Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo nioe?ieia??

OAeE 301.085:178

Eeth?iei Aaeoa?ae Ieaenaiae?iae/

Ae?AAIINOEEA NIOe?AEUeII? IAI?OAEAIINO?

22.00.03 — nioe?aeueia no?oeoo?a, nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe oa nioe?aeuei?
a?aeiineie

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a ?inoeooo? nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe Iai?ia Iaoae?y

A?eoi??aia, ?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe Oiaeueei Aaea??e ?aaaiiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee
oi?aa?neoao “Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea aeaaeai?y”, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
nioe?ieia??

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe Iaoonaae/ Aieiaeeie? Aioiiiae/, ?inoeooo
nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo
?noi???, oai??? oa iaoiaeieia?? nioe?ieia??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a aaeocaai?
nioe?ieia??, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 22 ” n?/iy 1999 ?. i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 01.08.01 a ?inoeooo? nioe?ieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252021, Ee?a 21, aoe. Oiaeiae/ia, 12

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252021, Ee?a 21, aoe. Oiaeiae/ia,
12

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 19 ” a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Nooeaei N.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Nioe?aeuei? ci?ie, iia’ycai? c
aeiaaeueiith o?ainoi?iaoe??th iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo oa oe?ii?nieo
canaae noni?eueii? nenoaie, iaieio/a noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ii?ooaiiyi
nioe?aeueii? noaa?eueiino?. Iaaia noaa?e?caoe?y nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei o
noni?euenoa?, ui o?ainoi?io?oueny, ? aiaeii/an iaei??th c aieiaieo
oe?eae ?aoi?iaoe?? ? iaeiei ?c iieaciee?a oni?oiiai caaa?oaiiy
ia?ao?aeiiai aoaio.

I?ioeane no?oeoo?ii? ?ai?aai?caoe?? iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo canaae
noni?eueii? nenoaie, ui iaaeiaai caoyaeeny a Oe?a?i?, i?ecaiaeyoue aei
caaino?aiiy noia?a/iinoae i?ae c?inoath/ith iio?aaith ianaeaiiy a
noaa?e?caoe?? oiia aeeooy oa aeeaieei iacaaeiaieaiiyi ??cieie aieaie
aeeooy (ia?aaeon?i — aeiiii?/iei), aiane?aeie /iai iineeththoueny
i?ioanoi? iano?i?. Oae? i?ioeane cao?eniaaii ??aiith i??ith o iie?oe/i?e
i?aeoeoe? (aeaaea ??cieo ??ai?a ia??iaee/ii noeea?oueny c ianiaeie
nioe?aeueieie i?ioanoaie ??ciiiai?oieo nioe?aeueii-i?ioan?eieo
eiioeiaaio?a ianaeaiiy: oaooa??a, iaaee/ieo ? iaoeiaeo i?aoe?aiee?a,
iaaeaaia?a oiui), oa a ?acoeueoaoao iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? iieooaaiue
a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee (aeai? iii?oi?eiao «Oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai»
na?ae/aoue i?i ?noioia iineeaiiy i?ioanoieo iano?i?a a Oe?a?i? o ia??iae
a?ae 1994 aei 1998 ??.).

Aaeath/enue aei oa?aeoa?enoeee neooaoe??, ui neeaaea?oueny, ? oeo
i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny, aaeueie /anoi ? iie?oeee, ? iaoeiaoe?
canoiniaothoue oa?i?i «nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue». I?e oeueiio,
iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui eaoaai??y «nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue» ? /e ia
iaeiioe?ai?oith i?ae /an aiae?co no/anii? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii?
neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i?, o a?o/eciyi?e nioe?ieia?? e aein? i?aeoe/ii iaia?
oe?eani?yiiaaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo i?iaeai? /?oeiai aecia/aiiy
cacia/aiiai yaeua, eiioeaiooaeueiiio inieneaiith oa ?ic?iaoe?
iaoiaee/iiai ?ino?oiaioa??th, ui aeaei a ciiao aei??thaaoe ? aiae?coaaoe
??aaiue, aeeiai?eo ? /eiieee nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?.

O oeueiio ca’yceo iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? iaaoaa? i?iaeaia ?ic?iaee
eiioeaiooaeueii? iiaeae? ? aaeaeaaoiiai iaoiaee/iiai ?ino?oiaioa??th
aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a noni?euenoa?, ui
o?ainoi?io?oueny.

I??a iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie. O cao?aei?e nioe?ieia??
iaa?iiaaeaeaii aaaaoee aeina?ae o aea/aii? nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a,
iai?oaeaiino?, i?ioanoii? iiaaae?iee (I.Ni?ie?i, ?.Aea?aiaei?o, E.Eica?,
Aeae.?aen, N.Oaio?iaoii, A.Ia?o, O.Ao??, Aeae.O?eia? oa ?i.). I?ioa,
aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai aeina?aeo iio?aao? iaia’yceiaiai inieneaiiy e
o?aooaaiiy niaoeeo?ee aiae?co nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? o iaoiio
noni?euenoa?. O a?o/eciyi?e nioe?ieia??, ui oi?ioaaeany o iaaeao
?aaeyinueeeo noni?eueieo iaoe, ia’?eoeaiee aiae?c nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? (/a?ac ?aeaieia?/i? i?e/eie) oaeoe/ii a?aenooi?e, a naia
iiiyooy ?icaeyaeaeiny ye iai?eeiyoia aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ?nioth/i?
noni?eueii? nenoaie. No/ani? aeine?aeieee iinoaee ia?aae i?iaeaiith
a?aenooiino? aaeaeaaoieo oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo canaae
eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?.

Inoaii?ie ?ieaie o nioe?ieia?/i?e iaooe? Oe?a?ie ? ?in?? c’yaeeeny
i?aoe?, a yeeo ?ice?eoi aeaye? iniaeeaino? ? caeiiii??iinoe iineeaiiy
iie?oe/ii? ianoaa?eueiino? oa nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? ca oiia
ia?ao?aeiiai noni?euenoaa (?.?.Aieiaaoa, I.A.Cae?aaiieneia, I.A.Iai?ia,
A.N.Iaaoi, A.I.?oeaa?oi?eia, ?.A.Aaeaoe?ia, A.N.Iaaiaeaiei,
A.N.Ia?aaaianthe, I.I.Iaca?ia, A.I. Aanthoeinueeee oa ?i.). I?ioa
niaoe?aeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? o a?o/eciyi?e
iaooe? aein? ua ia i?iaiaeeeeny.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea
eiiieaeniiai, eiioeaiooaeueii iaa?oioiaaiiai ? iaoiaee/ii ci???ioiaaiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a noni?euenoa?, ui
o?ainoi?io?oueny.

?aae?caoe?y oe??? iaoe aeiaaaea iine?aeiaiiai ?ica’ycaiiy ianooiieo
caaaeaiue:

1. Cae?enieoe oai?aoe/iee aiae?c iniaeeainoae aecia/aiiy oa ?icoi?iiy
i?noey ? ?ie? nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? o nioe?ieia?/i?e oai???.

2. Ae??cieoe e iaa?oiooaaoe eiioeaiooaeuei? iaae? aii??e/ieo
iiaeeeainoae aei??thaaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a eiie?aoiiio
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiio eiioaeno? aeeooy noni?euenoaa.

3. I?iaiae?coaaoe e ocaaaeueieoe aeinyaiaiiy o aea/aii? nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? ca oiia o?ainoi?iaoe?? no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa a i?aoeyo oe?a?inueeeo nioe?ieia?a.

4. ?ic?iaeoe i?ia?aio oa iaoiaee/iee ?ino?oiaioa??e aii??e/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?.

5. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee/i? i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae ?ioaa?aeueiiai e?euee?niiai
iieacieea nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?.

6. Ai?iaoaaoe ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee/i? i?eioeeie aei??thaaiiy nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? a aii??e/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? (ia i?eeeaae? eiie?aoiiai
oa?eoi??aeueiiai nioe?oio — i. E??iaia?aaea).

Ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?, c iaeiiai
aieo, aae?anaoe nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo – i?aaenoaaieee no?oeoo? aeaaee,
?, c ?ioiai — eaoaai??? ianaeaiiy, ye? ae?aaeathoue nioe?aeueiee
i?ioano.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue a oiiaao
noni?euenoaa, ui o?ainoi?io?oueny, yeo aecia/aii ye aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiee
iioaioe?ae onoaiiaie ianaeaiiy ia nioe?aeueiee i?ioano. Ca oiia
ia?ao?aeiiai noni?euenoaa, nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue ? iaei??th c
aieiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a noa??
a?aeiinei i?ae aeaaeieie no?oeoo?aie ? ianaeaiiyi.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee oa aii??e/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Oai?aoe/io e iaoiaeieia?/io aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue i?eioeeie ?
eaoaai??? no/anii? nioe?ieia?/ii? iaoee (no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee
aiae?c: O.Ia?niin, ?.Ia?oii; oai??y eiioe?eoo: ?.Aea?aiaei?o, E.Eica?,
Aeae.?aen; oai??? ia?ao?aeieo noni?euenoa: N.Oaio?iaoii, Ae.Aaee,
I.Oiooea?, A.Oo?ai). O ?iaio? aeei?enoaii iieiaeaiiy eeane/ieo
eiioeaioe?e, iia’ycaieo c aiae?cii i?iaeai nioe?aeueieo ci?i ? i?ioean?a
nioe?aeueii? ?ioaa?aoe??-aeac?ioaa?aoe?? (A.Niaina?, A.Aeth?eaaei,
A.C?iiaeue, I.Aaaa?, E.Ia?en, A.Ia?aooi, I.Ni?ie?i, A. aea Oiea?eue).
Caeo/aii oaeiae i?aeoiaee aeine?aeiee?a aei aiae?co i?ioanoii?
iiaaae?iee a eiioeaioe?yo nioe?aeueieo ?aaiethoe?e, nioe?aeueieo ?oo?a ?
i?ioano?a (I.Ni?ie?i, N.Oaio?iaoii, A.Ia?o, O.Ao??, E.E?ee?ai), a
eiioeaioe?yo eieaeoeaii? iiaaae?iee (A.Eaaii, C.O?aeae, A.Aeoia?) ?
eiioeaioe?yo aeai?eaaoe?? (N.Noaoooa?, O.?o?ineiai), a aeine?aeaeaiiyo
ie?aieo i?iaeai iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e (N.E?inao, I.Aeiaai, A.Aaoaeia,
?.In?iiaa). Aiae?c nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a oe?a?inueeiio
noni?euenoa? cae?enithaaany ia i?aenoaa? i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo
nioe?ieia?a, a yeeo ?ice?eoi aeaye? iniaeeaino? iineeaiiy nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? a noni?euenoa?, ui o?ainoi?io?oueny (?.?.Aieiaaoa,
I.A.Iai?ia, ?.A.Aaeaoe?ia, A.N.Iaaiaeaiei, A.N.Ia?aaaianthe oa ?i.).

Aii??e/io aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue ?acoeueoaoe aeaio
nioe?ieia?/ieo iieooaaiue i?iaaaeaieo aaoi?ii a i. E??iaia?aae? a
1997-1998 ?ieao (iieooaaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a no?oeoo? aeaaee ? iieooaaiiy
i?aaenoaaiee?a ianaeaiiy, ye? i?eeiaee o/anoue a ianiaeo aeoe?yo
nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo), a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe aii??e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
i?iaaaeaieo ?inoeoooii nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie. Iaoiaeaie aii??e/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee: iieooaaiiy aenia?o?a, iieooaaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a
ianaeaiiy, eiioaio-aiae?c. I?e ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/iiai ?ino?oiaioa??th
aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy canoiniaaii iaoiaee/iee i?aeo?ae E.Oa?noioia,
iaoiaee/i? ?ic?iaee I.Iai?ii?, ?.Aieiaaoe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?aceoeueoao?a. O aeine?aeaeaii? ?ic?iaeaii
iniiae eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co oa aii??e/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?, ye? aeathoue ciiao ae??cieoe
iaoiaeieia?/i? ? iaoiaee/i? iniaeeaino? aea/aiiy nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? ca oiia noni?euenoaa, ui o?ainoi?io?oueny.

Cie?aia:

— ae??ciaii ? i?iaiae?ciaaii ??ci? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? o oai?aoe/i?e nioe?ieia??, iieacaii, ui iacaaaeath/e ia
?ica?aeiino? o o?aeooaaii? i?noey ? ?ie? nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a
i?ioeanao nioe?aeueii? ?ioaa?aoe??, i?ae nioe?aeueiith iai?oaeai?noth
?icoi?thoue iayai?noue o nioe?oi? iioaioe?aeo aeanoaa?e?coth/eo
nioe?aeueiee ii?yaeie yaeu (n. 11-31);

— neioaciaaii ? oe?oa ?icaeiaii iaa?iiaaeaeaiee o a?o/eciyi?e ?
ca?oa?aei?e nioe?ieia?? aeina?ae aea/aiiy ie?aieo aniaeo?a nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? (i?e/ei, /eiiee?a, i?iya?a), ui aiiaeeeaeei ae??cieoe
niaoeeo?eo aiae?co nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? o ia?ao?aeiiio
oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? (n. 48-76);

— o iaaeao cai?iiiiiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii ? iaa?oioiaaii
eiioeaiooaeueio iiaeaeue o?eeiiiiiaioii? no?oeoo?e nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino?: iania? iano?i?, a?iiaaenueea aeoiea ? ianiaa iiaaae?iea
(n. 32-48);

— oia?oa a aii??e/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? (ia i?eeeaae? i.E??iaia?aaea)
ai?iaiaaii eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei aei??thaaiiy nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? (n. 77-147);

— ?ic?iaeaii i?aeo?ae aei iiaoaeiae ?ioaa?aeueiiai e?euee?niiai
iieacieea nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? — ?iaeaeno aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiiai
i?ioanoiiai iioaioe?aeo nioe?oio (n. 148-162).

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a. Cai?iiiiiaaiee o ?iaio? oai?aoe/iee
? iaoiaee/iee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? iiaea
neoaoaaoe iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee noaiaea?oeciaaii? iaoiaeeee
aei??thaaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?, ui aeanoue ciiao ?aaoey?ii
a?aenoaaeoaaoe nooi?iue noaa?eueiino? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe??.

Iaoiaeeea ? ?acoeueoaoe aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaaaeai? a
aeena?oaoe??, iiaeooue aooe ?aeiiaiaeiaai? i?aaenoaaieeai aeaaeieo
no?oeoo? aeey canoinoaaiiy i?ae /an aiae?co nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii?
neooaoe??. ?ic?iaeai? a aeena?oaoe?? oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy,
a oaeiae aeai? aii??e/ii? /anoeie ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? o
aoc?anueeeo eo?nao nioe?ieia??.

Oaia aeena?oaoe?? aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaia c iaoeiai-aeine?aeiith
ae?yeuei?noth a?aeae?eo nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a ?inoeoooo
nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie o aaeoc? aeine?aeaeaiue ineoieia?/iiai noaio ?
nioe?aeueiiai naiiii/oooy ianaeaiiy, aioiaiino? ianaeaiiy aei
nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo, iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e ianaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aoei
aeeeaaeaii o aenooi? ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? «Nioe?aeueia
iie?oeea aea?aeaae ? no?aoaa?? aaeaioaoe?? ianaeaiiy ca oiia
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece» (Ee?a, 1998) ? ia can?aeaiiyo a?aeae?eo
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a ?inoeoooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (173 iaeiaioaaiiy),
aeaio aeiaeaoe?a. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 199 n. Nienie aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae, 16 oaaeeoeue, aeiaeaoee caeiathoue 32 n.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? aeeeaaeaii aeooaeuei?noue ? i??o iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy
i?iaeaie, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo, caaaeaiiy, ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie?aneaii oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee oa aii??e/io
aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeeaaeaii iaoeiao iiaecio ? i?aeoe/io cia/ou?noue
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iaaaaeaii ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — «Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aea/aiiy
nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?» — cae?eniaii oai?aoe/iee aiae?c nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino?. O oai?aoe/ieo eiioeaioe?yo caaaeueii? nioe?ieia??
ii-??ciiio aecia/athoue i?noea ? ?ieue nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a
nioe?oi?. C iiaeyaeo no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? iiaeae? noni?eueiiai
?icaeoeo, nioe?aeuei? iai?oaeaiiy aecia/athoueny ye aeenooieoe??,
nioe?aeuei? iaoieia??, ye? cana?ae/othoue ii?ooaiiy ii?iaoeaiiai noaio
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie, a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae aiiainoaoe/iino? (O.Ia?niin,
?.Ia?oii). Ca?aene aeieeaa?, ui ?ieue nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a
noni?eueiiio ?icaeoeia? aecia/a?oueny ye aeano?oeoeaia, iaaaoeaia. O
eiioe?eoieia?/i?e ia?aaeeai? iaaieioo?oueny ia anacaaaeueiino?,
anai?enooiino?, oi?aa?naeueiino? nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?
(?.Aea?aiaei?o, E.Eica?, Aeae.?aen). Nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue ooo —
ii?iaeueia ? iaieio/a yaeua, yea ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith iiceoeaiiai
i?ioeano ?icaeoeo ? ioi?ieaiiy nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a, ye?, a naith
/a?ao, i?ecaiaeyoue aei nioe?aeueieo ci?i, a ioaea, e ni?eythoue
?icaeoeia? noni?euenoaa. O oai??yo ia?ao?aeieo noni?euenoa
(iiaea?i?caoe??, iino?iaeono??aeueiiai noni?euenoaa) aneaeaoe?y
nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? iinoa? iaieio/ei, caeiiii??iei i?ioeanii i?ae
/an ia?ao?aeieo, o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo ia??iae?a ?icaeoeo nioe?oio. A oae?
ia??iaee nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue aenooia? ?acoeueoaoii nioe?aeueieo
ci?i nenoaiiiai oa?aeoa?o (N.Oaio?iaoii, I.Oiooea?, Ae.Aaee, A.Oo?ai).

