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Діагностична роль метаболічних продуктів оксиду азоту видихуваного повітря при бронхітах у моряків: Автореф. дис… канд. мед. наук / Л.М. Бобрик, Дер

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I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

Aea?aeaaia i?aei?e?inoai

“Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo ii?nueei? iaaeeoeeie”

OAeE 616.233.002-07:546.172.6

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

AIA?EE Ethaeieea Ieoaee?aia

Ae?AAIINOE*IA ?IEUe IAOAAIE?*IEO I?IAeOEO?A IENEAeO ACIOO AEAeEOOAAIIAI
IIA?O?ss I?E A?IIO?OAO O II?ssE?A

14.01.34. – “aa?aoe?eia, eini?/ia oa ii?nueea iaaeeoeeia”

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Iaeana

1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aea?aeaaiiio i?aei?e?inoa? “Oe?a?inueeee
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo ii?nueei? iaaeeoeeie” oa ia eaoaae??
ii?nueei? iaaeeoeeie Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
IIC Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aieeaeaaeai?e AII Oe?a?ie, caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee oa
oaoi?ee oa oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani?

Eiaaiei Aiaoie?e Ieaenaiae?iae/,

Aee?aeoi? Oe?a?inueeiai IAe? ii?nueei? iaaeeoeeieIo?oe?ei?
iiiiaioe:aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aaoiaeiaa Iaoaey Aanee?aia,

caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith oaeoeueoaonueei? oa?ai??

Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaooaeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,

Iaooaeeoaoea Ieaa TH??eiae/ ,

noa?oee ?iniaeoi? Aieiaii? aea?aeaaii? ?iniaeoe?? Oe?a?ie c aaciaee
noaeiiieaanoaa, I?i?noa?noai o?ainii?ooI?ia?aeia onoaiiaaOe?a?inueeee
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo iaaee/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? oa eo?i?oieia?? IIC
Oe?a?ie, i.Iaeana

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “27” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.41.617.01 i?e Aea?aeaaiiio
i?aei?e?inoa? “Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo ii?nueei?
iaaeeoeeie” ca aae?anith: 270049, i. Iaeana, aoe. Noaeiiaoae?aaeueia, 1.

C ae?na?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? AeI “Oe?a?inueeee
IAe? ii?nueei? iaaeeoeeie” ca aae?anith: 270049, i. Iaeana, aoe.
Noaeiiaoae?aaeueia, 1.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “17” na?iiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

Eaiaeeaeao iaaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio I.A.Ieaoue?aa

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. No/ania ae?aaiinoeea o?ii?/iiai a?iio?oo (OA),
iniaeeai eiai iano?oeoeaii? oi?ie, ? iniiaiith i?iaeaiith o?ii?/ieo
ianiaoeeo?/ieo caoai?thaaiue eaaai?a (OICE) na?aae ianaeaiiy ??cieo
i?ioan?e. Ca aeaieie na?oiai? noaoenoeee, oea caoai?thaaiiy iaoiiaeth?
cia/io /anoeio a no?oeoo?? oei/aniai? iai?aoeacaeaoiino?, ?iaae?aeiino?
oa nia?oiino? ? oiio iinoa? ye aino?a nioe?aeueii-iaaee/ia i?iaeaia
(Aeaieeia ?.I., Iaea?aae/ A.A.. 1989; Naa?iia A.A., 1989; Iooia I.A.,
1991; *o/ae?i A.A., 1996, 1997; Iooeioeaa A.?. c ni?aaao., 1996; Oauaiei
TH.?., 1997,1998; Brewis R.A., 1998; Stafakas N.M., Vermeire P., Pride
N.B., 1995). Aiae?coth/e neooaoe?th. ui neeaeany, TH.?.Oauaiei (1998)
iaaiaeeoue aeai? i?i oa, ui nia?oi?noue aiane?aeie o?ii?/ieo
iano?oeoeaieo caoai?thaaiue eaaai?a (OICE), aei neeaaeo yeeo aoiaeeoue
iano?oeoeaia oi?ia OA (OIA), c?inoa? oaeaeoa, i?ae a?ae ?ioeo iniiaieo
i?e/ei nia?o?. ca aeiyoeii NI?Aeo. Caaino?aiiy OA ? i?e/eiith 61,8% an?o
aei?a iai?aoeacaeaoiino?, iia’ycaieo ?c caaino?aiiyi OICE, ui iaoiiaeth?
aaeueie cia/i? i?aoeaao?aoe (Iooia I.A., 1991; Ai??aa I.I., A?oeia A.?.,
1995). Ca aeiiii?/ieie i?iaiicaie, aei 2000 ?ieo aeo?aoe, iia’ycai? c
ianiaoeeo?/ieie caoai?thaaiiyie eaaai?a, ia?aaeuaoue aeo?aoe ia
ai?ioueao c na?oeaai-noaeeiieie oa iieieia?/ieie caoai?thaaiiyie
(*o/ae?i A.A., 1996).

