.

Діагностика соціальної напруженості: Автореф. дис… канд. соціол. наук / Е.О. Клюєнко, НАН України. Ін-т соціол.. — К., 1998. — 17 с. — укp.

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Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo nioe?ieia??

OAeE 301.085:178

Eeth?iei Aaeoa?ae Ieaenaiae?iae/

Ae?AAIINOEEA NIOe?AEUeII? IAI?OAEAIINO?

22.00.03 — nioe?aeueia no?oeoo?a, nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe oa nioe?aeuei?
a?aeiineie

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a ?inoeooo? nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe Iai?ia Iaoae?y

A?eoi??aia, ?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe Oiaeueei Aaea??e ?aaaiiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee
oi?aa?neoao “Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea aeaaeai?y”, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
nioe?ieia??

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe Iaoonaae/ Aieiaeeie? Aioiiiae/, ?inoeooo
nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo
?noi???, oai??? oa iaoiaeieia?? nioe?ieia??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a aaeocaai?
nioe?ieia??, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 22 ” n?/iy 1999 ?. i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 01.08.01 a ?inoeooo? nioe?ieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252021, Ee?a 21, aoe. Oiaeiae/ia, 12

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252021, Ee?a 21, aoe. Oiaeiae/ia,
12

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 19 ” a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Nooeaei N.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Nioe?aeuei? ci?ie, iia’ycai? c
aeiaaeueiith o?ainoi?iaoe??th iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo oa oe?ii?nieo
canaae noni?eueii? nenoaie, iaieio/a noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ii?ooaiiyi
nioe?aeueii? noaa?eueiino?. Iaaia noaa?e?caoe?y nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei o
noni?euenoa?, ui o?ainoi?io?oueny, ? aiaeii/an iaei??th c aieiaieo
oe?eae ?aoi?iaoe?? ? iaeiei ?c iieaciee?a oni?oiiai caaa?oaiiy
ia?ao?aeiiai aoaio.

I?ioeane no?oeoo?ii? ?ai?aai?caoe?? iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo canaae
noni?eueii? nenoaie, ui iaaeiaai caoyaeeny a Oe?a?i?, i?ecaiaeyoue aei
caaino?aiiy noia?a/iinoae i?ae c?inoath/ith iio?aaith ianaeaiiy a
noaa?e?caoe?? oiia aeeooy oa aeeaieei iacaaeiaieaiiyi ??cieie aieaie
aeeooy (ia?aaeon?i — aeiiii?/iei), aiane?aeie /iai iineeththoueny
i?ioanoi? iano?i?. Oae? i?ioeane cao?eniaaii ??aiith i??ith o iie?oe/i?e
i?aeoeoe? (aeaaea ??cieo ??ai?a ia??iaee/ii noeea?oueny c ianiaeie
nioe?aeueieie i?ioanoaie ??ciiiai?oieo nioe?aeueii-i?ioan?eieo
eiioeiaaio?a ianaeaiiy: oaooa??a, iaaee/ieo ? iaoeiaeo i?aoe?aiee?a,
iaaeaaia?a oiui), oa a ?acoeueoaoao iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? iieooaaiue
a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee (aeai? iii?oi?eiao “Oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai”
na?ae/aoue i?i ?noioia iineeaiiy i?ioanoieo iano?i?a a Oe?a?i? o ia??iae
a?ae 1994 aei 1998 ??.).

Aaeath/enue aei oa?aeoa?enoeee neooaoe??, ui neeaaea?oueny, ? oeo
i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny, aaeueie /anoi ? iie?oeee, ? iaoeiaoe?
canoiniaothoue oa?i?i “nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue”. I?e oeueiio,
iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui eaoaai??y “nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue” ? /e ia
iaeiioe?ai?oith i?ae /an aiae?co no/anii? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii?
neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i?, o a?o/eciyi?e nioe?ieia?? e aein? i?aeoe/ii iaia?
oe?eani?yiiaaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo i?iaeai? /?oeiai aecia/aiiy
cacia/aiiai yaeua, eiioeaiooaeueiiio inieneaiith oa ?ic?iaoe?
iaoiaee/iiai ?ino?oiaioa??th, ui aeaei a ciiao aei??thaaoe ? aiae?coaaoe
??aaiue, aeeiai?eo ? /eiieee nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?.

O oeueiio ca’yceo iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? iaaoaa? i?iaeaia ?ic?iaee
eiioeaiooaeueii? iiaeae? ? aaeaeaaoiiai iaoiaee/iiai ?ino?oiaioa??th
aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a noni?euenoa?, ui
o?ainoi?io?oueny.

I??a iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie. O cao?aei?e nioe?ieia??
iaa?iiaaeaeaii aaaaoee aeina?ae o aea/aii? nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a,
iai?oaeaiino?, i?ioanoii? iiaaae?iee (I.Ni?ie?i, ?.Aea?aiaei?o, E.Eica?,
Aeae.?aen, N.Oaio?iaoii, A.Ia?o, O.Ao??, Aeae.O?eia? oa ?i.). I?ioa,
aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai aeina?aeo iio?aao? iaia’yceiaiai inieneaiiy e
o?aooaaiiy niaoeeo?ee aiae?co nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? o iaoiio
noni?euenoa?. O a?o/eciyi?e nioe?ieia??, ui oi?ioaaeany o iaaeao
?aaeyinueeeo noni?eueieo iaoe, ia’?eoeaiee aiae?c nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? (/a?ac ?aeaieia?/i? i?e/eie) oaeoe/ii a?aenooi?e, a naia
iiiyooy ?icaeyaeaeiny ye iai?eeiyoia aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ?nioth/i?
noni?eueii? nenoaie. No/ani? aeine?aeieee iinoaee ia?aae i?iaeaiith
a?aenooiino? aaeaeaaoieo oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo canaae
eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?.

