OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AeA?AEAAIIAI OI?AAE?IIss

I?E I?ACEAeAIOIA? OE?A?IE

AeOAIAEE Na?a?e Oaaei?iae/

OAeE 338.45:622

AeA?AEAAIA OI?AAE?IIss AOA?EUeIITH I?IIENEIA?NOTH

O IA?AO?AeI?E AEIIII?Oe?

25.00.05 — aaeocaaa oi?aae?iiy: oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inuee?e Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy

i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aecthaee Noaiai Aeaieeiae/,

Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy

i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie,
i?ioani?

eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee ? o?iain?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

*oaa?a Aiaoie?e Ieaen?eiae/,

I?aeia?iaeiee iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee

oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo oa
aoaeeoo;

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Iaeueiee Aaneeue ?aaiiae/,

Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee aeiiii?/iee

?inoeooo I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo i?iaeai

aia?ai?ano?n?a ?
aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo aeiiii?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy

Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe
Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 21 ” a?oaeiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.810.02 a Oe?a?inuee?e Aeaaeai??
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252057,
i. Ee?a-57, aoe. Aaeaia Iioue?, 20.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueei?
Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith
: 252057, i. Ee?a-57, aoe. Aaeaia Iioue?, 20.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 15 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A.I. Iiaianthe

20

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Anooi. Oe?a?ia, caeiaoaoe noaoon iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae, ?ic?iaeea e
caoaa?aeeea eiioeaioe?th, a ye?e cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ae??oaiith
i?iaeaie aia?aaoe/ii? aaciaee ye iaa?ae’?iii? neeaaeiai? ii?iaeueiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeiiii?ee.

O i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino e?a?ie ae??oaeueiiai
cia/aiiy iaaoea aoa?eueia i?iieneia?noue. Naia aiia, ye iinoa/aeueiee
aeaniiai aeaeo aia?aiiin??a, aa?aioo? aia?aaoe/io aaciaeo aea?aeaae.
Aeey Oe?a?ie aoaeaaeaeiaooie ia? i??i?eoaoia cia/aiiy ii?yae c
aeaeiaooeii ?ioeo aeae?a aia?aiiin??a. Ia nueiaiaei? aoa?eey
aaaaea?oueny iniiaiei aeaeii iaeeaa, i?iieneia? caiane yeiai caeaoi?
caaacia/eoe iio?aae iaoi? aea?aeaae. Aoa?eueia i?iieneia?noue ? iaei??th
c aaciaeo aeey aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. A?ae ?? noaa?eueiino? caeaaeeoue
?iaioa noi?aeieo aaciaeo aaeocae — aia?aaoeee ? iaoaeo?a??, a oaeiae
caaacia/aiiy iaeeaii ? aia?a??th nioe?aeueii? noa?e aea?aeaae oa
ianaeaiiy. Aoa?eueia ae?iaieoeoai ? aeaea?aeii ?nioaaiiy i?eueeii?a
i?aoeacaeaoieo a?iiaaeyi, ui nooo?ai aieeaa? ia i?ioean a?aeoai?aiiy
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oaooa?nueeeo i?no ? naeeu.

Oaeei /eiii, aeania aoa?eueia i?iaeoeoe?y ia? no?aoaa?/ia cia/aiiy aeey
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Nueiaiaei?oi?e noai ni?aa o aoa?euei?e
i?iieneiaino? ? iaaee?eoe/iei; i?ae caa?icith iieieeiny naia ?nioaaiiy
oe??? aaeoc? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

No/ania e?eciaa neooaoe?y o aoa?euei?e i?iieneiaino? coiiaeaia ye
ia’?eoeaieie, oae ? noa’?eoeaieie i?e/eiaie, ui o?nii iia’ycai? i?ae
niaith. Na?aae ieo aeae?eythoue iaooeeueia iia??oaiiy
a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiia ia ae?th/eo oaooao, iia’ycaia c
a?aei?aoethaaiiyi e?aueo ?iaeiaeu, iinooiiaei caaeeaeaiiyi a??ie/eo
?ia?o oa ciaioaiiyi iiooaeiino? ieano?a.

E??i oiai, ai?iaeiaae aeaio inoaii?o aeanyoee?oue i?e ieaioaaii?
?icaeoeo aoa?eueii? aaeoc? eieeoiueiai N?N? Aeiiaan aaaaeaany
iaia?niaeoeaiei. Oiio aei iueiai ni?yiiaoaaeeny iaaeinoaoi?
eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiy, ui ni?e/eieei oaeaeea noa??iiy oaooiiai oiiaeo,
??cea iaae?iiy ianya?a aoaeaaeaeiaooeo ? i?ecaaei aei iia??oaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? a oeueiio ?aa?ii?.

?ioith i?e/eiith e?ece ? iaaaeaeaaoi?noue no?oeoo?ieo ci?i o aoa?euei?e
i?iieneiaino? caaaeueiei oaiaeaioe?yi nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
aea?aeaae, yea cae?enith? ia?ao?ae a?ae ieaiiai? aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Iaiao?aei?noue aei?aaeaiiy ?nioth/iai noaio oa i?eaaaeaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eii? ? oi?aae?inueei? no?oeoo? aaeoc? o a?aeiia?aei?noue aei
oiia ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee ni?e/eieee iiyao Oeaco I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie
a?ae 7 ethoiai 1996 ?. ?116 “I?i no?oeoo?io ia?aaoaeiao aoa?eueii?
i?iieneiaino?”, yeei aecia/aii oae? aieiai? caaaeaiiy ?aoi?ioaaiiy:

— caaacia/aiiy iio?aae aioo??oiueiai ?eieo Oe?a?ie aoa?eeyi aeaniiai
aeaeiaooeo;

— ia?aoai?aiiy an?o ae?th/eo aoaeaaeiaoaieo oa aoaeacaaaa/oaaeueieo
i?aei?e?inoa o ?aioaaaeuei? ae?iaieoeoaa, ui caaacia/othoue
ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue ca ?aooiie aeanieo eioo?a.

Aea ?aoi?ie, iia’ycai? ?c no?oeoo?iith ia?aaoaeiaith aoa?eueii?
i?iieneiaino?, cae?eniththoueny aeoaea iia?eueii ? iiee ui ia aeathoue
aaaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiaieie iaae??oaieie ia nueiaiaei? i?iaeaiaie
eeoathoueny iaieaoaae? niiaeeaa/?a aoa?eey, aenieee nooi?iue
aa?oa?ecaoe?? nenoaie ?ic?aooie?a, a?aenooi?noue ia?aiaeo eioo?a,
c?inoaiiy e?aaeeoi?nueei? caai?aiaaiino?, iaaaoeai? nioe?aeuei?
iane?aeee cae?eooy iaia?niaeoeaieo oaoo ? ?ic??c?a.

A?aoiaoth/e oie oaeo, ui iaeaea an? aoaeaaeiaoai? i?aei?e?inoaa, ca
aeiyoeii e?eueeio, ? ia?aioaaaeueieie oa ia?aaoaathoue o aea?aeaai?e
aeaniino?, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i aecia/aeueio ?ieue aea?aeaae o
ooieoe?iioaaii? aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? iaeaeeae/eie ?ieaie. E??i
i?aeo?eiee noaa?eueii? ?iaioe aoaeaaeiaoaieo i?aei?e?inoa, aea?aeaaa
cae?enith? ?aoi?ioaaiiy aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? oa ?aaoeth? eiai ca
aeiiiiiaith oaeeo caoiae?a, ye: ?ic?iaea iaiao?aeii? caeiiiaeaa/i? aace,
aecia/aiiy iaaieo aoai?a ? oa?i?i?a i?iaaaeaiiy ?aoi?i, oi?ioaaiiy
?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e aaeoc? oiui.

Oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe ?ie? aea?aeaae a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?
aeine?aeaeoaaee I. Aeeiia, A. Aan?ae?i, A. Aa?oeue, A. Aie?eia,
N. Aecthaee, I. Aeie?oi?e, A. Eieiiieoeaa, ?. Eoe?iia, I.
Nei?iiithe, A. O?iiue, I. *oia/aiei oa ?i.

Aaciina?aaeiuei ?ica’ycaiiyi ieoaiue aeoiaeo aoa?eueii?
aaeoc? c e?ece ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?? ?iaioe
caeiaeeny I. Aiioa, A. A??aiaa?a, ?. Coaianueeee, I. ?aaiia,
A. Iaeueiee, O. Iieeiinueeee, N. Iiaaaeiee, A. Naee?, I. No?aae, A.
*oaa?a, N. ssiei oa ?i.