I?ia?anoth/ee oa?aeoa? i?io?eaiiy, oneeaaeiaiiy, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
?iaae?aeiino?, aino?i noaaeyoue i?iaeaio iiooeo i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy oa
?icaeoeo caiaeueiiai i?ioeano a a?iioao. I?iaaaeai? i?ia?aeieie
a?o/eciyieie a/aieie aeine?aeaeaiiy c aea/aiiy i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaii? iaoieia?? a in?a ??cieo i?ioan?e (Eoiae??a TH.A.,
E?anithe ?.I., 1990; I’yaeia ?.?., Iaca? I.N., 1991; Ei?ae I.A.. 1993;
Aecthaeee I.ss. ?c ni?aaao., 1997; E?anithe ?.I., 1998 oa ?io?)
ia?aeiieeai i?aeoaa?aeeee aaaeeeao ?ieue iani?eyoeeaeo oaeoi??a
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua: caieeaiino?, caaaciaaiino?, ia?aiaae?a
oaiia?aoo?e, iaoaioaeoi??a oiui, o ca’yceo c /ei oey iicioi?ia
a?aeianaia aei eaoaai??? i?ioan?eii iaoiiaeaieo caoai?thaaiue. Ieoiia
aaaa ieeiaeo caoai?thaaiue a?iioieaaaiaai? nenoaie o no?oeoo??
i?ioan?eii? caoai?thaaiino? ca ia??iae c 1989 ii 1994 ??. ae?inea c
42.8% aei 75.8% (E?anithe ?.I., 1998), o /i?ii? iaoaeo?a?? (O?aiia A.A.
?c ni?aaao., 1992; Eoa’yii-aa ?.I., 1995), a??ie/iaeiaoaii?
i?iieneiaino? (Eiaaeue/oe A.A., ?oaoeia ?.A.. 1994; Eo?eei N.I., 1998),
ae?iaieoeoaa aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a (E?anithe ?.I., 1998),
e?ea?aeaoi??a iane?aee?a aaa??? ia *i?iiaeeuenueeee AAN (?iiaiaiei
A.?.., 1992; Oea/eoei A.N.. 1993, 1998; Aioiiia I.N. ?c ni?aaao., 1996;
Oauaiei TH.?. ?c ni?aaao., 1996; Oaaeei E.?.. 1998).

Iayai? e?oa?aoo?i? aeai? i?i caoai?thaai?noue iaoieia??th i?aai?a
aeeoaiiy ii?ye?a ??cieo ia?iieaanoa (Iaoeaae/ E.I., 1986; Aeaaeeie?ia
A.I. ?c ni?aaao., 1987; Aieoaiei A.I., Oao?ai E.I., 1989; Einiaae A.I.,
1990; Eiaaiei A.I.. Aniieia I.E., 1991; Iini?eia A.I., 1994) na?ae/aoue
i?i aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeoaaii? iaoieia?? ? ia o?ainii?o?.

Caoai?thaai?noue ieaaneeaaeo ? ?ioaa?aeueiith ioe?ieith aieeao
niaoeeo?/ieo oaeoi??a noaeiiaiai oa ?aeniaiai na?aaeiaeua (Iaoeaae/
E.I., 1986). 10% ieaaneeaaeo a?eii a?ae 35 aei 40 ?ie?a aeciathoueny
iiai?noth aai /anoeiai iai?eaeaoieie aei iiaeaeueoi? ?iaioe ia noaeiao
ca noaiii caei?ia’y. Ae?iaie/a na?aaeiaeua, nooi?iue iai?oaeaiino?,
oe?aeeeaino? ni?eythoue oi?ioaaiith iaaii? ae?yeueiino? ?ani??aoi?ii? oa
ia?ani??aoi?ii? ooieoe?? eaaai?a ca aeiiiiiaith ??cieo iaoai?ci?a
i?aeo?eioaaiiy aiiainoaco (Iini?eia A.I., 1994). O?eaaea iai?oaeaiiy
o?c?ieia?/ieo ooieoe?e i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?icaeoeo o ii?yea eoioeyoeaii?
aoiie oa caoai?thaaiue ??cieo i?aai?a oa nenoai, o oiio /ene? i?aai?a
aeeoaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? ?aiiy ae?aaiinoeea OA, yea
cae?enith?oueny i?e i?iaaaeaii? i?ioiaeyae?a (A?iaa?ia A.A., 1997 oa
?io?). Ne?ei?iaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/athoue canoinoaaiiy no/anieo
aeinooiieo, iaaei?iaeo, ao?aaiaoe/ieo, aea ?ioi?iaoeaieo ae?aaiinoe/ieo
iaoiaeee. sse iiaee oano a ioeueiiiieia?? a inoaii? ?iee
aeine?aeaeo?oueny ieen acioo o aeaeeooaaiiio iia?o?? i?e
a?iioiaeoaoe/i?e oai?ia?, a?iio?aeuei?e anoi?, ?ioaeoe?? aa?oi?o
aeeoaeueieo oeyo?a (Iaaci?iaa A.A. ?c ni?aaao., 1997; Oa??oiiiaa N.A.,
1997; Barnes P.I., Belvisi M.G., 1993, 1995 oa ?io?). Aeine?aeaeaiue
iaoaaie?o?a ieeno acioo a aeni??aoi aeaeeooaaiiai iia?o?y, o oiio /enei
a in?a ieaaneeaaeo o aeinooii?e e?oa?aoo?? ia aeyaeaii.

Iaoa ?iaioe. Ine?eueee iae?iciianthaeaeai?oei caoai?thaaiiyi i?aai?a
aeeoaiiy ? OA, iaoith iaoi? ?iaioe noaei aecia/aiiy ae?aaiinoe/ieo
iiaeeeainoae iaoaaie?/ieo i?iaeoeo?a ieneaeo acioo eiiaeainaoo
aeaeeooaaiiai iia?o?y i?e o?ii?/ieo a?iio?oao o ii?ye?a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aecia/ai? oae?
caaea/?:

1. Aea/eoe caoai?thaai?noue OA o ??cieo i?ioan?eieo a?oiao ieaaneeaaeo.

2. Aeyaeoe iiaeeeaino? ei?aeyoe?eiiai ca’yceo i?ae /anoioith
caoai?thaaiue OA oa a?eiaeie, noaoaaeie oaeoi?aie, aeaeii i?ioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino?, noaaeai ?iaioe ia oeio?, oeiii noaeai.