Inoaii?ie ?ieaie o nioe?ieia?/i?e iaooe? Oe?a?ie ? ?in?? c’yaeeeny
i?aoe?, a yeeo ?ice?eoi aeaye? iniaeeaino? ? caeiiii??iinoe iineeaiiy
iie?oe/ii? ianoaa?eueiino? oa nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? ca oiia
ia?ao?aeiiai noni?euenoaa (?.?.Aieiaaoa, I.A.Cae?aaiieneia, I.A.Iai?ia,
A.N.Iaaoi, A.I.?oeaa?oi?eia, ?.A.Aaeaoe?ia, A.N.Iaaiaeaiei,
A.N.Ia?aaaianthe, I.I.Iaca?ia, A.I. Aanthoeinueeee oa ?i.). I?ioa
niaoe?aeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? o a?o/eciyi?e
iaooe? aein? ua ia i?iaiaeeeeny.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea
eiiieaeniiai, eiioeaiooaeueii iaa?oioiaaiiai ? iaoiaee/ii ci???ioiaaiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a noni?euenoa?, ui
o?ainoi?io?oueny.

?aae?caoe?y oe??? iaoe aeiaaaea iine?aeiaiiai ?ica’ycaiiy ianooiieo
caaaeaiue:

1. Cae?enieoe oai?aoe/iee aiae?c iniaeeainoae aecia/aiiy oa ?icoi?iiy
i?noey ? ?ie? nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? o nioe?ieia?/i?e oai???.

2. Ae??cieoe e iaa?oiooaaoe eiioeaiooaeuei? iaae? aii??e/ieo
iiaeeeainoae aei??thaaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a eiie?aoiiio
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiio eiioaeno? aeeooy noni?euenoaa.

3. I?iaiae?coaaoe e ocaaaeueieoe aeinyaiaiiy o aea/aii? nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? ca oiia o?ainoi?iaoe?? no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa a i?aoeyo oe?a?inueeeo nioe?ieia?a.

4. ?ic?iaeoe i?ia?aio oa iaoiaee/iee ?ino?oiaioa??e aii??e/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?.

5. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee/i? i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae ?ioaa?aeueiiai e?euee?niiai
iieacieea nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?.

6. Ai?iaoaaoe ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee/i? i?eioeeie aei??thaaiiy nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? a aii??e/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? (ia i?eeeaae? eiie?aoiiai
oa?eoi??aeueiiai nioe?oio — i. E??iaia?aaea).

Ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?, c iaeiiai
aieo, aae?anaoe nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo – i?aaenoaaieee no?oeoo? aeaaee,
?, c ?ioiai — eaoaai??? ianaeaiiy, ye? ae?aaeathoue nioe?aeueiee
i?ioano.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue a oiiaao
noni?euenoaa, ui o?ainoi?io?oueny, yeo aecia/aii ye aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiee
iioaioe?ae onoaiiaie ianaeaiiy ia nioe?aeueiee i?ioano. Ca oiia
ia?ao?aeiiai noni?euenoaa, nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue ? iaei??th c
aieiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a noa??
a?aeiinei i?ae aeaaeieie no?oeoo?aie ? ianaeaiiyi.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee oa aii??e/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Oai?aoe/io e iaoiaeieia?/io aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue i?eioeeie ?
eaoaai??? no/anii? nioe?ieia?/ii? iaoee (no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee
aiae?c: O.Ia?niin, ?.Ia?oii; oai??y eiioe?eoo: ?.Aea?aiaei?o, E.Eica?,
Aeae.?aen; oai??? ia?ao?aeieo noni?euenoa: N.Oaio?iaoii, Ae.Aaee,
I.Oiooea?, A.Oo?ai). O ?iaio? aeei?enoaii iieiaeaiiy eeane/ieo
eiioeaioe?e, iia’ycaieo c aiae?cii i?iaeai nioe?aeueieo ci?i ? i?ioean?a
nioe?aeueii? ?ioaa?aoe??-aeac?ioaa?aoe?? (A.Niaina?, A.Aeth?eaaei,
A.C?iiaeue, I.Aaaa?, E.Ia?en, A.Ia?aooi, I.Ni?ie?i, A. aea Oiea?eue).
Caeo/aii oaeiae i?aeoiaee aeine?aeiee?a aei aiae?co i?ioanoii?
iiaaae?iee a eiioeaioe?yo nioe?aeueieo ?aaiethoe?e, nioe?aeueieo ?oo?a ?
i?ioano?a (I.Ni?ie?i, N.Oaio?iaoii, A.Ia?o, O.Ao??, E.E?ee?ai), a
eiioeaioe?yo eieaeoeaii? iiaaae?iee (A.Eaaii, C.O?aeae, A.Aeoia?) ?
eiioeaioe?yo aeai?eaaoe?? (N.Noaoooa?, O.?o?ineiai), a aeine?aeaeaiiyo
ie?aieo i?iaeai iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e (N.E?inao, I.Aeiaai, A.Aaoaeia,
?.In?iiaa). Aiae?c nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a oe?a?inueeiio
noni?euenoa? cae?enithaaany ia i?aenoaa? i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo
nioe?ieia?a, a yeeo ?ice?eoi aeaye? iniaeeaino? iineeaiiy nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? a noni?euenoa?, ui o?ainoi?io?oueny (?.?.Aieiaaoa,
I.A.Iai?ia, ?.A.Aaeaoe?ia, A.N.Iaaiaeaiei, A.N.Ia?aaaianthe oa ?i.).