I?iaeaiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii?
aeiiii?ee oaeiae i?enay/ai? /eneaii? iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oae,
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? iniaeeaino? e?ea?aeaoe?? aoaeaaeiaoaieo
i?aei?e?inoa ?icaeyioa A. Aaneeaiei; i?iaeaie ooai?aiiy
o?iainiai-i?iieneiaeo a?oi i?iaiae?coaaa N. Aaaao; iniaeeaino?
cae?eniaiiy i?eaaoecaoe?? ? ei?ii?aoecaoe?? aena?oeai? a aeine?aeaeaii?
A. A??aiaa?aa; oi?aae?iiy i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/iei ??aiai ae?iaieoeoaa
aea/aa I. AEeae/aiei; iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy oa aaaeeea?noue ?ie? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a o i?e
iaa?oiooaaa ?. Coaianueeee; aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eii? aaeocaai?
ae?yeueiino? i?ia?a A. Eaaaiia; ieoaiiy oe?iiooai?aiiy ? ?eieo
aoa?eueii? i?iaeoeoe?? ?icaeyioea O. Einiaa; i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee
iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii i?aei?e?inoaa aeine?aeaeoaaa A.
Ia?oeiaiei; i?iaeai? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy
ia’?aeiaiiyi i?enay/aii i?aoeth N. Iiaaaeiiai; iiaeeeaino?
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo aea/aa I. *a?iaaa.

I?ioa a no/anieo oiiaao ii?yae c aea/aiiyi ie?aieo aniaeo?a ?iaioe
aaeoc? iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? iaaoaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?cio
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aoa?eueiith i?iieneia?noth, eiai iaoiae?a oa
?ino?oiaio?a ?aaoethaaiiy. E??i oiai, c 1996 ?. ? aeioaia? ia
i?iaiaeeeiny iaoeiaiai aiae?co ?eieiaiai iiiaeaiiy aoa?eueii?
i?iieneiaino? oa ?ie? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a o oeueiio i?ioean?.

Oaeei /eiii, c?inoaiiy aeooaeueiino? i?iaeai aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?,
iaaaeaeaaoi?noue ?? no/aniiai noaio iiaei oiiaai ainiiaea?thaaiiy,
iaaeinoaoiy aeine?aeaeai?noue iaoai?cio aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
i?ioeanaie ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?aoi?ioaaiiy aaeoc?, a oaeiae
iacaaeia?eueiee o?ae ?? no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae coiiaeee aea?? oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy “Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy aoa?eueiith i?iieneia?noth o
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?”.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aea?aia aoa?eueia i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie ?acii c
oaeeie neeaaeiaeie, ye: ea??aiee i?aai a inia? aaeocaaiai i?i?noa?noaa,
ae?iaie/? ia’?aeiaiiy, aea?aeaai? aeoe?iia?i? oa oieaeeiaia? eiiiai??,
naiino?ei? i?aei?e?inoaa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aea?aiee
iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aea? iniiaiei iieiaeaiiyi “Eiioeaioe??
(iniiaai aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee) iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie”
(caoaa?aeaeaia Iinoaiiaith Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie a?ae 16 aeiaoiy 1997
?. ?3), “Iaoe?iiaeueii? aia?aaoe/ii? i?ia?aie Oe?a?ie aei 2010 ?ieo”
(caoaa?aeaeaia Iinoaiiaith Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie a?ae 15 o?aaiy 1996
?. ?191), “Eiioeaioe?? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee o
caaacia/aii? aia?aaoe/ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie” (caoaa?aeaeaia Iinoaiiaith
Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 19 n?/iy 1998 ?. ?48).

E??i oiai, i?iaeaie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioeano ?aoi?ioaaiiy
aoa?eueii? aaeoc? aeine?aeaeothoueny ca?aeii c iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie
Oeaco I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae 7 ethoiai 1996 ?. ?116 “I?i no?oeoo?io
ia?aaoaeiao aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?”.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoeiaa
iaa?oiooaaiiy iioeiaeueiiai nooiaiy aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? o ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?, a
oaeiae ?ic?iaea i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei i?enei?aiiy i?ioeano ??
aaeaioaoe?? aei iiaeo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie aeanieie aoa?eueieie ?ano?naie.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aoee aecia/ai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe noai aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie oa nooi?iue eiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy;

— aeei?enoaoe iiceoeaiee i?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae ooieoe?iioaaiiy na?oiaeo
iiaeaeae aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? i?e ?aoi?ioaaii? a?o/eciyii?;

— iaa?oiooaaoe iaiao?aei?noue no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae aoa?eueii?
i?iieneiaino? oa aecia/eoe ?ieue ? caaaeaiiy aea?aeaae o oeueiio
i?ioean?;

— aecia/eoe oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaoai?cio
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aoa?eueiith i?iieneia?noth o ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe?;

— ?ic?iaeoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy oa i?enei?aiiy
no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ae?aeaeoeea ye oai??y ?icaeoeo oa eaein?ainueeee
i?aeo?ae o no/ani?e aeiiii?/i?e oai???.

Aaoi?ii canoiniaothoueny oae? caaaeueiiiaoeia? iaoiaee, ye aiae?c,
neioac, ?iaeoeoe?y, nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, ocaaaeueiaiiy, ii??aiyiiy e
aano?aaoaaiiy. Aeei?enoiao?oueny i?ia?aiiee eiiieaen i?aeo?eiee
i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy “No?aoaa?y i?i?eao”.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiae?ciaaii ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe
aeaaeieo no?oeoo? Oe?a?ie oa ?ioeo aea?aeaa na?oo, eiioeaioe?? oa
aeniiaee a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo aeiiii?no?a, a oaeiae oao?aoe?a c
ieoaiue ?icaeoeo aoa?eueiiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee, noaoenoe/i? aeai?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy io?eiaii oae? ?acoeueoaoe, ui noaiiaeyoue eiai iaoeiao
iiaecio:

— i?iaiae?ciaaii na?oia? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?
oa nooi?iue aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia ?? ?iaioo, cai?iiiiiaaii
eeaneo?eaoe?th i?ia?aeieo aoaeaaeiaoaieo e?a?i ca oaeei iciaeaie, ye
oi?ia aeaniino? i?aei?e?inoa, aeaee oeaio?aeueii? oi?aae?inueei? oa
aaeocaai? i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?, aecia/aii iaoiaee aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy i?ioean?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy e ?aoi?ioaaiiy aoa?eueii?
i?iieneiaino? i?ia?aeieo aoaeaaeiaoaieo aea?aeaa na?oo, ye? aeioe?eueii
aeei?enoaoe o ?iaio? a?o/eciyii? aaeoc? a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee;

— aia?oa c?iaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aa??aio?a no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo
aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie c o?aooaaiiyi iie?oe/ieo,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? aeieia?/ieo aniaeo?a, ?acoeueoaoe yeiai i?ney
ia?aa??ee ca aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aiiiai eiiieaeno i?aeo?eiee ??oaiiy
i?aeoaa?aeeee iaiao?aei?noue no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae aaeoc?, a oaeiae
aeicaieeee aecia/eoe ?ieue, caaaeaiiy e ?ino?oiaioe aieeao aea?aeaae ia
o?ae oe??? ia?aaoaeiae;

— iaa?oioiaai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aoa?eueiith i?iieneia?noth a ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe? ca ?aooiie oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?inueei? oa i?aai?caoe?eii?
no?oeoo?, oii?yaeeoaaiiy noa?e ?aae?caoe?? aoa?eueii? i?iaeoeoe??,
ia?a?iciiae?eo ooieoe?e aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a uiaei iaaeaiiy athaeaeaoii?
i?aeo?eiee aoaeaaeiaoaiei i?aei?e?inoaai, a?aeie?aieaiiy ae??oaiiy
nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai a?ae o?ce/iiai cae?eooy iaia?niaeoeaieo oaoo ?
?ic??c?a;

— ?ic?iaeaii noaio ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie
i?ney caaa?oaiiy ae?oaiai aoaio ?aoi?ioaaiiy, yea ia?aaeaa/a? ?icaeoie
iaaea?aeaaieo naeoi??a aoa?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ci?io ooieoe?e
aaeocaaiai i?i?noa?noaa c eiai ianooiiith o?ainoi?iaoe??th,
aeoea?caoe?th ?ie? eiiiai?? “Aoa?eey Oe?a?ie”, noai?aiiy aoa?eueii?
a??ae?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?aae?caoe?y iniiaieo
iieiaeaiue ? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae a?aooaaiiy eiai
i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeicaiey?:

— aeei?enoaoe i?e ?aoi?ioaaii? a?o/eciyii? aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?
iiceoeaiee i?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae c ae??oaiiy i?iaeai iiaea?i?caoe?? oa
eiioeaio?aoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa, cae?eooy iaia?niaeoeaieo oaoo ? ?ic??c?a,
?aae?caoe?? aoa?eueii? i?iaeoeoe??, i?eaaoecaoe?? aoaeaaeiaoaieo
i?aei?e?inoa, nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo i?aoe?aiee?a;

— aei?aaeoe iaaeie?ee o noa?? oi?aae?iiy aaeoccth e i?aai?caoe?eiiai
oa?aeoa?o, aeiiouai? i?e no?oeoo?i?e ia?aaoaeia? aoa?eueii?
i?iieneiaino? oa nei?aeooaaoe oa?i?ie e iai?yie ?? ianooiiiai aoaio;

— ia?aoe iaiao?aeiee nooi?iue oa aecia/eoe noa?e aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
aoa?eueiith i?iieneia?noth a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?.

Ca aaciina?aaeiuei? o/ano? aaoi?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?ic?iaeyeeny
i?iaeoe Oeaco I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae 7 ethoiai 1996 ?. ?116 “I?i
no?oeoo?io ia?aaoaeiao aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?” ? Iinoaiiae Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 12 /a?aiy 1998 ?. ?857 “I?i oaeineiiaeaiiy
ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? aoa?eueii? i?iaeoeoe?? a
Oe?a?i?”, a yeeo ciaeoee aeya ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
a oaeiae ooai?thaaeeny aea?aeaai? oieaeeiaia? eiiiai?? c aeaeiaooeo oa
ia?a?iaee aoa?eey ? aea?aeaaia aeoe?iia?ia eiiiai?y “Aoa?eey Oe?a?ie”.

Ui noino?oueny iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi aiie ni?eyoeiooue ?ic?iaoe? ye iiaeo
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a c ieoaiue aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aoa?eueiith
i?iieneia?noth o ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?, oae ? ia?niaeoeaieo i?ia?ai
?icaeoeo aaeoc?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue, iaaiai?thaaeenue ? ae?noaee noaaeaiiy ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo “Aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie a ?aa?ii?” (Iaeana,
1998) ? “?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? neoaeae a Oe?a?i?: noai, i?iaeaie oa
ia?niaeoeae” (Ee?a, 1998), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiio nai?ia?? “I?iiiceoe?? aei
eiioeaioe?? aeoiaeo aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie c e?eciaiai noaio”
(oaooa “*a?aiiia?i?enueea-Cao?aeia ?1”, aea?aeaaia oieaeeiaiaa eiiiai?y
“Iae??aaoa?eey”, 1998), a oaeiae ia can?aeaiiyo ?iai/i? a?oie, ooai?aii?
I?i?noa?noaii aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? ?acii c Oiiaeii “Iio-Oao” aeey
?ic?iaee i?iaeoo “Ni?eyiiy O?yaeia? Oe?a?ie a ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??
aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?” (Ee?a, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aena?oeaii o 8 iaeiiin?aieo
iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo: 6 noaoae — a aeo?iaeao (o?e c yeeo — o
i?ia?aeieo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo), 2 noaoo? — a iaoa??aeao
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, ui caaa?oothoueny ie?aieie aeniiaeaie, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a,
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoe?a. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue
166 noi??iie. ?iaioa ia? 8 ?ethno?aoe?e, 9 oaaeeoeue, nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c 165 iaeiaioaaiue ia 18 noi??ieao, a oaeiae 13
aeiaeaoe?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iaa?oioiaaii ?? aeooaeuei?noue,
aena?oeaii aianie a?o/eciyieo a/aieo o aea/aiiy aeaiiai iai?yio,
aecia/ai? ia’?eo, iaoa ? caaaeaiiy, iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ioa?aeoa?eciaai? iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iaaaaeai? aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th oa no?oeoo?o
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e — “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aoa?eueiith
i?iieneia?noth a eiioaeno? caaaeueiiaeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo” — i?enay/aii
aeine?aeaeaiith oai??? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aaeoccth, ?nioth/eo
a?o/eciyieo eiioeaioe?e ?? ?icaeoeo, a oaeiae aeina?aeo i?ia?aeieo
aoaeaaeiaoaieo e?a?i na?oo.

Oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith no/aniiai aoaio ?icaeoeo na?oiaiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa
? iioe?aiiy aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia an? noa?e noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

Iniaeeaa ?ieue a?aeaiaeeoueny aea?aeaa? a oiiaao ??cei? ci?ie
aeiiii?/iiai eo?no ?? ?icaeoeo, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny e?eciaeie
i?ioeanaie. Aeey oeueiai ia??iaeo ii?yae ?c canoinoaaiiyi oe?ieiai
niaeo?a ?aaoethth/eo caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia noaa?e?caoe?th aeiiii?/ii?
neooaoe??, oa?aeoa?iei ? aeoeaia o/anoue aea?aeaae o ?icaoaeia? ?eieo ?
aiaeii/an ni?ai?aoey ia iueiio ye aeanieea iaeia c noa’?eoaie ?ioeo oi?i
aeaniino?.

Aaoi? iiae?ey? aeoieo aaaaoueio a/aieo i?i oa, ui no/ania e?eciaa
neooaoe?y a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie cia/iith i??ith aeeeeeaia ye aeeaieeie
aeeni?iii?oe?yie no?oeoo?e ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, oae ? a?aenoaaaiiyi
i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e a?ae oaii?a aeaiiioaaeo
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie.

Iaeaaaeeea?oei iai?yieii aeoeaii? no?oeoo?ii? iie?oeee ? aea??
i??i?eoao?a o ?icaeoeo ie?aieo aaeocae aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. Aea?aeaaa
aecia/a? aaeoc?, ui iio?aaothoue ia?oi/a?aiai? i?aeo?eiee ye c iaeyaeo
ia iaiao?aei?noue c?inoaiiy ianya?a aenieioaoiieia?/ii? oa
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeii? i?iaeoeoe??, oae ? iiaeieaiiy e?eciaeo yaeu. Naia
a oeae ia??iae ?ic?iaeythoueny i?ia?aie ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? ie?aieo
aaeocae aeiiii?ee oa aeei?enoiaothoueny ??ciiiai?oi? aaaeae?
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy, aei yeeo iaeaaeaoue iiaeaoeiaa iie?oeea,
aea?aeaaia aeioaoe?eia i?aeo?eiea, i?eueaiaa e?aaeeooaaiiy, caeo/aiiy
aioo??oi?o ? ciai?oi?o ?iaanoeoe?e oiui.

I?ioyaii aeanyoee?oue ye neeaaeiaa aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? eieeoiueiai
N?N? aoa?eueia aaeocue Oe?a?ie ?icaeaaeany ca?aeii c i?eioeeiaie
eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? aeiiii?ee. Aea?aeaaa aei?noei ?aaoethaaea
noa?e ae?iaieoeoaa ? caooo aoa?eey, iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai
caaacia/aiiy.

?iaioa a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee aeiaaa? ?ic?iaee no/anii?
eiioeaioe?? ?icaeoeo aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?, iiaoaeiaaii? ia iiaeo
i?aeoiaeao o noa?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aaeoccth.

I?iaeaiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? ye iaei??? c iniiaieo
neeaaeiaeo iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno e?a?ie i?enay/aii aaaaoi
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo a/aieo (cie?aia, cia/iee aeeaae o ?ic?iaeo
no?aoaa?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy aaeoc? aianee a/ai? ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee
i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie). I?ioa ?o iaeyae aea? i?aenoaao c?iaeoe
aeniiaie i?i iaaeinoaoith aeine?aeaeai?noue oeeo i?iaeai ia iae?i??ai?,
a oaeiae i?i ??ci? i?aeoiaee uiaei aecia/aiiy ?ie? aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy aoa?eueiith aaeoccth a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?.

E??i oiai, ?acoeueoaoe ia?oiai aoaio no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae aoa?eueii?
i?iieneiaino?, yea i?iaiaeeoueny a Oe?a?i?, iio?aaothoue anaa?/iiai
aiae?co c iaoith aei?aaeaiiy iaaeie?e?a oa ?ic?iaee iiaeaeueoi?
no?aoaa?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy.

