OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AeA?AEAAIIAI OI?AAE?IIss I?E I?ACEAeAIOIA?
OE?A?IE

ss?aiaiei Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/

OAeE 351: 342 (477) (091)

Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy a Oe?a?i? a ia??iae aaoueiaiaoo

(ea?oaiue-a?oaeaiue 1918?.)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 25.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a A?iieoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Ieoaeea Eioethaeinueeiai

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?eai?/oe Iao?i Naiaiiae/,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi??? neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a A?iieoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ieoaeea Eioethaeinueeiai.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eocueieiaoeue Ieaenaiae? Aaneeueiae/,
ia/aeueiee eaoaae?e ?noi??? aea?aeaae oa i?aaa Oe?a?ie Iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie, caneoaeaiee i?aoe?aiee ia?iaeii?
ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio ?yaia Na?a?e Aaiiaae?eiae/,
caa?aeoaa/ naeoe?? iie?oieia?? eaoaae?e ?noi??? oa iie?oieia??
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea Aeaaeai?y”.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Aeaaeai?y Neoaeae Aaciaee Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a ?noi??? oa iie?oieia?? (i.
Ee?a).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “__23_”_____04_____1999 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.810.01 a Oe?a?inuee?e
Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: 252057, Ee?a-57, aoe. Aaeaia Iioue?, 20, e.201.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie
(252057, Ee?a-57, aoe. Aaeaia Iioue?, 20).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “__22_”
______03______1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Eiaoiiaa I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Anooi. Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie i?noeoue ii?io, a ye?e aeaco?oueny ia
aaaaoia?eiao ?noi??th oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy. Ia’?eoeai?noue
oeueiai iieiaeaiiy Eiinoeoooe?? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeine?aeaeaiiy c
?noi??? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a Oe?a?i?. Cia/iee iaoeiaee ?ioa?an
aeeeeeathoue aea?aeaaioai?/? i?ioeane a 1918 ?ioe?. I?iaieioaiiy 22
n?/iy 1918 ?ieo noaa?ai?oaoo Oe?a?ie iinoaaeei ieoaiiy i?i iaeaooith
oi?io oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. O ca’yceo c oeei caaino?eeany ai?ioueaa
aeaio iie?oe/ieo oa/?e: ?anioae?eainueei-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?
aaoi?eoa?ii-iiia?o?/ii?. Aeaiie?aoe/iee ?oo aeiee noeo?eii a i?ioean?
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? aoa i?aaenoaaeaiee Oe?a?inueeith Oeaio?aeueiith
?aaeith, yea cae?enithaaea ?icaoaeiao oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? ia
canaaeao aeai?iino?, eieaa?aeueiino? aeuiai i?aaio aeaaee oa no?ieiaino?
eiai iiaiiaaaeaiue (I.A?ooaanueeee, A.Aeiie/aiei). Ia?aeaeueii ae?yea
iiiceoe?y, iie?oe/ia i?ia?aia yei? a?oiooaaeanue ia i?eioeeiao
iaeiiin?aiiai i?aae?iiy, aeai?iiai aai niaaeeiaiai (A.Eeieinueeee,
I.Nei?iiaaenueeee).