Aii??e/io aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue ?acoeueoaoe aeaio
nioe?ieia?/ieo iieooaaiue i?iaaaeaieo aaoi?ii a i. E??iaia?aae? a
1997-1998 ?ieao (iieooaaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a no?oeoo? aeaaee ? iieooaaiiy
i?aaenoaaiee?a ianaeaiiy, ye? i?eeiaee o/anoue a ianiaeo aeoe?yo
nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo), a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe aii??e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
i?iaaaeaieo ?inoeoooii nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie. Iaoiaeaie aii??e/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee: iieooaaiiy aenia?o?a, iieooaaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a
ianaeaiiy, eiioaio-aiae?c. I?e ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/iiai ?ino?oiaioa??th
aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy canoiniaaii iaoiaee/iee i?aeo?ae E.Oa?noioia,
iaoiaee/i? ?ic?iaee I.Iai?ii?, ?.Aieiaaoe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?aceoeueoao?a. O aeine?aeaeaii? ?ic?iaeaii
iniiae eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co oa aii??e/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?, ye? aeathoue ciiao ae??cieoe
iaoiaeieia?/i? ? iaoiaee/i? iniaeeaino? aea/aiiy nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? ca oiia noni?euenoaa, ui o?ainoi?io?oueny.

Cie?aia:

— ae??ciaii ? i?iaiae?ciaaii ??ci? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? o oai?aoe/i?e nioe?ieia??, iieacaii, ui iacaaaeath/e ia
?ica?aeiino? o o?aeooaaii? i?noey ? ?ie? nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a
i?ioeanao nioe?aeueii? ?ioaa?aoe??, i?ae nioe?aeueiith iai?oaeai?noth
?icoi?thoue iayai?noue o nioe?oi? iioaioe?aeo aeanoaa?e?coth/eo
nioe?aeueiee ii?yaeie yaeu (n. 11-31);

— neioaciaaii ? oe?oa ?icaeiaii iaa?iiaaeaeaiee o a?o/eciyi?e ?
ca?oa?aei?e nioe?ieia?? aeina?ae aea/aiiy ie?aieo aniaeo?a nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? (i?e/ei, /eiiee?a, i?iya?a), ui aiiaeeeaeei ae??cieoe
niaoeeo?eo aiae?co nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? o ia?ao?aeiiio
oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? (n. 48-76);

— o iaaeao cai?iiiiiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii ? iaa?oioiaaii
eiioeaiooaeueio iiaeaeue o?eeiiiiiaioii? no?oeoo?e nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino?: iania? iano?i?, a?iiaaenueea aeoiea ? ianiaa iiaaae?iea
(n. 32-48);

— oia?oa a aii??e/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? (ia i?eeeaae? i.E??iaia?aaea)
ai?iaiaaii eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei aei??thaaiiy nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? (n. 77-147);

— ?ic?iaeaii i?aeo?ae aei iiaoaeiae ?ioaa?aeueiiai e?euee?niiai
iieacieea nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? — ?iaeaeno aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiiai
i?ioanoiiai iioaioe?aeo nioe?oio (n. 148-162).

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a. Cai?iiiiiaaiee o ?iaio? oai?aoe/iee
? iaoiaee/iee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? iiaea
neoaoaaoe iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee noaiaea?oeciaaii? iaoiaeeee
aei??thaaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?, ui aeanoue ciiao ?aaoey?ii
a?aenoaaeoaaoe nooi?iue noaa?eueiino? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe??.

Iaoiaeeea ? ?acoeueoaoe aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaaaeai? a
aeena?oaoe??, iiaeooue aooe ?aeiiaiaeiaai? i?aaenoaaieeai aeaaeieo
no?oeoo? aeey canoinoaaiiy i?ae /an aiae?co nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii?
neooaoe??. ?ic?iaeai? a aeena?oaoe?? oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy,
a oaeiae aeai? aii??e/ii? /anoeie ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? o
aoc?anueeeo eo?nao nioe?ieia??.

