/iei oa aianoac?ieia?/iei ?eceeii ? o?i?/ia aeano?oeoe?y oa neea?icoaaiiy ia?aio?iaoicieo aoce?a ueoiaeaeii? caeice (ia?aaaaeii oiene/ieo aaeaiii o in?a iioeeiai a?eo c aaaeeith noiooiueith iaoieia??th) oeyoii ?io?aiiaeoey?iiai ioieoe?eiiai aaaaeaiiy i?ae eiio?ieai OCAe /e iaeueiaoe?? 96° aoeeiaiai nie?oo o e?eueeino?, ui aei??aith? 3/4-4/5 ia’?io aocea. O?i?/ia aeano?oeoe?y oiene/ieo aaeaiii 96° aoeeiaei nie?oii, iiaea aooe aeueoa?iaoeaith aeey oai?eo iioeeiai a?eo (na?aae yeeo, ca iaoeie aeaieie, oey iaoieia?y cono??/a?oueny iaea?eueo /anoi) c /eneaiieie aeiaeaoeiaeie iaaee/ieie i?iaeaiaie. Iao iaaaeeeee, aea ia?oee a Oe?a?i? aeina?ae canoinoaaiiy oeueiai iaoiaeo (N.I.*a?aiueei, 1994) na?ae/eoue i?i aeioe?euei?noue eiai oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy, ia ei?enoue /iai na?ae/aoue ? iia?aeiieaiiy cao?aeii-?a?iiaenuee?o oao?aoe?a (F.Lippi et al., 1996; J.Hermann, 1997). Na?aaei?e ae?aiao? aoceiaeo ooai?aiue o a?oi? iaoe?aio?a, ui e?eoaaeenue ca aeacaiei iaoiaeii, neeaaeaa 2,9±1,1 ni (1,5-4,2 ni). An? oai?? (11 in?a) iaeaaeaee aei noa?oi? a?eiai? a?oie - (60-77 ?ie?a) oa iaee na?eici? i?ioeiieacaiiy aei iia?aoe?? /a?ac noiooi? oai?iae na?oeaai-noaeeiii? oa eaaaiaai? nenoai, a aeaye? eaoaai?e/ii a?aeiiaeyeenue a?ae iia?aoe??. O 3 aeiaaeeao oe?aioieneeic aoa eaaeiai nooiaiy aaaeeino?, a o 5 - na?aaeiuei? aaaeeino?. Aiie io?eioaaee e?eoaaiiy i?aia?aoaie b-aae?aiiaeieaoi??a, na?oeaaeo ae?eiceae?a. Oa?ai?y aioeoe?ai?aeieie caniaaie aoea iaeiaoaeoeaia. O 3 oai?eo c iaoiene/iei aoceiaei ciaii aoee neiioiie eiii?an??, iaiiei?ea iaiiaeeea?noue aeio?e-ioaaoenue noi?aneaii? oa?ai?? /a?ac na?oeaao a?eoi?th. An? oe? oai?? (ae?iee 67, 69 oa 72 ?ie?a) a?aeiiaeyeeny a?ae iia?aoe??. O 1 oai?i? 67 ?ie?a cia aoa ?aoeeaeeaiei. ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy /a?ac 12 i?nyoe?a na?ae/aoue, ui iiaiiai cieeiaiiy ee?i?/ii? neiioiiaoeee oa cai?uaiiy aaeaiiie o?a?iciith oeaieiith aoei aeinyaiooi o 54,5 %, no?eeiai iiceoeaiiai aoaeoo (cieeiaiiy oe?aioieneeico oa ciaioaiiy aocea) o 36,4 %, a iaaoaeoeaiei iaoiae aeyaeany eeoa o 9,1 % oai?eo. Oneeaaeiaiue caaaeueiiai /e i?noeaaiai ii?yaeeo, ca aeiyoeii 1 aeiaaeeo oei/aniaiai ia?aco cai?ioiiai ai?oaiiiai ia?ao, ia niinoa??aaee. Aeiiii?aeiei iaoiaeii o eiina?aaoeaiiio e?eoaaii? aiaieuaaeo oa inaaaeiaoceiaaoeo oi?i o?ii?/iiai aooi?ioiiiai oe?ai?aeeoo ie aaaaea?ii aaaaeaiiy aei oeaieie “aocea” (iaea?eueo oo?eue-iaii? ae?eyiee caeice), ui aeeeeea? i?noeaa? neiioiie noeniaiiy oe? oa aeeneiioi?o i?e eiaoaii?, aetheiei?oeei?aeieo ai?iii?a - a?ae?iei?oeciio aoeaoaoo, i?aaei?cieiio aai eaiaeiao. Ie iaa?oioi-ao?ii aeioe?euei?noue oaeiai e?eoaaiiy aeinyaiaiiyi aeniei? oeaieiii? eiioeaio?aoe?? aetheiei?oeei?-ae?a naia o oe?ai?aei?e ia?aio?i?, aea ca no/anieie oyaeaiiyie ? a?aeaoaathoueny ioneia? aooi?ioii? i?ioeane, aeoeaothoueny niaoeeo?/i? e?ioioeeoe oa ae?iaeythoueny aioeo?ea (K.Eguchi et al., 1995). Ie canoinoaaee oaeee iaoiae o 6 iaoe?aio?a, o yeeo ia oii? o?eaaei? noi?aneaii? oa?ai?? c i?eaiaeo aeiaaaeaiiai ee?i?/ii, eaai?aoi?ii ? oeeoieia?/ii OAO aeieeaee eieaeuei? ae?eyiee i?aeae-uaii? u?eueiino?, ui iaiiei?ee iaoe?aio?a. Aei oaeeo aiaieu ou?eueiaiiy i?ney OAIA (aeey aeeeth-/aiiy iae?ai?caoe??) i?ae eiio?ieai OCAe /e iaeueiaoe?? ie aaiaeeee ioieoe?eii iaeei c i?aia?ao?a aeth-eiei?oeei?ae?a - ia?aaaaeii a?ae?iei?oecii (100 ia) aai eaiaeia-40 (10-20 ia). Oneeaaeiaiue ia iii?-/aii. *a?ac 3-4 oeaei? cacia/ai? ae?eyiee ueoiaeaeii? caeice, o?aaeaii? aooi?ioiiei oe?ai?aeeoii ciaiooaaeenue a?eueoa, ye o 2 ?ace (iaeueiaoi?ii oa ca OC-ii?oiiao???th) ? iaaoaaee iaeaea ii?-iaeueii? eiinenoaioe??. “?aoeeaeea?a” aeieeiaiiy oaeeo ou?eueiaiue ca 1-4 ?iee ia iii?/aii, oi/a iaoe?aioe i?iaeiaaeoaaee e?eoaaiiy L-oe?ieneiii /a?ac caeeoaiiy oiiiaiai i?ioeano. Oi/a cacia/ai? aeua iaoiaee iaei?iaaceaiiai e?eoaaiiy aeiiiiaaathoue a?aeaa?iooe iia?aoe?th o iaaii? eaoaai??? iaoe?aio?a c aiaieuaaith iaoieia??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice, aea iaeiioe?ai?oei caniaii, ui iaea?eueoa aaeueio? ?icaeoie a?ia?ieanoe/ii? iaoieia??, ? eiina?aaoeaiia e?eoaaiiy oe?ai?aeieie ai?iiiaie o noi?aneaieo aeicao. Aea o?aaa i?aee?aneeoe, ui oa?ai?y oe?ai?aeieie ai?iiiaie ia? iineoe naia noi?aneaiee oa?aeoa?, oiaoi eiio?iethaaoenue ca ??aiai oe?aio?ii?io, ui ia? aooe ieae/a a?aieoe? ii?ie (< 0,3-0,5 iIae/e). ?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue na?aae 106 iaoe?aio?a c aoceiaei iaoiene/iei ciaii, o?ii?/-iei aooi?ioiiei oa i?aeaino?ei oe?ai?aeeoii na?ae/aoue, ui canoinoaaiiy eiio?ieueiaaiiai eiina?