?ic?iaea Eiinoeoooe?? OI? oa i?ecia/aiiy aeaoe i?iaaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo
Onoaiia/eo cai??a icia/aee inoaoi/ia cae??ieaiiy ?anioae?eainueeeo iniia
oi?aae?iiy. Uia ia aeiionoeoe oeueiai, i?eoeeueieee aaoi?eoa?iiai
?aaeeio, aeei?enoaaoe e?eco aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeeo a?aeiinei oa
?iicaiio i?aeo?eieo, cae?enieee aea?aeaaiee ia?aai?io. A ?acoeueoao?
aeieeea iiaa oi?ia oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? — aaoueiaiao.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoea ?icaeyaea? ?noi??th ye
niaoeeo?/io oi?io ?ooo a?ae ieioeiai e??cue no/ani?noue aei
iaeaooiueiai, oa?aeoa?eco? ieioea ? no/ania ye aioo??oiuei iia’ycai?
yaeua. Aoaeue-yea nioe?aeueia nenoaia ia?aaoaa? a noai? aacia?a?aiiai
?ooo, ? an? i?ioeane, ui i?ioiaeyoue ana?aaeei? ia?, iia’ycai? iaaiith
o?iiieia?/iith eia?eith. Aeey i?ciaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
aoe?eiio iaiao?aeii aeine?aeeoe ?? ?noi?e/ii, oiaoi i?ioyaii anueiai
ia??iaeo ?nioaaiiy. Neioni?aeiee oeyo ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth aaeeei? e?eueeino?
ia?ao?aeieo ia??iae?a a?ae iaeiiai oeio noni?eueieo oa aea?aeaaieo
a?aeiinei aei ?ioiai. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy a oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo aea? iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaoe
a?o/eciyiee aeina?ae aea?aeaaioai?aiiy.

Aeineoue oe?eaaei a oeueiio ieai? ? ia??iae 1917-1918 ?ie?a.
Iiae?ai?noue nueiaiaeaiiy aei oeueiai ia??iaeo i?iyaey?oueny a e?eueeio
aniaeoao. Ii-ia?oa, ?iciaae iao?iiie??, o neeaae? yei? ia?aaoaaea
Oe?a?ia (?in?enueea ?iia??y — N?N?), ii-ae?oaa, iiooe oeyo?a
naiino?eiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?icaeoeo ? nai?? iiaeae? aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy, ii-o?ao?, iayai?noue noia?a/iinoae o noa??
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ? iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo, ii-/aoaa?oa, ci?ia oi?i
aeaniino? oa ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee.

Nenoaia aaoueiainueeiai i?aae?iiy aoea a?o/eciyiith iiaeaeeth
aaoi?eoa?ecio, i?eeeaaeii oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaith a aeno?aiaeueieo
oiiaao. No/ania eiinoeoooe?eia caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie aeiionea? oaeee
aa??aio aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy o aeiaaeeao ia?aaeaa/aieo caeiiii ”I?i
iaaecae/aeiee noai” (1992?.). O cayceo c oeei, uia ia aeiionoeoeny
iiieeie iaoeo iiia?aaeiee?a, iaiao?aeii anaa?/ii ? aeaoaeueii aea/eoe
iayaiee aeina?ae.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaia c iaoeiaith oaiith
“?noi?eei-i?aaia? canaaee ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? a OO
noie?oo?”, yea ?ic?iaey?oueny ia ?noi?e/iiio oaeoeueoao? A?iieoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ieoaeea Eioethaeinueeiai,
oa eo?nii “?noi??y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie”, yeee /eoa?oueny ia
eaoaae?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy oa iaiaaeaeiaioo Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai??
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? aiae?c
aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? Aaoueiaia
I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai a 1918 ?ioe?. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? oe??? iaoe aoee
aecia/ai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

· i?iaiae?coaaoe neooaoe?th a aaeoc? aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeeo a?aeiinei
iaia?aaeiaei? anoaiiaeaiiy aaoueiaiaoo;

· aecia/eoe ??aaiue eaa?oeiiino? aeaaee Aaoueiaia Iaaea
Nei?iiaaenueeiai;

· ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe noaoon Aaoueiaia a nenoai? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy;

· ?ice?eoe no?oeoo?o oa eiiiaoaioe?th oeaio?aeueieo oa i?noeaaeo i?aai?a
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy;

· aeyaeoe oi?ie oa iaoiaee oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a
aea?aeaaiiai oa i?noeaaiai oi?aae?iiy;

· aecia/eoe oa?aeoa? aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae a?iiaaeyiaie oa i?aaiaie
oi?aae?iiy;

· i?iaiae?coaaoe iniiai? iai?yie aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?
aaoueiainueei? aaei?i?no?aoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio,
ui a iueiio aia?oa a ?noi?eei-oi?aae?inuee?e iaooe? ?iaeoueny ni?iaa
eiiieaenii aeine?aeeoe nenoaio aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ia??iaeo
aaoueiaiaoo.

Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa Aaoueiaia I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai io?eiaea
iaiaeiicia/i? ioe?iee a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a. A
iniia? ?ica?aeiinoae iiaeyae?a ia aaoueiaiao eaaeaoue o?e eeth/ia?
i?iaeaie: aeaea?aea aeaaee I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai — iaoa ae?yeueiino? —
iie?oe/iee ?aaeei. Canoinoaaaoe oaeo noaio, iiaeia aeae?eeoe oae?
iniiai? eiioeaioe?? oa?aeoa?enoeee aaoueiaiaoo: eiio??aaiethoe?ei? neee
— ?anoaa?aoe?y ao?aeoacii-iii?ueoeueeiai ?aaeeio — aeeeoaoo?a
(?aaeyinuee? a/ai?); i?iaoeuee? ieoiaoe?ei? a?enueea, iii?ueee,
?in?enuee? iiia?o?noe — a?aeiiaeaiiy ?in?enueei? ?iia??? — a?enueeiaa
aeeeoaoo?a (oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a, i?eoeeueieee Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee);
oe?ai?ianueeee eean — iacaeaaeiee aea?aeaaiee ?icaeoie Oe?a?ie —
aaoi?eoa?eci (oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a, ?noi?eee — aaoueiaioe?).

O no/ani?e a?o/eciyi?e iaooe? oaeiae iaia? iaeiinoaeiino? uiaei
aea?aeaaioai?/eo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i? a 1918 ?ioe?.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aeo?aeiith oi/eith ye?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aaoueiainueei? aea?aeaae ? ?icaeyae ?? ye nenoaie oei/aniaiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. Ii?yae c o?aaeeoe?eieie ni?iaaie
i?iaiae?coaaoe aaoueiaiao c oi/ee ci?o eeane/ii? oai??? aea?aeaae ca
oi?iith i?aae?iiy, oi?iith aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith ? iie?oe/iei ?aaeeiii a
?iaio? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae Oe?a?ia
ia?aaoaaea a oiiaao iaaecae/aeiiai noaio ? a on?o aaeocyo noni?eueiiai
aeeooy ia?inoaee e?ecia? yaeua. Iniiaiei i?ecia/aiiyi aaoueiainueei?
nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aoea i?aeaioiaea e?a?ie aei i?iaaaeaiiy
aeai??a aei aeuiai i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai i?aaio — Onoaiia/eo cai??a, ye?
iaee aecia/eoe iaeaooith oi?io Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Ia iniia? aiae?co iaoeiaeo aeaea?ae a aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny
neooaoe?y a aaeoc? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy iaia?aaeiaei? anoaiiaeaiiy
aaoueiaiaoo oa aecia/a?oueny ??aaiue eaa?oeiiino? nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy aaoueiainueei? aea?aeaae.

A ?iaio? i?iaiae?ciaaii iniiai? aeaiaioe nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae:

· i?aai?caoe?eio no?oeoo?o oeaio?aeueieo oa i?noeaaeo i?aai?a
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy: i?noea ? ?ieue Aaoueiaia a nenoai? aea?aeaaieo
i?aai?a, neeaae ?aaee I?i?no??a, no?oeoo?o ?? i?ae?icae?e?a oa
i?i?noa?noa. ?ice?eoi i?aai?caoe?th oi?aae?iiy aoaa?inueeeo oa iia?oiaeo
noa?ino Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae oa i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy;