Oaia aeena?oaoe?? aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaia c iaoeiai-aeine?aeiith
ae?yeuei?noth a?aeae?eo nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a ?inoeoooo
nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie o aaeoc? aeine?aeaeaiue ineoieia?/iiai noaio ?
nioe?aeueiiai naiiii/oooy ianaeaiiy, aioiaiino? ianaeaiiy aei
nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo, iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e ianaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aoei
aeeeaaeaii o aenooi? ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “Nioe?aeueia
iie?oeea aea?aeaae ? no?aoaa?? aaeaioaoe?? ianaeaiiy ca oiia
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece” (Ee?a, 1998) ? ia can?aeaiiyo a?aeae?eo
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a ?inoeoooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (173 iaeiaioaaiiy),
aeaio aeiaeaoe?a. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 199 n. Nienie aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae, 16 oaaeeoeue, aeiaeaoee caeiathoue 32 n.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? aeeeaaeaii aeooaeuei?noue ? i??o iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy
i?iaeaie, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo, caaaeaiiy, ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie?aneaii oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee oa aii??e/io
aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeeaaeaii iaoeiao iiaecio ? i?aeoe/io cia/ou?noue
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iaaaaeaii ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aea/aiiy
nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?” – cae?eniaii oai?aoe/iee aiae?c nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino?. O oai?aoe/ieo eiioeaioe?yo caaaeueii? nioe?ieia??
ii-??ciiio aecia/athoue i?noea ? ?ieue nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a
nioe?oi?. C iiaeyaeo no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? iiaeae? noni?eueiiai
?icaeoeo, nioe?aeuei? iai?oaeaiiy aecia/athoueny ye aeenooieoe??,
nioe?aeuei? iaoieia??, ye? cana?ae/othoue ii?ooaiiy ii?iaoeaiiai noaio
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie, a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae aiiainoaoe/iino? (O.Ia?niin,
?.Ia?oii). Ca?aene aeieeaa?, ui ?ieue nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a
noni?eueiiio ?icaeoeia? aecia/a?oueny ye aeano?oeoeaia, iaaaoeaia. O
eiioe?eoieia?/i?e ia?aaeeai? iaaieioo?oueny ia anacaaaeueiino?,
anai?enooiino?, oi?aa?naeueiino? nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?
(?.Aea?aiaei?o, E.Eica?, Aeae.?aen). Nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue ooo —
ii?iaeueia ? iaieio/a yaeua, yea ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith iiceoeaiiai
i?ioeano ?icaeoeo ? ioi?ieaiiy nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a, ye?, a naith
/a?ao, i?ecaiaeyoue aei nioe?aeueieo ci?i, a ioaea, e ni?eythoue
?icaeoeia? noni?euenoaa. O oai??yo ia?ao?aeieo noni?euenoa
(iiaea?i?caoe??, iino?iaeono??aeueiiai noni?euenoaa) aneaeaoe?y
nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? iinoa? iaieio/ei, caeiiii??iei i?ioeanii i?ae
/an ia?ao?aeieo, o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo ia??iae?a ?icaeoeo nioe?oio. A oae?
ia??iaee nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue aenooia? ?acoeueoaoii nioe?aeueieo
ci?i nenoaiiiai oa?aeoa?o (N.Oaio?iaoii, I.Oiooea?, Ae.Aaee, A.Oo?ai).

I?ioa, iacaaaeath/e ia a?aei?iiino? a o?aeooaaii? i?noey ? ?ie?
nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a i?ioeanao i?aai?caoe?? oa aeaci?aai?caoe??
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie, i?ae nioe?aeueiith iai?oaeai?noth caaaeii
?icoi?thoue iayai?noue o noni?euenoa? iaaiiai iioaioe?aeo
aeanoaa?e?coth/eo nioe?aeueiee eaae yaeu (aeaa?aioia iiaaae?iea,
nioe?aeuei? eiioe?eoe, nioe?aeuei? i?ioanoe, ?aaiethoe?? oiui).
Nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue o oai?aoe/i?e nioe?ieia?? — oea iaeia c
oa?aeoa?enoee i?ioean?a nioe?aeueii? ?ioaa?aoe??-aeac?ioa?aaoe??, yea
iieaco?, iane?eueee aenieei ? iioaioe?ae aeanoaa?e?caoe?? oa ?oeioaaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai eaaeo, oa?aeoa?ecoth/e aiaeii/an nooi?iue noni?eueii?
noaa?eueiino?.

Nie?ath/enue ia aiae?c caaaeueiiai a ?icoi?ii? nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? caaaeueiinioe?ieia?/ieie oai??yie, o eiie?aoiiio
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiio eiioaeno? nioe?aeueio iai?oaeai?noue iiaeia
aecia/eoe ye oa?aeoa?enoeeo nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe??, ui
a?aeaeaa? aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiee iioaioe?ae onoaiiaie ethaeae uiaei o/ano?
a ??ciiiai?oieo oi?iao nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo.

Iiiyooy “aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiee iioaioe?ae i?ioanoieo onoaiiaie”
oa?aeoa?eco? nooi?iue iioe?aiino? onoaiiaie ethaeae ia ae?aaeaiiy
iaaaeiaieaiiy ? i?ioanoo a ianiaeo oi?iao a?aeaa?oiai i?ioenoiyiiy
no?oeoo?ai aeaaee. Nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue, ioaea, oa?aeoa?eco?
nooi?iue caa?ice noaa?eueiino? c aieo iioaioe?aeo iie?oe/ieo eiioe?eo?a
o noa?? “aeaaei? no?oeoo?e—ianaeaiiy”.

O cao?aei?e nioe?ieia?? ?niothoue ??ci? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy
i?ioanoii? iiaaae?iee. A eiioeaioe?yo eieaeoeaii? iiaaae?iee
nioe?aeueiee i?ioano ?icaeyaeathoue ye iaeei ?c ?? oei?a, a aeania
iiiyooy “i?ioano” ?icoaoiaothoue ii?yae ?c oaeei iiiyooyi ye
???aoe?iiaeueiee, “aoio?aiee iaoiai” (A.Eaaii, A.Aeoia?). O iaaeao
iie?oe/ii? nioe?ieia?? i?ioano aecia/athoue ? ye oi?io “iao?aaeeoe?eii?”
(iaii?iiaaii?) iie?oe/ii? iiaaae?iee, iia’ycaii? c ii?ooaiiyi
noni?eueiiai eaaeo (A.Ia?o), ? ye “ia?inoeoooe?iiaeueio” oi?io
iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae (Ae.Oeieueiee), ? ye ??ciiaeae iie?oe/iiai
eiioe?eoo (O.Ao??). ?niothoue oaeiae ? “eiii?ii?ni?” iiaeyaee ia
i?ioanoio iiaaae?ieo, ca?aeii yeei ?ooe i?ioanoo ia caiaeyoueny oe?eeii
aei eieaeoeaii? iiaaae?iee ? ia ?icaeyaeathoueny ye anaa?/ia ao?eaiiy
niinia?a ianoithaaiiy ?ioa?an?a, a ?aaeoa i?noyoue a nia? aeaiaioe ?
oiai, ? oiai (Aeae.O?eiai). Caaaeueiei o aecia/aii? i?ioanoii?
iiaaae?iee ? oa, ui i?ae ?oa?eeith “nioe?aeueiee i?ioano” aeine?aeieeaie
i?eeiyoi ii?aeioaaoe iania? oi?ie aieeao ethaeae ia iie?oeeo aeaaeieo
no?oeoo? (I.Ooiiiea, A.Aaoaeia).