-aaoeaiiai noi?aneaiiai e?eoaaiiy (?aaoey?iee aeeniaina?iee iaaeyae, ia??iaee/ii - OAIA, aecia-/aiiy ??ai?a OOA oa OA, aioeoe?ai?aeieo aioeo?e, OCAe eiaei? 4-6 i?nyoe?a) ia ii/aoeiaeo noaae?yo ?icaeoeo a?ia?ieanoe/ieo aeia?iye?nieo i?ioean?a ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeicaiey? o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a (55 %) coieieoe c?inoaiiy oe?ai?aeieo “aoce?a”, a o 35-40 % aeinyaoe iiaiiai aee?eoaaiiy (oaae.1). Oaaeeoey 1. ?acoeueoaoe eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy aiaieuaai? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia??. Iaoieia?y; n=Aee?eiaaii iiai?nothNo?eeee iiceoeaiee aoaeoA?aenooi?noue aeeia-i?ee c?inoaiiyI?ia?anoaaiiy /e ?aoeeaeea IIC oa AIC; 84 29 (34,5 %) 37 (44,1 %) 12 (14,3 %) 6 (7,1 %) Aiaieuaaee OAO; 15 6 (40 %) 8 (53,3%) 1 (6,7 %) - IOAeE; 7 7 (100 %) - - - Anueiai: 106 42 (39,6 %) 45 (42,4 %) 13 (12,3 %) 6 (5,7 %)I?ei?oea. IIC - iaeiiaoceiaee iaoiene/iee cia; AIC - aaaaoiaoceiaee iaoiee/iee cia; IOAeE - i?aeaino?ee oe?ai?aeeo Aea Ea?aaia; OAO - o?ii?/iee aooi?ioiiee oe?ai?aeeo. Aeey ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? caai?iaaaeaeaiiai aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ae?aaiinoeee ? e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c aiaieuaaith iaoieia??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice iaie aoei i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeue-iee aiae?c a?oie c 156 oai?eo, ye? aoee iine?aeiaii i?iiia?iaai? c i?eaiaeo aiaieuaai? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? o ee?i?oe? aini?oaeueii? o??o?a?? i?ioyaii 1991-1993 ??., oa a?oio oai?eo, ui aoee e?eiaai? ca inoaii? 4 ?iee (1994-1997 ??.) aiaoeaoi?ii o i?nueeiio aiaeie?eiieia?/iiio aeeniaina?? (138 iniae) oa ee?i?oe? aini?oaeueii? o??o?a?? (185 iine?aeiaii iia?iaaieo). Oai?? iaio a?oi ia a?ae??ciy-eenue ca no?oeoo?ith iaoieia??, a?eii oa noao?aei ?iciiae?eii. A ia?o?e a?oi? oai?eo canoiniaoaaeanue o?aaeeoe?eia ae?aaiinoe/ii-e?eoaaeueia oaeoeea: a?aea?? iaoe?aio?a ia iia?aoe?th i?iaiaeeany ia?aaaaeii ia iniia? ee?i?/iiai, o?ceeaeueiiai ianoaaeaiiy, iieacaiiyi aei o?aaeeoe?eiiai o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy aoea iayai?noue aoceiaiai ooai?aiiy o ueoiaeaei?e caeic? aoaeue-yeiai ?ici??o, ca aeiyoeii aeiaaee?a aacneiioiiieo iaaaeeeeo (aei 1 ni o ae?aiao?? /e iaiaeueiiaaieo) aoceiaeo iaoiene/ieo cia?a aac oaiaeaioe?? aei c?inoaiiy oa i?e iayaiino? aaaeei? noiooiuei? iaoieia??. Eiina?aaoeaia noi?aneaia e?eoaaiiy canoiniaoaaeinue aeia?eueii ca aeicaie oa o?eaae?noth, aac eaai?aoi?iiai eiio?ieth eiai aaeaeaaoiino? oa i?iaiinoe/ii? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino?. Ae?aaiinoe/i? i?ioeaaeo?e i?iaiaeeeenue aacnenoaiii ? aeeth/aee OCAe, ?N c 131I, /anii - ?aioaaiia?ao?th oe? oa iaaeeno?iiy, o aeayeeo oai?eo - aecia/aiiy ??aiy oe?ai?aeieo ai?iii?a oa aioeoe?ai?aeieo aioeo?e o e?ia?. Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1994-1997 ??.), eiee aoei ?ic?iaeaii oa ai?iaaaeaeaii iiaee ae?aaiin-oe/ii-e?eoaaeueiee aeai?eoi, caniiaaiee ia canoinoaaii? a?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieo ae?aaiinoe/ieo i?ioeaaeo?, ia?o ca ana OAIA oa aeniei?icae?eueiiai OCAe, aio/e?oi? e?eoaaeueii? oaeoeee, a?aeaoeeny nooo?a? ci?ie o no?oeoo?? o??o?a?/ii? aiaieuaai? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? (oaae.2). ?noioii ciaioeeanue /anoea iia?aoe?e c i?eaiaeo aoceiaeo oi?i ciao aeia?iye?nii? i?e?iaee aac iciae eiii?an?? noi?aeieo i?aai?a oa aoceiaeo e?noicieo cia?a, aiaieuaaeo oi?i oe?ai?aeeo?a (iniaeeai - i?aeaino?iai oe?ai?aeeoo). *anoea oai?eo, iia?iaaieo c i?eaiaeo ?aeo ueoiaeaeii? caeice ca?eueoeeanue aieiaiei /eiii ca ?aooiie a?eueo ?aoaeueiiai a?aeai?o oai?eo aei iia?aoe?? oa yeino? aeiiia?aoe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee.A?aenioie iieiiaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice na?aae an?o oe?ai?aeieo iia?aoe?e c??n aei 10,8 %, a ca 1997 ??e aeinya iicia/ee 19,4 %, ui iaaeeaea?oueny ca ??aiai aoaeoeaiino? aeiiia?aoe?eii? naeaeoe?? oa iaa?oioiaaiino? o??o?a?/ieo ao?o/aiue aei e?aueo na?oiaeo iieaciee?a. 129 c 323 (39,9 %) an?o oai?eo ia ae?oaiio aoai? ?iaioe, c oaeeo, ui iaee iieacaiiy aei iia?aoe?? ca oiia o?aaeeoe?eiiai e?eoaaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo, yeee canoiniaoaaany a iiia?aaei? ?iee, aoei aoaeoeaii e?eiaaii ca aeiiiiiaith eiina?aaoeaieo oa iaei?iaaceaieo iaoiae?a. Oaaeeoey 2. Ci?ie o no?oeoo?? o??o?a?/ii? aiaieuaai? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? i?ae ??cieie ia??iaeaie niinoa?aaeaiiy ca 1991-1997 ??. ? ia??iae (91-93 ??.)?? ia??iae (94-97 ??.)? (i?aeIaoieia?yaan.%, M±maan.%, M±m? oa ??)Iaeiiaoceiaee iaoiene/iee cia4830,8±3,76334,1±3,5>0,05Iaeeii/i? e?noici?