· ooieoe?iiaeueiee ??aaiue nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy:
eiiiaoaioe?th Aaoueiaia a aaeoc? caeiiiaeaa/i?, aeeiiaa/i? oa noaeiai?
aeaae, caeiiiaeaa/? oa oi?aae?inuee? iiaiiaaaeaiiy ?aaee I?i?no??a,
ooieoe?? i?i?noa?noa oa a?aeiinoa, aoaa?inueeeo oa iia?oiaeo noa?ino;

· ?inoeooo aea?aeaaii? neoaeae (c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a?i
ia?aaoaaa ia ii/aoeia?e noaae?? noaiiaeaiiy ? aacoaaany ia i?aaiaeo oa
i?aai?caoe?eieo o?aaeeoe?yo ?in?enueei? ?iia??? oa Oe?a?inueei?
Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee);

· oi?ie oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? (i?aai?caoe?eio ?iaioo oeaio?aeueieo
oa i?noeaaeo i?aai?a a aaeoc? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, caeiiiaeaa/a
a?aaoethaaiiy ?aaeith I?i?no??a noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, canoinoaaiiy ii?i
i?aaa, anoaiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai noaoono a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae
oa ?iicaioe?a);

· iaoiaee oi?aae?iiy (aeiaaaeaii, ui aea?aeaaa aeoeaii ao?o/aeanue a on?
noa?e noni?eueiiai aeeooy; aena?oeaii i?aeoe/ia cae?eniaiiy oeaico?ii?
ni?aae, iaiaaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, ?icaeiooi aeoieo i?i
aaoi?eoa?iee oa?aeoa? aaoueiainueei? aeaaee);

· iniiai? iai?yie oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?: noaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaieo
ei?aeii?a, iineeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ooieoe?? aea?aeaae, ai?ioueaa c?
cei/eii?noth.

Iaoiaeieia?y oa iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/io
iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a ia??iae aaoueiaiaoo
neeaaea? nenoaia caeii?a, eaoaai??e, iiiyoue, noi?ioeueiaaieo no/aniith
iaoeith. I?e iaienaii? ?iaioe aeei?enoaii aeinyaiaiiy oai???
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy oa oai??? i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueieo nenoai.
?icaeyaeath/e aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy ye yaeua ia’?eoeaiiai nioe?aeueiiai
na?oo, canoiniaaii o?einionuee?, nioe?ieia?/i? oa niaoe?aeuei?
iaoiaeieia?/i? ??ai? iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy: nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae,
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee aiae?c, ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee oa
ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee iaoiaee. Canoiniaaii oaeiae iaoiae oeoia/aiiy
i?aaiaeo ii?i, e?euee?niiai ? ye?niiai aiae?co aeieoiaio?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e
iiaeaeueoiio aea/aii? ?noi??? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a Oe?a?i?,
iaienaii? ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c ?noi??? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, a
oaeiae a?aoiaai? a i?ioean? aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy a Oe?a?i? oa i?e cae?eniaii? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? i?e ?ic?iaoe?
i?ia?ai oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaith a oiiaao iaaecae/aeiiai noaio.

Aeena?oaoe?ei? iaoa??aee iiaeia aeei?enoaoe a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? o
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao ca niaoe?aeuei?noth “Aea?aeaaia
oi?aae?iiy”, a ?inoeoooao, oeaio?ao oa ia eo?nao i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a, a oaeiae ia aoiai?oa?ieo
oaeoeueoaoao aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa ?ic?iaee a
iaaeao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, cie?aia o?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue
eiai iaoeiao iiaecio ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a, iaea?aeai?
aeena?oaioii iniaenoi.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy oa
iaiaaeaeiaioo Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?? ?noi??? neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a
A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee i?aaenoaaeai? ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo: “I?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie ? neeaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino?: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue” (Iaeana, 1994, oaia aeiiia?ae? —
“I?aaiaee noaoon iniae a Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? Aaoueiaia
I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai”); “Oe?a?inueea ia??iaeeea: ?noi??y oa no/ani?noue”
(Euea?a-AEeoiie?, 1994, oaia aeiiia?ae? — “Oeaico?ia ni?aaa a
Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? Aaoueiaia I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai”); “Iaean?-200.
I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y” (Iaeana, 1994, oaia aeiiia?ae? —
“I?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie a ia??iae aaoueiaiaoo”); “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ao?eaiiy
a aeeooy iieiaeaiue Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie” (Ee?a, 1998,oaia aeiiia?ae? —
“Aea?aeaaia aeaaea a oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo: a?o/eciyiee aeina?ae
1917-1920??.”).

