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Діагностика міцності нероз’ємних елементів конструкцій методом акустичної емісії: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / І.І. Ковтун, Технол. ун-т Поділля

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I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

OAOIIEIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO IIAe?EEss

OAeE
621.01:620.179.1

Eiaooi ?ai? ?aaiiae/

Ae?AAIINOEEA I?OeIINO? IA?IC’?IIEO AEAIAIO?A EIINO?OEOe?E IAOIAeII
AEONOE*II? AI?N??

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.02.02 – Iaoeiiciaanoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oiaeueieoeueeee – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oaoiieia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? Iiae?eey (i.
Oiaeueieoeueeee)

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,i?ioani?

?ieciai A?eai Iao?iae/,

Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?eeeaaeii? iaoai?ee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?enianueeee Aeueaa?o Ia/eneaaiae/,
O?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo ?i. ?iooa ?in?enueei? Aeaaeai?? iaoe,
i.Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Iia?eia TH??e Ai?eniae/, Aeaaeai?y
I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie ?i. A.Oiaeueieoeueeiai, i.Oiaeueieoeueeee,
ia/aeueiee eaoaae?e ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ieo cania?a ioi?iie ei?aeii?a.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo”, eaai?aoi??y cania?a ae?aaiinoeee, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 25 ” a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae70.052.02 i?e Oaoiieia?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? Iiae?eey ca aae?anith: 280016, i.Oiaeueieoeueeee, aoe.
?inoeooonueea, 11, 3-e o/aiaee ei?ion

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Iiae?eey (aoe. Eai’yiaoeueea, 110/1).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 24 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio A.N.Eaeaea

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Noai?aiiy no/anieo iaoei ? eiino?oeoe?e aeniei?
yeino? oa iaae?eiino? iia’ycaii c aeei?enoaiiyi aenieii?oeieo iaoa??ae?a
c caaeaieie o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie. Nueiaiaei? oe?iea
canoinoaaiiy ciaoiaeyoue iia?, a oiio /ene? eiiiiceoe?ei?, iaoa??aee oa
?o c’?aeiaiiy, c yeeo aeaioiaeythoue iano/? aeaiaioe, a?aeiia?aeaeuei?
aeaoae? oa eiino?oeoe?? a iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?, aa?aaoaeoaaii?,
noaeiiaoaeoaaii?, aoae?aieoeoa? oa ae?oaeo aaeocyo oaoi?ee. Iaeiae,
ia??aeei a i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa a a?aeiia?aeaeueieo aeaoaeyo
c’yaeythoueny ??ciiai ?iaeo aeaoaeoe (?aeiaeie, ii?e, o??ueie,
?icoa?oaaiiy ? o.ae.), ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ci?ie o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae, iia??oaiith yeino? oa iaae?eiino? ae?ia?a. Oiio inoaii?i
/anii a ??oaii? caaea/ i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? ae?ia?a io?eiaa ?icaeoie
i?aeo?ae, caniiaaiee ia aea/aii? o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny
a iaoa??ae? (ae?ia?) ? ? i?e/eiith iiyae iieiiie.

A?eueo?noue a?aeiieo iaoiae?a ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth noaio iaoa??ae?a,
oae? ye oeueo?acaoeiaa aeaoaeoineii?y ? ?aioaai?anueea ?aae?ia?ao?y
caaacia/othoue eeoa aea??eiaee eiio?ieue a ie?aieo ciiao iaoa??aeo,
aeyaeyth/e cia/i? aeaoaeoe, ? ia aeathoue ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i oa,
iane?eueee iaaacia/iei iiaea aooe aeyaeaiee aeaoaeo, oi/a oie naiee
aeaoaeo iiaea aooe iaaacia/iei aai aacia/iei o caeaaeiino? a?ae eiai
i?noey a iie? iai?oa, ui aeieea? i?e iaaaioaaeaii? iaoa??aeo. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae aeuacaaaeaieo iaoiae?a, iaoiae aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? (AA),
caniiaaiee ia aei?ii?ithaaii? iaoa??aeii i?e eiai aeaoi?ioaaii? i?oaeieo
iaoai?/ieo oaeeue, aeaea?aeii yeeo ? aeaoaeoe, ui ?icaeaathoueny,
aieiae?? aenieith /ooeea?noth, iiaeeea?noth aeyaeoe ? noaaeeoe ca
iiaiaeaeaiiyi aeaoaeo?a, ui ?icaeaathoueny, ?ioaa?aeuei?noth, ui
aeicaiey? eiio?iethaaoe noai iaoa??aeo aac neaioaaiiy, i?inoioith
aeei?enoaiiy a i?ioean? aei?iaoaaiue, ae?iaieoeoaa e aenieoaoaoe??,
iiaeeea?noth eiio?iethaaoe ??ciiiai?oi? iaoa??aee, ye iaeii??aei?, oae ?
iaiaeii??aei?, o oiio /ene? ? eiiiiceoe. Iacaaaeath/e ia ?nioaaiiy
iiiaeeie ?ia?o ?c aeine?aeaeaiiy yaeua AA (A?aoi?eia A.A., Aa?aiia A.I.,
Aeueioei I.I., Aoi?ia I.A. oa ?i.), ieoaiiy i?i eiai i?aeoe/ia
canoinoaaiiy aeey ia?oei?aii? ae?aaiinoeee i?oeiino? iaoa??ae?a ana ua ?
aeooaeueiei ? iio?aao? iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

?iaioa i?iaiaeeeanue o ca’yceo c aea?aeathaeaeaoieie oaiaie:

35-88 “?ic?iaea ?ic?aooieiai-aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a aoanoaoe??
ae?ia?a ?AA, ui oanoothoueny” (i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1988); 3A-91
“Aeei?enoaiiy yaeua aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ceee
i?oeiino? iie?ia?ieo ? eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a, ui noai?ththoueny,
canoiniaoaaieo a iaoeiao ? aia?aoao eaaei? i?iieneiaino?, iiaooia?e
oaoi?oe? ? ?aae?ioaoi?oe?” (i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1991); 7A-94 “Noaoe/ia
oa aeeiai?/ia i?oei?noue a ?aae?ioaoi?oe? oa iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?” (i.
Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1994); 7A-97 “?ic?iaea aeonoi-ai?n?eiiai eiiieaeno ?
eiai canoinoaaiiy aeey ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth, ae?aaiinoeee oa
i?iaiicoaaiiy i?oeiino? iiaeo iaoa??ae?a oa aeaoaeae iaooiaaciaiai
iaeaaeiaiiy” (i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1997).

Iaoa ?iaioe – noai?aiiy iaoiaeee aeonoi-ai?n?eiiai ia?oei?aiiai
eiio?ieth, ae?aaiinooaaiiy ? i?iaiicoaaiiy i?oeiino? ia?ic’?iieo
aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e, canoiniaoaaieo o iaoeiiaoaeoaaii? oa ?ioeo
aaeocyo oaoi?ee.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe ianooii? caaea/?.

– ?ic?iaea eiii’thoa?iiai aei??thaaeueiiai aeonoi-ai?n?eiiai eiiieaeno,
i?ecia/aiiai aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ae?aaiinoeee i?oeiino? ia?ic’?iieo
aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e iaoiaeii AA.

– Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o iiaaae?iee AA i?e oanooaaii? c?ace?a
??cii??aeieo iaoa??ae?a c iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy ca’yceo i?ae ia?aiao?aie
AA ? iaoai?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

– ?ic?iaea iaoiaeee ? cania?a ia?oei?aiiai ae?aaiinooaaiiy i?oeiino?
iaoa??ae?a ? iaoo?ieo ae?ia?a.