Aiae?coth/e nioe?aeueio iai?oaeai?noue, ne?ae ?ic??ciyoe ?aaeueiee
i?ioano (i?ioano ye ae?th), yeee yaey? niaith aeooaeueiee iie?oe/iee
eiioe?eo, ? iioaioe?eiee i?ioano – i?ioano ye onoaiiaea. O
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? noni?euenoaa nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue
aeyaey?oueny ye a onoaiiaeao ianaeaiiy ia eaa?oeii? oi?ie nioe?aeueiiai
i?ioanoo (cae?aiiy i?aeien?a, naieoe?iiiaai? i?oeiae ? aeaiiino?aoe??,
no?aeee, i?eaooaaiiy aea?aeaaieo onoaiia oiui), oae ? a onoaiiaeao ia
iaeaa?oeii? e aeno?ai?nonuee? oi?ie i?ioanoii? iiaaae?iee:
ianaieoe?iiiaai? i?oeiae, aieeio, aieiaeoaaiiy, aeieaaea ??cieo ia’?eo?a
oiui. I?i caaaeueio oaiaeaioe?th aeeiai?ee nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?
iiaeia noaeeoe ia i?aenoaa? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy onoaiiaie ethaeae ia
eaa?oeii? e iaeaa?oeii? oi?ie ae?aaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo.

I?e oeueiio ne?ae caaaeaoe ia oa, ui ca oiia o?ainoi?iaoe??
noni?euenoaa, eiee nioe?aeueia eiinie?aeaoe?y ? iia?e?caoe?y ?ano?n?a
on?o nioe?aeueieo a?oi iaiao?aeia aeey nioe?aeueii? ?ioaa?aoe?? ia iia?e
iniia?, aenieee nooi?iue aioiaiino? ethaeae aei ae?aaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai
i?ioanoo iaa?oue o eaa?oeiieo oi?iao, oaeiae caeaoia i?ecaiaeeoe aei
iineeaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?, iiaeeaethaaoe eiio?iioaoe?ei?noue,
?, c?aooith, caaaaeaoe noaa?e?caoe?? noni?euenoaa.

Ca?aeii aei i?iiiiiaaii? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? eiioeaiooaeueii?
iiaeae?, iaa?oioiaaii o?eeiiiiiaioio no?oeoo?o nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? (a?aeiia?aeii aei caaaeueiii?eeiyoi? o?eeiiiiiaioii?
no?oeoo?e nioe?aeueii? onoaiiaee): aiioe?eiee eiiiiiaio i?ioanoieo
onoaiiaie, ?aoe?iiaeueii-ioe?ieiaee eiiiiiaio i?ioanoieo onoaiiaie ?
iiaaae?ieiaee eiiiiiaio i?ioanoieo onoaiiaie. Nioe?aeueia
iai?oaeai?noue, ioaea, iinoa? a noni?euenoa?, ii-ia?oa, ia ??ai? ianiaeo
iano?i?a (c?inoaiiy aiioe?eii? iai?oaeaiino? – iaaaoeaieo aiioe?e:
aa?aneai?noue, iaoa?iei?noue, iceiaeaiiy, ?icae?aoiaai?noue, oiui),
ii-ae?oaa, ia ??ai? a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee (nooi?iue “i?ioanoiino?”,
eiio?iioaoe?eiino? iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino?), ?, ii-o?ao?, — ia ??ai?
ianiai? iiaaae?iee (aioiai?noue ethaeae aei o/ano? a aeoe?yo i?ioanoo).

Na?aae i?e/ei, ye? i?aeaeuothoue eiia??i?noue ?icaeoeo i?ioanoieo
onoaiiaie (iniaeeai a ianoaa?eueiiio noni?euenoa?), aeine?aeieee
aeie?aieththoue, ii-ia?oa, ?icaeoie oaiiiaio aeai?eaaoe?? – noa?eoeaiiai
iaaaeiaieaiiy ethaeae nai?i oaia?aoi?i noaiiaeuai o noni?euenoa?
(E.E?ee?ai, A.Ayo?), ?, ii-ae?oaa, ia?icaeiai?noue iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e
ianaeaiiy: i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy iaaeia??e aei io?oe?eieo no?oeoo? aeaaee ?
iie?oe/ieo e?aea??a, iecueeee ??aaiue iie?oe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? oa
iie?oe/ii? caeo/aiino? a ii?iiaai? (“o?aaeeoe?ei?”) oi?ie iie?oe/ii?
aeoeaiino? (N.E?inao, I.Aeiaai).

A aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiao?oueny, ui i?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? a ia?ao?aeiiio oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? ne?ae caaaeaoe
ia ieceo iniaeeainoae nioe?aeueii? ineoieia??: ?icaeoie oaiiiai?a
“noa’?eoeaiiai coaiae?iiy”, ianiai? “a?ia?ae?aaiinoeee”, aenieee ??aaiue
aeaii?ae?ciaaiino? ianaeaiiy (A.Aieiaaoa, I.Iai?ia).