Ioae?eaoe?? c oaie. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeai?
o ainueie ioae?eaoe?yo: iaei?e a?ioo??, aeaio noaooyo o oaoiaeo
aeaeaiiyo c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, aeaio noaooyo o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo
c ?noi??? (iaeia o ni?aaaoi?noa?), o?ueio oacao iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?e. Caaaeueiee ianya ioae?eaoe?e — 4,2 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo? (a
oiio /ene? o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy 3,2 ae?oeiaaieo
a?eoo?a).

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeai? iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie
aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?? ianya noaiiaeoue 207 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo.
Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 4 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e (22 noi??iee, 347 iaca),
aeiaeaoe?a. A ?iaio? iiaea?oueny 4 noaie, 8 oaaeeoeue ? 1 ae?aa?aia.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O “Anooi?“ iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue, aecia/ai? iaoa ? caaaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, ioa?aeoa?eciaai? iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, aecia/ai? iaoiaeieia?y oa iaoiaeeea
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeathoueny a?aeiiino? i?i ai?iaaoe?th oa no?oeoo?o
aeena?oaoe??.

Ia?oee ?icae?e,- “Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy a ia??iae aaoueiaiaoo a iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo oa aeaea?aeao“ ii?aeio? aeaa i?ae?icae?ee.

A ia?oiio,- “Aiae?c iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
aaoueiainueeiai ia??iaeo” eeaneo?eothoueny ? ?icaeyaeathoueny i?aoe?
a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo iaoeiaoe?a c aeaii? i?iaeaie. Aea?aeaaa, ye
i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, ciaoiaeeoueny a iie? ci?o aaaaoueio
noni?euenoaiciaa/eo iaoe: ?noi???, iie?oieia??, ?noi??? aea?aeaae oa
i?aaa. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe niaeo? iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, a yeeo iaaiith i??ith aena?oeththoueny ? aiae?cothoueny
i?ioeane aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aaoueiainueei? aea?aeaae.

Aaoi? aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy ?
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iith oi?iith nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy. Aiii
cae?enith?oueny a noni?euenoa?, aea a?aeaoaathoueny iie?oe/i?,
nioe?aeuei?, aeiiii?/i?, ?aeaieia?/i?, eoeueoo?i? oa ?io? i?ioeane.
Aecia/eoe ? inieneeoe oe? i?ioeane aeiiiiaaathoue i?aoe? ?noi?ee?a.

Oae, a ?iaioao ?aaeyinueeeo ?noi?ee?a aeine?aeaeoaaeany ?noi??y
aaoueiainueei? aea?aeaae c iiaeyaeo eeaniai? ai?ioueae oa ai?ioueae c
i?iaoeueei-aano?i-oai?nueeeie a?enueeaie.

?noi??th aaoueiaiaoo aeine?aeaeoaaee oaeiae ?noi?eee oe?a?inueei?
ae?anii?e: Ae.Aei?ioaiei, O.Aoi/ae, I.Iieiinueea-Aaneeaiei,
?.Iaaa?anueeee Aei?ioaiei Ae. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie (1917-1922??.) o 4-o o.
O.2: Oe?a?inueea aaoueiainueea aea?aeaaa.- Oaeai?iae, 1930. —
340n.;Aoi/ae O. Oe?a?ia. Ia?oa iieiaeia OO no.: ia?ene iie?oe/ii?
?noi???.- E: Eea?aeue, 1993.- 288n.; Iieiinueea-Aaneeaiei I. Iaaei
Nei?iiaaenueeee.- Oi?iioi, 1954 .- 81n.; Iaaa?anueeee ?. ?noi??y
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae OOno.- Ee?a-?ei, 1989.- 412n.;.