aocee149,0±2,363,2±1,3<0,05Aaaaoiaoceiaee iaoiene/iee cia3421,8±3,36233,5±3,5<0,05Oiene/i? aaeaiiie1811,5±2,6126,5±1,8>0,05Aaaaoiaoceiaee oiene/iee
cia1710,9±2,5105,4±1,7>0,05OAO106,4±1,9105,4±1,7>0,05I?aeaino?ee
oe?ai?aeeo Aea Ea?aaia85,1±1,821,1±0,7<0,05?ae ueoiaeaeii? caeice74,5±1,62010,8±2,3<0,05Anueiai:156100185100 ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i aeioe?euei?noue ai?iaaaeaeaii? ae?aaiinoeei - e?eoaaeueii? oaeoeee. Oae aoei aeinyaiooi nooo?aiai ciaioaiiy ?eceeo i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai a?iioe?aico, a?iiia?a-oe?aico, iioeiaeaeaiy ai?oaiieo ia?a?a ca ?aooiie aeeiiaiiy iaioeo ca ianyaii ao?o/aiue - oioaeueia oe?ai?aeaeoii?y i?iaiaeeeanue o inoaii? ?iee o?eueee o aeiaaeeao aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai ?aeo ueoiaeaeii? caeice O2N0M0 - T4N1M1 aai iaaeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai ?aeo. Aoei ciaioaii e?euee?noue iia?aoe?eieo oa ?aiiaeo oneeaaeiaiue oeyoii canoinoaaiiy i?aoeec?eii? oaoi?ee, i?eoe?eueii? ae?aoa?i?/ii? eiaaoeyoe??, aeei?enoaiiy a?ieia?/iiai aaeaaceaiiai i?aia?aoo iie?ia?o o?a?eio c aaiinoaoe/iith ? ?aia?aoeaiith iaoith oa aeey ao?aaiaoe/iiai aacoiaiiai c’?aeiaiiy e?a?a oe??e. Aei oiai ae aoei a?aeaa?iooi ?ecee nooi o??o?a?/ieo oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo (a?iioe?aic) oneeaaeiaiue o oai?eo, ui e?eoaaeenue eiina?aaoeaieie oa iaei?iaaceaieie o??o?a?/ieie iaoiaeaie. Caaaeueia ae aoaeoeai?noue oeeo inoaii?o iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy (ca noiith: aee?eiaai? + no?eeee iiceoeaiee aoaeo) aei??aith? 84,1 %. Aeiaaee?a iaae?aaiinoiaaiiai a/anii ?aeo ueoiaeaeii? caeice ca i?e/ei o?eaaeiai niinoa?aaeaiiy /e iaei?iaaceaiiai e?eoaaiiy ia aoei. A E N I I A E E 1. C?inoaiiy iioe?aiino? oa caoai?thaaiino? ia oe?ai?aeio iaoieia?th a Oe?a?i? ca aeaieie i?iaaaeaiiai noaoenoe/iiai ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ca inoaii? aeanyoe??//y, a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie ia?aaaaeii aoceiaeo oi?i iaoiene/iiai ciao oa aeeoociiai iaoiene/iiai ciao. 2. Ca?a?no?iaaii /?oeo oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? ueoiaeaeii? caeice oa ?aca?a?a ?? eiiiainaoe??, ye a?aeiinii an??? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? (nooo?aa ciaioaiiy /anoioe aeiaaee?a a?ia?oe?ai?aeiiai ciao c iaeii/aniei oaeaeeei i?ia?anoaaiiyi caoai?thaaiino? ia a?iioe?aic oa o?ii?/iee aooi?ioiiee oe?ai?aeeo), oae ? o iaaeao aiaieuaai? iaoieia??, ui i?i-yaeythoueny o ciaioaii? /anoee aoceiaiai oiene/iiai ciao, iiya? ii?oieia?/ieo iciae aenia-aeaiiy eiiiainaoi?ii? a?ia?ieac?? c iioe?aiiyi aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?io?/ieo oa aooi?ioiieo ii?oieia?/ieo ci?i. 3. Iinooiiai c?inoaea a Oe?a?i? ? a Ee?a? ca inoaii? 10 ?ie?a (c 1,8 oa 3,1 aei 3,8 oa 8,0 ia 100000 ianaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii) caoai?thaai?noue ia ?ae ueoiaeaeii? caeice, yeee ca?ac iaeaea aeeeth-/ii (a?eueoa, ye ia 95 %) iaeaaeeoue aei aenieiaeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo a?noieia?/ieo oi?i - iai?ey?iiai oa oie?eoey?iiai ?aeo; iniiaiee i?e??no caoai?thaaiino? ia ?ae na?aae aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy i. Ee-?aa caaacia/oaaee aeiaaeee ii/aoeiaeo noaae?e iai?ey?ii? ea?oeeiiie. 4. Aiae?c ae?yeueiino? 3 o??o?a?/ieo noaoe?iia??a i. Ee?aa, a yeeo aeeiioaaeinue a?eueoa 70 % an?o iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ia ueoiaeaei?e caeic?, cana?ae/ea, ui iniiaiei niiniaii e?eoaaiiy aiaieuaai? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? caeeoa?oueny o?aaeeoe?eia a?aee?eoa o??o?a?/ia iia?aoe?y, i?e oeueiio aeecueei 90 % c ieo cae?enith?oueny c i?eaiaeo aeia?iye?nieo caoai?thaaiue, c yeeo iaeaea iieiaeia - iaaaeee? ca ?ici??ii iaeineiioiii? aoceia? ciae, e?noe ueoiaeaeii? caeice, aeiaaeee o?ii?/iiai aooi?ioiiiai oe?ai?aeeoo, ui ia noi?iaiaeaeothoueny eiii?an??th i?aai?a oe? ? aeyaeythoueny ia?aaaaeii aeiaaeeiai i?ae /an oeueo?acaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. C?inoaiiy e?eueeino? iia?aoe?e ia ueoiaeaei?e caeic? a Oe?a?i? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny c?inoaiiyi iioe?aiino? i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai a?iioe?aico, yeee noaiiaeoue 80 % an?o ca?a?no?iaaieo aeiaaee?a a?iioe?aico o i. Ee?a?. 5. A iaoiaaiac? a?ia?ieanoe/ieo aiaieuaaeo caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice iii?oio ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue ii?ooaiiy oeaio?aeueieo ?aaoeyoi?ieo a?aeae?e?a OeIN ia?aaaaeii ???oaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o (ae?aioeaoaeueii?, ei?eiai? oa noiaao?iai? ciie), ui a?aei?/athoueny ye i?e aooe?ai?aeieo oi?iao ciao, oae ?, iniaeeai, o aeiaaeeao cieaeaiiy oe?ai?aeii? ooieoe??; nooi?iue aeyaeaieo ii?ooaiue aoa iaeaeuei na?aae in?a, ui caciaee ?aae?aoe?eiiai ii?ii?iaiiy aiane?aeie *i?iiaeeuenueei? aaa???. Cai?ioiee aieea a?iioe?aico ia iiaeeaeaiiy cao?eniaaieo aeen?aaoeyoi?ieo ?iceaae?a OeIN noai?th? iani?eyoeea? oiiae aeey o??o?a?/iiai ? eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy aeaii? iaoieia??. 6. Aieiaieie iniaeeainoyie i?e?i- ? iae?iaeaiaioiiai neeaaeo oe?ai?aeii? ia?aio?ie i?e aoceiaiio cia?, aaeaiiiao oa iai?ey?ieo ?aeiaeo iooeeiao, ui aoee aecia/ai? aia?oa canoini-aaiei c oaeith iaoith iaoiaeii eieaeueii? eaca?ii? ian-niaeo?iiao???, ? cia/ia ciaioaiiy eiioeai-o?aoe?? ?io?aoe?ai?aeiiai eiaeo c iaeii/aniei i?aeaeuaiiyi ai?noo ?ioeo aaeiaai?a - ooi?o ? oei?o, ui aeaco? ia iani?eyoeeao aeey oe?ai?aeiiai ai?iiiiaaiaco eiia?iaoe?th iaaeieeoiuei-na?aaeiaeo oaeoi??a c i?eoaiaiiei aeey Oe?a?ie i?e?iaeiei eiaeaeao?oeeoii. 7. O aeieeiaii? aeecueei 15 % ee?i?/ieo oi?i aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice nooo?ao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue oaeoi?e niaaeeiaino?. Iae/ano?oa niaaeeiaee aaiac caoai?thaaiiy ca aeaieie ee?i?ei-aaiaaeia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaiee i?e ?aoeeaeeaiiio aoceiaiio cia? (46,2 %), aaeaiiiao (37,3 %) oa aaaaoiaoceiaiio oiene/iiio cia? (29,6 %). Aeey niaaeeiaeo oi?i iaoieia?? i?eoaiaiiee iani?eyoeeaee i?ia?anoth/ee ia?aa?a caoai?thaaiy oa iecueea aoaeoeai?noue oa?ai??. 8. Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ne??i?iao, ia aoai? ?iciiae?eo oai?eo ia ae?aaiinoe/i? iioiee oa ia ??ai? aeiee?i?/ii? ae?aaiinoeee ia?aaaao ne?ae a?aeaeaaaoe o?ceeaeueiei iaoiaeai ianoaaeaiiy ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ye? aeicaieythoue anoaiiaeoe a??iee ae?aaiic o 81,5 % aeiaaee?a ?? aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? c caaaeueiith ae?aaiinoe/iith oi/i?noth 95,1 %. 9. Canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaiiai iaie ae?aaiinoe/iiai aeai?eoio, ui a?oioo?oueny ia ?aoe?i-iaeueiiio aeei?enoaii? no/anieo ee?i?/ieo, ?ino?oiaioaeueieo oa eaai?aoi?ieo cania?a c i??i?e-oaoii OAIA oa OCAe, aeicaiey? aeiaanoe /ooeea?noue aeiiia?aoe?eii? ae?aaiinoeee aiaieuaai? oe?ai?ae-ii? iaoieia?? aei 93,0 %, a oi/i?noue aei 98,6 %, ciaioeoe aeo?aoe ia iaaeioe?euei? ianoaaeaiiy. 10. Aeei?enoaiiy aeiiea?ianueei? niiia?ao?? o aeaeyae? iiaea?eiiai eiia?iiaaiiai aoia?ao?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy i?e ae?aaiinoeoe? aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice aeicaieeoue oieeiooe iiieeie i?e anoaiiaeaii? e?noiciiai oa?aeoa?o aoce?a, ?o aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ?c noaeeiieie no?oeoo?aie. 11. Aecia/aiiy oa o?aooaaiiy i?iaiinoe/ieo e?eoa???a iani?eyoeeaiai ia?aa?ao aeia?i-ye?nieo a?ia?ieanoe/ieo i?ioean?a o ueoiaeaei?e caeic?, aei yeeo a?aeiineii a?aenooi?noue ciaioaiiy ii/aoeiai i?aeaeuaiiai ??aiy OA i?ioyaii 6 i?nyoe?a noi?aneaii? oa?ai?? (niin?a i?iaiicoaaiiy caoeuaii iaoaioii Oe?a?ie), niaaeeiaee oa?aeoa? caoai?thaaiiy, noaee?i?/iee a?ia?oe?aic, inia-eeai o in?a iioeeiai a?eo c o?eaaeei aiaiiacii iaoieia??, ui aeaco? ia aaoiiii?caoe?th oe?ai-oeeo?a, aeicaieythoue aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii i?aeoiaeeoe aei e?eoaaiiy, i?aeaeueoe eiai aoaeoeai?noue. 12. ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y e?eoaaiiy aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ui neeaaea-?oueny c iiaeeo?eiaaieo iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue, iaei?iaaceaieo o??o?a?/ieo iaoiaeee oa eiina?aa-oeaieo iaoiae?a c eiie?aoii aecia/aieie iieacaiiyie aei eiaeiiai c ieo, aeicaiey? /?oei i?aai?co-aaoe e?eoaaeueiee i?ioean, c?iaeoe eiai a?eueo aoaeoeaiei oa aacia/iei ca ?aooiie oieeiaiiy ye iaaeioe?eueiiai o?eaaeiai eiia?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy, oae ? iaiaa?oioiaaieo o??o?a?/ieo ao?o/aiue. 13. Iioei?ciaaia iaoiaeeea o??o?a?/ii? iia?aoe?? i?e aiaieuaa?e iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ui iieyaa? a ooieoe?iiaeueiiio i?aaiicaa??aath/iio i?aeoiae? aei ?acaeoe?? i?aaio i?e aeia?i-ye?nieo caoai?thaaiiyo, canoinoaaii? iiaiai a?iaaeaaceaiiai i?aia?aoo iie?ia?o o?a?eio (aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaae?eiiai aaiinoaco, ciaioaiiy i?neyiia?aoe?eii? ?aiiai? e?ioi-aaii?aa?