3. Aea/eoe iiaeeeaino? aecia/aiiy ieene?a acioo a aeni??ao?
aeaeeooaaiiai iia?o?y.

4. ?ic?iaeoe niin?a ioe?iee ?ioaineaiino? aeaeeooaaiiai e?aaoei?io.

5. Aecia/eoe aeae?eaiiy ieene?a acioo o oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee
iaiano?oeoeaiee oa iano?oeoeaiee a?iio?o.

6. I?iaanoe ii??aiyeueia aea/aiiy aeae?eaiiy c i?aai?cio ieene?a acioo
eaaaiyie oa ie?eaie, aeyaeoe ?o ?ieue o aeae?eaii? e?ioeaaeo i?iaeoeo?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

– aia?oa o eiiaeainao? aeaeeooaaiiai iia?o?y aeyaeaiee e?aaoei?i –
noaa?eueiee e?ioeaaee i?iaeoeo acioiiai iai?io, ui aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe
iaai? ia?aeae? aene?aoi?ii? ooieoe?? eaaai?a oa ie?ie;

– aia?oa i?iaaaeaii ia?aeaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?o?ao?a oa i?o?eo?a o
EAI ye ia?ea??a NO oa ?o ie?eiai? aene?aoe??;

– i?aeoaa?aeaeaia iayai?noue a aeni??ao? aeaeeooaaiiai iia?o?y
noaa?eueieo iaoaaie?o?a ieneaeo acioa – NO2 oa NO3

– oaeineiiaeaia iaoiaeeea aea/aiiy iaoaaie?cio ieene?a acioo oeyoii
aecia/aiiy NO2, NO3 oa ?o noie a aeni??ao? eaaai?a;

– iaa?oioiaaia aeioe?euei?noue ?ic?aooieo eiioeaio?aoe?eieo iieaciee?a
aene?aoi?ieo i?iaeoeo?a ia iaeeieoeth e?aaoei?io a aeni??ao? ye iiaiai
aeey EAI ae?aaiinoe/iiai e?eoa??th, yeee aeicaiey? /?oei ?iciaaeiaoaaoe
a?oie oai?eo ca aeaaaeaiiyi ieeneaieo (NO2 + NO3) oa iaieeneaieo (NH3,
e?aaoei?i) niieoe acioo;

– aeiaaaeaii, ui aeaaaeaiiy ieeneaieo i?iaeoeo?a acioo – i?o?ao?a oa
i?o?eo?a – ia iaeeieoeth e?aaoei?io o EAI cia/ii ia?aaeuo? aiaeii?/iee
iieaciee o na/?, ui aeaco? ia aenieo ?ioaineai?noue aeaaaeaiiy
ia?aaaaeii eeniaoo?eioth/eo niieoe acioo;

– i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueia aea/aiiy iai?io NO2, NO3 o caei?iaeo oa oai?eo
ia OA ca aeaieie aeaaaeaiiy ie?eaie oa eaaaiyie, ui aeicaieeei
iaa?oiooaaoe ia?aaaaeii i?aai?/iee oa?aeoa? aeni??aoo;

– ?ic?iaeaia i?o?iae?oea?eiiaa i?iaa c ioe?ieith aeni??aoo, yea
aeicaiey? aeyaeoe aeinoaoiuei niaoeeo?/iee aieea ia ?ani??aoi?io
ooieoe?th, aeinoia??ia ca?eueoaiiy ia’?io aeni??aoo, noia?ia aeae?eaiiy
NO2 oa NO3, ui iathoue a?aei?iiino? o oai?eo ia OA o oacao caaino?aiiy
oa ?ai?n??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy o ?iaio? oa?aiaaoe/ieo
a?aeae?eaiue *i?iiii?nueei? oeaio?aeueii? aanaeiiai? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i?
ia aiaeiiio o?ainii?o?, ?iaio? i?ioa?aea??eiaeo eii?n?e, iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? eaoaae?e ii?nueei? iaaeeoeeie Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Canoinoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee
aecia/aiiy iaoaaie?/ieo i?iaeoeo?a ieneaeo acioo o EAI ni?iuo? oa
?iaeoue aeaoaaoei i?ioeann ae?aaiinoeee o?ii?/ieo a?iio?o?a, a oaeiae
iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey eiio?ieth aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy, yea
i?iaiaeeoueny.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa. Aeena?oaioii iniaenoi i?iaaaeaiee
?ioi?iaoeaiee iiooe c oaie aeena?oaoe??, aiae?c aeaea?ae e?oa?aoo?e,
icia/ai? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee, i?iaaaeaia ee?i?/ia aeeiai?/ia
ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo, ui ciaoiaeeeenue ia e?eoaaii? o ioeueiiiieii?/iiio
a?aeae?eaii? *OeAEE ia AO, ianoaaeaia eiio?ieueia a?oia caei?iaeo in?a
ieaaneeaaeo, i?iaaaeai? ai?aeai?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy c aea/aiiy
caoai?thaaiino? o?ii?/ieie a?iio?oaie in?a ieaaneeaaeo, caa?? EAI o
ianoaaeaieo oai?eo aei oa i?ney e?eoaaiiy, ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a. ?ino?oiaioaeuei? oa eaai?aoi?i? ianoaaeaiiy i?iaaaeai? a
oiiaao ae?aaiinoe/iiai oeaio?o AeI “Oe?a?inueeee IAe? ii?nueei?
iaaeeoeeie”.

Ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo aeaieo aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe??. Iaa?oioiaai? iaoeia? aeniiaee oa i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoee aeeeaaeai? ia I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “A?iien?y: aeano?oeoeaia oa
eiino?oeoeaia ae?y” (Ee?a, 1998), ?icoe?aiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae?e
ii?nueei? iaaeeoeeie IAeIO (1998), can?aeaii? Anioe?aoe??
oo?c?iioeueiiiieia?a Iaeanueei? iaeano? (1999).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 5 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o,
c ieo 4 aeo?iaeueieo noaoo? .

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Ci?no ?iaioe aeeeaaeaiee ia 131
noi??ioe? ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio oa 4
?icae?e?a: iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e, iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iniaeno? aeine?aeaeaiiy (2 ?icae?ee), a oaeiae caeeth/aiiy, aeniiae?a oa
i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e. Oaeno ?ethno?iaaiee 18
oaaeeoeyie oa 15 iaethieaie. A?ae?ia?ao?y aeeth/a? 231 aeaea?aei
e?oa?aoo?e, c ieo 151 a?o/eciyia oa 80 ?iicaiieo.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe oa caaea/
?iaioe i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy in?a ieaaneeaaeo oa i?aoe?aiee?a
aa?aaiaeo neoaea ii?nueeiai i?io?eth a oiiaao ioeueiiiieia?/iiai
a?aeae?eaiiy noaoe?iia?o *i?iiii?nueei? oeaio?aeueii? ee?i?/ii?
aanaeiiai? e?ea?i? ia aiaeiiio o?ainii?o?, ae?aaiinoe/iiai oeaio?o AeI
“Oe?a?inueeee IAe? ii?nueei? iaaeeoeeie”.

Ianoaaeaii 124 iaoe??ioa /ieia?/i? oa ae?ii/i? noao? a?eii a?ae 19 aei
65 ?ie?a, ye? aoee ?iciiae?eai? ia 3 a?oie:

? – 43 oai?eo. ui no?aaeaeathoue o?ii?/iei iaiano?oeoeaiei a?iio?oii
(OIA);

?? – 47 oai?eo, ui no?aaeaeathoue iano?oeoeaiith oi?iith o?ii?/iiai
a?iio?oo (OIA);

??? – 34 caei?ia? iniae ieaaneeaaeo (eiio?ieueia a?oia).

Na?aae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ianoaaeaieo oai?eo ia OA i?aaenoaaeaii 50
in?a ieaaneeaaeo ??cieo i?ioan?eieo a?oi oa 40 oeo, ooi i?aoeth? o
aa?aaiaeo caeeaaeao ii?nueeiai i?io?eth.

On? oai?? ianoaaeoaaeenue a aeeiai?oe? i?e iaaeoiaeaeaii? oa ia?aae
aeieneith ?c noaoe?iia?o.

I?e oeueiio aoee canoiniaai? iaoiaee ai?aeai?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ee?i?/iiai aeeiai?/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy, ?ino?oiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
?c canoinoaaiiyi ?aioaaiieia?/iiai (124), a?iioineii?/iiai (77),
ni??iiao?e/iiai (160), niaeo?ioioiiao?e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?o?ao?a oa
i?o?eo?a o eiiaeainao? aeaeeooaaiiai iia?o?y oa na/? (158),
a?io?i?/iiai, ee?i?/ii-eaai?aoi?iiai iaoiae?a (124),
aeaeo?iea?ae?ia?ao?/iiai (124).

C iaoith aea/aiiy ??aiy ?iciianthaeaeaiino? oa caoai?thaaiino? in?a
ieaaneeaaeo iaoieia??th i?aai?a aeeoaiiy aoa canoiniaaiee
?ao?iniaeoeaiee ai?aeai?ieia?/iee iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/ai?
iaoa??aee iie?ee?i?ee ieaaneeaaeo – aiaoeaoi?i? ea?oee aeeniaina?ieo
oai?eo, ui no?aaeaeathoue ia OA, ?aenia? ca?oe noaeiiaeo e?ea??a oa
??/i? ca?oe a?aeae?eo noaeiiaiai iaaee/iiai ia?niiaeo OIII “Iaaeeoeeia
o?ainii?oo” a aeeiai?oe? 5-??/iiai ia??iaeo (1992-1996 ??.).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy EAI. Caa?? EAI cae?enithaaee ca iiaeeo?eaoe??th
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiei ?inoeoooii “Iaaeeoeeie o?ainii?oo” iaoiaeeee
A.?.Neaei?aiea ?c ni?aaaoi?aie.

E?euee?noue EAI ioe?ithaaee aaee/eiith, yea aei??aith? a?aeiioaiith
c?a?aiiai ianyao aeni??aoo (IA) aei /ano (O) i?ioiaeaeaiiy aeaeeooaaiiai
iia?o?y /a?ac onoaiiaeo aeey cai?o aeni??aoo. sse iieacieee, ui
aeicaieythoue i?iaiaeeoe ioe?ieo aeeiai?ee iaoaaie?/ieo ci?i o i?ioean?
e?eoaaiiy, aeei?enoai?: ianya aeni??aoo a ?ic?aooieo ca 1 aiaeeio;
aecia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ii?a NO2, NO3; ?ic?aooiie aene?aoe?? ?ii?a
NO2, NO3 oa ?o noie (Sum NO); aecia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ai?aeo oa eiai
aene?aoe??; ?ic?aooiie eiioeaio?aoe?eiiai iieacieea a?aeiioaiiy Sum NO
aei aene?aoe?? ai?aeo; ??aaiue iaeiie/aieo i?iaeoeo?a ia?aeeniiai
ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a o EAI (IAeA).