Noa’?eoaie-iin?yie nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?, ye i?aaeei, ? nioe?aeuei?
noa’?eoe, eio?? ia ?ioaa?iaai? ye neeaaeiaa a iie?oe/io nenoaio
noni?euenoaa (ia?a?iaeuei? a?oie), aai ia caaeiaieai? yeeienue aniaeoaie
naiai noaiiaeua (N.Oaio?iaoii, A.Ia?eoca, N.Eeinao).

Ae?oaee ?icae?e – “I?ia?aia aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? (ia i?eeeaae? i. E??iaia?aaea)” – i?enay/aiee aiae?co
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo iniaeeainoae aea/aiiy nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino? aii??e/ieie iaoiaeaie ? ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/iiai
?ino?oiaioa??th aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O no?oeoo?? i?ia?aie aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/aii: 1) iaoo,
caaaeaiiy, i?aai?caoe?ei? iniaeeaino? aeine?aeaeaiiy; 2) ia’?eo
aeine?aeaeaiiy; 3) i?eioeeie oi?ioaaiiy aeai?ie; 4) i?aaeiao ?
aaia?aeueio a?iioaco aeine?aeaeaiiy; 5) nenoaio iieaciee?a oa
iaoiaee/iee ?ino?oiaioa??e aeine?aeaeaiiy; 6) i?eioeeie aiae?co
ia?aeiii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Iaoith aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aiae?c no?oeoo?e, iniaeeainoae
i?iyao oa iiaeeeainoae aei??thaaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? ia
eiie?aoiiio i?eeeaae? aea/aiiy nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a i.
E??iaia?aae?.

Ieaioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?? aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeiny ia i?aenoaa?
eiioeaiooaeueiiai iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo
oa?aeoa?enoee nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? ? aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiee
iioaioe?ae aa?oeeaeueieo iie?oe/ieo eiioe?eo?a (“aeaaea—ia?iae”). Ioaea,
uia iaoe anaa?/io ea?oeio nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?, aeioe?eueii
i?iaanoe nioe?ieia?/ia iieooaaiiy ye i?aaenoaaiee?a ianaeaiiy, eio??
ae?aaeathoue iaai? i?ioanoi? onoaiiaee, oae ? iieooaaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a
aeaaee, yeei oeae i?ioano aae?aniaaii. C?aooith i?aai?caoe?eiee ieai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?uoaaa aeaa aoaie: 1) iieooaaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a
aeaaeieo no?oeoo?; 2) iieooaaiiy /anoeie ianaeaiiy, ye?e i?eoaiaiia
aioiai?noue aei nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo.

O aeine?aeaeaii? canoiniaoaaeeny ianooii? iaoiaee cai?o aii??e/ii?
?ioi?iaoe??: 1) Aenia?oia iieooaaiiy; 2) Iieooaaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a
ianaeaiiy, eio?? aa?ooue o/anoue o ianiaeo aeoe?yo i?ioanoo; 3)
Eiioaio-aiae?c a?aeiia?aeae ia a?aee?eo? ieoaiiy aieaoe, cie?aia, ia
ieoaiiy aieaoe aenia?oa uiaei iiiyooy e iieaciee?a nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino?, a oaeiae ia ieoaiiy aieaoe aeey iieooaaiiy ianaeaiiy
uiaei iioea?a o/ano? a aeoe?yo i?ioanoo.

I?ae /an ia?oiai aoaio aeine?aeaeaiiy — aenia?oia iieooaaiiy — a yeino?
yeiaeeiiiaoaioi?oeo, ia iaoo aeoieo, aenia?o?a aenooiaee ea??aieee
i?aai?a i?noeaai? aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, aaeaea naia ?i ia?aaeian?i
aae?aniaaiee nioe?aeueiee i?ioano ? naia aiie iathoue iia?aoeaii
?aaaoaaoe ia o? aai o? ae?? ianaeaiiy o ?ac? ianiaeo aeoe?e i?ioanoo.
Aeey o/ano? a aeine?aeaeaii? a?aeae?aeeny iniae c /enea ea??aiiai
ia?niiaeo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee E??iaia?aaenueei? iaeano?
(iaeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe??, ?aeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe?? oa i?nueeaeeiieiio).
Ca e?eoa??e a?aeai?o aenia?o?a aoei iieeaaeaii oi?iaeueii-iinaaeiaee
noaoon aenia?oa: a?ae?a?ai? i?aaenoaaieee aeaaeieo no?oeoo?, iinaaee
yeeo ia ieae/? ca ??aaiue “ia/aeueieea a?aeae?eo”. Caaaeii aoei iieoaii
50 aenia?o?a.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei canoiniaaii aiae?oe/iee i?aeo?ae
aei a?aeai?o ?aniiiaeaio?a. C iaeyaeo ia aeoiee aenia?o?a aoei ae??ciaii
eaoaai??? ianaeaiiy, yeei iaea?eueo i?eoaiaii? eiio?iioaoe?ei?,
i?ioanoi? iano?i?. A?oiooth/enue ia iiia?aaeiueiio aiae?cia? iioaioe?eii
eiia??ieo ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo
i?ioanoieo onoaiiaie ianaeaiiy ? c iaeyaeo ia aenia?oi? ioeaiee, ie
coieieeeny ia na?aaei?o oeieao i.E??iaia?aaea, eieaeoeae yeeo a?aee
o/anoue o no?aeeao ? i?eaooaaiiyo i?ae /an i?aeaioiaee ? i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy (1997 ?.). Aeey o/ano? a iieooaaii? aeiae?aeeny iaaeaaiae
oeo na?aaei?o oe?e, ye? aoee aecia/ai? aenia?oaie ye iaea?eueo
“aeaooiiaaacia/i?” ? oae?, ui a?aee o/anoue a aeoe?yo i?ioanoo (iniiaia
a?oia). Aeey ioe?iee aae?aeiino? iaoiaee/iiai ?ino?oiaioa??th aoei
i?aeaioiaeaii aea??eo eiio?ieueii? a?oie, aei yei? oa?eoee iaaeaaiae
na?aaei?o oe?e, eio?? ia a?aee o/ano? a no?aeeao ? i?eaooaaiiyo. Onueiai
aoei iieoaii 300 ?aniiiaeaio?a (ii 150 in?a a iniiai?e ? eiio?ieuei?e
a?oiao) iaoiaeii nooe?eueiiai iieooaaiiy.