– ?ic?iaea iaoiaeee ? cania?a iiia?aaeaeaiiy iaaacia/ieo noai?a
eiino?oeoe?e a oiiaao ae?iaieoeoaa e aenieoaoaoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

– Anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue caaaeueiiai ?aooaaiiy neaiae?a AA a?ae
e?i?eii? eii?aeeiaoe aeaea?ae AA, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue ia?oei?aii?
ae?aaiinoeee i?noey iaeaooiueiai ?oeioaaiiy c?ace?a iaoa??ae?a, ui
oanoothoueny.

– Anoaiiaeaii ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie i?ae aeoeai?noth neaiae?a AA,
iai?oaeaiiyi a i?oaei?e noaae?? aeaoi?iaoe?? oa ?oei?aiei iai?oaeaiiyi,
yeee aeicaiey? ae?aaiinooaaoe oa i?iaiicoaaoe i?oei?noue ae?ia?a, ui
oanoothoueny.

– Oeyoii /anoioiiai ?icae?eaiiy neaiae?a AA, ye? iinooiathoue a?ae
??cii??aeieo iaoa??ae?a ia?ic’?iiiai c’?aeiaiiy oa eueiaeo, aaeaeiny
ae?aaiinooaaoe i?oei?noue ie?aieo /anoei ia?ic’?iiiai c’?aeiaiiy i?e

oa?iioeeeethaaii?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee
aeicaieythoue, aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoiae aeonoe/ii? ai?n??, i?iaiaeeoe
ia?oei?aiee eiio?ieue, ae?aaiinooaaiiy ? i?iaiicoaaiiy i?oeiino?
ianinieo ooaia, aeaioiaeaieo c neeiieanoeeo, ia?ic’?iieo eiino?oeoe?e,
ye? aeeiiai? ca aeiiiiiaith caa?thaaiiy ? ciaoiaeyoueny i?ae oeneii oa
ia?ic’?iieo c’?aeiaiue ??cii??aeieo eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a, ye?
i?aoeththoue a oiiaao oa?iioeeeethaaiiy ye a i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa, oae
? a oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??, oa ioe?ithaaoe aoaeoeai?noue i?iaaaeaiiy
ia?iaee oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo ca oaoiieia??th ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy
oa iaoaeo ca oaoiieia??th aiaeiaaiai ie?eo/aiiy.

Iaoiaeeee oa onoaoeoaaiiy aeey ia?oei?aii? ae?aaiinoeee i?oeiino?
ei?ion?a i?e?icai?ie IA* canoiniaai? a IAI ?i. Ieaoaeiaa I.N., ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeoii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

?ic?iaeaia ae?aaiinoe/ia aia?aoo?a iiaea ciaeoe oe?iea canoinoaaiiy aeey
ia?oei?aiiai ae?aaiinooaaiiy i?oeiino? iaoiaeii AA.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

– ?ic?iaeaiee ? noai?aiee aei??thaaeueiee eiiieaen aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? ?
i?ia?aiia ii?aoethaaiiy ia?aiao??a neaiae?a AA.

– Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ioeane, iia’ycai? c ii/aoeii ?oeioaaiiy i?e
aei?iaoaaii? eaai?aoi?ieo c?ace?a ia ?icoya i?ioiaeyoue ua a cii?
i?oaeiino?.

– ?ic?iaeaii can?a aeei?enoaiiy ia?aiao??a AA aeey ia?oei?aiiai
ae?aaiinooaaiiy oa i?iaiicoaaiiy i?oeiino? ia i?eeeaae? c?ace?a noae?
No3 ? iaoiaeeea ia?oei?aiiai ae?aaiinooaaiiy ? i?iaiicoaaiiy i?oeiino?
neeiieanoeeiaeo caaioiaie, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aeaioiaeaiiy
ianinieo ooaia.

– Cai?iiiiiaaia ?aeay noai?aiiy ii?oaoeaiiai aeonoi-ai?n?eiiai i?eeaaeo,
i?ecia/aiiai aeey iiia?aaeaeaiiy i?i ii/aoie i?ioeano ?icaa?iaoecaoe??
aai ?oeiaoe?? eiio?ieueiaaieo aeaoaeae ? aoce?a nenoai e?oaeueieo
aia?ao?a.

– A?aei?aoeueiaaia iaoiaeeea aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ia?oei?aiiai
ae?aaiinooaaiiy i?oeiino? ? aa?iaoe/iino? ei?ion?a i?e?icai?ie IA*.

– Cai?iiiiiaaii can?a ia?oei?aiiai ae?aaiinooaaiiy i?oeiino? ia?ic’?iieo
c’?aeiaiue ??ciiiai?oieo eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a, ia i?eeeaae?
ea?ai?/ieo eiiaeainaoi??a, i?e oa?iioeeeethaaii?.

– A iioae?eiaaieo ?acii c Aeaaeeei ss.I., Ao?eaeiaei A.A., Niiceeii I.A.
?iaioao iniaenoi aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaai? oa ?aae?ciaai? iaoiaeeea
iinoaiiaee aenia?eiaioo, aeonoi-ai?n?ei? aei??thaaiiy oa ia?iaea
io?eiaieo iaoa??ae?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe ? ??
ie?ai? ?acoeueoaoe aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia oaeeo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo oa nai?ia?ao: ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Aei??thaaeueia oa ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea a oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioeanao” (i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1997); 5-e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Localized damage 98” (Bologna, Italy, 1998); can?aeaii?
eaoaae?e i?eeeaaeii? iaoai?ee Oaoiieia?/iiai Oi?aa?neoaoo Iiae?eey (i.
Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? a 5 noaooyo iaoeiaeo
aeo?iae?a ? 1 oacao eiioa?aioe??.

No?oeoo?a e ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a oa nieneo e?oa?aoo?e.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia 145 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, i?noeoue 53
?enoiee, 11 oaaeeoeue, 2 aeiaeaoee oa nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 119
iaeiaioaaiue. Caaaeueiee ia’?i aeena?oaoe?? 178 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaai? aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiue, noi?ioeueiaaia
iaoa ?iaioe ? ?? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue, aeacaia iiaecia io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a.

O ?icae?e? 1 i?eaaaeaii iaeyae ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a ioe?ithaaiiy i?oeiino?
iaoa??ae?a, aeaoaeae ? eiino?oeoe?e, iieacai? ia?aaaae ? ia?niaeoeae
aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? aeey ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth,
ae?aaiinoeee ? i?iaiicoaaiiy i?oeiino?.

?icae?e 2 i?enay/aiee ?ic?iaoe? ? noai?aiith eiii’thoa?iiai
(i?ia?aiii-aia?aoiiai) aei??thaaeueiiai eiiieaeno AA.

I?ia?aiii-aia?aoiee eiiieaen AA noai?aii ia aac? na??eii aeiouaiiai
aeonoi-ai?n?eiiai i?eeaaeo AO-15 ? ia?niiaeueiiai eiii’thoa?a IBM486.
I?e ?ic?iaoe? eiiieaeno aoei i?iaaaeaii iiaea?i?caoe?th o?ueio noaaeie?a
aeonoi-ai?n?ieiiai i?eeaaeo, noai?aii iiaeoeue eiii’thoa?iiai
ia?aeaeueiiai ?ioa?oaeno ? ?ic?iaeaii iaeao i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai, ui
aeicaieeei eiii’thoa?ecoaaoe i?ioean cai?o e ii?aoethaaiiy ia?aiao??a
neaiae?a AA, oei naiei i?aeaeueaoe e?euee?noue ii?aoeuei-

aoaaieo neaiae?a o 40 ?ac?a.