A?aoiaoth/e iai?eeiyoi?noue iniiaieo iieiaeaiue oai?aoe/ii? aace
eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? aeiiii?ee, a?aenooi?noue a?o/eciyiiai
aeina?aeo no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? oa
iaaeinoaoith aeine?aeaeai?noue ?ie? aea?aeaae a oeueiio i?ioean?, iaeiei
c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iai?yi?a aeena?oaoe?? ? aea/aiiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy oa
iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy iiceoeaieo aniaeo?a
i?aeia?iaeiiai aeina?aeo ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoa?eueii? aaeoc?, iia’ycaieo
?c aea?aeaaiei ?aaoethaaiiyi, ?aoi?ioaaiiyi i?aai?caoe?eii? oa
oi?aae?inueei? no?oeoo?, ci?iith oi?ie aeaniino? aoa?eueieo
i?aei?e?inoa, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei noaiii oaooa?nueeeo ?aa?ii?a.

Eiaeia c aoaeaaeiaoaieo aea?aeaa o nai?e ae?yeueiino? canoiniao? iaai?
?aaoethth/? iaoai?cie uiaei ni?yioaaiiy ?icaeoeo aoa?eueii?
i?iieneiaino? a iaiao?aeiiio iai?yi?. Aea?? eiie?aoieo cania?a
aea?aeaaiiai aieeao coiiaeaiee caaaeueiei noaiii aeiiii?ee e?a?ie,
eiioeaioe??th ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoa?eueii? aaeoc? oa neooaoe??th ia
aioo??oiueiio ? ciai?oi?o ?eieao aia?aiiin??a. Iei? ?nio? oe?ieee
ae?aiacii aeuacaaaeaieo cania?a: a?ae aei?noeiai ?aaoethaaiiy, ui
i?iyaey?oueny a i?yiiio oi?aae?ii? ae?iaie/ei i?ioeanii, aei ?eieiaiai
iaoai?cio ainiiaea?thaaiiy aoa?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa, ae?y yeiai
ei?aao?oueny eeoa iaaieie aeoaie aioeiiiiiieueiiai oa i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa.

Na?aae aaaaoueio aoaeaaeiaoaieo e?a?i na?oo iaiiaeeeai ciaeoe oe?eeii
?aeaioe/i? iiaeae? aoa?eueii? aaeoc?. Aiie a?ae??ciythoueny iaoiaeaie
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy, oi?iaie aeaniino? aoa?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa,
oeiaie i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?. Aaaeeeaeie iieacieeaie nooiaiy
aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?
aaaaeathoueny aeii?ioth/a oi?ia aeaniino? oa aeae oeaio?aeueiiai
ea??aiiai i?aaio.

Ca oi?iith aeaniino? i?aei?e?inoaa aoa?eueii? aaeoc? iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia
aea?aeaai? (Iieueua, O?aioe?y) oa i?eaaoi? aai aeoe?iia?i? (NOA, IA?,
O?I, Aaeeeia?eoai?y). O aeayeeo e?a?iao aoaeaaeiaoai? i?aei?e?inoaa oeeo
aeaio oi?i aeaniino? ni?a?niothoue ia ??aieo canaaeao (Eeoae, Aano?ae?y,
?in?y, ?niai?y). Iaeiioe?ai?oei na?aae i?ia?aeieo aoa?eueieo aea?aeaa
aeaeii oeaio?aeueii? oi?aae?inueei? no?oeoo?e ? i?io?eueiee eii?oao aai
aeaia?oaiaio, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueiiai
i?i?noa?noaa (Aano?ae?y, Iieueua, ?in?y, O?aioe?y, ?niai?y); iaeiaio
iioe?aiei — aaeocaaa i?i?noa?noai (Eeoae). O oeo e?a?iao, aea aoa?euei?
i?aei?e?inoaa ia?aaoaathoue o i?eaaoi?e aai aeoe?iia?i?e aeaniino?,
iaia? oeaio?aeueiiai i?aaio oi?aae?iiy aaeoccth (NOA, IA?, O?I,
Aaeeeia?eoai?y).

Ia?aaaaeiith i?aai?caoe?eiith no?oeoo?ith aaeoc? o a?eueoino?
aoaeaaeiaoaieo aea?aeaa ? eiiiai?y. Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiith
i?aai?caoe?eiith oi?iith, ia iaoo aeoieo, ? i?aeaaeocaaee eiioea?i, o
neeaae? yeiai ?acii c aoa?eueieie i?aoeththoue aia?aaoe/i?, o?i?/i?,
iaoaeo?a?ei?, na?a?ni? oa ?io? i?aei?e?inoaa, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue
iaiaa?oaaoe i?e aeai?? no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo oa ci?i? neooaoe?? ia ?eieao
a?aeiia?aeii? i?iaeoeoe??.

Caeaaeii a?ae ia?aii? no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo aoaeaaeiaoai? aea?aeaae
?iciiae?eaii ia o?e a?oie. Aei ia?oi? a?oie aoiaeyoue e?a?ie, ui
noaa?eueii ia?iuothoue ianyae aeaeiaooeo aoa?eey (NOA, Aano?ae?y, IA?).
Aea?aeaae ae?oai? a?oie ieaiii??ii nei?i/othoue aoaeaaeaeiaooie c
iaeii/aniei ca?eueoaiiyi ianya?a aeei?enoaiiy ?iii?oiiai aoa?eey aai
aeueoa?iaoeaieo aeae?a aia?aiiin??a (O?I, Aaeeeia?eoai?y, O?aioe?y,
?niai?y). Aei o?aouei? a?oie iaeaaeaoue e?a?ie, ye? nueiaiaei?
cae?eniththoue ia?ao?ae a?ae eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Aeey Eeoath oa?aeoa?i? iciaee
e?eueeio a?oi: aiaeii/an ca?eueoothoueny ianyae aeaeiaooeo aoa?eey ?
cai?iaaaeaeothoueny ?eieia? ?aoi?ie.

Oe?a?ia ?acii c ?ioeie aea?aeaaaie Oeaio?aeueii? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie, /ey
aoa?eueia aaeocue i?aoeth? a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee, iaeaaeeoue
aei o?aouei? a?oie. I?ioean aaeaioaoe?? aei iiaeo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cia/iei iiaeeaeaiiyi nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece o
oaooa?nueeeo ?aa?iiao iaoi? e?a?ie, ui, o naith /a?ao, coiiaeth?
iaiao?aei?noue ci?ie an??? nenoaie ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoa?eueii?
i?iieneiaino?. I?ioa aeai?an?y aoa?eueieo ?aa?ii?a ia ? aieiaiei
iane?aeeii caaaeueii? e?ece noa?i? oi?aae?inueei? nenoaie, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aiaeia?/ieie oaiaeaioe?yie o cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo
aoaeaaeiaoaieo aea?aeaaao.

C iaeyaeo ia noiae?noue a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiia aoaeaaeaeiaooeo oa
e?euee?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee aaeoc? iaia?aaeiaei? ?aoi?ioaaiiy aoa?eueia
i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie ciooaia i?ieoe oeyoii naia oeeo e?a?i. Na?aae ieo
aeae?ey?ii Aaeeeia?eoai?th, aoa?eueia aaeocue yei? cae?enieea ia?ao?ae
a?ae aea?aeaaiiai aei i?eaaoiiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee ? aeinyaea iaeaeueo
ae?iaie/eo iieaciee?a o ?a?ii?, a oaeiae O?I, aoa?eueia aaeocue yei?
ooieoe?iio? caaaeyee i?aai?/iiio ii?aeiaiith aeaiaio?a aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy e oni?oii? i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?. Ai?iaaaeaeoth/e
noiaeo aaeocaao iie?oeeo, ui iieyaa? a iiaea?i?caoe?? oa eiioeaio?aoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa, cae?eoo? caeoeiaeo oaoo, iie?ioaii? aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a
? ae??oaii? nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai, aiie iathoue i?ioeeaaei? i?aeoiaee
uiaei ?ie? aea?aeaae o ?icaeoeo aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?.