Aaia?aeueiith a?iioacith aeine?aeaeaiiy, aii??e/ia ia?aa??ea yei? aeaea
a ciiao ioe?ieoe aae?aei?noue iaoiaee/iiai ?ino?oiaioa??th, aoei
i?eiouaiiy uiaei oiai, ui aeey nioe?aeueieo noa’?eo?a, eio?? a?aee
o/anoue o ianiaeo aeoe?yo i?ioanoo, aeanoeaee aeuee iioaioe?ae
aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiino? i?ioanoieo onoaiiaie, ii??aiyii ?c nioe?aeueieie
noa’?eoaie, ye? ia a?aee o/ano? o i?ioanoieo aenooiao.

O?ao?e ?icae?e ?iaioe – “Aei??thaaiiy ??aiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?
iaoiaeii aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy” – i?enay/aiee aiae?cia? ?acoeueoao?a
iieooaaiiy aenia?o?a, i?iaaaeaiiai a i.E??iaia?aae? a ia??iae a?ae
25.08.1997 aei 27.09.1997 ??. iaoiaeii ?icaeaoeiaiai aieaooaaiiy ?
aeiiiaiaiee iano?oeoo?iaaiei ?ioa?a’th oa iaoiaeaie eiioaio-aiae?co. Ia
i?aenoaa? aiae?co ia?aeiii? ?ioi?iaoe?? c?iaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo
iniaeeainoae i?iyao nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a i. E??iaia?aae?.

1. Ia??iaee/ii aeanoaa?e?coth/? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/io neooaoe?th a
i.E??iaia?aae? ie?ai? aeoe?? nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo, ia aeoieo 66%
iieoaieo i?aaenoaaiee?a i?noeaai? aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, ia ? na?ae/aiiyi
oi?ioaaiiy e?eoe/ii?, “aeaooiiaaacia/ii?” neooaoe??, yea caaaeii
caeeoa?oueny noaa?eueiith.

2. Iniiaieie noa’?eoaie-iin?yie nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a
i.E??iaia?aae? ? nioe?aeuei? a?oie, ?ioaa?iaai? a aea?aeaaiee naeoi?
aeiiii?ee oa ?io?ano?oeoo?e: ia aeoieo 90% aenia?o?a – neoaeaiaoe?
(iaaeaaiae, iaaee/i? i?aoe?aieee), ?ia?oieee aaeeeeo i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa (64%), a oaeiae iain?iia?e (56%) ? aac?ia?oi? (36%).

3. Nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue aecia/a?oueny i?aaenoaaieeaie no?oeoo?
aeaaee ia?aaaaeii ye oa?aeoa?enoeea c?inoaiiy oaeeo aeanoaa?e?coth/eo
noni?eueieo yaeu, ye? na?ae/aoue i?i iaaaaeaia (aeey aeaaeieo no?oeoo?)
c?inoaiiy iioaioe?aeo iano?i?a i?ioanoo o ianaeaiiy (“a?aeaa?oa
aeneiaethaaiiy ethaeueie i?ioanoo”, “c?inoaiiy iacaaeiaieaiiy iie?oeeith
aeaaee”). Aiaeii/an, oa?aeoa?ecoth/e naia iiiyooy “nioe?aeueia
iai?oaeai?noue”, aenia?oe a?aecia/aee oaeiae ? iineeaiiy iaaaoeaieo yaeu
o iania?e ineoieia?? (?ino iacaaeiaieaiino? oiiaaie aeeooy,
aa?aneai?noue, iceiaeai?noue, ?icae?aoiaai?noue).

4. C /enea iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeoe?e nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo
(iania?noue, o?eaae?noue, caeiii?noue, noeo?ei?noue) iaea?eueo cia/iee
aieea, ia aeoieo aenia?o?a, ia ?icaeoie nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?
cae?enith? iania?noue i?ioanoieo aenooi?a (na?aaei?e aae nooiaiy aieeao
— 3,6; oeaea 1—5), a iaeiaioee — eaa?oeii?noue (2,4 aaee).