Aea/aiiy aene?aoi?ii? ooieoe?? ie?ie i?iaiaeeee a oiiaao niiioaiiiai oa
oi?niaaiiai ae?o?aco. Ae?o?ac ?ic?aoiaoaaee ca 1 aiaeeio; a?aeiiniee
ae?o?ac c aiaeyiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi – ca a?aeiioaiiyi aaee/eie ae?o?aco
aei ianyao ??aeeie, yea aeaiaeeoueny.

Ooieoe?th ie?ie ioe?ithaaee ca aeae?eaiiyi na/ath e?aaoei?io, oeo?o?ieo
eeneio, ai?aeo, i?o?eo?a oa i?o?ao?a ca aeiao (Iaoi/ei TH.A., 1974).

Eiioeaio?aoe?th e?aaoei?io a i?iaao na/? oa EAI aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii,
iniiaaiei ia ?aaeoe?? ssooa, c o??th eeoa ??cieoeath, ui aeey aecia/aiiy
e?aaoei?io o EAI ianya i?iae ca?eueooaaee o 2-3 ?ace.

Ai?ae na/?, a oaeiae oeo?o?i? eeneioe aecia/aee ca oeo?iiao?e/iei
iaoiaeii, iniiaaiei ia oi?iieiaiio oeo?oaaii? ca Na?ainaiii (?yaia N.?.
?c ni?aaao., 1979).

I?o?aoe oa i?o?eoe a na/? oa ieaci? e?ia? aecia/aee ca aeiiiiiaith
?aaeoeao A?enna oioiiao?e/iei niiniaii (AINO ? 8558.1-78; AINO ?
8558.2-78).

Aeey ?ic?aooieo aiaeiaaiieo ieeneaieo i?iaeoeo?a i?o?io?eaoe??
aeei?enoaia iiaeeo?eiaaia a ee?i?oe? iaoiaeeea ioe?iee i?o?aoiiai
(i?o?eoiiai) aeieia?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy (Iaoaio Oe?a?ie ? 24153. Niin?a
aecia/aiiy i?o?aoiiai aeieia?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie.
Cayaiee Oe?.IAe? “Iaaeeoeeia o?ainii?oo” a?ae 09.07.98). Iiaeeo?eaoe?y
oe??? iaoiaeeee iia’ycaia c i?eeiiii aeenoeeueiaaii? aiaee iaouana?oea,
i?ney a?aeeeaeaiiy i?/ii? ii?oe?? na/?, a ye?e iiaeooue oo?eioaaoeny
oa?/ia? i?o?aoe oa i?o?eoe. Iaiao?aeio i?iao na/? a?aee /a?ac aiaeeio
(Neaa?ia I.A., 1996).

Iaeiie/aiiy aoi?eiieo i?iaeoeo?a IIE o EAI aecia/aee
niaeo?ioioiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii ca ci?noii IAeA a ?aaeoe?? c
2-o?iaa?a?oo?iaith eeneioith i?ney ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaiiai eiiieaeno
(Noaeueia ?.Ae., Aa??oa?e? O.A., 1997), ia 532 ii (NO-46).

I?iaaaeaiiy iaaaioaaeaii? aiaeyii? i?iae c i?o?iae?oea?eiiaei oanoii
iieyaaei o i?eeii? aeenoaeueiaaii? aiaee e?euee?noth 0.5% a?ae aaae
o?ea, /a?ac aiaeeio – caa?? na/?, iio?i io?eioaaee EAI aeacaiei aeua
niiniaii i?ioyaii 20-25 oaeeei.

*a?ac 20 oaeeei i?ney noae?iaaaeueiiai i?eeiio 1-2 oaaeaoie
i?o?iae?oea?eio (IA) a aeic? 0,5-1,0 ia iiaoi?ii i?iaiaeeee caa?? EAI oa
na/?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaioeeyoe?eii? ni?iiiaeiino? eaaai?a i?iaiaeeeinue ca
aeiiiiiaith iiaaiineiio o??ie Erich Eger (Jaeger) O?I. Aei??yeenue
ia?aiao?e e?eai? “iio?e-ia’?i” oi?niaaiiai aeaeeoo, cie?aia ieoo?a?
iaeneiaeuei? ia’?ii? oaeaeeino? i?e aeaeoooaaii? 25, 50 oa 75% OAEAE
(IIN25, IIN50, IIN75). Oeyoii c?noaaeaiiy aei???a ianyao oi?niaaiiiai
aeaeeoo ca ia?oo naeoiaeo (IOA) oa IIN, ?ic?aoiaaieo ia ??cieo ae?eyieao
e?eai? OAEAE, aecia/aee ??aaiue ia?aaaaeiiai ii?ooaiiy i?io?aeiino?
a?iio?a. Aeey aea/aiiy cai?ioiino? iano?oeoeaieo ii?ooaiue aaioeeyoeoe??
i?iaiaeeeanue ?iaaeyoe?eia oa?iaeieia?/ia i?iaa c i?aia?aoii
“Aa?ioae-aa?icieue” (1 aeica) c iiaoi?iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi ooieoe??
ciai?oiueiai aeeoaiiy (OCAe) /a?ac 15 oa 30 oaeeei.

O?a?ia?iioineii?/iee iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeany c aeei?enoaiiyi
a?iioineiia o??ie “Olympus” ?c caai?ii ae?aaiinoe/iiai
a?iioiaeueaaiey?iiai eaaaaeo ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoith iaoiaeeeith.

Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea aeaieo i?iaiaeeeanue ia i?aenoaa? ei?aeyoe?eiiai,
aeenia?n?eiiai iaeii- oa aeaioaeoi?iiai aiae?co. Aeinoia??i?noue
a?aei?iiinoae aecia/aeanue ca eiao?oe??ioii Nouethaeaioa-O?oa?a c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaeaoa i?eeeaaeii? i?ia?aie “Statgraf 3.0” ia IBM PC-XT.
Ia?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia oeo naieo iaoe??ioao aei oa i?ney IA-oanoo
ioe?ithaaee c aeei?enoaiiyi e?eoa??th ?aia?a iaia?aiao?e/ii? noaoenoeee
(Wilcoxon).

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIIss OA IAAIAI?AIIss

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui
iaoieia?y i?aai?a aeeoaiiy iin?aea? 1-2 i?noey o no?oeoo?? ia?aeiieo
caa?oaiue aei noaeiiaeo aiaoeaoi??e. Oey iaoieia?y /a?ao?oueny c
o?aaiaie oa caoai?thaaiiyie i?aai?a o?aaeaiiy oa ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei
c?inoaiiy c 36,0 % o 1992 ?. aei 51,1 % o 1996 ?. Aeyaeaia oaiaeaioe?y
i?inoaaeo?oueny ii an?o oeiao noaeai, iaea?eueoa – ia noaeiao
nooiaaioaaeiiai oeioa. O no?oeoo?? ia?aeiii? caoai?thaaiino? ieaaneeaaeo
caoai?thaaiiy i?aai?a aeeoaiiy iin?aeathoue I i?noea (28,1 %),
aeia?aaeaeoth/e o?aaie (18,3 %), a o no?oeoo?? caaaeueii?
caoai?thaaiiino? – II i?noea (16,7 %) i?ney oai?ia nenoaie e?iaiia?ao
(32,1 %). Aei ?a/?, a aeeiai?oe? 5 –??/iiai ia??iaeo a?aecia/a?oueny
c?inoaiiy ye ia?aeiii? (c 96,7 aei 1119,6 ia 10000 ianaeaiiy), oae ?
caaaeueii? ( c 990,8 aei 1123,6 ia 10000 ianaeaiiy) caoai?thaaiiino?
iaoieia??th i?aai?a aeeoaiiy ieaaneeaaeo oa ieoiii? aaae o?ii?/iiai
a?iio?oo (c 22,5% aei 31,6 % ? c 23,2 % aei 34,1 % a?aeiia?aeii).

Aea/aiiy ??aiy caoai?thaaiiino? (e?eueeino? aeiaaee?a oa aei?a
iai?aoeacaeaoiino?) aeyaeei iayaio ia?aaaao caoai?thaaiue i?aai?a
aeeoaiiy ii a?aeiioaiith aei an?o iicioi?i, ui ?a?no?othoueny, – 36,7 %
ca e?euee?noth aeiaaee?a oa 25,8 % – e?euee?noth aei?a
iai?aoeacaeaoiino?. Na?aae aeaiiai aeaeo iaoieia?? ia?aaaaeathoue aino??
?ani??aoi?i? a??oni? ?ioaeoe?? (24,5 %), a?iio?oe (18,3 %) oa iiaaiii??
(15,5 %). I?iaaaeaieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui iioe?ai?noue oa
caoai?thaai?noue, o oiio /ene? c oei/aniaith ao?aoith i?aoeacaeaoiino?,
iathoue a?aei?ii?noue o i?ioan?eieo a?oiao. Iae/ano?oa ia iaoieia?th
i?aai?a aeeoaiiy no?aaeaeathoue noaeiiiaoai?ee (48,7 %), noaeiiaiae??
(47,5 %), aeaui a iaio?e i??? /eaie ?yaeiai? iaeoaii? eiiaiaee (39,7 %).

Caoai?thaai?noue ieaaneeaaeo a?aeia?aaea? ye oiiae o?oaea oa a?aeii/eieo
ia noaeiao o oe?eiio, oae ? i?ioan?eio oa a?eiao niaoeeo?eo.
Aeine?aeaeaia ei?aeyoe?eia caeaaei?noue i?ae /anoioith caoai?thaaiue oa
a?eiaeie, noaoaaeie oaeoi?aie, noaaeai ?iaioe ia oeio? oa oeiii noaeai.
Aeyaeaiee aenieee nooi?iue ei?aeyoe?? i?ae /anoioith caoai?thaaiue ia
o?ii?/i? a?iio?oe oa a?eii (r=0,6), noaaeai ?iaioe ia oeio? (r=0,5).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoieia?y i?aai?a aeeoaiiy, cie?aia o?ii?/iee a?iio?o,
cono??/a?oueny o 1,6 ?ace /ano?oa o /ieia?e?a, ye? ca ?iaeii nai??
ae?yeueiino? ca”ycai? c o?ce/iith i?aoeath, ui ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aeaieie
e?oa?aoo?e ? a?aeia?aaea? niaoeeo?eo ?iaioe ia oeio?. Oea noino?oueny
ia?aaaaeii a?eiai? a?oie noa?oa 50 ?ie?a. O a?oi? oai?eo ia OIA
ia?aaaaeathoue iniae a?eueo noa?oi? a?eiai? a?oie – a?ae 51 aei 65 ?ie?a
(40,4 %), o a?oi? oai?eo ia OIA – iieiaeoi? – a?ae 41 aei 50 ?ie?a (37,2
%). I?e oeueiio o?ii?/iee iaiano?oeoeaiee a?iio?o c iaeiaeiaith
/anoioith cono??/aany ye o noaeiiiaoai?e?a, oae ? noaeiiaiae??a (21,1 %
oa 25,5 %), o oie /an ye eiai iano?oeoeaia oi?ia aeyaeyeanue o 1,8 ?ac?a
/ano?oa o oeo in?a, ye? ca ?iaeii ?iaioe ca”ycai? c o?ce/iei o?oaeii
(?yaeiaiai neeaaeo iaeoaii? oa iaoeiii? eiiaiae).