I?ioa, iacaaaeath/e ia a?aei?iiino? a o?aeooaaii? i?noey ? ?ie?
nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a i?ioeanao i?aai?caoe?? oa aeaci?aai?caoe??
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie, i?ae nioe?aeueiith iai?oaeai?noth caaaeii
?icoi?thoue iayai?noue o noni?euenoa? iaaiiai iioaioe?aeo
aeanoaa?e?coth/eo nioe?aeueiee eaae yaeu (aeaa?aioia iiaaae?iea,
nioe?aeuei? eiioe?eoe, nioe?aeuei? i?ioanoe, ?aaiethoe?? oiui).
Nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue o oai?aoe/i?e nioe?ieia?? — oea iaeia c
oa?aeoa?enoee i?ioean?a nioe?aeueii? ?ioaa?aoe??-aeac?ioa?aaoe??, yea
iieaco?, iane?eueee aenieei ? iioaioe?ae aeanoaa?e?caoe?? oa ?oeioaaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai eaaeo, oa?aeoa?ecoth/e aiaeii/an nooi?iue noni?eueii?
noaa?eueiino?.

Nie?ath/enue ia aiae?c caaaeueiiai a ?icoi?ii? nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? caaaeueiinioe?ieia?/ieie oai??yie, o eiie?aoiiio
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiio eiioaeno? nioe?aeueio iai?oaeai?noue iiaeia
aecia/eoe ye oa?aeoa?enoeeo nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe??, ui
a?aeaeaa? aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiee iioaioe?ae onoaiiaie ethaeae uiaei o/ano?
a ??ciiiai?oieo oi?iao nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo.

Iiiyooy «aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiee iioaioe?ae i?ioanoieo onoaiiaie»
oa?aeoa?eco? nooi?iue iioe?aiino? onoaiiaie ethaeae ia ae?aaeaiiy
iaaaeiaieaiiy ? i?ioanoo a ianiaeo oi?iao a?aeaa?oiai i?ioenoiyiiy
no?oeoo?ai aeaaee. Nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue, ioaea, oa?aeoa?eco?
nooi?iue caa?ice noaa?eueiino? c aieo iioaioe?aeo iie?oe/ieo eiioe?eo?a
o noa?? «aeaaei? no?oeoo?e—ianaeaiiy».

O cao?aei?e nioe?ieia?? ?niothoue ??ci? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy
i?ioanoii? iiaaae?iee. A eiioeaioe?yo eieaeoeaii? iiaaae?iee
nioe?aeueiee i?ioano ?icaeyaeathoue ye iaeei ?c ?? oei?a, a aeania
iiiyooy «i?ioano» ?icoaoiaothoue ii?yae ?c oaeei iiiyooyi ye
???aoe?iiaeueiee, «aoio?aiee iaoiai» (A.Eaaii, A.Aeoia?). O iaaeao
iie?oe/ii? nioe?ieia?? i?ioano aecia/athoue ? ye oi?io «iao?aaeeoe?eii?»
(iaii?iiaaii?) iie?oe/ii? iiaaae?iee, iia’ycaii? c ii?ooaiiyi
noni?eueiiai eaaeo (A.Ia?o), ? ye «ia?inoeoooe?iiaeueio» oi?io
iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae (Ae.Oeieueiee), ? ye ??ciiaeae iie?oe/iiai
eiioe?eoo (O.Ao??). ?niothoue oaeiae ? «eiii?ii?ni?» iiaeyaee ia
i?ioanoio iiaaae?ieo, ca?aeii yeei ?ooe i?ioanoo ia caiaeyoueny oe?eeii
aei eieaeoeaii? iiaaae?iee ? ia ?icaeyaeathoueny ye anaa?/ia ao?eaiiy
niinia?a ianoithaaiiy ?ioa?an?a, a ?aaeoa i?noyoue a nia? aeaiaioe ?
oiai, ? oiai (Aeae.O?eiai). Caaaeueiei o aecia/aii? i?ioanoii?
iiaaae?iee ? oa, ui i?ae ?oa?eeith “nioe?aeueiee i?ioano” aeine?aeieeaie
i?eeiyoi ii?aeioaaoe iania? oi?ie aieeao ethaeae ia iie?oeeo aeaaeieo
no?oeoo? (I.Ooiiiea, A.Aaoaeia).

Aiae?coth/e nioe?aeueio iai?oaeai?noue, ne?ae ?ic??ciyoe ?aaeueiee
i?ioano (i?ioano ye ae?th), yeee yaey? niaith aeooaeueiee iie?oe/iee
eiioe?eo, ? iioaioe?eiee i?ioano — i?ioano ye onoaiiaea. O
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? noni?euenoaa nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue
aeyaey?oueny ye a onoaiiaeao ianaeaiiy ia eaa?oeii? oi?ie nioe?aeueiiai
i?ioanoo (cae?aiiy i?aeien?a, naieoe?iiiaai? i?oeiae ? aeaiiino?aoe??,
no?aeee, i?eaooaaiiy aea?aeaaieo onoaiia oiui), oae ? a onoaiiaeao ia
iaeaa?oeii? e aeno?ai?nonuee? oi?ie i?ioanoii? iiaaae?iee:
ianaieoe?iiiaai? i?oeiae, aieeio, aieiaeoaaiiy, aeieaaea ??cieo ia’?eo?a
oiui. I?i caaaeueio oaiaeaioe?th aeeiai?ee nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?
iiaeia noaeeoe ia i?aenoaa? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy onoaiiaie ethaeae ia
eaa?oeii? e iaeaa?oeii? oi?ie ae?aaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo.

I?e oeueiio ne?ae caaaeaoe ia oa, ui ca oiia o?ainoi?iaoe??
noni?euenoaa, eiee nioe?aeueia eiinie?aeaoe?y ? iia?e?caoe?y ?ano?n?a
on?o nioe?aeueieo a?oi iaiao?aeia aeey nioe?aeueii? ?ioaa?aoe?? ia iia?e
iniia?, aenieee nooi?iue aioiaiino? ethaeae aei ae?aaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai
i?ioanoo iaa?oue o eaa?oeiieo oi?iao, oaeiae caeaoia i?ecaiaeeoe aei
iineeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?, iiaeeaethaaoe eiio?iioaoe?ei?noue,
?, c?aooith, caaaaeaoe noaa?e?caoe?? noni?euenoaa.

Ca?aeii aei i?iiiiiaaii? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? eiioeaiooaeueii?
iiaeae?, iaa?oioiaaii o?eeiiiiiaioio no?oeoo?o nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? (a?aeiia?aeii aei caaaeueiii?eeiyoi? o?eeiiiiiaioii?
no?oeoo?e nioe?aeueii? onoaiiaee): aiioe?eiee eiiiiiaio i?ioanoieo
onoaiiaie, ?aoe?iiaeueii-ioe?ieiaee eiiiiiaio i?ioanoieo onoaiiaie ?
iiaaae?ieiaee eiiiiiaio i?ioanoieo onoaiiaie. Nioe?aeueia
iai?oaeai?noue, ioaea, iinoa? a noni?euenoa?, ii-ia?oa, ia ??ai? ianiaeo
iano?i?a (c?inoaiiy aiioe?eii? iai?oaeaiino? – iaaaoeaieo aiioe?e:
aa?aneai?noue, iaoa?iei?noue, iceiaeaiiy, ?icae?aoiaai?noue, oiui),
ii-ae?oaa, ia ??ai? a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee (nooi?iue «i?ioanoiino?»,
eiio?iioaoe?eiino? iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino?), ?, ii-o?ao?, — ia ??ai?
ianiai? iiaaae?iee (aioiai?noue ethaeae aei o/ano? a aeoe?yo i?ioanoo).