5. Ia i?aenoaa? aenia?oieo ioe?iie c?iaeaii ii??aiyeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo
nooiaiy caa?ice ii?yaeeo ? noaa?eueiino? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii?
neooaoe?? o i.E??iaia?aae? c aieo ??cieo eiie?aoieo oi?i aeneiaethaaiiy
ianaeaiiyi nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo. Aiane?aeie aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a
aeanoaa?e?caoe?eiino? eiaeii? c oi?i nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo a ?iaio?
iaaaaeaii ???a?o?th ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i ae?aaeaiiy i?ioanoo caeaaeii a?ae
?o aeanoaa?e?coth/iai iioaioe?aeo (a aaeao): 1) aoee/i? caai?ooaiiy
(9,5); 2) noai?aiiy ica?i?ieo oi?ioaaiue (9,2); 3) caoiieaiiy aoaeeie?a
(7,9); 4) naiiniaeaiiy (6,6); 5) no?aeee (5,7); 6) aieiaeoaaiiy (5,5);
7) i?eaooaaiiy aea?aeaaieo onoaiia (5,3); 8) ianaieoe?iiiaai? i?oeiae ?
aeaiiino?aoe?? (5,1); 9) naieoe?iiiaai? i?oeiae ? aeaiiino?aoe?? (5,0);
10) caa?ica no?aeeii (4,9); 11) aieeio (4,7); 12) caa?iaiiy c aeiiaaie
aei i?aai?a aeaaee (3,8); 13) cae?aiiy i?aeien?a i?ae eieaeoeaieie
aeiiaaie (3,7); 14) e?eoe/i? aenooie a caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??
(3,5).

Oaeei /eiii, nooi?iue nioe?aeueii? iaaaciaee aeneiaethaaiiy ethaeueie
i?ioanoo a aoaeue-ye?e oi?i? caeaaeeoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o oe??? oi?ie: /ei
/?oe?oei ? ?aaeeeaeueiee ? iaeaa?oeiiee oa?aeoa? oi?ie nioe?aeueiiai
i?ioanoo, oei aeuee nooi?iue caa?ice aeey noaa?eueiino? iaoeia
ae?aaeaiiy ethaeueie i?ioanoo a oae?e oi?i?.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e – “Nioe?aeueia iai?oaeai?noue ? o/anoue o ianiaeo
aeoe?yo i?ioanoo (?acoeueoaoe aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy)” – i?enay/aiee
aea/aiith nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? ia eiie?aoieo nioe?aeueieo ia’?eoao
— na?aaei?o oeieao i. E??iaia?aaea. Iieooaaiiy i?iaiaeeee a ia??iae a?ae
14.10.1997 aei 15.01.1998 ??. iaoiaeii ?icaeaoeiaiai aieaooaaiiy.

Eia?ea ?ino?oiaioa??th oa aiae?co aii??e/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a?oiooaaeany ia
eiioeaiooaeueiiio iieiaeaii?, ui no?oeoo?a nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?
neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio aca?iiiia’ycaieo eiiiiiaio?a, ye? ? aiaeii/an
neeaaeiino?oeoo?iaaieie iieacieeaie: 1) ineoieia?/iee iioaioe?ae
nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo (aiioe?eia iai?oaeai?noue, nioe?aeuei?
i/?eoaaiiy); 2) nooi?iue “i?ioanoiino?”, eiio?iioaoe?eiino? iie?oe/ii?
na?aeiiino? ethaeae (noaaeaiiy aei nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo ? ioe?iea eiai
aoaeoeaiino?); 3) iiaaae?ieiaee iioaioe?ae nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo
(aioiai?noue aei nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo).

Aiae?c ineoieia?/iiai iioaioe?aeo nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo (aiioe?eii?
iai?oaeaiino?) cae?enithaaany ia i?aenoaa? canoinoaaiiy aeaio aii??e/ieo
iieaciee?a: 1) ioe?iea ?iaeea?aeii ineoieia?/iiai noaio ioi/oth/eo ?
ioe?iea aeaniiai aiioe?eiiai noaio (ieoaiiy aieaoe: “Aeaae?oue, aoaeue
eanea, ye? c ia?ae?/aieo ii/ooo?a inoaii?i ?ieii iineeeeeny a a?eueoino?
ethaeae ? o aan iniaenoi?”); 2) aiioe?eii-ioe?ieiaa noaaeaiiy aei
iaeaooiueiai (ieoaiiy aieaoe: “C yeeie ii/oooyie Ae aeoia?oa i?i
caao?aoi?e aeaiue, i?i iaeaooi??”).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeee aeine?aeieoeueeo a?iioaco
noiniaii oiai, ui ethaeyi, eio?? a?aee o/anoue o ianiaeo aeoe?yo
nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo, i?eoaiaiia a?eueo aeniea aiioe?eia
iai?oaeai?noue, a?eueo iaaaoeaiee aiioe?eiee noai. Ia i?aenoaa?
ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ioe?iie ci?i aiioe?eiiai noaio cao?eniaaii
aaeueie iieacia? a?aei?iiino? i?ae iniiaiith ? eiio?ieueiith a?oiaie
?aniiiaeaio?a: aiioe?eiee noai iaaeaaia?a, eio?? a?aee o/anoue o
no?aeeao, noaiiaeoue ni?eyoeea?oa oei aeey i?ioanoii? iiaaae?iee. Oea
aeyaey?oueny o a?eueo iaaaoeaieo ioe?ieao o/anieeaie aeoe?e i?ioanoo
ci?i ye aeaniiai aiioe?eiiai noaio, oae ? aiioe?eiiai noaio a?eueoino?
ethaeae (ia?aaeon?i, a?ae/oooy c?inoaiiy iceiaeaiino?, aa?aneaiino?,
?icae?aoiaaiino?). Oae, iai?eeeaae, o a?oi? iaaeaaia?a, eio??
i?ioanooaaee, 38,7% ?aniiiaeaio?a a?aecia/aee c?inoaiiy inoaii?i ?ieii
“o naaa iniaenoi” ii/ooo?a iceiaeaiino? oa aa?aneaiino?, 62,7% —
?icae?aoiaaiino?, 74,0% — o?eaiae. O eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? oe? iieacieee
a?aeiia?aeii ieae/? — 28,7%, 39,3% oa 54,0% (p

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