Oiio ia nueiaiaei? ii?yae c aeei?enoaiiyi oeueiai aeina?aeo iaiao?aeii
aea?aoe oa iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe nooi?iue aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie a ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe?, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeoe ?? iiaeaeue, ui ae?yoeia i?ney
no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Iaoai?ci aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
aoa?eueiith i?iieneia?noth Oe?a?ie iaia?aaeiaei? ?aoi?ioaaiiy” —
aeine?aeaeaii iaoai?ci aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aoa?eueiith
i?iieneia?noth eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? aeiiii?ee, a oaeiae ca
aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ?icaeyiooi iiaeeea? aa??aioe
?icaeoeo aaeoc?.

Ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie ye aaciai? aaeoc?
aeiiii?ee iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae a 1991 ?. noi?iaiaeaeoaaany
a?aeie?aieaiiyi a?ae oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai aeaea?aea o?iainoaaiiy, ?icaaeii
oeaio?ae?ciaaii? nenoaie iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai iinoa/aiiy, a oaeiae
noeo?eiei aeeth/aiiyi ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a.

Oa?aeoa?iei aeey ia??iaeo noaiiaeaiiy aaeoc? aoei ia?aoe?iiaeueia
ieaioaaiiy ?icaeoeo aoa?eueiiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee, eiee aieiaiei
aaaaeaeiny cia/ia ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a aeaeiaooeo aoa?eey, a ia
nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao ae?iaieoeoaa oa iie?ioaiiy yeino? i?iaeoeoe??. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iaaeinoaoi?i ??aiai o?iainiai? i?aeo?eiee c aieo
aea?aeaae, a oaeiae oeiiaei aeey ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee niaaeii
ae?iaieoeoaa o oaeeo noi?aeieo aaciaeo aaeocyo, ye aia?aaoeea ?
iaoaeo?a?y.

E??i oiai, Oe?a?ia eeoaeany ?aeeiith c i?ia?aeieo aoaeaaeiaoaieo e?a?i
na?oo, ui ia ?icii/eiaea no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae aoa?eueii?
i?iieneiaino? ? aeei?enoiaoaaea aeey oi?aae?iiy oe??th aaeoccth oae?
?ino?oiaioe canoa??ei? aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie, ye
ieaioaaiiy ianya?a aoaeaaeaeiaooeo, ?iciiae?e aoa?eueii? i?iaeoeoe??
i?ae niiaeeaa/aie, aea?aeaaia iiiiiie?y o noa?? caooo aoa?eey, iaaeaiiy
oa ?iciiae?e eioo?a aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee, iaiaaath/enue i?enoinoaaoe
?o aei ?iaioe a iiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa ii?aeiaoe c aeaiaioaie
?eieiaiai iaoai?cio.

Cieaeaiiy ianya?a aoaeaaeaeiaooeo, iia??oaiiy yeino? aoa?eueii?
i?iaeoeoe??, iaaoaeoeaia nenoaia oe?iiooai?aiiy oa ?ic?aooie?a ca
niiaeeoa aoa?eey, iaiine?aeiai?noue iie?oeee aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee, a
oaeiae oo?eiaiiy cia/ii? e?eueeino? ia’?eo?a nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e
i?ecaaee aei oaeoe/iiai aaie?oonoaa aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?. Oiio
aea?aeaa? iaiao?aeii aoei oa?i?iiai i?eeiaoe ??oaiiy uiaei iiaeaeueoiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaeoc?.

O aeena?oaoe?? aecia/aii oae? o?e iiaeeea? aa??aioe ?icaeoeo aoa?eueii?
i?iieneiaino?, ye? eeoathoueny aeooaeueieie e nueiaiaei?:

— caeeoeoe aaeocaao i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeo nenoaio aac ?noioieo
ci?i ?, cae?enieaoe iacia/i? ei?aeoeae, i?iaeiaaeeoe canoinoaaiiy
?ino?oiaio?a ieaiiai-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? aeiiii?ee;

— i?eieieoe aeiooaaiiy aoaeaaeiaoaieo i?aei?e?inoa aaeoc?, iinooiiai
cai?iooe aoa?eueia ae?iaieoeoai, a aea?eueiai? i?e oeueiio aea?aeaai?
eiooe aeei?enoaoe aeey i?aeo?eiee ?aioaaaeuei?oeo ? ia?niaeoeai?oeo
aaeocae aeiiii?ee oa caeoi?ae? aeiaeaoeiaeo ianya?a ?iii?oieo
aia?aiiin??a;

— i?iaanoe aeiei??iia ?aoi?ioaaiiy aaeoc? ?c cae?eooyi cia/ii? /anoeie
iaia?niaeoeaiiai oaooiiai oiiaeo, oaoi?/iith iiaea?i?caoe??th oaoo ?
?ic??c?a, eiioeaio?aoe??th iaea?eueo aeeoo?caeaoiiai ae?iaieoeoaa,
iinooiiaith ci?iith oi?ie aeaniino? aoa?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa oa ?o
aaeaioaoe??th aei ?iaioe a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoiae ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co, iaa?oioiao?oueny
iaiao?aei?noue aeai?o o?aoueiai aa??aioo ?icaeoeo, ni?yiiaaiiai ia
?aoi?ioaaiiy aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?. O aeena?oaoe?? i?aaeeuei?noue
oeueiai ??oaiiy ia?aa??aia oeyoii ?ic?aooie?a o?ueio aa??aio?a aeai?o
iioeiaeueiiai iai?yieo ?icaeoeo aoa?eueii? aaeoc? c ??ciith e?euee?noth
aeueoa?iaoea ca aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aiiiai eiiieaeno i?aeo?eiee i?eeiyooy
??oaiue “No?aoaa?y i?i?eao”.

Iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a aa??aioo c 5 aeueoa?iaoeaaie:

A1 — eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaia nenoaia oi?aae?iiy aaeoccth;

A2 — iiaia aeioaoe?y aoaeaaeiaoaieo i?aei?e?inoa;

A3 — cai?oaiiy aaeoc?;

A4 — ?icaoaeiaa ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e a aaeoc?;

A5 — cae?eooy iaia?niaeoeaieo aoaeaaeiaoaieo i?aei?e?inoa.

O ?ic?aooieao caae?yii 8 e?eoa???a, ui iathoue ??cio e?euee?noue noai?a
iaaecia/aiino? oa a?aoiaothoue ianooii? oaeoi?e: aea?aeaaio i?aeo?eieo,
?iaanoeoe??, ioi?iio i?aoe?, aeieia?th, nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie, iie?oe/io
neooaoe?th, caeiiiaeaanoai, oa?i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy. Oaeiae aeei?enoaii
nenoaio ?aiaeoaaiiy, ui aaco?oueny ia aenia?oieo ioe?ieao noaio aaeoc?
oao?aoe?a I?iaoaeai?iio e o/aniee?a i?ia?aie “TACIS”.

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uoy???????en. 2.4. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a iioeiaeueiiai iai?yieo
?icaeoeo aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? c aeei?enoaiiyi i?ia?aie “Naetho-2”.

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L????a?L????e?Y????a?Y????e?f????a?f????e?s????a?s?
???e??????a??????e??en. 2.5. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a
iioeiaeueiiai iai?yieo ?icaeoeo aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? i?ney ia?iaee a
?aaeei? “I?i?ea”.

Ioaea, ?acoeueoaoe c?iaeaieo ?ic?aooie?a i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue i??i?eoao
aeueoa?iaoea, iia’ycaieo c ?aoi?ioaaiiyi aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? (A4,
A5) ? i?aeoe/ii a?aeeeaeathoue eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaio nenoaio
oi?aae?iiy aaeoccth (A1, A2).

Oi?ioeth?oueny a?iioaca uiaei iaiao?aeiino? ci?ie ?ie? aea?aeaae a
oi?aae?ii? aaeoccth o ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?, yea iieyaa? ia o?eueee o
i?iaaaeaii? ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? a i?ioean?
ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino? aac ao?aoe ea?iaaiino? oa niaaeo ianya?a
aeaeiaooeo, aea ? a aeoeaiiio oi?ioaaii? iaaea?aeaaieo naeoi??a
aoa?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa c o?aooaaiiyi oiai oaeoo, ui ye ia’?eo
?aoi?ioaaiiy oey aaeocue aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie ? iaeneeaaei?oith na?aae
?ioeo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “?ieue aea?aeaae o ?aoi?ioaaii? aoa?eueii?
i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?” — aeine?aeaeaii iaoai?ci
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aoa?eueiith i?iieneia?noth a ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe?. C?iaeaiee nenoaiiee aiae?c ia?oiai aoaio ?aoi?ioaaiiy aaeoc?
i?ioyaii 1996-1998 ??. cana?ae/o? oeai?noue eo?no ia cae?eniaiiy nooi
i?aai?caoe?eieo caoiae?a aac aianaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo ei?aeoea aei
iaoai?cio aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aoa?eueiith i?iieneia?noth.