Na?aae i?e/ei, ye? i?aeaeuothoue eiia??i?noue ?icaeoeo i?ioanoieo
onoaiiaie (iniaeeai a ianoaa?eueiiio noni?euenoa?), aeine?aeieee
aeie?aieththoue, ii-ia?oa, ?icaeoie oaiiiaio aeai?eaaoe?? — noa?eoeaiiai
iaaaeiaieaiiy ethaeae nai?i oaia?aoi?i noaiiaeuai o noni?euenoa?
(E.E?ee?ai, A.Ayo?), ?, ii-ae?oaa, ia?icaeiai?noue iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e
ianaeaiiy: i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy iaaeia??e aei io?oe?eieo no?oeoo? aeaaee ?
iie?oe/ieo e?aea??a, iecueeee ??aaiue iie?oe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? oa
iie?oe/ii? caeo/aiino? a ii?iiaai? (“o?aaeeoe?ei?”) oi?ie iie?oe/ii?
aeoeaiino? (N.E?inao, I.Aeiaai).

A aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiao?oueny, ui i?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? a ia?ao?aeiiio oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? ne?ae caaaeaoe
ia ieceo iniaeeainoae nioe?aeueii? ineoieia??: ?icaeoie oaiiiai?a
«noa’?eoeaiiai coaiae?iiy», ianiai? «a?ia?ae?aaiinoeee», aenieee ??aaiue
aeaii?ae?ciaaiino? ianaeaiiy (A.Aieiaaoa, I.Iai?ia).

Noa’?eoaie-iin?yie nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?, ye i?aaeei, ? nioe?aeuei?
noa’?eoe, eio?? ia ?ioaa?iaai? ye neeaaeiaa a iie?oe/io nenoaio
noni?euenoaa (ia?a?iaeuei? a?oie), aai ia caaeiaieai? yeeienue aniaeoaie
naiai noaiiaeua (N.Oaio?iaoii, A.Ia?eoca, N.Eeinao).

Ae?oaee ?icae?e — «I?ia?aia aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? (ia i?eeeaae? i. E??iaia?aaea)» — i?enay/aiee aiae?co
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo iniaeeainoae aea/aiiy nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? aii??e/ieie iaoiaeaie ? ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/iiai
?ino?oiaioa??th aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O no?oeoo?? i?ia?aie aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/aii: 1) iaoo,
caaaeaiiy, i?aai?caoe?ei? iniaeeaino? aeine?aeaeaiiy; 2) ia’?eo
aeine?aeaeaiiy; 3) i?eioeeie oi?ioaaiiy aeai?ie; 4) i?aaeiao ?
aaia?aeueio a?iioaco aeine?aeaeaiiy; 5) nenoaio iieaciee?a oa
iaoiaee/iee ?ino?oiaioa??e aeine?aeaeaiiy; 6) i?eioeeie aiae?co
ia?aeiii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Iaoith aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aiae?c no?oeoo?e, iniaeeainoae
i?iyao oa iiaeeeainoae aei??thaaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? ia
eiie?aoiiio i?eeeaae? aea/aiiy nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a i.
E??iaia?aae?.

Ieaioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?? aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeiny ia i?aenoaa?
eiioeaiooaeueiiai iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo
oa?aeoa?enoee nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? ? aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiee
iioaioe?ae aa?oeeaeueieo iie?oe/ieo eiioe?eo?a («aeaaea—ia?iae»). Ioaea,
uia iaoe anaa?/io ea?oeio nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?, aeioe?eueii
i?iaanoe nioe?ieia?/ia iieooaaiiy ye i?aaenoaaiee?a ianaeaiiy, eio??
ae?aaeathoue iaai? i?ioanoi? onoaiiaee, oae ? iieooaaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a
aeaaee, yeei oeae i?ioano aae?aniaaii. C?aooith i?aai?caoe?eiee ieai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?uoaaa aeaa aoaie: 1) iieooaaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a
aeaaeieo no?oeoo?; 2) iieooaaiiy /anoeie ianaeaiiy, ye?e i?eoaiaiia
aioiai?noue aei nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo.

O aeine?aeaeaii? canoiniaoaaeeny ianooii? iaoiaee cai?o aii??e/ii?
?ioi?iaoe??: 1) Aenia?oia iieooaaiiy; 2) Iieooaaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a
ianaeaiiy, eio?? aa?ooue o/anoue o ianiaeo aeoe?yo i?ioanoo; 3)
Eiioaio-aiae?c a?aeiia?aeae ia a?aee?eo? ieoaiiy aieaoe, cie?aia, ia
ieoaiiy aieaoe aenia?oa uiaei iiiyooy e iieaciee?a nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino?, a oaeiae ia ieoaiiy aieaoe aeey iieooaaiiy ianaeaiiy
uiaei iioea?a o/ano? a aeoe?yo i?ioanoo.

I?ae /an ia?oiai aoaio aeine?aeaeaiiy — aenia?oia iieooaaiiy — a yeino?
yeiaeeiiiaoaioi?oeo, ia iaoo aeoieo, aenia?o?a aenooiaee ea??aieee
i?aai?a i?noeaai? aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, aaeaea naia ?i ia?aaeian?i
aae?aniaaiee nioe?aeueiee i?ioano ? naia aiie iathoue iia?aoeaii
?aaaoaaoe ia o? aai o? ae?? ianaeaiiy o ?ac? ianiaeo aeoe?e i?ioanoo.
Aeey o/ano? a aeine?aeaeaii? a?aeae?aeeny iniae c /enea ea??aiiai
ia?niiaeo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee E??iaia?aaenueei? iaeano?
(iaeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe??, ?aeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe?? oa i?nueeaeeiieiio).
Ca e?eoa??e a?aeai?o aenia?o?a aoei iieeaaeaii oi?iaeueii-iinaaeiaee
noaoon aenia?oa: a?ae?a?ai? i?aaenoaaieee aeaaeieo no?oeoo?, iinaaee
yeeo ia ieae/? ca ??aaiue «ia/aeueieea a?aeae?eo». Caaaeii aoei iieoaii
50 aenia?o?a.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei canoiniaaii aiae?oe/iee i?aeo?ae
aei a?aeai?o ?aniiiaeaio?a. C iaeyaeo ia aeoiee aenia?o?a aoei ae??ciaii
eaoaai??? ianaeaiiy, yeei iaea?eueo i?eoaiaii? eiio?iioaoe?ei?,
i?ioanoi? iano?i?. A?oiooth/enue ia iiia?aaeiueiio aiae?cia? iioaioe?eii
eiia??ieo ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo
i?ioanoieo onoaiiaie ianaeaiiy ? c iaeyaeo ia aenia?oi? ioeaiee, ie
coieieeeny ia na?aaei?o oeieao i.E??iaia?aaea, eieaeoeae yeeo a?aee
o/anoue o no?aeeao ? i?eaooaaiiyo i?ae /an i?aeaioiaee ? i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy (1997 ?.). Aeey o/ano? a iieooaaii? aeiae?aeeny iaaeaaiae
oeo na?aaei?o oe?e, ye? aoee aecia/ai? aenia?oaie ye iaea?eueo
«aeaooiiaaacia/i?» ? oae?, ui a?aee o/anoue a aeoe?yo i?ioanoo (iniiaia
a?oia). Aeey ioe?iee aae?aeiino? iaoiaee/iiai ?ino?oiaioa??th aoei
i?aeaioiaeaii aea??eo eiio?ieueii? a?oie, aei yei? oa?eoee iaaeaaiae
na?aaei?o oe?e, eio?? ia a?aee o/ano? a no?aeeao ? i?eaooaaiiyo. Onueiai
aoei iieoaii 300 ?aniiiaeaio?a (ii 150 in?a a iniiai?e ? eiio?ieuei?e
a?oiao) iaoiaeii nooe?eueiiai iieooaaiiy.