Iniiaiith caaea/ath eiiieaeno ? aeieoiaioaeueia ?a?no?aoe?y e
ii?aoethaaiiy ia?aiao??a neaiae?a aeonoe/ii? ai?n??, ui aeieeathoue i?e
aei?iaoaaii? aeaoaeae noaoe/ieie ? aeeiai?/ieie iaaaioaaeaiiyie.
Eiiieaen canoiniao?oueny aeey aenia?eiaioaeueii? oa i?eeeaaeii?
ae?aaiinoeee ? i?iaiicoaaiiy i?oeiino? iaoa??ae?a, aeaoaeae ? aoce?a
iaoei ? aia?ao?a ??ciiiai?oieo aaeocae ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

?icae?e 3 i?enay/o?oueny aeonoi-ai?n?eiiio aeine?aeaeaiith ??cii??aeieo
iaoa??ae?a i?ae aieeaii ??ciiiai?oieo iaoai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue, oaeeo ye
?icoya, cnoa ? caei, ?c iaoith c’ynoaaiiy iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy
iaoiaeo AA aeey ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth, ae?aaiinooaaiiy ? i?iaiicoaaiiy
i?oeiino?.

I?ino? aei?iaoaaiiy noaiaea?oiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi ia ?icoya c?ac-e?a
iaeii??aeiiai iaoa??aeo – noae? No3 aeaee ?yae i?aeoe/ii oe?iieo
oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae.

O?eaei??i? a?ao?ee ?iciiae?eo neaiae?a AA a caeaaeiino? a?ae iai?oaeaiiy
? e?i?eii? eii?aeeiaoe ii aeiaaeei? c?acea (?en. 1) iieacaee, ui ia?o?
neaiaee c’yaeythoueny ua a cii? i?oaeiino?. E?i?eia eieaoe?y aeaea?ae
oeeo neaiae?a aeicaieeea iiaa/eoe, ui a i?noe? iaeaooiueiai ?oeioaaiiy ?
ai?n?y, oiaoi eaea ?icaeoie aeaoaeoo. A?eueo oiai, i?noea iaeaooiueiai
?oeioaaiiy /?oei iicia/a? naaa ua aei a?aieoe? i?oaeiino? ? ia a?aeaea?
nai?? ia?oino? aae aei ?oeiaoe??, ui aeaiiino?o? a?ao?e caeaaeiino?
caaaeueiiai ?aooaaiiy neaiae?a AA a?ae e?i?eii? eii?aeeiaoe (?en. 2).
Oea aeaei iiaeeea?noue ia?oei?aii? ae?aaiinoeee i?noey iaeaooiueiai
?oeioaaiiy c?ace?a iaoa??ae?a, ui oanoothoueny.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeneioi aeoeaiino? AA iaeaaeeoue ieiuaaeoe? oaeo/ino?.
Aeaiee oaeo aoa aeei?enoaiee aeey aecia/aiiy a?aieoe? oaeo/ino? c?ace?a
eaooi? E68, ae?aa?aia ?icoyao yeeo ia i?noeoue yaii? ieiuaaeee
oaeo/ino?.

A cii? iai?oaeaiue, ye? ia ia?aaeuothoue a?aieoeth i?iii?oe?eiino?,
anoaiiaeaia e?i?eia ei?aeyoe?eia caeaaei?noue i?ae eiao?oe??ioii
i?iaiicoaaiiy i?oeiino? E, yeee aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith

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c?acea, i?a – iai?oaeaiiy i?iaiicoaaiiy, yea ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao
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? ????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1????????????? [email protected]???&??yyyy?????Ayyyayyy??? ?????&? [email protected]????u?th?????? ?en. 1 Aeonoe/ia ai?n?y a cii? i?oaeiino? ?en. 2 E?i?eia eieaoe?y aeaoaeo?a, ui ?icaeaathoueny Ei?enooth/enue caeaaei?noth (2) i?e aacia/iiio oanooaaii? noaeaaiai c?acea aei iai?oaeaiiy, yea ia ia?aaeuo? a?aieoeth i?iii?oe?eiino?, ii ca?a?no?iaaiiio cia/aiith aeoeaiino? neaiae?a AA N oa a?aeiia?aeiiai eiio iai?oaeaiith i?a, iiaeia aecia/eoe E ? ?ic?aooaaoe (ni?iaiicoaaoe) a?aieoeth i?oeiino? oeueiai c?acea. I?iaiinoe/ia a?aieoey i?oeiino?, o a?aeiia?aeiino? c (1), ciaoiaeeoueny ca oi?ioeith i?aa= Ei?a . (3) Io?eiai? ca iaoa??aeaie aei?iaoaaiue ia?o?? c?ace?a noae? No3 cia/aiiy E iathoue ?iceeae, yeee ? iane?aeeii ianoaa?eueiino? o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aei?iaoaaieo c?ace?a. Oiio aeey ?ic?aooie?a ii oi?ioe? (3) i?eeia?oueny iaeiaioa cia/aiiy Emin, yea ciaoiaeeoueny a aeia??/iio ?ioa?aae? =0,32, ciaeaeaiiio c eiia??i?noth ?=0,95, ? oiae? iiaeeeaa iiieeea a i?iaiicoaaii? i?oeiino? ?aea a caian i?oeiino?. Iiae?aiee aea?? E ? iaeiei c iiaeeeaeo; a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiai, iane?eueee a?aeiia?aeaeueiei ? ia’?eo, ui oanoo?oueny, iiaeia i?eeiaoe ? a?eueo iecuee? cia/aiiy E (?c io?eiaii? aea??ee), ca?eueooth/e oei naiei caian i?oeiino?, aea i?e oeueiio, ca?nii, cieaeoth/e oi/i?noue i?iaiicoaaiiy. Aeey i?aeoe/ieo oe?eae aeei?enoaiiy ia?aiao?o AA aeey ia?oei?aii? ae?aaiinoeee i?oeiino? iiaea aooe ni?iuaii, i?e oeueiio ca iaoa- ??aeaie aei?iaoaaiue a?oie c?ace?a aai aeaoaeae i?ecia/a?oueny eiio?ieueiee, oiaoi iaeneiaeueiee ??aaiue aeoeaiino? AA, yeee noaa?eueii i?iyaey?oueny a aacia/i?e aeey i?oeiino? cii? iai?oaeaiue, ? ?ic?aoiao?oueny eiao?oe??io i?iaiicoaaiiy i?oeiino? ca oi?ioeith (1), aea i?a - iai?oaeaiiy, i?e yeiio aeoeai?noue aeinyaea eiio?ieueiiai ??aiy. I?e ia?oei?ai?i ae?aaiinooaaii?, yea i?iaiaeeoueny aacia/iei oanooaaiiyi c iaeii/aniith ?a?no?aoe??th ae?aa?aie iai?oaeaiue ? aeoeaiino? AA, o ?ac?, eiee aeoeai?noue AA aeinyaea eiio?ieueiiai ??aiy i?iaiinoe/ia a?aieoey i?oeiino? aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith (3), o i?ioeeaaeiiio aeiaaeeo aiia aecia?oueny ia iaioith aeiionoeii?. ?ic?iaeaiee ia i?eeeaae? c?ace?a noae? No3 can?a ia?oei?aiiai ae?aaiinooaaiiy ? i?iaiicoaaiiy i?oeiino? ciaeoia canoinoaaiiy i?e aeine?aeaeaii? iaoo?ieo ae?ia?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaiaeii??aeieo iaoa??ae?a, ye? i?ieoee ii?aoethaaiiy ca oaoiieia?yie iiaa?oiaaiai iane/aiiy, aeaee iiaeeea?noue cai?iiiioaaoe iaoiaeeee ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth ci?ie ?o i?oeiino? i?ney ia?iaee. Aei oaeeo oaoiieia?e a?aeiinyoueny: ?ic?iaeaia i?ae ea??aieoeoaii aeioe. Aeaaeeiai ss.I. oaoiieia?y aiaeiaaiai ie?eo/aiiy, ui yaey? niaith iane/aiiy aiaeiai, yea iineaaey? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?oeiino? iiaa?oiaaiai i?ioa?eo iaoaeo, c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee a cii? ??caiiy ? ?ic?iaeaia i?ae ea??aieoeoaii i?io. Eaieoia A.A. a eaai?aoi??? ?iiii-ieaciaiieo iaoiae?a ci?oeiaiiy oaoiieia?y ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy, ui neeaaea?oueny a aeeooc?eiiio iane/aii? iiaa?oi? aeaoae? aoiiaie acioo ? canoiniao?oueny aeey ci?oeiaiiy oaa?aeinieaaiiai ?ino?oiaioo. Ia'?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiue neoaeeee c?acee noae? No3 ? oaa?aeinieaai? ??aeo/? ieanoeie. Iaoai?/i? aei?iaoaaiiy ia ?icoya ? cnoa iieacaee, ui ia?iaea aiaeiai ciaioo? a?aieoeth i?oeiino? ? oaeo/ino? noaeaaeo c?ace?a ia 30%, a ia?iaea aciooaaiiyi i?aeaeuo? a?aieoeth i?oeiino? oaa?aeinieaaieo ieanoei ia 15%. I?ioa, canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo AA aeicaieeei iiaa/eoe, ui AA ?aaao? ia oaoiieia?? ua a?eueo ae?aaeaii. Caaaeueia e?euee?noue neaiae?a AA, ui aei?ii?ith?oueny i?e iaaaioaaeaii? iaaiaeiaii? noae?, ia 90% iaioa e?eueeino? neaiae?a AA noae? a noaae?? i?iieneiaiai iinoa/aiiy, a oaoiieia?y ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy na?aaeiuei? aiie?ooaee neaiae?a AA ia 40-45%, i?e oeueiio noia?ia e?euee?noue neaiae?a c?inoa? ia 100%. Oaeei /eiii, aeonoe/ia ai?n?y aeicaiey? /?oei cao?enoaaoe aieea ??ciiiai?oieo ii i?ecia/aiith oaoiieia?e iiaa?oiaaiai iane/aiiy ? aea? iiaeeea?noue cae?enithaaoe ia?oei?aiee eiio?ieue ci?ie i?oeiino? aeaoaeae i?ney ia?iaee, ii??aithth/e ia?aiao?e AA, iaea?aeoaai? i?e aacia/iiio aei?iaoaaii? aeaoaeae aei ? i?ney ia?iaee. Aeine?aeaeaiiy neeiieanoeeiaeo caaioiaie, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ianinieo ooaia, aeeiioaaeenue ii caiiaeaiith Iaooiaaciai? i?iieneiaino?. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?e noaoe/iiio iaaaioaaeaii? caaioiaie ia caei aoea ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ia?oei?aiiai ae?aaiinooaaiiy ? i?iaiicoaaiiy i?oeiino? caaioiaie, o ye?e ia?aiao?aie, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue i?oei?noue, ? aiie?ooaea ? aeoeai?noue neaiae?a AA; o aeiaaeeo ia?aaeuaiiy ia?aiao?aie neaiae?a AA eiio?ieueiiai ??aiy i?e oanooaaii? aei aacia/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ?oano (4) caaioiaea i?ecia?oueny aeaoaeoiith e a?aea?aeiao?oueny, o i?ioeeaaeiiio aeiaaeeo ?? i?oei?noue aaaaea?oueny ia ieae/a aeiionoeii?. ?oano=?max/K , (4) aea ?max - aeiionoeia cia/aiiy iaeneiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy caaioiaie, K - eiao?oe??io i?iaiicoaaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ?ic?aoiaaiee ii iaoa??aeai aei?iaoaaiue caaioiaie aiaeia?