O?ii?/iee a?iio?o iae/ano?oa aeyaeyeny (22,1 %) o noaaeiaaieo
niaoe?ae?no?a, ui iathoue noaae ?iaioe a?eueoa 20 ?ie?a ? i?aoeththoue
ia?aaaaeii ia noaeiao nooiaaioaaeiiai oeioo (53,4 7,0 %). Oeae iieaciee
ca?eueooaaany o 2 ?ace ii??aiyii c oaoi?/iei oeioii (22,28,6 %), ui
aacoiiaii a?aeia?aaea? niaoe?o?eo o?oaea aeaiii? eaoaai??? ieaaneeaaeo.
Aeyaeaia c?inoaiiy iaoieia?? i?aai?a aeeoaiiy o in?a ieaaneeaaeo
iaoiiaeaia iino?eiiae?th/ith noeoii?noth oaeoi??a noaeiiaiai oa
?aeniaiai na?aaeiaeua. Aei ooeiaeaeoth/eo oaeoi??a na?aaeiaeua in?a
ieaaneeaaeo a?aeianee ci?io ee?iaoe/ieo cii (31,2 %), eieeaaiiy t
iia?o?y o noaeiiaeo i?ei?uaiiyo, ?iai/?e cii? oa i?noeyo a?aeii/eieo
(34,6 %), caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y ?iai/i? ciie aacaie oa ia?aie (36,8 %),
i?a?oth/ee ?iiee neeaae iia?o?y (12,5 %). Aeey oai?eo ia OA aa?aaiaeo
i?ioan?e iaeaaaeeea?oeie noaee caaaciaai?noue (26,4 %), caieeai?noue
(23,1 %), ia?aiaaee t (17,6 %).

Aeai? e?oa?aoo?e na?ae/aoue i?i iaaaoeaiee aieea iae?iiy ia ?icaeoie
caoai?thaaiue i?aai?a aeeoaiiy. Iaoeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui
/anoioa o?ii?/iiai a?iio?oo o 2,6 ?ace aeua na?aae oeo, ooi iaeeoue
(28,4 %), ii??aiyii c oeie, ooi ia iaeeoue (10,9 %). I?e oeueiio a a?oi?
oeo, ooi iaeeoue , OIA cono??/a?oueny o 1,5 ?ace /ano?oa (24,4 %), eiai
iano?oeoeaia oi?ia – o 22 ?ace (40,0 %), i?ae o oeo , ooi ia iaeeoue
(16,7 oa 18,9 % a?aeiia?aeii). Aeacaia oaiaeaioe?y aeyaeaia ye o
ii?ye?a, oae ? o oeo, ooi i?aoeth? o aa?aaiaeo caeeaaeao. Io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue i?i caeiiii??i?noue c?inoaiiy
/anoioe OA caeaaeii a?ae noaaeo iae?iiy – o 3, 7 ?ac?a (c 9,3 % i?e
noaae? iae?iiy aei 5 ?ie?a, aei 34,4 % i?e noaae? iae?iiy aeua 20
?ie?a). Ei?aeyoe?eia caeaaei?noue i?ae /anoioith ??ci?o oi?i OA ?
noaaeai iae?iiy a?eueo aeniea oa ae?aaeaia o a?oi? oai?eo ia OIA
(r=0,7), i?ae o a?oi? c OIA (r=0,4), oiaoi ii i??? ca?eueoaiiy noaaeo
iae?iiy /anoioa caoai?thaaiue ye iano?oeoeaiith, oae ? iaiano?oeoeaiith
oi?iith OA caeiiii??ii ca?eueoo?oueny, ui ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aeaieie
A.I.Eiaaiea, I.E.Aniieiaa (1991), E?aa?ei ?.A. (1991).

Aiaeiae/ia oaiaeaioe?y aeyaeaia i?e aea/ai? ?ioaineaiino? iae?iiy :
a?aecia/a?oueny c?inoaiiy /anoioe OA o 5,6 ?ac?a (c 6,6 % i?e
?ioain?aiino? iae?iiy aei 10 oeeaa?ie ia aeaiue, aei 36,9 % – a?eueoa 20
oeeaa?ie ia aeaiue). Io?eiai? a?aei?iiino? i?ae oai?eie ia OA
ieaaneeaaeo oa aa?aaa ia ? aeinoia??ieie.

A?aoiaoth/e io?eiai? aeai? i?i caoai?thaai?noue ia OA in?a ieaaneeaaeo,
iino?eiee aieea iani?eyoeeaeo o?ce/ieo, o?i?/ieo oaeoi??a noaeiiaiai oa
?aeniaiai na?aaeiaeua, iiue?ai?noue iae?iiy, iiaeia aeoiaoe i?i oa, ui
aeyaeaia oaiaeaioe?y c?inoaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii? iaoieia?? na?aae ii?ye?a
iaoiiaeaia iioaioe?thaaiiyi noeoiiiai aieeao ??eoaio?a othothiiaiai
aeeio oa ae?iaie/iai na?aaeiaeua. Anoaiiaeaii, o? noaeiiiaoai?ee ? /eaie
?yaeiai? iaoeiii? eiiaiaee, ye? iaeyoue , ui i?aoeththoue a oiiaao
ia?aaaaeiiai aieeao o?i?ei-oiene/iiai oaeoi?a, o 4,2 ?ace /ano?oa
oai??thoue ia OA, /ei o?,ooi ia iaeeoue (24,4 % ? 5,8 %), a o? /eaie
?yaeiai? iaeoaii? eiiaiaee, ooi iaeeoue oa i?aoeth? a oiiaao
ia?aaaaeiiai aieeao o?ce/ieo oaeoi??a a?aeiia?aeii o 3,6 ?ac?a /ano?oa
(16,6 % oa 4,6 %). Aeyaeaia oaiaeaioe?y a?eueo ae?aaeaia o noaaeiaaieo
ii?nueeeo oao?aoe?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia noaeiao nooiaaioaaeiiai oeioo.
Ii/aoie caoai?thaaiiy o 85,8 % oai?eo aeiaaeaa ia a?e noa?oa 30 ?ie?a,
aeey 56,8 % oai?eo o?eaae?noue caoai?thaaiiy neeaea a?eueoa 10 ?ie?a.