Aaia?aeueiith a?iioacith aeine?aeaeaiiy, aii??e/ia ia?aa??ea yei? aeaea
a ciiao ioe?ieoe aae?aei?noue iaoiaee/iiai ?ino?oiaioa??th, aoei
i?eiouaiiy uiaei oiai, ui aeey nioe?aeueieo noa’?eo?a, eio?? a?aee
o/anoue o ianiaeo aeoe?yo i?ioanoo, aeanoeaee aeuee iioaioe?ae
aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiino? i?ioanoieo onoaiiaie, ii??aiyii ?c nioe?aeueieie
noa’?eoaie, ye? ia a?aee o/ano? o i?ioanoieo aenooiao.

O?ao?e ?icae?e ?iaioe — «Aei??thaaiiy ??aiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?
iaoiaeii aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy» — i?enay/aiee aiae?cia? ?acoeueoao?a
iieooaaiiy aenia?o?a, i?iaaaeaiiai a i.E??iaia?aae? a ia??iae a?ae
25.08.1997 aei 27.09.1997 ??. iaoiaeii ?icaeaoeiaiai aieaooaaiiy ?
aeiiiaiaiee iano?oeoo?iaaiei ?ioa?a’th oa iaoiaeaie eiioaio-aiae?co. Ia
i?aenoaa? aiae?co ia?aeiii? ?ioi?iaoe?? c?iaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo
iniaeeainoae i?iyao nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a i. E??iaia?aae?.

1. Ia??iaee/ii aeanoaa?e?coth/? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/io neooaoe?th a
i.E??iaia?aae? ie?ai? aeoe?? nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo, ia aeoieo 66%
iieoaieo i?aaenoaaiee?a i?noeaai? aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, ia ? na?ae/aiiyi
oi?ioaaiiy e?eoe/ii?, “aeaooiiaaacia/ii?” neooaoe??, yea caaaeii
caeeoa?oueny noaa?eueiith.

2. Iniiaieie noa’?eoaie-iin?yie nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a
i.E??iaia?aae? ? nioe?aeuei? a?oie, ?ioaa?iaai? a aea?aeaaiee naeoi?
aeiiii?ee oa ?io?ano?oeoo?e: ia aeoieo 90% aenia?o?a – neoaeaiaoe?
(iaaeaaiae, iaaee/i? i?aoe?aieee), ?ia?oieee aaeeeeo i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa (64%), a oaeiae iain?iia?e (56%) ? aac?ia?oi? (36%).

3. Nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue aecia/a?oueny i?aaenoaaieeaie no?oeoo?
aeaaee ia?aaaaeii ye oa?aeoa?enoeea c?inoaiiy oaeeo aeanoaa?e?coth/eo
noni?eueieo yaeu, ye? na?ae/aoue i?i iaaaaeaia (aeey aeaaeieo no?oeoo?)
c?inoaiiy iioaioe?aeo iano?i?a i?ioanoo o ianaeaiiy («a?aeaa?oa
aeneiaethaaiiy ethaeueie i?ioanoo», «c?inoaiiy iacaaeiaieaiiy iie?oeeith
aeaaee»). Aiaeii/an, oa?aeoa?ecoth/e naia iiiyooy «nioe?aeueia
iai?oaeai?noue», aenia?oe a?aecia/aee oaeiae ? iineeaiiy iaaaoeaieo yaeu
o iania?e ineoieia?? (?ino iacaaeiaieaiino? oiiaaie aeeooy,
aa?aneai?noue, iceiaeai?noue, ?icae?aoiaai?noue).

4. C /enea iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeoe?e nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo
(iania?noue, o?eaae?noue, caeiii?noue, noeo?ei?noue) iaea?eueo cia/iee
aieea, ia aeoieo aenia?o?a, ia ?icaeoie nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?
cae?enith? iania?noue i?ioanoieo aenooi?a (na?aaei?e aae nooiaiy aieeao
— 3,6; oeaea 1—5), a iaeiaioee — eaa?oeii?noue (2,4 aaee).

5. Ia i?aenoaa? aenia?oieo ioe?iie c?iaeaii ii??aiyeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo
nooiaiy caa?ice ii?yaeeo ? noaa?eueiino? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii?
neooaoe?? o i.E??iaia?aae? c aieo ??cieo eiie?aoieo oi?i aeneiaethaaiiy
ianaeaiiyi nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo. Aiane?aeie aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a
aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiino? eiaeii? c oi?i nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo a ?iaio?
iaaaaeaii ???a?o?th ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i ae?aaeaiiy i?ioanoo caeaaeii a?ae
?o aeanoaa?e?coth/iai iioaioe?aeo (a aaeao): 1) aoee/i? caai?ooaiiy
(9,5); 2) noai?aiiy ica?i?ieo oi?ioaaiue (9,2); 3) caoiieaiiy aoaeeie?a
(7,9); 4) naiiniaeaiiy (6,6); 5) no?aeee (5,7); 6) aieiaeoaaiiy (5,5);
7) i?eaooaaiiy aea?aeaaieo onoaiia (5,3); 8) ianaieoe?iiiaai? i?oeiae ?
aeaiiino?aoe?? (5,1); 9) naieoe?iiiaai? i?oeiae ? aeaiiino?aoe?? (5,0);
10) caa?ica no?aeeii (4,9); 11) aieeio (4,7); 12) caa?iaiiy c aeiiaaie
aei i?aai?a aeaaee (3,8); 13) cae?aiiy i?aeien?a i?ae eieaeoeaieie
aeiiaaie (3,7); 14) e?eoe/i? aenooie a caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??
(3,5).

Oaeei /eiii, nooi?iue nioe?aeueii? iaaaciaee aeneiaethaaiiy ethaeueie
i?ioanoo a aoaeue-ye?e oi?i? caeaaeeoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o oe??? oi?ie: /ei
/?oe?oei ? ?aaeeeaeueiee ? iaeaa?oeiiee oa?aeoa? oi?ie nioe?aeueiiai
i?ioanoo, oei aeuee nooi?iue caa?ice aeey noaa?eueiino? iaoeia
ae?aaeaiiy ethaeueie i?ioanoo a oae?e oi?i?.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e — «Nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue ? o/anoue o ianiaeo
aeoe?yo i?ioanoo (?acoeueoaoe aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy)» — i?enay/aiee
aea/aiith nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? ia eiie?aoieo nioe?aeueieo ia’?eoao
— na?aaei?o oeieao i. E??iaia?aaea. Iieooaaiiy i?iaiaeeee a ia??iae a?ae
14.10.1997 aei 15.01.1998 ??. iaoiaeii ?icaeaoeiaiai aieaooaaiiy.

Eia?ea ?ino?oiaioa??th oa aiae?co aii??e/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a?oiooaaeany ia
eiioeaiooaeueiiio iieiaeaii?, ui no?oeoo?a nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?
neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio aca?iiiia’ycaieo eiiiiiaio?a, ye? ? aiaeii/an
neeaaeiino?oeoo?iaaieie iieacieeaie: 1) ineoieia?/iee iioaioe?ae
nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo (aiioe?eia iai?oaeai?noue, nioe?aeuei?
i/?eoaaiiy); 2) nooi?iue «i?ioanoiino?», eiio?iioaoe?eiino? iie?oe/ii?
na?aeiiino? ethaeae (noaaeaiiy aei nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo ? ioe?iea eiai
aoaeoeaiino?); 3) iiaaae?ieiaee iioaioe?ae nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo
(aioiai?noue aei nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo).