/ii oi?ioe? (1); a?aoiaoth/e a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ianinieo ooaia (aenieoaoaoe?y a aeiaoai?e oaoo?), ye? aeaioiaeythoueny c caaioiaie, ui oanoothoueny, c io?eiaiiai ?ioa?aaeo cia/aiue E=(2,06-3) aoei i?eeiyoi iaeiaioa cia/aiiy K= Emin= 2. O ?icae?e? 4 iieno?oueny aeine?aeaeaiiy i?oeiino? oa aa?iaoecaoe?? ei?ion?a i?e?icai?ie IA* ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo AA. Ia'?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy neoaeeee ei?iona i?e?icai?ie IA*, ye? aeaioiaeai? c aethi?i??aiai nieaao AIa-2, oa yaeythoue niaith ia?ic’?iio eiino?oeoe?th, noai?aio ca aeiiiiiaith eaca?ii? caa?ee. Ei?iona a?ae??ciythoueny iaeei a?ae iaeiiai ?ici??aie ? eiino?oeoe??th aocea e??ieaiiy e?eoie ei?ion?a aei iniiae (?en. 3). A i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe??, oiaoi i?e i?aeeii? ia aenioo, a ei?ionao aeieea? iaaeeeoeiaee aioo??oi?e oene, yeee iiaea i?ecaanoe aei ?oeiaoe?? caa?iiai oaa ? ?icaa?iaoecaoe?? ei?iona. Iaoiaeii AA aaeaeiny i?aeaeueoe iaae?ei?noue ei?ion?a, aeaaoe iiaeeea?noue eiio?ieth, ae?aaiinoeee ? i?iaiicoaaiiy i?oeiino? oa aa?iaoe/iino? ei?ion?a o i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa oa aenieoaoaoe??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ca aeiiiiiaith aeonoi-ai?n?eii? ? oaiciiao?e/ii? aia?aoo?e i?e noaoe/iiio iaaaioaaeaii? aioo??oi?i iaaeeeoeiaei oeneii. Canoiniaoth/e can?a, ?ic?iaeaiee aeey noaeaaeo c?ace?a, aaeaeiny anoaiiaeoe eiio?ieueiee ??aaiue ia?aiao??a neaiae?a AA ? ?ic?aooaaoe eiao?oe??io i?iaiicoaaiiy oeneo ?icaa?iaoecaoe?? ei?ion?a. A?aoiaoth- /e iniaeeao a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ei?ion?a, ui oanoothoueny, (aenieoaoaoe?y ia ai?oo e?oaea) c io?eiaiiai aiaeia?/ii (1) ?ioa?aaeo cia/aiue eiao?oe??io?a (2-2,5), yeee ? iane?aeeii ianoaa?eueiino? o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ei?ion?a ? ?o caa?ieo oa?a, aoei aea?aii i?i?iaeueia cia/aiiy Emin=2, oiae? iiaeeeaa iiieeea a i?iaiicoaaii? i?oeiino? ei?ion?a ?aea a caian i?oeiino?. Ca?aeii c ?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith ia?oei?aiiai ae?aaiinooaaiiy ? i?iaiicoaaiiy i?oeiino? oa aa?iaoe/iino? ei?ion?a oene oanooaaiiy ei?ion?a ciaoiaeeoueny ye a?aeiioaiiy a?aie/iiai oeneo ca oaoi?/ieie oiiaaie (OO) aei eiao?oe??ioa i?iaiicoaaiiy; oanooaaiiy ae?iao i?iaiaeeoueny iiaea/ath a na?aaeeio noeniooiai iia?o?y c iaeii/aniith ?a?no?aoe??th ia?aiao??a neaiae?a AA. Ei?iona i?e?icai?ie IA* i?eciathoueny i?eaeaoieie aeey aenieoaoaoe?? a aeaiiio ii OO ae?aiacii? oeneo, yeui aeoeai?noue neaiae?a AA, ca?a?no?iaaieo i?ae /an oanooaaiiy, ia ia?aaeueea eiio?ieueiiai ??aiy (15?ii/n), o i?ioeeaaeiiio aeiaaeeo ei?iona a?aea?aeiaothoueny. ?en. 3 Noaie aa?iiaoce?a i?e?icai?ie IA*. 1 - e?eoea, 2 - caa?iee oia, 3 - iniiaa A?eueo oeueiai, ei?ione aeine?aeaeoaaeeny a aenieoaoaoe?eieo oiiaao, oiaoi i?e ia?aiaaeao aioo??oiueiai oeneo ca ioeuenoth/ei oeeeeii, yeiio a ?acoeueoao? ceueio?a ? iinaaeie i?aeaeathoueny ei?ione, anoaiiaeai? ia ai?oo e?oae?a. Aeey ia?o?? c 20-oe ei?ion?a 100 oeeee?a aei?iaoaaiue iieacaee ianooiia: aeey aa?iaoe/ieo ei?ion?a ia? i?noea aoaeo Eaeca?a (?en. 4), o a?aeiia?aeiino? c yeei i?e iiaoi?iiio iaaaioaaeaii? aei iiia?aaeiueiai ??aiy aeonoe/ia ai?n?y ia a?aeiiaeth?oueny. I?ioa aeey 2-o ei?ion?a, ui ?icaa?iaoecoaaeenue i?ae /an aei?iaoaaiue, AA ii/aea aei?ii?ithaaoenue ca 6-10 oeeee?a aei ?icaa?iaoecaoe?? ? aaea ia ciaiooaaeany, a i?ia?anoaaea aae aei ?icaa?iaoecaoe??. ?en. 4 Aoaeo Eaeca?a i?e aei?iaoaaii? ei?iona i?e?icai?ee ca ioeuenoth/ei oeeeeii Ia iniia? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aoa cai?iiiiiaaiee can?a ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth i?oeiino? oa iiia?aaeaeaiiy iaaacia/ieo noai?a ei?ion?a, anoaiiaeaieo ia ai?oo e?oae?a, a yeiio aeao/ee AA neoaeeoue aeao/eeii aaciaee ia ai?oo e?oaea, ? ca 6-10 oeeee?a, oiaoi ceueio?a ? iinaaeie, aei eaoano?io?/ii? ?oeiaoe?? ei?iona “iiia?aaeaea?” i?i ii/aoie i?ioeano ?oeioaaiiy. Oaeiae aoa ni?iaeoiaaiee ? noai?aiee ii?oaoeaiee aeonoi-ai?n?eiee i?eeaae, ?iaeeeaoi?iee ono??e yeiai neaiae?co? i?i iayai?noue AA, yea ia?aaeuo? cacaeaeaa?aeue anoaiiaeaiee aiie?ooaeiee ??aaiue. I?eeaae i?noeoue iaeei aei??thaaeueiee eaiae ? ?iaeoue i?eeii neaiae?a AA o ae?aiacii? 20-2000eAoe. Iaoiaeeea aeonoi-ai?n?eiiai ia?oei?aiiai ae?aaiinooaaiiy i?oeiino? oa aa?iaoe/iino?, canoiniaaia a IAI ?i. Ieaoaeiaa I.N., i?e ae?iaieoeoa? ei?ion?a aeaea iiaeeea?noue noaa?e?coaaoe i?ioean caa?thaaiiy ? aeyaeoe iaea?eueo o?eaeee oeii?ici?? ei?iona. ?icae?e 5 i?enay/aiee noai?aiith iaoiaeeee ia?oei?aiiai ae?aaiinooaaiiy i?oeiino? oa iiia?aaeaeaiiy iaaacia/ieo noai?a ia?ic'?iieo c'?aeiaiue eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia i?eeeaae? eiino?oeoe?? eiiiaoiaeiaaieo ea?ai?/ieo eiiaeainaoi??a E15-5 i?e oa?iioeeeethaaii?. C iiia?aaei?o ?ia?o Oeanthea A.A., Oaae?ia I.?. oa ?ioeo anoaiiaeaii, ui ?oeioaaiiy ea?ai?ee a eiino?oeoe?? E 15-5 i?e oa?iioeeeethaaii? aeieea? a?ae ?? ?icoyao o iai?yieo iiaeiaaei?o inae aeene?a ? ii ieiuaaeeai, iaoeeaieo aei oi?oe?a aeene?a i?ae eooii 45, ?c-ca noeneo a ?aae?aeueieo iai?yieao a?ae ae?? eiiiaoiaeo. Oaeiae aoei aeyaeaii, ui cia/aiiy iai?oaeaiue oa aeaoi?iaoe?e a ea?ai?oe? oa eiiiaoiae?, cia/ii caeaaeaoue a?ae ?iceeaeo ?o o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee. A?eueo oiai, yeui ia io?eiai? ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?aooie?a iiey iai?oaeaiue iaeeanoe ?aaeueio no?oeoo?o iaoa??ae?a, oi iiaeia aecia/eoe, ei?enooth/enue eiao?oe??ioii ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue, ui a i?noeyo iaea?eueoeo iai?oaeaiue ii/eiathoue ?icaeoie iaa?oue aeaoaeoe ?ici??ii aei 4iei. Oiio aeey aecia/aiiy ? caaacia/aiiy i?oeiino? ia?ic’?iieo c’?aeiaiue aoei ae??oaii noai?eoe can?a ia?oei?aiiai ae?aaiinooaaiiy i?oeiino? ia iniia? iaoiaeo AA, yeee, a?aeia?aaeath/e o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? iaoa??ae?a, aea? ciiao ne?aeeoaaoe ca noaiii ?o i?e?ino?oeoo?e ? o?enoaaoe eiai ii?ooaiiy ia ?aii?o nooiaiyo ?icaeoeo. A?aeii? ?iaioe aeioe. e.o.i. Oeanthea A.A. ii aeine?aeaeaiith neeaaeiaeo ea?ai?/ieo eiiaeainaoi??a i?ae aieeaii iaoai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue, oaeeo ye ?icoya ? caei. A ?acoeueoao? oeeo ?ia?o aoee io?eiai? iaoiaeeee ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth ? ae?aaiinooaaiiy i?oeiino? iaoa??ae?a neeaaeiaeo ea?ai?/ieo eiiaeainaoi??a. Ia a?aei?io a?ae oeeo ?ia?o o aeai?e ?iaio? i?iaiaeeeeny aeine?aeaeaiiy ia neeaaeiaeo ie?aii e o eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao, a aioiaeo ae?ia?a a aenieoaoaoe?eieo oiiaao, oiaoi i?e oa?iioeeeethaaii? a?ae +60N aei -50N. Aei noai?aiiy ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth i?oeiino? eiiiaoiaeiaaieo eiiaeainaoi??a iaoiaeii AA iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe ianooii? ieoaiiy. 1. A yeeo oaiia?aoo?ieo iaaeao i?aoeacaeaoiee aeao/ee AA, c iaeyaeo ia oa, ui a?i i?noeoue o nai?e eiino?oeoe?? aeaoae? c ??cii??aeieo iaoa??ae?a: iaoaeo, ieanoiane, ea?ai?ee, eiiiaoiaea, ?c eiao?oe??ioaie e?i?eiiai ?icoe?aiiy, ui a?ae??ciythoueny? 2. sse iicaooeny neaiae?a AA, ui aei?ii?iththoueny ooai?aiei ia eiiaeainaoi?? ? aeao/eeo eueiaeii i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae aeiaeaoieo oaiia?aoo? aei a?ae’?iieo ? iaaiaee? 3. sse a?ae??cieoe neaiaee AA, ui aei?ii?iththoueny ea?ai?/iith iniiaith ? eiiiaoiaeiith iaieiieith i?e ii?iaeueieo ? a?ae’?iieo oaiia?aoo?ao? Aei?iaoaaiiy aeao/ee?a, i?iaaaeai? a oa?iieaia?? Oaeo?ii 3526/51 iieacaee, ui aeao/ee I113 i?aoeacaeaoiee a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? +60 - -50N, oiaoi an? neaiaee, ui aei?ii?ithaaa ?i?oaoi? AA, i?ae’?aeiaiee aei aeao/eea, aoee i?eeiyo? ? ca?a?no?iaai? i?ia?aiii-aia?aoiei eiiieaenii AA. I?ioa, e??i ia?aaeaieo eiio neaiae?a, aeao/ee aei?ii?ithaaa nai? aeani?, iia'ycai? c ??cieoeath eiao?oe??io?a e?i?eiiai ?icoe?aiiy iaoa??ae?a neeaaeiaeo /anoei aeao/eea - iaoaeo, ieanoiane, ea?ai?ee ? eiiiaoiaea. Oiio aoei ae??oaii ia i?aeaeaaaoe aeao/ee ae?? iani?eyoeeaeo oaiia?aoo? ? cae?enithaaoe ia?aaea/o neaiae?a /a?ac oaeeaaiaee. I?e oeueiio iaeei e?iaoeue oaeeaaiaea e??ieany aei aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ae?iao ? ciaoiaeeany a oa?iieaia??, a ia ?ioee e?iaoeue, ui ciaoiaeeany iica eaia?ith i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??, anoaiiaethaaany aeao/ee AA. Aei?iaoaaiiy iieacaee, ui i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae aeiaeaoieo oaiia?aoo? aei a?ae’?iieo ona ae c'yaeyeany AA ca ?aooiie ceaaeai?iiy oaeeaaiaea ? eiioaeoieo i?ioa?e?a. Aeey onoiaiiy ia?aoeiae, iia'ycaieo c ooai?aiiyi ? ?ico??neoaaiiyi eueiaeo, aoei ae??oaii iinoaaeoe aenia?eiaio o aaeooi?. Aoea neiino?oeiaaia iaaaeeea aaeooiia onoaiiaea, ona?aaeei? yei? ?ici?uoaaany aei?iaoaaiee ia'?eo ?c cae??ieaiei ia iueiio aeao/eeii AA ? oaiia?aoo?e. Oey onoaiiaea iii?uoaaeany a oa?iieaia?o. Aaeooiiee ianin i?aeo?eioaaa ??aaiue ?ic??aeaeaiiy a eaia??, i?e yeiio aoa a?aenooi?e e?ae. O oaeeo oiiaao i?e oa?iioeeeethaaii? a?ae +60 aei -50N ia c'yaeyeiny ceaaeai?iiy ? aeao/ee ii?iaeueii i?aoethaaa o anueiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo?. Iaaeie?eii oaeiai iaoiaeo aoa aaeeeee /an, iaiao?aeiee aeey oa?iioeeeethaaiiy, ia?ao?ae a?ae -50 aei +60N caeiaa 180-190oa. Aeey aecia/aiiy ?iai/i? nioae /anoio neaiae?a AA, ye? aei?ii?iththoueny i?e ?oeioaaii? c?ace?a ea?ai?ee E-15 ? eiiiaoiaea AE-242, aoei i?iaaaeaii ?yae aei?iaoaaiue. 30 c?ace?a ea?ai?ee ? eiiiaoiaea iaaaioaaeoaaeenue eiinieueii a niaoe?aeueiiio i?eno?i? i?e ??ciiiai?oieo nioaao i?iioneaiiy /anoio. Io?eiai? iaoa??aee aei??o AA iieacaee, ui aeey ea?ai?/ii? neeaaeiai? e?aua aeei?enoiaoaaoe nioao ?iai/eo /anoio 650-1000eAoe, a aeey eiiiaoiaeii? neeaaeiai? - 130-300eAoe. Aiaeia?/ii i?iaiaeeeeny aei?iaoaaiiy oeo aea iaoa??ae?a (30 c?ace?a) i?e a?ae’?iieo oaiia?aoo?ao. Iaea?eueo iioeiaeueia nioaa /anoio, aecia/aia aeey ea?ai?ee ? eiiiaoiaea, ia a?ae??ciyeany a?ae aecia/aii? a iiia?aaeiueiio aenia?eiaio?. I?ney i?iaaaeaiiy aeaieo ?ia?o i?enooieee aei caieno ei?enieo neaiae?a AA i?e oa?iioeeeethaaii? eiiaeainaoi??a E15-5. Ia?o? 10 eiiaeainaoi??a i?aeaeaeeny oa?iioeeeethaaiith o aaeooii?e eaia?? i?e oaiia?aoo?ao +60 - -50N c canoinoaaiiyi oaeeaaiaea ? aeao/eea I113, nioaa i?iioneaiiy yeiai ciaoiaeeoueny a a?aieoeyo 0,2-2,0IAoe. Aenia?eiaio iieacaa, ui aeey an?o eiiaeainaoi??a a iaeano? aeiaeaoieo oaiia?aoo? neaiaee AA a?aenooi? ? c'yaeythoueny eeoa i?e oaiia?aoo?? -14N ? ieae/a. Oea aeaei i?aenoaao iiaeaeueo? aei?iaoaaiiy i?iaiaeeoe a ae?aiaci- i? oaiia?aoo? a?ae e?iiaoii? aei -50N aac canoinoaaiiy aaeooiii? eaia?e ? oaeeaaiae?a, a aeieeath/? neaiaee AA a?ae ceaaeai?iiy aeao/eea ? eiiaeainaoi?a i?e oaiia?aoo?? a?ey +5N i?inoi ia a?aoiaoaaoe ? ia ?a?no?oaaoe. Iiaeaeueo? aei?iaoaaiiy 30 eiiaeainaoi??a o oa?iieaia?? i?iaiaeeeeny ca iiaeie oiiaaie, i?e oeueiio niieo/aiee eaaaeai aeao/ee AA /a?ac iiia?aaei?e i?aeneethaa/ NAA-06 i?aeeeth/aany aei aeaio i?eeaae?a AO-15, iaeei c yeeo aoa o neeaae? i?ia?aiii-aia?aoiiai eiiieaeno AA ? iano?i?iee ia i?eeii neaiae?a AA eeoa a?ae eiiiaoiaeii? neeaaeiai?, a ae?oaee, i?aeeeth/aiee aei oeeo?iae?oeoaaeueiiai i?eno?ith ? iano?i?iee ia i?eeii neaiae?a a?ae ea?ai?