Ia iao iiaeyae, aeiiii?/iith iniiaith ?iaioe aoa?eueii? aaeoc? a
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? ? ?aoe?iiaeueia ii?aeiaiiy aea?aeaaii? o?iainiai?
i?aeo?eiee, aeioiae?a a?ae ?aae?caoe?? aoa?eey oa iiceeiaeo eioo?a
i?aeia?iaeieo o?iainiaeo onoaiia. Oiio iaaeinoaoiy ?ic?iaea
caeiiiaeaa/i? aace oa iia?eueiee o?ae ae?oaiai aoaio ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?
iaaei?aaaeaieie c iaeyaeo ia ao?a/ai? iiaeeeaino? aiaeii/an ?c
i?aai?caoe?eiith ia?aaoaeiaith aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? aaeineiiaeeoe
oae? aieiai? ?ino?oiaioe aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaeoc?,
ye iaaeaiiy ? ?iciiae?e aeioaoe?eieo eioo?a oa ?aaoethaaiiy noa?e
?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe?? ia?aioaaaeueieo aoaeaaeiaoaieo i?aei?e?inoa.

Iecueea aoaeoeai?noue nenoaie aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee a /anoei?
aeiooaaiiy ia?aioaaaeueieo oaoo ? ?ic??c?a ? iane?aeeii canoinoaaiiy ye
aaciaiai iieacieea 1 o aeaeiaooiai, a ia ?aae?ciaaiiai oiaa?iiai
aoa?eey, ui ia noeioeth? nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao ae?iaieoeoaa oa iie?auaiiy
yeino? aoa?eueii? i?iaeoeoe?? (oae, i?e ca?eueoaii? ianyao
aoaeaaeaeiaooeo c 74,8 iei. o o 1996 ?. aei 76,2 iei. o o 1998 ?.
e?aaeeoi?nueea caai?aiaai?noue i?aei?e?inoa aaeoc? ca oeae ia??iae
oaeiae c?inea c 5,2 aei 9 ie?ae. a?i.). I/aaeaeiith iiieeeith
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee uiaei oi?aae?iiy aaeoccth ia ia?oiio aoai?
?aoi?ioaaiiy noaa ??ceee ia?ao?ae a?ae ?aaoethaaiiy noa?e ?aae?caoe??
aoa?eey aei ?? iiaii? e?aa?ae?caoe??, yeee aeyaeany ia?aae/aniei c
iaeyaeo ia ia?aioaaaeuei?noue ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? aoaeaaeiaoaieo
i?aei?e?inoa ? a?aenooi?noue aoa?eueii? a??ae?. Ca oiia, eiee a aaeoc?
iaia? aoaeoeaiiai i?eaaoiiai aai eieaeoeaiiai aeanieea, aea?aeaaa
ciaia’ycaia iino?eii aieeaaoe ia i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy aoa?eueiiai ?eieo.

C iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaoai?cio aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy aoa?eueiith i?iieneia?noth o ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? oa
aei?aaeaiiy iaaeie?e?a ia?oiai aoaio no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae a ?iaio?
noi?ioeueiaaii i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ui ioiieththoue oae? iai?yie:

— aeoea?caoe?y o/ano? I?iaoaeai?iio o oi?ioaaii? iaaea?aeaaieo naeoi??a
aoa?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa: aecia/aiiy i?aei?e?inoa aeey ia?oi/a?aiai?
i?eaaoecaoe??, ?o i?aeaioiaea aei oeueiai oa iaaeaiiy i?euea ia
ii/aoeiaiio aoai? (iai?eeeaae, cae??ieaiiy ia 1 ??e ca oaooith iaaiiai
ianyao aoa?eey aeey caeeaaeaiiy aei aea?ae?aca?ao ia aeaeo?inoaioe?yo);

— oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e (ciaioaiiy e?eueeino?
oieaeeiaiaeo eiiiai?e ? ae?iaie/eo ia’?aeiaiue ca ?aooiie ?o oe?oiiaiiy,
ui cia/ii nei?ioeoue /enaeuei?noue oi?aae?inueeiai aia?aoo;
a?aeie?aieaiiy ia’?eo?a, ia iia’ycaieo c iniiaiei ae?iaieoeoaii);

— ci?ia nenoaie aeiooaaiiy aoaeaaeiaoaieo i?aei?e?inoa (ia?aaea/a
ooieoe?e aeiooaaiiy ia?aioaaaeueieo oaoo ? ?aaoethaaiiy noa?e caooo ?o
i?iaeoeoe?? eiiiai?? “Aoa?eey Oe?a?ie” c iaeii/aniith ci?iith e?eoa??th
iaaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee, noai?aiiy aoa?eueii? a??ae?);

— cae?eooy iaia?niaeoeaieo aoa?eueieo oaoo ? ?ic??c?a (ia?aaeyae
oa?i?i?a cae?eooy, aeeo/aiiy ie?aieo oaoo c i?ia?aie cae?eooy, iineeaiiy
aeiia aeieia?/ii? aenia?oece);

— ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai ye ie?aieo eaoaai??e i?aoe?aiee?a
aaeoc?, oae ? oaooa?nueeeo ?aa?ii?a o oe?eiio (noai?aiiy naiino?eii?
aea?aeaaii? eiiiai?? c ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai aeey e?ea?aeaoe??
a?aenoaaaiiy caoiae?a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a?ae o?ce/iiai cae?eooy
iaia?niaeoeaieo oaoo; aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y ?ioeo aaeocae aeiiii?ee a
?aa?ii?).

Iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo caaaeaiue ?aoi?ioaaiiy aoa?eueii? aaeoc? aoei e
eeoa?oueny iinooiiaa ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy oeueiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee. ?acii c
oei ia nueiaiaei? a?aenooiy /?oea aaeocaaa i?ia?aia i?eaaoecaoe??
aoa?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa, o ye?e c o?aooaaiiyi aeiiii?/iiai noaio
eiaeiiai c ieo ieaioaaeeny a oa?i?ie oa iniaeeaino? i?iaaaeaiiy
i?eaaoecaoe??, a oaeiae aecia/aeeny eiie?aoi? caoiaee uiaei ?o
aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee.

C o?aooaaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a ia?oiai aoaio no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae
aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?, noaio i?eaaoecaoe?? aoa?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa ?
aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai ?? ?icaeoeo aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia noaia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aaeoc? i?ney caaa?oaiiy ae?oaiai aoaio ?aoi?ioaaiiy, yea aaco?oueny ia
ni?ai?aoe? o?ueio neeaaeiaeo aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?, ui ae?yoeiooue o
??cieo naeoi?ao aeiiii?ee: aea?aeaaiiio, ci?oaii? oi?ie aeaniino? oa
iaaea?aeaaiiio (?en. 3.1). Ae?yeuei?noue aoaeaaeiaoaieo ?
aoaeaia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa naeoi?a ci?oaii? oi?ie aeaniino? aoaea
oa?aeoa?ecoaaoeny i?aai?caoe?eiith ??ciiiai?oi?noth, ui ia?aaeaa/a?
?o naiino?eio ?iaioo, a oaeiae — o neeaae? aoa?eueieo ? i?aeaaeocaaeo
oieaeeiaiaeo eiiiai?e, i?iieneiai-o?iainiaeo a?oi.

A?aoiaoth/e caaaeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?, aiaeii/an c
?icaeoeii iaaea?aeaaiiai naeoi?a aoa?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa nei?i/aiiyi
ooieoe?e I?iaoaeai?iio iiaeia i?iaiicoaaoe eiai ianooiio o?ainoi?iaoe?th
o a?aeiia?aeiee eii?oao I?i?noa?noaa c ieoaiue iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai
eiiieaeno, ui ?acii c iniiaiith ae?iaie/ith ae?yeuei?noth ae??ooaaoeia
oae? no?aoaa?/i? caaaeaiiy, ye:

— ia?aaea/a ?c neeaaeo ae?iaie/eo ia’?aeiaiue c aeaeiaooeo aoa?eey ia
cae?eooy /a?aiaeo iaia?niaeoeaieo oaoo ? ?ic??c?a;

— iiaea?i?caoe?y ae?th/eo oa aoae?aieoeoai iiaeo i?aei?e?inoa;

— i?aeaioiaea oa ia?aaea/a ia i?eaaoecaoe?th ie?aieo ?aioaaaeueieo
aoaeaaeiaoaieo ? aoaeaia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa aaeoc?;

— i?iaaaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eii? iie?oeee a aaeoc?.