Aiae?c ineoieia?/iiai iioaioe?aeo nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo (aiioe?eii?
iai?oaeaiino?) cae?enithaaany ia i?aenoaa? canoinoaaiiy aeaio aii??e/ieo
iieaciee?a: 1) ioe?iea ?iaeea?aeii ineoieia?/iiai noaio ioi/oth/eo ?
ioe?iea aeaniiai aiioe?eiiai noaio (ieoaiiy aieaoe: «Aeaae?oue, aoaeue
eanea, ye? c ia?ae?/aieo ii/ooo?a inoaii?i ?ieii iineeeeeny a a?eueoino?
ethaeae ? o aan iniaenoi?»); 2) aiioe?eii-ioe?ieiaa noaaeaiiy aei
iaeaooiueiai (ieoaiiy aieaoe: «C yeeie ii/oooyie Ae aeoia?oa i?i
caao?aoi?e aeaiue, i?i iaeaooi??»).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeee aeine?aeieoeueeo a?iioaco
noiniaii oiai, ui ethaeyi, eio?? a?aee o/anoue o ianiaeo aeoe?yo
nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo, i?eoaiaiia a?eueo aeniea aiioe?eia
iai?oaeai?noue, a?eueo iaaaoeaiee aiioe?eiee noai. Ia i?aenoaa?
ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ioe?iie ci?i aiioe?eiiai noaio cao?eniaaii
aaeueie iieacia? a?aei?iiino? i?ae iniiaiith ? eiio?ieueiith a?oiaie
?aniiiaeaio?a: aiioe?eiee noai iaaeaaia?a, eio?? a?aee o/anoue o
no?aeeao, noaiiaeoue ni?eyoeea?oa oei aeey i?ioanoii? iiaaae?iee. Oea
aeyaey?oueny o a?eueo iaaaoeaieo ioe?ieao o/anieeaie aeoe?e i?ioanoo
ci?i ye aeaniiai aiioe?eiiai noaio, oae ? aiioe?eiiai noaio a?eueoino?
ethaeae (ia?aaeon?i, a?ae/oooy c?inoaiiy iceiaeaiino?, aa?aneaiino?,
?icae?aoiaaiino?). Oae, iai?eeeaae, o a?oi? iaaeaaia?a, eio??
i?ioanooaaee, 38,7% ?aniiiaeaio?a a?aecia/aee c?inoaiiy inoaii?i ?ieii
«o naaa iniaenoi» ii/ooo?a iceiaeaiino? oa aa?aneaiino?, 62,7% —
?icae?aoiaaiino?, 74,0% — o?eaiae. O eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? oe? iieacieee
a?aeiia?aeii ieae/? — 28,7%, 39,3% oa 54,0% (p < .01). ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aiaeii/an i?aeoaa?aeeee i?eiouaiiy, ui ethaeyi, eio?? aa?ooue o/anoue a aeoe?yo i?ioanoo, aeanoeaee a?eueo aenieee ??aaiue nioe?aeueiiai ianei?cio a aiioe?eii-ioe?ieiaiio noaaeaii? aei iaeaooiueiai. Ao?aoa iaae?? ia iie?ioaiiy, a?aenooi?noue aiaaiaiino? a iaeaooiueiio ? ni?eyoeeaei oeii aeey iineeaiiy iano?i?a i?ioanoo. Ethaee, eio?? ae??oeee a?aoe o/anoue o no?aeeao ? i?eaooaaiiyo, ae?ae ianei?noe/ii ioe?iththoue ia?niaeoeae uiaei "caao?aoiueiai aeiy". Oae, o a?oi? iaaeaaia?a, eio?? i?ioanooaaee, 15,3% ?aniiiaeaio?a "aeoiathoue i?i caao?aoi?e aeaiue ?c iaae??th ia iie?auaiiy", i?ioa 38,7% — "c? no?aoii, aaeaea ia?aeiiai?, ui aoaea a??oa" (o eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? oe? iieacieee noaiiaeee a?aeiia?aeii 32,0% ? 15,3%; p < .01). Ca iieacieee nooiaiy "i?ioanoiino?" iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? ethaeae aoei ae??ciaii: 1) noaaeaiiy aei nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo (ieoaiiy aieaoe: "sse Ae aaaaea?oa, e?aua oa?i?oe o?oaeiiu? ca?aaee caa?aaeaiiy ie?o ? ceaaiaee aai "aeeoe ia aoeeoeth" c i?ioanoii i?ioe aaaeeiai iaoa??aeueiiai noaiiaeua?"); 2) ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo (ieoaiiy aieaoe: "Neaae?oue, aoaeue eanea, yeith i??ith Ae iiaiaeaeo?oany c aeoieith i?i oa, ui aeneiaethaaiiy ethaeueie ianiaiai i?ioanoo ? aoaeoeaiei caniaii ianoithaaiiy nai?o i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a?"). Oe? iieacieee aeaee ciiao noa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iie?oe/io na?aeii?noue iaaeaaia?a a aniaeo? "eiioi?ii?noue—eiio?iioaoe?ei?noue", aeaoe oa?aeoa?enoeeo iioaioe?aeo i?ioanoieo onoaiiaie ia ?aoe?iiaeueii-ioe?ithaaeueiiio ??ai?. Iie?oe/i?e na?aeiiino? iaaeaaia?a, eio?? a?aee o/anoue a aeoe?yo i?ioanoo, a?eueoith i??ith i?eoaiaiia ia?aeiiaiiy, ui i?ioano — oea iaee?auee niin?a aeneiaeoe naith a?iiaaeyinueeo iiceoe?th (62,0%) ca oiia iia??oaiiy iaoa??aeueiiai noaiiaeua, i?ae oa?i?iiy o?oaeiiu?a (5,3%). O eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? oe? iieacieee noaiiaeee a?aeiia?aeii 24,0% ? 22.0% (p < .01). Iaaeaaiaai, eio?? i?ioanooaaee, a?eueoith i??ith i?eoaiaiia oaeiae iioe?ai?noue ioe?iee ianiaeo aeoe?e i?ioanoo ye aoaeoeaiiai oeyoo ianoithaaiiy nai?o i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a. Oae, 58,7% ?aniiiaeaio?a iniiaii? a?oie (ii??aiyii c 21,3% o eiio?ieuei?e; p < .01) oe?eeii iiaiaeaeothoueny c aeoieith, ui "aeneiaethaaiiy ethaeueie ianiaiai i?ioanoo ? aoaeoeaiei caniaii ianoithaaiiy nai?o i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a". Ioaea, aeey ethaeae, ye? a?aee o/anoue a aeoe?yo i?ioanoo, a a?eueo?e i??? aeanoeaa "i?ioanoi?noue" iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? ? aeuee nooiaiue noeeueiino? aei eiio?iioaoe?eieo niinia?a ianoithaaiiy nai?o i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a. Ca iieaciee iiaaae?ieiaiai iioaioe?aeo nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo a?aee naiiioe?ieo aioiaiino? aei nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo (ieoaiiy aieaoe: "A yeeo ?c iaaaaeaieo ieae/a oi?iao i?ioanoo Ae iniaenoi aioia? acyoe o/anoue aeey caoenoo nai?o i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a, a a yeeo ia acyee a o/ano??"). I?i iineeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? na?ae/eoue, ii-ia?oa, caaaeueia ca?eueoaiiy /anoee ethaeae, aioiaeo aei o/ano? a ??cieo aeoe?yo i?ioanoo (a oiio /ene? e o eaaaeueieo), ?, ii-ae?oaa, ca?eueoaiiy /anoee in?a, eio?? aeneiaeee naith aioiai?noue aei o/ano? a iaeaa?oeiieo oi?iao i?ioanoo. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui iaaeaaiaai, eio?? a?aee o/anoue a aeoe?yo nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo, i?eoaiaiia a?eueo aeniea (i?eiaeii?, ia aa?aaeueiiio ??ai?) aioiai?noue aei o/ano? ye o eaa?oeiieo, oae ? a iaeaa?oeiieo oi?iao i?ioanoo, i?ae aeey oeo, ooi ia a?aa o/ano? a ianiaeo aenooiao. Oae, a iniiai?e a?oi? a?eueo?noue ?aniiiaeaio?a i?aeoaa?aeeee naith aioiai?noue aei o/ano? a on?o eaa?oeiieo oi?iao nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo (no?aee — 87,3%, naieoe?iiiaai? i?oeiae ? aeaiiino?aoe?? — 83,3%, i?eaooaaiiy aea?aeaaieo onoaiia — 79,3%, caa?ica no?aeeii — 72,7%, cae?aiiy i?aeien?a i?ae eieaeoeaieie caa?iaiiyie, iaoeoe?yie — 67,3%). O eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? oe? iieacieee cia/ii ieae/? (p < .01). O iaaeaaia?a, eio?? ni?iiiaeeny "aeeoe ia aoeeoeth" c i?ioanoii, cia/ii aeuith (p < .01) ? oaeiae aioiai?noue aei o/ano? o i?ioecaeiiieo ? ?aaeeeaeueieo oi?iao i?ioanoo: aieiaeoaaiiyo — 16,0%, aieeioao — 33,3%, ianaieoe?iiiaaieo i?oeiaao ? aeaiiino?aoe?yo — 19,3%, noai?aii? ica?i?ieo oi?ioaaiue — 9,3%. I?e oeueiio aa?oi iaaieineoe, ui aeuee nooi?iue i?aeo?eiee ?aaeeeaeueieo oi?i i?ioanoo a iniiai?e a?oi? ia coiiaeaiee ciaioaiiyi /anoee ethaeae, ye? ia i?aeo?eiothoue eaaaeuei? oi?ie i?ioanoo, a iaeii/aniith aioiai?noth ethaeae aei o/ano? ye o eaa?oeiieo, oae ? o iaeaa?oeiieo oi?iao ae?aaeaiiy i?ioanoo. Aeu? iieacieee aioiaiino? ?aniiiaeaio?a iniiaii? a?oie aei o/ano? o i?ioecaeiiieo oa aeno?ai?nonueeeo oi?iao i?ioanoo na?ae/aoue, ui aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiee i?ioanoiee iioaioe?ae o oe??? a?oie aeuee, i?ae o eiio?ieuei?e. ?acii c oei ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a iaio a?oiao iaeaa?oeii? oi?ie