/ii? /anoeie. I?e aei?iaoaaiiyo a 100 oeeeeao aoee anoaiiaeai? oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? a i?iyaeaii? AA, ye? aeicaieeee cai?iiiioaaoe can?a ae?aaiinooaaiiy i?oeiino? oa iiia?aaeaeaiiy iaaacia/ieo noai?a ia?ic’?iiiai c’?aeiaiiy ea?ai?ee ? eiiiaoiaea ia i?eeeaae? eiino?oeoe?? eiiaeainaoi??a E 15-5 i?e oa?iioeeeethaaii? a?ae +60N aei -50N, ca?aeii c yeei: 1) i?iya aoaeoo Eaeca?a i?ney ia?oeo aeaio oa?iioeeee?a na?ae/eoue i?i ii?iaeueiee, o?eaeee noai eiino?oeoe??; 2) yeui ia n-io oeeee? oa?iioeeeethaaiiy ciiao c'yaeythoueny neaiaee AA, noi??i? ?c neaiaeaie, io?eiaieie i?e ia?oiio oeeee?, oi oea ? iiia?aaeaeaiiyi i?i ii/aoie i?ioeano eaoano?io?/ii? ?oeiaoe?? ? oaea eiino?oeoe?y aoaea c?oeiiaaia /a?ac 5-10 oeeee?a; 3) yeui i?e i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e a?ae -50N aei -10N c'yaeythoueny nieanee neaiae?a AA, oi oea na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue ? ?icaeoie o??ueie a eiino?oeoe??. O aeaio inoaii?o aeiaaeeao eiino?oeoe?y aaaaea?oueny aeaoaeoiith. AENIIAEE - Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ae?aaiinoeee i?oeiino? ia?ic’?iieo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e iaoiaeii AA aoa ?ic?iaeaiee ? noai?aiee i?ia?aiii-aia?aoiee eiiieaen AA, i?ecia/aiee aeey aeieoiaioaeueii? ?a?no?aoe?? e ii?aoethaaiiy ia?aiao??a neaiae?a aeonoe/ii? ai?n??. - A oiae? noaiaea?oieo eaai?aoi?ieo aei?iaoaaiue c?ace?a iaoa??ae?a oa iaoo?ieo ae?ia?a ia i?ino? aeaee iaaaioaaeaiiy - ?icoya, caei, cnoa anoaiiaeaii ca’ycie i?ae ia?aiao?aie neaiae?a AA, iai?oaeaiiyi a i?oaei?e noaae?? aeaoi?iaoe?? oa ?oei?aiei iai?oaeaiiyi; ia iniia? oeueiai ca’yceo ?ic?iaeai?: can?a ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth, ae?aaiinooaaiiy oa i?iaiicoaaiiy i?oeiino? ia i?eeeaae? c?ace?a noae? No3, can?a ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth ci?ie i?oeiino? iaoaeo i?ney ia?iaee ca oaoiieia??th aiaeiaaiai ie?eo/aiiy, iaoiaeeea ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth ci?ie i?oeiino? oaa?aeinieaaieo ??aeo/eo ieanoei i?ney ia?iaee ca oaoiieia??th ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy oa iaoiaeeea ia?oei?aiiai ae?aaiinooaaiiy oa i?iaiicoaaiiy i?oeiino? neeiieanoeeiaeo caaioiaie, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ianinieo ooaia. - ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ia?oei?aiiai ae?aaiinooaaiiy oa i?iaiicoaaiiy i?oeiino? oa aa?iaoe/iino? ei?ion?a i?e?icai?ie IA* i?e aacia/iiio oanooaaii? aioo??oi?i iaaeeeoeiaei oeneii o noaoe/iiio ?aaeei? iaaaioaaeaiiy. Ei?iona i?e?icai?ie IA* i?eciathoueny i?eaeaoieie aeey aenieoaoaoe?? a aeaiiio, ca oaoi?/ieie oiiaaie, ae?aiacii? oeneo, yeui aeoeai?noue neaiae?a AA, ca?a?no?iaaieo i?ae /an oanooaaiiy, ia ia?aaeueea eiio?ieueiiai ??aiy (15?ii/n), o i?ioeeaaeiiio aeiaaeeo ei?iona a?aea?aeiaothoueny. - Cai?iiiiiaaii can?a ia?oei?aiiai eiio?ieth i?oeiino? oa iiia?aae- aeaiiy iaaacia/ieo noai?a ei?ion?a i?e?icai?ie IA*, anoaiiaeaieo ia ai?oo e?oae?a, eiee a ?acoeueoao? ceueio?a ? iinaaeie ei?iona a?ae/oaathoue ia?aiaaee oeneo ? aeieea? iaaaciaea ?oeiaoe?? caa?iiai oaa ? ?icaa?iaoecaoe?? ei?iona. I?iya aoaeoo Eaeca?a, oiaoi a?aenooi?noue neaiae?a AA i?ney ia?oiai oeeeeo, na?ae/eoue i?i o?eaeee noai ei?iono. sseui ia aeayeiio oeeee? ciia aeieeathoue neaiaee AA, oi oea ? iiia?aaeaeaiiyi i?i ii/aoie i?ioeano eaoano?io?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy ? oaeee ei?ion ?icaa?iaoeco?oueny ca 6-10 ceueio?a ? iinaaeie. - Cai?iiiiiaaii can?a ia?oei?aiiai ae?aaiinooaaiiy i?oeiino? ? iiia?aaeaeaiiy iaaacia/ieo noai?a ia?ic'?iieo c'?aeiaiue ??ciiiai?oieo eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia i?eeeaae? eiino?oeoe?? eiiiaoiaeiaaieo ea?ai?/ieo eiiaeainaoi??a E 15-5, ui i?aoeththoue a oiiaao oa?iioeeeethaaiiy a?ae +60N aei -50N. Iieacieeii i?oeiiai noaio eiino?oeoe?? ? i?iya aoaeoo Eaeca?a i?ney ia?oeo aeaio oa?iioeeee?a. Iiyaa AA ia n-io oa?iioeeee? ? iiia?aaeaeaiiyi eaoano?io?/ii? ?oeiaoe?? eiino?oeoe?? /a?ac 5-10 oeeee?a. NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CAeIAOAA*A CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? 1. ?ieciai A.I, Eiaooi ?.?. I?ia?aiii-aia?aoiee eiiieaen aeonoe/ii? yi?n?? // Aei??thaaeueia oa ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea a oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao. - Oiaeueieoeueeee. - 1997. - ?1. - N. 25-29. 2. Aeaaeeee ss.I., Ao?eaeia A.A., Eiaooi ?.?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae eiino?oeoe?eii? noae? No3 i?ae aieeaii aiaeith c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? // A?niee Oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Iiae?eey - oaoi?/i? iaoee. Oiaeueieoeeee. - 1997. - na?. 1. - ?1. - N. 22-26. 3. Niicee I.A., Eiaooi ?.?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?oeiino? acioiaaieo oaa?aeinieaaieo ?ino?oiaio?a ? aeonoe/ii? ai?n??, ui aeieea? i?e ?o iaaaioaaeaii? // A?niee Oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Iiae?eey - nioe?aeueii-aoiai?oa?i? ? i?e?iaeie/? iaoee. Oiaeueieoeeee. - 1997. - na?. 3. - ?1. - N. 49 -52. 4. ?ieciai A.I., Eiaooi E.E. Aeeaaiinoeea i?i/iinoe e aa?iaoe/iinoe ei?ionia iee?inai?ie NA* // Problems of Tribology (I?iaeaie o?eaieia??). -1998. - ? 2. - N. 100-109. 5. ?ieciai A.I., Eiaooi E.E. Aeeaaiinoeea i?i/iinoe ia?acuaiiuo niaaeeiaiee ?acee/iuo eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia i?e oa?iioeeeee?iaaiee // Problems of Tribology (I?iaeaie o?eaieia??). -1998. - ? 2. - N. 110-118. 