C ?icoe?aiiyi ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei o aoa?euei?e i?iieneiaino? aea?aeaaiee
aieea ia ?iaioo a?eueoino? ?? i?aei?e?inoa iinooiiai ciaiooaaoeiaoueny ?
ioiieoue oae? noa?e, ye iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, e?oeaicoaaiiy, ?ic?iaea oa
eiio?ieue ca aeiaea?aeaiiyi aioeiiiiiieueieo ? i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
caeii?a, ioi?iia i?aoe?. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui c ia’?eoeaieo i?e/ei iaaia
/anoeia aoaeaaeiaoaieo i?aei?e?inoa caaaeaee caeeoaoeiaoueny o
aea?aeaaiiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee oa iio?aaoaaoeia i?aeo?eiee.

AENIIAEE. Ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? i?aaeeuei?noue noi?ioeueiaaii? a ?iaio? a?iioace uiaei
ci?ie ?ie? aea?aeaae a oi?aae?ii? aoa?eueiith i?iieneia?noth o
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?, a oaeiae aeicaiey? c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee.

1. Aea/aiiy na?oiaeo iiaeaeae aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? aea? i?aenoaao
aiai?eoe i?i ??ciiiai?oi?noue ?nioth/eo ia no/aniiio aoai? cania?a ?o
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy. Eiie?aoiee aea?? oaeeo cania?a caeaaeeoue
a?ae caaaeueiiai noaio aeiiii?ee e?a?ie, eiioeaioe?? ?icaeoeo aaeoc? oa
neooaoe?? ia aioo??oiueiio ? ciai?oi?o ?eieao aoa?eey. C iaeyaeo ia
noiae?noue a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiia aoaeaaeaeiaooeo aoa?eueia
i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie ciooaia i?ieoe oeyoii cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo
aoaeaaeiaoaieo aea?aeaa.

Iaeei?eni?oei o oeueiio aeey Oe?a?ie ? aeei?enoaiiy a?eoainueeiai
aeina?aeo ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy aoa?eueii? aaeoc?, a oaeiae aeina?aeo O?I,
/ey aoa?eueia i?iieneia?noue o nai?e ?iaio? ii?aeio? aeaiaioe
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy e oni?oii? i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?. Ia
ae?oaiio aoai? ?aoi?ioaaiiy a?o/eciyii? aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?
iaiao?aeii canoiniaoaaoe iaoiaee ni?eueii? aaeocaai? iie?oeee oeeo
e?a?i: iiaea?i?caoe?th oa eiioeaio?aoe?th ae?iaieoeoaa, cae?eooy
iaia?niaeoeaieo oaoo ? ?ic??c?a, iie?ioaiiy yeino? i?iaeoeoe??,
nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao ae?iaieoeoaa, eiiieaenia ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueieo
i?iaeai oaooa??a ? aoa?eueieo ?aa?ii?a o oe?eiio.

2. Aeei?enoaiiy nooi eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy
aoa?eueiith i?iieneia?noth, a?aenoaaaiiy aaeocaai? iie?oeee a?ae
caaaeueiiaeiiii?/ieo oaiaeaioe?e e?a?ie aei ?eieiaiai iiiaeaiiy,
iaiine?aeiai?noue aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee uiaei iaaeaiiy aaeoc? i?aeo?eiee
i?ecaaee aei e?eciaiai noaio o aoa?euei?e i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie.

sse ?aeeiee i?eeiyoiee aa??aio iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aoa?eueii?
i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie oea iaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeyaea?
iaiao?aei?noue aeiei??iii? ia?aaoaeiae i?aai?caoe?eii? oa oi?aae?inueei?
aaeocaaeo no?oeoo?. I?e oeueiio ?ieue aea?aeaae o ?ic?iaoe? eiioeaioe??
?aoi?ioaaiiy aoa?eueii? aaeoc? oa caaacia/aii? ?? aeeiiaiiy oeyoii
canoinoaaiiy iaaieo aaaeae?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? aecia/aeueiith.

3. Eiioeaio?aoe?y coneeue ia?oiai aoaio ?aoi?ioaaiiy ia cae?eniaii?
nooi i?aai?caoe?eieo caoiae?a, a oaeiae iaaeinoaoiy ?ic?iaea
caeiiiaeaa/i? aace oa iia?eueiee o?ae eiai ianooiiiai aoaio ia
aeicaieeee aoa?euei?e i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie aeeoe c e?eciaiai noaio.

Aeiiii?/iith iniiaith ?iaioe aoa?eueii? aaeoc? i?ioyaii ia?ao?aeiiai
ia??iaeo ? ?aoe?iiaeueia ii?aeiaiiy aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee, aeioiae?a
a?ae ?aae?caoe?? aoa?eueii? i?iaeoeoe??, a oaeiae iiceeiaeo eioo?a
i?aeia?iaeieo o?iainiaeo onoaiia. Oiio aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi ia nueiaiaei?
ie aaaaea?ii aaeineiiaeaiiy oaeeo ?ino?oiaio?a aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?, ye iaaeaiiy ? ?iciiae?e
aeioaoe?eieo eioo?a oa ?aaoethaaiiy noa?e ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe??
ia?aioaaaeueieo aoaeaaeiaoaieo i?aei?e?inoa. Na?aae iniiaieo oeyo?a
ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie o?aaa aeae?eeoe ci?io e?eoa??th aea?aeaaii?
i?aeo?eiee, aeiooaaiiy ia?aioaaaeueieo oaoo ? ?ic??c?a oa caoo ?o
i?iaeoeoe?? /a?ac eiiiai?th “Aoa?eey Oe?a?ie”, noai?aiiy aoa?eueii?
a??ae?.

4. C?iaeaiee aiae?c no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?
cana?ae/o? aeinoia??i?noue oace i?i iaiao?aei?noue iineeaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia ?iaioo aaeoc? o ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?.
A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui aoa?eueia i?iieneia?noue ? iaeneeaaei?oith aaeoccth
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie c oi/ee ci?o ?? ?eieiaiai iiiaeaiiy, a oaeiae ca oiia
a?aenooiino? a aaeoc? aoaeoeaiiai i?eaaoiiai aai eieaeoeaiiai aeanieea o
aoa?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa? aea?aeaaa ciaia’ycaia iino?eii aiineoe
a?aeiia?aei? ei?aeoeae aei eiioeaioe?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy aoa?eueii?
i?iieneiaino?. C iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaeoc?
a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? noi?ioeueiaaii ieceo i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii? e oi?aae?inueei? no?oeoo?,
oi?ioaaiiy aoa?eueiiai ?eieo, aeiooaaiiy aoaeaaeiaoaieo i?aei?e?inoa,
cae?eooy iaia?niaeoeaieo oaoo ? ?ic??c?a, ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai
oaooa??a ? aoa?eueieo ?aa?ii?a o oe?eiio.

5. C o?aooaaiiyi caaaeaiue aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i? oa
Aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie i?eaaoecaoe?? ia 1999 ??e, a oaeiae ?nioth/iai
aeiiii?/iiai noaio aoa?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia noaia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaeoc? i?ney caaa?oaiiy ae?oaiai aoaio ?? no?oeoo?ii?
ia?aaoaeiae, yea a?oioo?oueny ia oi?ioaaii? o?ueio neeaaeiaeo aoa?eueii?
i?iieneiaino?: aea?aeaaii?, ci?oaii? oa i?eaaoii? aai eieaeoeaii? oi?i
aeaniino?. Aiaeii/an c ?icaeoeii iaaea?aeaaiiai naeoi?a aoa?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa a?aeaoaaoeiaoueny nei?i/aiiy oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e
I?iaoaeai?iio, ui aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe eiai iinooiiao o?ainoi?iaoe?th
o a?aeiia?aeiee eii?oao I?i?noa?noaa c ieoaiue iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai
eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Aeoaiaee N.O. Aaeocaaa oi?aae?iiy a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee //
A?niee OAAeO i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie. — 1998. -? 3. — N. 87-92.