i?ioanoo ei?enoothoueny cia/ii iaioith i?aeo?eieith: a?eueoith i??ith ?aniiiaeaioe i?aeo?eiothoue eaa?oeii? oi?ie i?ioanoo. Oae? oaiaeaioe?? o?enothoueny e o caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo iieooaaiiyo a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee. Aeiaeaoeiaei iieacieeii, yeee aea? ciiao noaeeoe i?i no?oeoo?o nioe?aeueiiai iaaaeiaieaiiy ? aeoiee ethaeae i?i i?e/eie, ui no?eiothoue ?o a?ae o/ano? a aeoe?yo i?ioanoo, ? oaeee iieaciee, ye iioeaaoe?y i?ioanoii? iiaaae?iee. ?iaeeeaoi?aie oeueiai iieacieea ae??ciaii: 1) naiiioe?ieo a?iioaoe/ieo iioea?a aeanii? i?ioanoii? aeoeaiino? (ieoaiiy aieaoe: "Ui caeaoia i?eioneoe iniaenoi Aan "aeeoe ia aoeeoeth", uia aeneiaeoe na?e i?ioano?"); 2) ioe?iea i?e/ei, ui no?eiothoue a?ae o/ano? a nioe?aeueieo i?ioanoao (ieoaiiy aieaoe: "sse Ae aaaaea?oa, /iio a?eueo?noue ethaeae, eio?? iio?aieee o aaaeea iaoa??aeueia noaiiaeua, ia aeoiaeyoue ia aoeeoeth c i?ioanoii?"). O ?acoeueoao? aea/aiiy naiiioe?iee eiia??ieo iioea?a aeanii? aioiaiino? acyoe o/anoue a aeoe?yo nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo aoei i?iaiae?ciaaii nooi?iue "i?ioanoiaaiiino?" ??cieo i?iaeai, ?o aieea ia iineeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?. No?oeoo?a nioe?aeueiiai iaaaeiaieaiiy caaaeii aeyaeeany noiaeith a iaio aeine?aeaeoaaieo a?oiao (ui a?aeaeaa? ni?euei?noue ?nioth/eo i?iaeai). I?ioa, iaaeaaiae, eio?? ianoithaaee nai? aeiiii?/i? ?ioa?ane oeyoii no?aee?a ? i?eaooaaiue, aeyaeee a?eueoo ??oo/?noue aei o/ano? a aeoe?yo i?ioanoo e o ?ac? iiaeaeueoiai iia??oaiiy iaoa??aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia aeeooy (cao?eiee ca?ia?oii? ieaoi? — 87,3%, ca?eueoaiiy ieaoe ca eaa?oe?o oa eiioiaeuei? iineoae — 70,7%, c?inoaiiy oe?i ia oiaa?e ? iineoae — 70,7%). O iecoe? nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai, ui nooo?ai iineeththoue nioe?aeueio iai?oaeai?noue, ?aniiiaeaioe iniiaii? a?oie ae??ciythoue c?inoaiiy aac?ia?ooy (53,3%) oa iia??oaiiy nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy (50,7%). Aea/aiiy ???a?o?? i?e/ei, ye? no?eiothoue nioe?aeueiee i?ioano, aiiaeeeaeei ae?eoe oaeiai aeniiaeo. Aieiaiith i?e/eiith, ui no?eio? "a?eueo?noue ethaeae, eio?? iio?aieee o oyaeea iaoa??aeueia noaiiaeua", a?ae o/ano? a aeoe?yo i?ioanoo, iaaeaaiae iaio a?oi aaaaeathoue ciaa??o ethaeae o oiio, ui "?oi? i?ioanoe aeaaeooue iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe" (80,7% ? 82,0% a?aeiia?aeii). Aiaeii/an, iaaeaaiae, eio?? iathoue iaaiee aeina?ae o/ano? a ianiaeo aenooiao, a?eueoith i??ith iia'ycothoue a?aenooi?noue ianiaeo i?ioano?a ?c a?aenooi?noth iia?e?caoe?eieo canaae ?icaeoeo i?ioanoieo ?oo?a. Oae, iai?eeeaae, "a?aenooi?noue aeina?aeo ianoithaaiiy nai?o i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a" aaaaeathoue i?e/eiith, ui oo?eio? ethaeae a?ae o/ano? a i?ioanoao, 72,0% ?aniiiaeaio?a iniiaii? ? 54,7% eiio?ieueii? a?oi, a ia "a?aenooi?noue e?aea??a", caeaoieo i?aai?coaaoe ? i/ieeoe i?ioanoi? aenooie, ye ia no?eioth/o i?e/eio aeacaee 64,0% ?aniiiaeaio?a iniiaii? ? 47,3% eiio?ieueii? a?oi (p < .01). Ne?ae iaaieineoe oaeiae ia oiio, ui iiiaae iieiaeia ?aniiiaeaio?a iaio a?oi ca i?e/eio, ui no?eio? ethaeae a?ae o/ano? a ianiaeo aeoe?yo i?ioanoo, aecia/eee oa, "ui iao ia?iae caee aei oiai, uia oa?i?oe aoaeue-ye? o?oaeiiu?". I'yoee ?icae?e - "?ic?iaea i?aeoiaeo ii iiaoaeiae ?ioaa?aeueiiai e?euee?niiai iieacieea nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?" - i?enay/aiee eiino?othaaiith ?ioaa?aeueiiai e?euee?niiai iieacieea nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? - ?iaeaeno aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiino? i?ioanoiiai iioaioe?aeo nioe?oio. Iiaoaeiaa oeueiai iieacieea a?oioo?oueny ia aei??thaaii? nooiaiy caa?ice nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?e noaa?eueiino? aioiaiino? ethaeae aei o/ano? a ??cieo oi?iao nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo. sse no?oeoo?i? neeaaeia? (noaiieacieee) ?ioaa?aeueiiai iieacieea aoei ae??ciaii: 1) aa?aaeueii aeneiaeaia aioiai?noue ?aniiiaeaio?a aei o/ano? a ??cieo eiie?aoieo oi?iao nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo; 2) aenia?oia ioe?iea nooiaiy caa?ice oeeo oi?i nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo aeey noaa?eueiino? neooaoe?? a i. E??iaia?aae? (eiao?oe??ioe aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiino?). Eiino?othaaiiy ?iaeaeno aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiiai i?ioanoiiai iioaioe?aeo nioe?oio cae?enithaaeiny ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co c?a?aiiai i?ae /an aenia?oiiai ? ianiaiai iieooaaiue aii??e/iiai iaoa??aeo. Iaoiaee/iith iniiaith eiino?othaaiiy ?iaeaeno aoei ia?aii i?aeo?ae aei iiaoaeiae oeaee aei??thaaiiy onoaiiaie aia?eeainueeiai ineoieiaa E.Oa?noioia: i?eioeei "caaaeoaaiiy noaeaeaiue" aeey aeiai?o ioieo?a o oeaeo ??aieo ?ioa?aae?a ia i?aenoaa? aenia?oieo ioe?iie. Oeae i?eioeei aoei canoiniaaii i?ae /an aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy aeey aeie?aieaiiy "caaaeaieo" oeaeiaeo aae?a ("aaae") nooiaiy caa?ice aeey noaa?eueiino? neooaoe?? a i.E??iaia?aae? ??cieo oi?i aeneiaethaaiiy i?ioanoo (eiao?oe??ioe aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiino?). I?ae /an iieooaaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a ianaeaiiy (iaaeaaia?a) io?eiaee aeai? uiaei aioiaiino? ethaeae aei o/ano? a oeeo oi?iao nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo. C?iaeai? iaoaiaoeei-noaoenoe/i? i?ioeaaeo?e aeaee ciiao ?ioaa?oaaoe aeai?, iaaoo? a aenia?oiiio oa ianiaiio iieooaaiiyo: ni?anoaaeoe e?euee?ni? iieacieee aioiaiino? ethaeae aei o/ano? a ??cieo eiie?aoieo oi?iao nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo c eiao?oe??ioaie aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiino? oeeo oi?i i?ioanoo. Iaea?aeaiee ?ioaa?aeueiee e?euee?niee iieaciee — ?iaeaen aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiino? i?ioanoiiai iioaioe?aeo nioe?oio — aiiaeeeaea ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iioaioe?ae caa?ice aeey noaa?eueiino? i?ioanoieo onoaiiaie ethaeae. Oae, o a?oi? iaaeaaia?a, eio?? a?aee o/anoue o ianiaeo aeoe?yo i?ioanoo, ?iaeaen aei??aithaaa 2,5 aaea, ui na?ae/eoue i?i a?eueo aenieee aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiee iioaioe?ae i?ioanoieo onoaiiaie o oe??? a?oie ii??aiyii c eiio?ieueiith, aea ?iaeaen noaiiaeoue 1,1 aaea (p < .01). AENIIAEE 1. Nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue o oai?aoe/i?e nioe?ieia?? ? iaei??th c oa?aeoa?enoee i?ioean?a nioe?aeueii? ?ioaa?aoe??—aeac?ioaa?aoe??, yea na?ae/eoue, iane?eueee aenieei ? iioaioe?ae ?oeioaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai eaaeo (aeaa?aioia iiaaae?iea, eiioe?eoe, i?ioanoe, ?aaiethoe?? oiui). 2. O nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiio eiioaeno? nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue oa?aeoa?eco? iioaioe?ae aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiino? onoaiiaie ethaeae ia nioe?aeueiee i?ioano. Ca oiia ia?ao?aeiiai noni?euenoaa, nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue ? iaei??th c aieiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe??, yea oa?aeoa?eco? nooi?iue caa?ice noaa?eueiino? c aieo iioaioe?aeo eiioe?eo?a i?ae aeaaeieie no?oeoo?aie ? ianaeaiiyi. 