/ii? nae?aoe?? oa c’?aeiaiiy e?a?a ?aie oe??e), caaacia/aii? iaeneiaeueiiai einiaoe/iiai aoaeoo, ?iaeoue ?ecee aaciina?aaei?o iia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue aeoaea iecueeei (anueiai - 3,6 %, niaoeeo?/ieo - 1,8 %), ciaioo? /anoioo aeieeiaiiy a?iioe?aico aei 6,7 % c a?aenooi?noth eiai aaaeeeo oi?i i?e aeia?iye?ni?e iaoieia??, aeicaiey? oieeiooe aaae i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ?oaoey. 14. ?ic?iaeaiee iiaee niin?a e?eoaaiiy e?noicieo aoce?a ueoiaeaeii? caeice (caoeuaiee iaoaioii Oe?a?ie) ? i?inoei, aeaoaaei, aacia/iei ? aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii, ui a 91 % aeiaaee?a a?aeaa?oa? iaiao?aei?noue a?aee?eoi? o??o?a?/ii? iia?aoe??, a cai?iiiiiaaiee eiiieaen iaoiae?a iaei-?iaaceaiiai oa eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy aeicaiey? aeinyaoe no?eeiai ee?i?/iiai oni?oo ? oieeiooe o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy o 40 % oai?eo c aoceiaeie oi?iaie iaoiene/iiai ? oiene/iiai ciao, yeei aeeiioaaeanue ae iia?aoe?y ca o?aaeeoe?eiiai e?eoaaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo. 15. Aieiaieie iai?yieaie i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a noiniaii aiaieuaai? oe?ai?aeii? iaoi-eia?? ? caaacia/aiiy aeinoaoiueiai niiaeeaaiiy eiaeo, onoiaiiy oaeoi??a, ui iiaeooue aeieoaaoe eiai ae?th oa canai?iiy (ia?o ca ana aieeao aeciaaiiiai oei?o ? ooi?o), a/ania ?ici?ciaaaiiy oeyoii iioe?aiiy i?io?eaeoe/ieo iaeyae?a o aeeoy/eo ? thiaoeueeeo eieaeoeaao oa a?oiao ?eceeo ii/aoei-aeo oi?i a?ia?ieanoe/ii? oe?ai?aeii? iaoieia?? (aeeoociiai ? ci?oaiiai iaoiene/iiai ciao ??-??? nooiaith, aooi?ioiiiai oe?ai?aeeoo) oa ?? aaeaeaaoia eiina?aaoeaia e?eoaaiiy, iniaeeai o in?a ?c niaaeeiaei aaiacii caoai?thaaiiy oa aeen?aaoeyoi?ieie ci?iaie ae?aioeaoaeueii? ciie oeaio?aeueii? ia?aiai? nenoaie. NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? 1. *a?aiueei I.I., Eaiaoianeee TH.A., *a?aiueei N.I. Oe?o?ae/aneia ea/aiea oiene/aneiai ciaa e i?ioeeaeoeea aai ineiaeiaiee a naaoa nia?aiaiiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i iaoiaaiaca caaieaaaiey // Eeeie/aneay oe?o?aey. - 1991. - ? 12. - N.1-4. 2. *a?aiueei I.I., Eaiaoianeee TH.A., *a?aiueei N.I. Iniaaiiinoe aeeaaiinoeee e oe?o?ae/aneiai ea/aiey n?aaeeiiuo eeno e naeuae oae // Eeeie/aneay oe?o?aey. - 1992. - ?1. - N.1-4. 3. *a?aiueei N.I. Aeeaaiinoeea ia?ae/iiai aeia?ia?aoe?aica a iauaoe?o?ae/aneie eeeieea // Eeeie/aneay oe?o?aey. - 1995. - ?1. - N.14-15. 4. *a?aiueei N.I. Ninoiyiea oeaio?aeueiuo ioaeaeia neooiaiai aiaeecaoi?a i?e aeia?ieanoe/aneie iaiiooieaaie iaoieiaee ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu // AEo?iae aooieo, iiniaeo ? ai?eiaeo oai?ia. - 1996. - ?.2. - N.33-37. 5. *a?aiueei I.I., Iaiaoianueeee TH.A., Aioiiia A.?., *a?aiueei N.I. Noai caoai?thaaiinoi ia cia oa ?ae ueoiaeaeii? caeice, ?o aeiaaiinoeea oa eieoaaiiy // Eeii?/ia oi?o?aiy. - 1996. - ?.10. - N.16-19. 6. *a?aiueei N.I. Eiioeaio?aoeiy ne?iaaoeiaiai oe?aiaeiaoeiio oa ?? aeeiaiiea o oai?eo c iaoiene/iei aoceiaei ciaii ye iieaciee i?iaiico oai?iae oa aoaeoeaiinoi ?? eiina?aaoeaiiai eieoaaiiy // Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-iaaee/iee iieiaeiaeiee aeo?iae. - 1997. - N.1-2. - N.55-58. 7. *a?aiueei N.I. Aeeiaiiea ?iaiy ne?iaaoeiaiai oe?aiaeiaoeiio o oai?eo c iaoiene/iei aoceiaei ciaii iiae /an eiina?aaoeaii? noi?aneaii? oa?aii? oa iiney oi?o?ai/ii? iia?aoei? // Aiaeie?eiieiaiy. - 1997. - ?.1. - N.24-29. 8. *a?aiueei N.I. Canoinoaaiiy iiaiai a?ieia?/iiai aaeaaceaiiai i?aia?aoo “Iie?ia? o?a?eio” a o??o?a?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice // E?ea?nueea ni?aaa. - 1998. - ?1. - N.160-164. 9. *a?aiueei N.I. Iee?iyeaiaioiue ninoaa oeaie ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu i?e iaeioi?uo oi?iao aa i/aaiaie iaoieiaee ii aeaiiui eieaeueiie eaca?iie iann-niaeo?iiao?ee // Eaai?aoi?ia ae?aaiinoeea. - 1998. - ?1. - N. 21-24. 10. *a?aiueei N.I. Aeeoa?aioe?eia ae?aaiinoeea aoceiaeo ooai?aiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice // E?ea?nueea ni?aaa. - 1998. - ? 6. - N. 43-47. 11. *a?aiueei N.I. I?aaiicaa??aath/? oa iaei?iaaceai? ao?o/aiiy a o??o?a?/iiio e?eoaaii? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice // Oe?a?inueeee aeo?iae iaei?iaaceaii? oa aiaeineii?/ii? o??o?a??. - 1998. - O.2, ?3. - N.32-36. 12. *a?aiueei N.I., Oeaeeianueea O.A. Noai neooiai? ooieoe??, iiceiaiai e?iaiia?ao oa OeIN o oai?eo c ina?aaeeiaith iaoieia??th ueoiaeaeii? caeice // AEo?iae aooieo, iiniaeo ? ai?eiaeo oai?ia. - 1998. - ?6. - N. 12-16. 