O 21,1 % oai?eo a?aecia/aia noiooiy iaoieia?y c aieo EI? i?aai?a, o 15,6
% – oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo, o 28,8 % – ?oai?/ia oai?iaa na?oey, o 4,4
% – a?ia?oii?/ia oai?iaa, o 12,2 % – aaaaoi-noaeeiia aeenoii?y.
Aa?eo?eaoe?y aeeaaiico caniiaoaaeanue ia aeaiieo aiaiiaco, ia”?eoeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ino?oiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy (?aioaaiieia?/iiai,
ni??ia?ao?/iiai, a?iioineii?/iiai, a?io?i?/iiai, niaeo?ioioiiao?e/iiai).
A?aei?iiinoae o a?oiao oai?eo ia OA ieaaneeaaeo

oa aa?aaiaeo caeeaae?a, ca aeaieie ia”?eoeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
?aioaaiieia?/iiai, ni??ia?ao?/iiai, a?iioineii?/iiai, aeyaeaii ia aoei.
Aeyaeai? ?ino?oiaioaeuei? a?aei?iiino? o a?oiiao oai?eo ia OIA oa OIA
aoee aeinoia??ieie.

Aea/aiiy iaoaaie?cio oa aeae?eaiiy iai?aai?/ieo ieene?a acioo c
i?aai?cio aoei i?iaaaeaia o eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? caei?iaeo in?a
ieaaneeaaeo oa iienaieo ?ai?oa a?oiao oai?eo ia OIA oa OIA. C oe??th
iaoith iaie aea/aii aeae?eaiiy i?o?ao?a ? i?o?eo?a ie?eaie ia i?aenoaa?
oiai, ui oea iniiaiee oeyo aeaaaeaiiy ?o c i?aai?cio, oa eaaaiyie.
Io?eiai? aeai? o a?oi? caei?iaeo in?a na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui ie?ee
aeinoaoiuei ?ioaineaii aeaiaeyoue c i?aai?cio i?o?eoe (NO2) ? i?o?aoe
(NO3), i?e/iio inoaii?o o 3 ?ace a?eueoa (a?aeiia?aeii 20,8 oa 63,6
ieiieue). I?e oeueiio, caaaeueia aeae?eaiiy ieene?a acioo (sum NO)
neeaaea? 80,3 ieiieue. O na?aaeueiio oea noaiiaeoue a?ey 51 % a?ae
e?eueeino? aene?aoiaaiiai ai?aeo (157,1430,7 ieiieue), yeee
ooai?th?oueny i?e aeacai?ioaaii? eeneio ? eeoa 20,3 % a?ae aaee/eie
aeaaaeaiiy e?aaoei?io (395,760,4 ieiieue).

I?iaaaeaieie iaie aeine?aeaeaiiyie aeyaeai? ieenee acioo ? a aeni??ao?
aeaeeooaaiiai iia?o?y. Noia?ia aeae?eaiiy ieene?a acioo a eiiaeainao?
aeaeeooaaiiai iia?o?y (EAI) neeaei 6,281,04 ieiieue o 10-2. I?e oeueiio
aeae?eaiiy c aeni??aoii i?o?eo?a (3,80,62 ieiieue o 10-2) o 3 ?ace
a?eueoa, i?ae i?o?ao?a (1,210,22 ieiieue o 10-2). Inoaii? na?ae/eoue i?i
oa, ui ??cia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?o?ao?a o na/? oa aeni??ao? a?aeia?aaea?
i?aaii? iniaeeaino? iaoaaie?cio. Aeyaeaia iaie ia?aaaaa o 8,8 ?ac?a
e?eueeino? iai?aai?/ieo ieene?a acioo ia iaeeieoeth e?aaoei?io, ui
aeae?ey?oueny , a aeni??ao? aeaeeooaaiiai iia?o?y, i?ae o na/? ( 1,75 ?
0,20 a?aeiia?aeii), aeaco? ia ?noioiee aianie eaaai?a aei ?oiueiai
iaoaaie?cio.

Ii??aiyiiy eiioeaio?aoe?eieo oa aene?aoi?ieo iieaciee?a EAI o a?oiao
oai?eo ?c caaino?aiiyi OIA oa OIA, ui ca?aathoueny c eiio?ieueiith
a?oiith ca a?eii oa noaooth, iieacaei, ui iaeaea? a?oie ca a?eueo?noth
aeine?aeaeaieo iieaciee?a a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae eiio?ieueii?, a ca
aaee/eiith aeae?eaiiy i?o?ao?a a?ae??ciythoueny ua e i?ae niaith
(oaae.1).

Aeinoia??ii aecia/a?oueny cieaeaiiy aene?aoe?? i?o?eo?a o a?oi? oai?eo
ia OIA (?

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