3. Eiioeaiooaeueia iiaeaeue no?oeoo?e nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? oi?io?oueny o aca?iica'yceo o?ueio eiiiiiaio?a: aiioe?eiiai (iania? iano?i?), ?aoe?iiaeueii-ioe?ithaaeueiiai (a?iiaaenueea aeoiea) ? iiaaae?ieiaiai (aioiai?noue aei i?ioanoii? iiaaae?iee). 4. Aieiaieie i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieie iniaeeainoyie aeecaeio aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? ?: 1) iaiao?aei?noue eiia?ioaaiiy iaoiae?a aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy: ii?aeiaiiy aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a aeaaeieo no?oeoo?, ia eio?eo ni?yiiaaiee nioe?aeueiee i?ioano, oa iieooaaiiy ianaeaiiy, yea aeneiaeth? i?ioanoi? onoaiiaee; 2) aaaaoiaenie?oeeoi?noue nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? iio?aao? caeo/aiiy iaa?oioiaaii? nenoaie aii??e/ieo iieaciee?a ? ?ic?iaee niaoe?aeueiiai iaoiaee/iiai ?ino?oiaioa??th aei??thaaiiy. IOAE?EAOe?? Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a 3 noaooyo. 1. Eeth?iei A. Iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a noni?euenoa?, ui o?ainoi?io?oueny // Nioe?ieia?y: oai??y, iaoiaee, ia?eaoeia. — 1998. — ? 4-5. — N. 41—55. 2. Eeth?iei A. Nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?: oai?aoe/i? i?aeoiaee oa aii??e/i? iieacieee // Nioe?aeuei? aei??e noni?euenoaa: Ca. iaoe. ?ia?o ani??aio?a ? 1. — E.: ?i-o nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, 1998. — N. 211—223. 3. Eeth?iei A. Iaoiaee/i? iniiae aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? // Nioe?aeueia iie?oeea a Oe?a?i? oa no/ani? no?aoaa?? aaeaioaoe?? ianaeaiiy: Ca. iaoe. no. — Oe?. ?i-o nioe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ?i-o nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, Nioe?ieia?/ia anioe?aoe?y Oe?a?ie. – E.: IAO“Nooaeoeaio?” / I?EA-Oeaio?, 1998. — N. 108—111. Eeth?iei A.I. Ae?aaiinoeea nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?. — ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 22.00.03. — nioe?aeueia no?oeoo?a, nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe oa nioe?aeuei? a?aeiineie. — ?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998. Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeaiai eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? ca oiia noni?euenoaa, ui o?ainoi?io?oueny. Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue ? iaei??th c aieiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee nooiaiy noaa?eueiino? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? ? oyaey? niaith aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiee iioaioe?ae onoaiiaie ianaeaiiy ia o/anoue o ??cieo oi?iao nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo. ?icaeiaii eiioeaiooaeueia iieiaeaiiy, ui nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue aeyaey?oueny ia ??ai? ianiaeo iano?i?a, ia ??ai? a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee oa ia ??ai? ianiai? iiaaae?iee. ?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaiaaii iaoiaee/iee ?ino?oiaioa??e aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaee i?aeo?ae aei aei??thaaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?. Eeth/ia? neiaa: nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue, iioaioe?ae nioe?aeueii? aeaci?aai?caoe??, nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia ianoaa?euei?noue, nioe?aeueiee i?ioano, aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiee iioaioe?ae i?ioanoieo onoaiiaie ianaeaiiy, aei??thaaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?. Eethaiei Y.A. Aeeaaiinoeea nioeeaeueiie iai?yaeaiiinoe. — ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa nioeeieiae/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 22.00.03. — nioeeaeueiay no?oeoo?a, nioeeaeueiua einoeooou e nioeeaeueiua ioiioaiey. — Einoeooo nioeeieiaee Iaoeeiiaeueiie aeaaeaiee iaoe Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaiai eiiieaeniiai enneaaeiaaiey nioeeaeueiie iai?yaeaiiinoe a oneiaeyo o?ainoi?ie?othuaainy iauanoaa. Iainiiauaaaony iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi nioeeaeueiay iai?yaeaiiinoue yaeyaony iaeiie ec aeaaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee noaiaie noaaeeueiinoe nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie neooaoeee e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeanoaaeeecaoeeiiiue iioaioeeae onoaiiaie ianaeaiey ia o/anoea a ?acee/iuo oi?iao nioeeaeueiiai i?ioanoa. ?acaeaaaony eiioeaiooaeueiia iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi nioeeaeueiay iai?yaeaiiinoue i?iyaeyaony ia o?iaia ianniauo iano?iaiee, ia o?iaia iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey e ia o?iaia ianniaiai iiaaaeaiey. ?ac?aaioai e ai?iae?iaai iaoiaee/aneee eino?oiaioa?ee yiie?e/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey, iiaue iiaeoiae e ecia?aieth nioeeaeueiie iai?yaeaiiinoe. Eeth/aaua neiaa: nioeeaeueiay iai?yaeaiiinoue, iioaioeeae nioeeaeueiie aeaci?aaiecaoeee, nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneay ianoaaeeueiinoue, nioeeaeueiue i?ioano, aeanoaaeeecaoeeiiiue iioaioeeae i?ioanoiuo onoaiiaie ianaeaiey, ecia?aiea nioeeaeueiie iai?yaeaiiinoe. Klyujenko E. O. Diagnostics of social tension. – Manuscript. Dissertation is maintained for a scientific Degree of the Candidate of Sociological Sciences for Speciality 22.00.03 – Social structure, social institutions and social relations. – The Institute of Sociology of The National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1998. The dissertation is devoted to the complex research of social tension in the transitional society. There has been grounded that social tension is one of the most important stability rate indicator of social-politic situation which could be defined as potential of destabilization of population attitudes towards participation in different forms of social protest. The methodological thesis has been elaborated that social tension is displayed on the three levels: mass emotions, public opinion and mass behavior. New methodics of empirical study and measurement of social tension have been elaborated and tested. Key words: social tension, potential of social disorders, social- politic non-stability, social protest, potential of destabilization of population protest attitudes, measurement of social tension. I?aei. aei ae?oeo 10.11.98. Oi?iao 60o84/16. Iai?? ion. A?aeae?oeiaaii ia ??cia?ao?. Aa?i?oo?a “Times New Roman”. Oi.-ae?oe. a?e. 1,28. Iae.-aeae. a?e. 1,1. Iaeeaae 100 i?ei. Cai. 862. Aaceiooiaii. Aeae?oeiaaii a ?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/ee a?oi? ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai oeaio?o E??iaia?aaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aeiie/aiea 316050, E??iaia?aae–50, aoe. Oaa/aiea, 1. Oae. (0522) 29 31 63 Fax (0522) 24 85 44

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