6. Eiaooi ?.?. I?ia?aiii-aia?aoiee eiiieaen aeonoe/ii? ai?n??. // Ca??iee iaoa??ae?a eiioa?aioe?? “Aei??thaaeueia oa ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea a oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao”. - Oiaeueieoeueeee. - 1997. - N. 33. AIIOAOe?ss Eiaooi ?.?. Ae?aaiinoeea i?oeiino? ia?ic’?iieo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e iaoiaeii aeonoe/ii? ai?n??. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.02.02 - Iaoeiiciaanoai, Oaoiieia?/iee Oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey, 1998. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?noeoue aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeonoi-ai?n?eieo aeanoeainoae ??cii??aeieo iaoa??ae?a, aeaoaeae ? ia?ic’?iieo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e, ui canoiniaothoueny a iaoeiiaoaeoaaii? e ?ioeo aaeocyo oaoi?ee, o ?acoeueoao? yeeo ?ic?iaeai? caniae oa iaoiaeeee ia?oei?aiiai ae?aaiinooaaiiy: i?oeiino? neeiieanoeeiaeo caaioiaie, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ianinieo ooaia; i?oeiino? oa aa?iaoe/iino? ei?ion?a i?e?icai?ie IA* a i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa ? a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe??, eiee ei?iona, anoaiiaeai? ia ai?oo e?oaea, i?aeaeathoueny ia?aiaaeai aioo??oiueiai oeneo ca ioeuenoth/ei oeeeeii; i?oeiino? ia?ic'?iieo c'?aeiaiue ??ciiiai?oieo eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia i?eeeaae? eiino?oeoe?? eiiiaoiaeiaaieo ea?ai?/ieo eiiaeainaoi??a E15-5, ye? i?aoeththoue a oiiaao oa?iioeeeethaaiiy; ci?ie i?oeiino? iaoaeo i?ney ia?iaee ca oaoiieia??th aiaeiaaiai ie?eo/aiiy oa oaa?aeinieaaieo ??aeo/eo ieanoei i?ney ia?iaee ca oaoiieia??th ?iiiiai aciooaaiiy. E??i oiai, aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue ?ic?iaee i?ia?aiii-aia?aoiiai eiiieaeno aeonoe/ii? ai?n??, canoiniaoaaiiai aeey aenia?eiaioaeueii? ? i?eeeaaeii? ae?aaiinoeee i?oeiino? oa ii?oaoeaiiai aeonoi-ai?n?eiiai i?eeaaeo, i?ecia/aiiai aeey iiia?aaeaeaiiy i?i ii/aoie i?ioeano ?icaa?iaoecaoe?? aai ?oeioaaiiy eiio?ieueiaaieo aeaoaeae oa aoce?a nenoai e?oaeueieo aia?ao?a. Eeth/ia? neiaa: can?a, iaoiaeeea, ia?oei?aia ae?aaiinooaaiiy, i?oei?noue, ia?ic’?ii? aeaiaioe eiino?oeoe?e. Eiaooi E.E. Aeeaaiinoeea i?i/iinoe ia?acuaiiuo yeaiaioia eiino?oeoeee iaoiaeii aeonoe/aneie yiennee. -?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.02 - Iaoeiiaaaeaiea, Oaoiieiae/aneee Oieaa?neoao Iiaeieuey, 1998. Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa niaea?aeeo yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey aeonoi-yienneiiiuo naienoa ?acii?iaeiuo iaoa?eaeia, aeaoaeae e ia?acuaiiuo yeaiaioia eiino?oeoeee, eioi?ua i?eiaiythony a iaoeiino?iaiee e ae?oaeo io?aneyo oaoieee, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo ?ac?aaioaiu niiniau e iaoiaeeee ia?ac?ooathuaai aeeaaiinoe?iaaiey: i?i/iinoe noaeeiieanoeeiauo caaioiaie, eniieuecoaiuo aeey i?iecaiaenoaa ianiniuo ooaia; i?i/iinoe e aa?iaoe/iinoe ei?ionia iee?inai?ie NA* a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa e a i?ioeanna yenieoaoaoeee, eiaaea ei?iona, onoaiiaeaiiua ia ai?oo naiieaoa, iiaeaa?aathony ia?aiaaeai aioo?aiiaai aeaaeaiey ii ioeuene?othuaio oeeeeo; i?i/iinoe ia?acuaiiuo niaaeeiaiee ?acee/iuo eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia ia i?eia?a eiino?oeoeee eiiiaoiaee?iaaiiuo ea?aie/aneeo eiiaeainaoi?ia E15-5, ?aaioathueo a oneiaeyo oa?iioeeeee?iaaiey; eciaiaiey i?i/iinoe iaoaeea iinea ia?aaioee ii oaoiieiaee aiaei?iaeiiai io?oi/eaaiey e oaa?aeinieaaiuo ?aaeoueo ieanoei iinea ia?aaioee ii oaoiieiaee eiiiiai acioe?iaaiey. E?iia oiai, aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo ?ac?aaioee i?ia?aiiii-aiia?aoiiai eiiieaena aeonoe/aneie yiennee, i?eiaiyaiiai aeey yenia?eiaioaeueiie e i?eeeaaeiie aeeaaiinoeee i?i/iinoe e ii?oaoeaiiai aeonoi-yienneiiiiai i?eai?a, i?aaeiacia/aiiiai aeey i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey i ia/aea i?ioeanna ?acaa?iaoecaoeee eee ?ac?ooaiey eiio?iee?oaiuo aeaoaeae e oceia nenoai eaoaoaeueiuo aiia?aoia. Eeth/aaua neiaa: niinia, iaoiaeeea, ia?ac?ooathuaa aeeaaiinoe?iaaiea, i?i/iinoue, ia?acuaiiua yeaiaiou eiino?oeoeee. Kovtun I.I. Diagnostic of strength of non-detachable elements of constructions by acoustic emission method. - Manuscript. The dissertation for the degree of Candidate of Technical Sciences in speciality 05.02.02 - Machine engineering science, Technological University of Podillia, 1998. The dissertation work contains experimental researches of acoustic emission properties of various materials, details and non-detachable elements of constructions, applied in machine-building and other branches of engineering, as result of which there're developed methods of non- destructive diagnosing of: strength of the glassplastic billets, applied for production of pump rods; strength and air-tightness of micro-assemles bodies in industry process and exploring conditions, when microassemles, set as onboard flying are under inner pressure drops in pulsating cycle; strength of non-detachable joining of different composite materials on example of compounded ceramic capacitors construction K 15-5, explored in termocycling conditions; strength changes of steel passed hydrogen embrittlement technology processing and hard alloy plates passed ion nitriding technology processing. Besides, dissertation contains development of hard-software acoustic emission complex, applied for experimental and applied diagnostic of strength and portable acoustic emission device intended for warning beginning of depressurization process or destruction of controlled details and joints of onboard flying systems. Key words: method, non-destructive diagnosing, strength, non-detachable elements of constructions.

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