13. *a?aiueei N.I. ?ieue oaeoi??a niaaeeiaino? o ?icaeoeo aoceiaeo ooai?aiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice // E?ea?nueea ni?aaa. - 1999. - ?1. - N. 104-106. 14. *a?aiueei N.I. Niinia i?iaiicoaaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi eiina?aaoeaiiai eieoaaiiy oe?ai?ae-ieie ai?iiiaie aoceiaiai iaoiene/iiai ciao / Iaoaio Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae ? 17296 A ;Cayaeaii 05.04.96; I?ii. aeani?noue. - 1997. - ?5. - 2 n. 15. *a?aiueei N.I., Aa?ai??iei E.I. Niin?a e?eoaaiiy e?noicieo oi?i aoceiaiai ciao / Iaoaio Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae ? 24223 A; Cayaeaii 03.01.97; I?ii. aeani?noue. - 1998. - ?5. - 2 n. 16. *a?aiueei N.I. Canoinoaaiiy ianoaiaea?oieo iaeiiiaaceaieo o??o?a?/ieo caniaia i?e eieoaaiii aiaieuaaeo aiia?ieanoe/ieo, aeaaaia?aoeaieo oa caiaeueieo o?aaeaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice // Iia? oaoiieia?? a oi?o?ai?: Iaoa??aee iiaeia?iae. iaoeiai? eiioa?aioei?. -Oaeai?iae, 1997.- N.134-135. 17. *a?aiueei N.I. Aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueii? ae?aaiinoe/ii-e?eoaaeueii? oaeoeee i?e aoceiaeo ooai-?aiiyo o ueoiaeaei?e caeic? // ?? Eiia?an o??o?a?a Oe?a?ie: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo ?ia?o. - Ee?a-Aeiiaoeuee: “Ee?i?/ia o??o?a?y”, 1998. - N. 567-569. 18. *a?aiueei I.I., Eaiaoianeee TH.A., *a?aiueei N.I. Oe?o?ae/aneia ea/aiea yiaeaie/aneiai e aeeooociiai oiene/aneiai ciaa // Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee IC Oe?aeiu. - Eeaa, 1992. - 32 n. 19. *a?aiueei I.I., Eaiaoianeee TH.A., Caieaaneay O.E., *a?aiueei N.I., Iaaeaaaeue A.E E auai?o iaoiaea iaacaieaaaiey i?e iia?aoeeyo ia ueoiaeaeiie aeaeaca // Eiia?ann aianoaceieiaia e ?aaieiaoieiaia Oe?aeiu: Oac. aeiee. - Caii?iaeuea, 1992. - N.91. 20. *a?aiueei N.I. Oeyoe caiia?aaiiy a?iioe?aico i?e o??o?a?/iiio e?eoaaii? caoai?thaaiue ueoiaeaeii? caeice // Oace IV eiia?ano NOOEO. - Oa?e?a, 1992. - N.280-281. 21. *a?aiueei I.I., Eaiaoianeee TH.A., *a?aiueei N.I. E aii?ino i nayce iaoieiaee ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu n eiiece?othuae ?aaeeaoeeae // ?aaeeiaeieiae/aneee nuacae NIA: Oac. aeiee. - Ioueii, 1993. - *. III. - N.1098-1099. 22. *a?aiueei N.I. I?i iaiao?aei?noue ia?aaeyaeo e?eoaaeueii? oaeoeee i?e aoceiaiio cia? // Iaoa??aee V eiia?ano NOOEO. - Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1994. - N.117. 23. *a?aiueei N.I. ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?y i?aeoiaeo aei e?eoaaiiy aoceiaiai ciao ye oeyo aei iie?auaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a oeueiai e?eoaaiiy // No/ani? i?iaeaie aenia?eiaioaeueii? oa ee?i?/ii? aiaeie?eiieia??: Oace aeiiia.V c’?caeo aiaeie?eiieia?a Oe?a?ie. - Ee?a, 1994. - C.241-242. 24. *a?aiueei I.I., Aioii?a A.?., ?aiaoianueeee TH.A., *a?aiueei N.I., Iaiiiia I.A., O?ioeiaiei N.I. Noia?a/eea? ieoaiiy o??o?a?? ciao oa ?aeo ueoiaeaeii? caeice a i?ney/i?iiaeeue-nueeo aeiao (ca iaoa??aeaie ee?i?ee) // Iia? oaoiieia?? a oi?o?ai?: Iaoa??aee iiaeia?iae. iaoeiai? eiioa?aioei?. - Oaeai?iae, 1997. - N.167-168. 25. Cherenko S.M. The choice of adequate anaesthesia in thyroid surgery for geriatric patients // Abstracts of 10-th European Congress of Anaesthesiology. - Frankfurt/Main. - 1998. - S.551. AIIOAOe?ss *a?aiueei N.I. Ae?aaiinoeea, oaiaeaioe?? iaoiii?oico ? caoai?thaaiino?, i?iaiic ?icaeoeo oa o??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy aiaieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.03 - o??o?a?y. - Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii i?iaeai? ae?aaiinoeee ? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy aia-ieuaai? iaoieia?? ueoiaeaeii? caeice (AIUC) - aoceiaiai ciao, iooeei, e?no, oe?ai?aeeo?a. Aeey ?ic-?iaee cacia/aieo ieoaiue aoei i?iaiae?ciaaii aeeiai?eo a?aeiia?aeieo ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a a Oe?a?i? oa i. Ee?a?, aecia/aii oaiaeaioe?? iaoiii?oico oa aeine?aeaeai? iaeia?aeii? aniaeoe iaoi-aaiaco AIUC. Noai?aii noaio ae?aaiinoe/ii-e?eoaaeueiiai aeai?eoio, aeoeaio a ye?e noaaeoueny ia a/aniiio ee?i?ei-o?ceeaeueiiio ianoaaeaii?, oiieiaieeia?e ani??aoe?ei?e a?iin?? oa aeeiai?/iiio oeueo?acao-eiaiio aeine?aeaeaii?. Cai?iiiiiaaii ?iaeea?aeoae?ciaaiee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy e?eoaaeueii? oaeoeee i?e AIUC, yeee a?oioo?oueny ia caaaeaii? aecia/aieo e?eoa???a i?iaiico aoaeoeaiino? noi?anea-ii? oa?ai??, iani?eyoeeaiai ia?aa?ao, iae?ai?caoe??. ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y e?eoaaiiy AIUC, ui aeeth/a? eiina?aaoeaio oa?ai?th, iia? iaei-?iaaceai? o??o?a?/i? iaoiaee oa oaeineiiaeaio iaoiaeeeo o??o?a?/ii? iia?aoe??, aeicaiey? ciaioeoe ?ecee iia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue, aeinyaoe e?eoaaeueiiai aoaeoo i?ino?oei ? aacia/i?oei oeyoii, onoiooe iaiao?aei?noue o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy o 40 % oai?eo. Eeth/ia? neiaa: ueoiaeaeia caeica, aiaieuaaa iaoieia?y, iaoiii?oic, iaoiaaiac, ae?aaiin-oeea, o??o?a?y, iaei?iaaceaia e?eoaaiiy. Cherenko S.M. Diagnosis, trends of pathomorphosis and morbidity, prognosis of development, surgical treatment of focal pathology of thyroid gland. - Manuscript. Thesis for conferring the scientific degree of Doctor of Medical Sciences by speciality 14.01.03 - surgery. - Kiev Medical Academy for Post-Graduate Education named after P.L.Shupik, Kyiv, 1999. The dissertation is devoted to problem of diagnosis and rational surgical treatment of focal thyroid pathology (FTP) - nodular goiter, benign and malignant tumours, cysts, thyroidites. For the resolving of appointed questions the dynamic of correspondent epidemiologic rates in Ukraine and Kiev city were analysed, the common trends of pathomorphosis have been established, the unknown factors of pathogenesis of FTP have been investigated. It was created the scheme of diagnostic-curative algorithm in FTP patients with the emphasis on clinical-physical examination, fine-needle aspiration biopsy and dynamic ultrasound imagination. It was intruded the individualizative approach to choosing of management tactics in patients with FTP. It is based on the differential diagnosis and weighing the several discovered criteria of prognosis: of effectiveness of suppressive therapy, of the irreversible unfavourable course of disease, of an increasing risk of malignancy. It was developed the technology of FTP treatment, including conservative therapy, new minimally-invasive surgical procedures and improved methods of surgical operation. Such the complex approach has allowed to minimize the operative complications risk, to reach the therapeutical effect by the more easy and safe way, to reject the necessity of surgical intervention in 40 % of patients with FTP. Key words: thyroid, focal pathology, pathomorphosis, pathogenesis, diagnosis, surgery, minimally-invasive treatment. *a?aiueei N.I. Aeeaaiinoeea, oaiaeaioeee iaoiii?oica e caaieaaaaiinoe, i?iaiic ?acaeoey e oe?o?ae/aneia ea/aiea i/aaiaie iaoieiaee ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.03 - oe?o?aey.- Eeaaneay iaaeeoeeineay aeaaeaiey iineaaeeieiiiiai ia?aciaaiey ei. I.E.Oo-ieea IC Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia yooaeoeaiie aeeaaiinoeee e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai oe?o?ae/an-eiai ea/aiey i/aaiaie iaoieiaee ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu (IIUAE) - oceiaiai ciaa, aeia?iea/anoaai-iuo e ceiea/anoaaiiuo iiooieae, eeno, ia?aie/aiiuo oi?i iiaeino?iai e o?iie/aneiai oe?aie-aeeoia. Aeey iainiiaaiey iooae ?aoaiey iaia/aiuo aii?inia auei i?iaiaeece?iaaii aeeiaieeo yieaeaieieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae iaoieiaee ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu a Oe?aeia e a.Eeaaa ca iineaae-iea 10 eao, onoaiiaeaiu iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee a? iaoiii?oica, enneaaeiaaiu iaeieco/aiiua aniae-ou iaoiaaiaca IIUC - ?ieue oaeoi?ia ianeaaenoaaiiinoe a a? aicieeiiaaiee e ?acaeoee, aeen?aao-eyoi?iua eciaiaiey a OeIN, iniaaiiinoe iee?iyeaiaioiiai ninoaaa oe?aieaeiie ia?aioeiu. Iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiuie /a?oaie IIUAE a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a Oe?aeia e Eeaaa yaeythony aaniethoiue e ioiineoaeueiue ?ino a? /anoiou, /?acau/aeii oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea n?aaee ac?ineiai ianaeaiey, i?aiaeaaeaiea aacneiioiiiuo oceiauo oi?i ciaa iaaieueoiai ?acia?a, nie-aeaiea ooieoeeiiaeueiuo eiiiainaoi?iuo aiciiaeiinoae ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu, ?ino aeiioe?aica e aooieiioiiuo ii?aaeaiee i?aaia. Ii?aaeaeaiu iaoiaaiaoe/aneea oaeoi?u, onoaoaeythuea onoaiiaeaiiua iaaeaaii?eyoiua oaiaeaioeee a ii?oi-ooieoeeiiaeueiuo eciaiaieyo ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu. Iooai enneaaeiaaiey oe?aieaeiie ia?aioeiu n iiiiuueth iaoiaea eieaeueiie eaca?iie ian-niaeo?iiao?ee iaia?oaeaiu oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe iee?iyeaiaioiiai ninoaaa i?e aeia?ieanoe/aneie