2. Aeoaiaee N.O. I?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae ?aoi?ioaaiiy aoa?eueii?
i?iieneiaino? // A?niee OAAeO i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie. —
1998. — ? 1. — N. 101-107.

3. Aeoaiaee N.O. Aea?? no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?
Oe?a?ie // Aeiiii?/iee /aniien. — 1999. — ? 3. — N. 19-22.

4. Aeoaiaee N.O. I?eaaoecaoeey oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe Aaeeeia?eoaiee
// Oaieue Oe?aeiu. — 1998. — ? 1. — N.54.

5. Aeoaiaee N.O. I?eaaoecaoeeyoa ia auaeaaeiaeaiaoa i?iieoeaiino aua
Aaeeeia?eoaiey // Ieiii aeaei e aaieiaey (Aieaa??y). —
1998. — ? 8. — N. 26-27.

6. Aeoaiaee N.O. ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a ?aoi?ie?iaaiee oaieueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe Aaeeeia?eoaiee // Oaieue Oe?aeiu. — 1998. —
? 8-9. — N. 68-69.

7. Aeoaiaee N.O. Aieea no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae aoa?eueii? aaeoc? ia
?icaeoie oaooa?nueeeo ?aa?ii?a // Aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie oa iie?oe/ieie i?ioeanaie a ?aa?ii?
(ia i?eeeaae? i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie) : Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — Iaeana:
IOeIOA?, 1998. — N. 22-27.

8. Aeoaiaee N.O. ?ieue aaeocaaiai i?i?noa?noaa o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae
aeiiii?ee // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue OAAeO i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie /
Ca caa. ?aae. A.?. Eoaiaiai, A.I. Eiyc?aa. — E.: Aeae-ai OAAeO,
1998. — Aei. 1. — N. 362-366.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aeoaiaee N.O. Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy aoa?eueiith i?iieneia?noth o
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 25.00.05 — aaeocaaa
oi?aae?iiy: oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith. — Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith iaoai?cio aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy aoa?eueiith i?iieneia?noth, a oaeiae aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai
nooiaiy aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia ?? ae?yeuei?noue o ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe?. ?icaeyiooi ?nioth/? na?oia? iiaeae? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aoa?eueii? aaeoc?, iaoiaee oa ?ino?oiaioe ?? ?aaoethaaiiy, iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy iiceoeaiiai aeina?aeo aeey ?aoi?ioaaiiy a?o/eciyii?
aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?. Iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue no?oeoo?ii?
ia?aaoaeiae aoa?eueii? aaeoc? Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae aecia/aii ?ieue
aea?aeaae o oeueiio i?ioean?. Aeine?aeaeaii iaoai?ci aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy aaeoccth ia no/aniiio aoai? oa cai?iiiiiaaii oeyoe eiai
aaeineiiaeaiiy.

I?iaiae?ciaaii o?ae ?aoi?ioaaiiy aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? oa ?ic?iaeaii
i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei eiai i?enei?aiiy ? ei?aaoaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aoa?eueia i?iieneia?noue, ia?ao?aeia aeiiii?ea, iaoai?ci
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, no?aoaa?y ?icaeoeo, no?oeoo?ia ia?aaoaeiaa,
iioeiaeueiee nooi?iue aea?aeaaiiai aieeao.

SUMMARY

Dubovyk S. Public Administration of Coal Industry in Transitional
Economy. — Manuscript.

The Thesis for a Candidate of Sciences Degree (Public Administration) by
Speciality 25.00.05 — management of Specific Sector of Public
Administration: Economic Policy. — Ukrainian Academy of Public
Administration, office of the President of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The Thesis examines the public administration mechanism of coal
industry, it also researches the selection of optimum degree of
government involvement with the industry under transition. Different
models of coal industry functioning, methods of state regulation and
possibilities to use foreign experience while reforming Ukrainian coal
industry have been considered. The need for restructuring of coal
industry has been grounded and the role of the government in this
process has been identified. The process of coal industry reforming,
current management strategies at the governmental level have been
analysed and practical recommendations regarding the facilitation of
restructuring and the adjustment needs of Ukrainian economy have been
developed.

Key words: coal industry, transitional economy, mechanism of public
administration, development strategy, structural reorganization, optimum
degree of government involvement.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aeoaiaee N.O. Ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth a
ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 25.00.05 — io?aneaaia
oi?aaeaiea: oi?aaeaiea yeiiiieeie. — Oe?aeineay Aeaaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey i?e I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth iaoaiecia ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth, a oaeaea auai?o iioeiaeueiie
noaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeyiey ia aa aeayoaeueiinoue a ia?aoiaeiie
yeiiiieea.

Iooai n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeca ?anniio?aiu nouanoaothuea a ie?a iiaeaee
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaieueiie io?anee, iaoiaeu eo ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey, aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey iieiaeeoaeueiiai iiuoa
oaeaaeiauaathueo no?ai i?e ?aoi?ie?iaaiee ioa/anoaaiiie oaieueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. O/eouaay aiaeiae/iua ai?ii-aaieiae/aneea oneiaey aeiau/e
eaiaiiiai oaey, io?aneue aoaeao auioaeaeaia i?ieoe a naiai ?acaeoee
iooue caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa. Iiyoiio iniaia aieiaiea a aeaiiie
aeenna?oaoeee oaeaeaii eco/aieth aiciiaeiinoe i?eiaiaiey iiuoa
i?eaaoecaoeee oaieueiuo i?aaei?eyoee Aaeeeia?eoaiee e ni/aoaiey
aeaiaioia ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee n oniaoiie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth oaieueiie io?anee O?A.

?ane?uou iaoiaeu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey oaieueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoueth Oe?aeiu a ieaiiai-aaeieieno?aoeaiie yeiiiieea.
Noi?ioee?iaaiu i?e/eiu e?eceniie neooaoeee a io?anee iaeaioia
?aoi?ie?iaaiey, a oaeaea aiciiaeiua o?e aa?eaioa aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey
oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe (eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey
io?aneueth, iinoaiaiiia nai?a/eaaiea io?anee, no?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea
io?anee).

I?iaiaeece?iaaia yeieiae/aneay, yeiiiie/aneay, nioeeaeueiay e
iieeoe/aneay ianoaiiaea a oaooa?neeo ?aaeiiao Oe?aeiu. ?anniio?aia
aiciiaeiinoue aaeaioaoeee oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e ?aaioa a oneiaeyo
?uii/iie yeiiiieee, a oaeaea noaiaiue aioiaiinoe i?aaei?eyoee io?anee e
?acainoaea?noaeaieth eae iaeiie ec aeaaiuo caaea/ ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee.

Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee oaieueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e ii?aaeaeaia ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a oi?aaeaiee yoei
i?ioeannii.

Enneaaeiaai iaoaieci ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey oaieueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoueth a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea e i?aaeeiaeaiu iooe iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe aai ?aaiou. I?iaiaeece?iaai oiae ?aoi?ie?iaa-iey
oaieueiie io?anee a 1996-1998 aa. e i?e/eiu aai ionoaaaiey io
?ac?aaioaiiiai a?aoeea. Noi?ioee?iaai ?yae i?aeoe/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee,
iai?aaeaiiuo ia ei??aeoe?iaeo e onei?aiea ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee oaieueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony ?aoaieth i?iaeai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey i?ioeannia oi?ie?iaaiey ?uiea oaieueiie i?iaeoeoeee,
auaeaeaiey aeioaoeee oaeaaeiauaathuei i?aaei?eyoeyi, cae?uoey
ia-ia?niaeoeaiuo oaoo e ?ac?acia, niya/aiey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo
iineaaenoaee eeeaeaeaoeee ia?aioaaaeueiiai oaieueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ia iniiaaiee iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiey i?aaeeiaeaia noaia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe iinea caaa?oaiey aoi?iai
yoaia aa no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee, iniiaaiiay ia oi?ie?iaaiee o?ao
oaieueiuo naeoi?ia yeiiiieee (ainoaea?noaaiiie, niaoaiiie e
iaainoaea?noaaiiuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe), a oaeaea ni?iaiice?iaaii
i?aia?aciaaiea ?iee e iniiaiuo ooieoeee oeaio?aeueiiai io?aneaaiai
i?aaia oi?aaeaiey — Ieienoa?noaa oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, ia?aoiaeiay yeiiiieea,
iaoaieci ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey, no?aoaaey ?acaeoey, no?oeoo?iay
ia?ano?ieea, iioeiaeueiay noaiaiue ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeyiey.

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