e iiooieaaie IIUAE: eio?aoe?ieaeiue aeaoeoeeo eiaea n aai eiieo?aioiui caiauaieai oei?ii e ooi?ii. Eco/aiea oeaio?aeueiuo ?aaoeyoi?iuo ioaeaeia ia?aiie nenoaiu ioo?i yioeaoaeia?aoee, ?aiyioeaoaeia?aoee, ei?ioei- e aeeeiiieaoaioiuo neooiauo aucaaiiuo iioaioeeaeia iicaieeei onoaiiaeoue nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey e??eoaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a a aeeyioeaoaeueiuo, ei?eiauo e noaieiauo ioaeaeao OeIN o aieueiuo n aeia?ieanoe/aneie iaoieiaeae ueoiaeaeiie, iaeaieaa au?aaeaiiua a neo/ayo nieaeaiey oe?aieaeiie ooieoeee. Eeeieei-aaiaaeiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea iaoeeaioia n IIUAE auyaeei iaeaieueooth /anoioo ianeaaenoaaiiie i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoe e caaieaaaieth i?e ?aoeeaeeaiii oceiaii ciaa (46,2 %), aaeaiiiao (37,3 %) e iiiaioceiaii oiene/aneii ciaa (29,6 %). Aeey ianeaaenoaaiiuo oi?i iaoieiaee oa?aeoa?ii iaaeaaii?eyoiia i?ia?anne?othuaa oa/aiea e ieceay yooaeoeaiinoue noi?anneaiie oa?aiee. Auea ?ac?aaioaia eioaa?e?iaaiiay noaia aeeaaiinoeei-ea/aaiiai aeai?eoia, eioi?ay i?a-aeoniao?eaaao ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia eino?oiaioaeueiie e eaai?aoi?-iie aeeaaiinoeee n aeoeaioii ia ouaoaeueiii ia?ae/iii eeeieei-oeceeaeueiii ianeaaeiaaiee, aee-iaie/aneii oeueo?acaoeiaii enneaaeiaaiee, oiieieaieueiie anie?aoeeiiiie aeiinee. Eniieueciaa-iea oeueo?acaoeiaiai enneaaeiaaiey a ni/aoaiee n aeiiea?ianeie niiia?aoeae iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue ioeaie i?e aeeooa?aioeeaoeee eenoiciuo ia?aciaaiee ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu e ninoaeenouo no?oeoo?. I?aaeeiaeai iiaue eiaeeaeaeoaeece?iaaiiue iiaeoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth aaeaeaaoiie ea/aaiie oaeoeee i?e IIUAE, iniiaaiiue ia aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie aeeaaiinoeea oceiauo ia?aciaaiee, ioeaiea ?yaea i?iaiinoe/aneeo e?eoa?eaa. Niinia i?iaiice?iaaiey yooaeoeaiinoe noi?anneaiie oa?aiee oceiaiai iaoiene/aneiai ciaa, caueuaiiue iaoaioii Oe?aeiu, i?aaeoniao?eaaao ioeaieo aeeiaieee o?iaiy nuai?ioi/iiai oe?aiaeiaoeeia e iicaieyao /a?ac 6 ianyoeaa oa?aiee iainiiaaii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue i?iaeieaeaiea ea/aiey eee oe?o?ae/aneia aiaoaoaeuenoai. ?ac?aaioaia oaoiieiaey ea/aiey IIUAE, eioi?ia aeeth/aao eiina?aaoeaioth oa?aieth, ia-eieiaaceaiua oe?o?ae/aneea iaoiaeu ( a oii /enea caiaoaioiaaiiue niinia ea/aiey eenoiciuo oi?i oceiaiai ciaa), oniaa?oainoaiaaiioth iaoiaeeeo oe?o?ae/aneie iia?aoeee n /aoei ii?aaea-e?iiuie iieacaieyie e eaaeaeiio ec iaoiaeia. Eiiieaen aiaae?aiiuo iaeieiaaceaiuo oe?o?ae/aneeo iaoiaeia ea/aiey aeia?iea/anoaai-iuo oi?i IIUAE aeeth/aao ioieoeeiiii-anie?aoeeiiiia ea/aiea eenoiciuo oe?aieaeiuo oceia n einoeeeyoeeae oea?eiiaiai aaeaaceaiiai i?aia?aoa eee yoeeiaiai nie?oa, ioieoeeiiioth oeie/an-eoth aeano?oeoeeth oiene/aneeo aaeaiii 96° yoaiieii, aaaaeaiea a i/aae oieioiaiey i?e o?iie/aneii aooieioiiii oe?aieaeeoa i?aia?aoia aetheiei?oeeieaeia. Aianoa n eiio?iee?iaaiiui eiina?aaoeaiui ea/aieai iaeineiioiiiuo aeia?iea/anoaaiiuo i/aaiauo ia?aciaaiee ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu iauay yooaeoeaiinoue iaiia?aoeaiuo iaoiaeia ea/aiey (ii noiia: ecea/aiiua + noieeee iieiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo) ninoaaeea 84,1 %. Oe?o?ae/aneia aiaoaoaeuenoai, iniiaaiiia ia noaoanoeeaeueiie ?acaeoeee ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu e iaeneiaeueiii nio?aiaiee a? caei?iaie ia?aioeiu i?e aeia?iea/anoaaiiuo oi?iao IIUAE, i?eiaiaiee iiaiai aeiaaeaaceaiiai ia?aia?aoa iieeia?a oea?eia (n oeaeueth eio?aiia?a-oeeiiiiai aaiinoaca, oiaiueoaiey iineaiia?aoeeiiiie eeioiaaii??aae/aneie nae?aoeee e einia-oe/aneiai eeaaaiai niaaeeiaiey e?a?a eiaee), aeaeaao iia?aoeeth aieaa aaciianiie a ioiioaiee niaoeeoe/aneeo e ianiaoeeoe/aneeo ineiaeiaiee, oiaiueoaao /anoioo iineaiia?aoeeiiiiai aeii-oe?aica e aeaoaeoia iineaiia?aoeeiiiiai ?oaoea, nie?auaao ia?eiae aucaei?iaeaiey. Aiaae?aiea iiauo iiaeoiaeia e aeeaaiinoeea e ea/aieth IIUAE iicaieeei aeinoe/ue 98,6 % oi/iinoe aeiiia?aoeeiiiie aeeaaiinoeee, nouanoaaiii oaaee/eoue aeieth aieueiuo n oe?aieaeiui ?aeii n?aaee oe?o?ae/aneeo iaoeeaioia, nieceoue ?ene iineaiia?aoeeiiiuo ineiaeiaiee, ecaaaeaoue oe?o?ae/aneiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa o 40 % aieueiuo n oceiauie ia?aciaaieyie a ueoiaeaeiie aeaeaca. Eeth/aaua neiaa: ueoiaeaeiay aeaeaca, i/aaiaay iaoieiaey, iaoiii?oic, iaoiaaiac, aeeaa-iinoeea, oe?o?aey, iaeieiaaceaiia ea/aiea.

Похожие записи