Ii/aoie 90-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy iciaiaioaaany iiaei aoaiii aea/aiiy
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae Aaoueiaia Iaaea Nei?iiaaenueeiai a?o/eciyieie
iaoeiaoeyie. Ie?ai? aniaeoe aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ?icaeyaeathoueny a
noaooyo N.Eoeue/eoeueeiai, A.Aa?nothea, A.Ao?aa/aieiaa,
ss.Iaeainueeiai, I.Ne?eiieea, ?.Ie?iaa, O.I?iaeaithea Eoeue/eoeueeee
N.A. Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa ca /an?a aaoueiaiueie// Oe?. ?no. aeo?i.-
1992.- ?7/8.- n.60-79.; Aa?nothe A. Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa // ?noi??y
Oe?a?ie: iiaa aa/aiiy: O 2 o./ i?ae ?aae. A.A.Niie?y. O. 2.- E.:
Oe?a?ia.- N.53-77; Ao?aa/aieia A. *an a?aeiiaeaiiy ?noi?e/ii? iai’yo?
aai aeaui i?i aaoueiaiao c iiaeyaeo nueiaiaeaiiy//Inoaii?e aaoueiai.
THa?eaeiee ca??iee iai’yo? Iaaea Nei?iiaaenueeiai. 1873-1945.- E,
1993.- N.25-32.; Iaeainueeee ss. Aaoueiaiao I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai. I?oe oa
ae?eni?noue.- Oai naii.- N.5-12.; Ne?eiiee I. Aaoueiainoai
I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?.- Oai naii.
-N.49-55.; Ie??a ?. I?iaeaithe O. Iaaei Nei?iiaaenueeee: oo?eoe aei
iie?oe/iiai ii?o?aoo// Oe?. ?no. aeo?i.- 1992.- ?9.- N.91-105..

Iaea?oioiai?oa na?aae no/anieo ?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?noi??y
aaoueiainueei? aea?aeaae ?icaeyaea?oueny o i?aoe? TH.Iaaeaiea oa
TH.O?aiiaa Iaaeaiei TH, O?aiia TH. Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaai?noue o
1917-1919 ?ieao (?noi?eei aaiaoe/iee aiae?c).- E.: Iaione?eio.- 261n..
Aaoi?e noaa?aeaeothoue, ui nenoaiia , i?iaeoiaia ? aaaaoiieaiiaa
aea?aeaaiaoae?aieoeoai a Oe?a?i? ?icii/aeiny naia a ia??iae aaoueiaiaoo.

Ae?oao a?oio aeine?aeaeaiue aaoueiainueeiai ia??iaeo, a yeeo
aena?oeththoueny aeaye? aniaeoe aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, noaiiaeyoue
i?aoe? iie?oieia?a. Iniaeeaa i?noea na?aae ieo caeiathoue oai?aoe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy A. Eeieinueeiai ? A.Eo/aanueeiai Eo/aanueeee A. Aaaa ?
caaaeaiiy cao?aeii-oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae na?aae nee No?aeii? ?a?iie ia
ia?aeii? 1918-1919 ?ie?a//Aecaiie. — 1932.- o.1.- 788n. .

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii iie?oe/ii? aeoiee ? i?aoe? ?aeaieia?/ieo
i?ioeaiee?a I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai — A.Aeiie/aiea oa I. O?enothea Aeiie/aiei
A. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe??: O 3-o /anoeiao. *anoeia 3.- Ee?a-A?aeaiue,
1920.- 215n. O?enothe I. Cai?oee ? iaoa??aee aei ?noi??? oe?a?inueei?
?aaiethoe??: O 4-o /anoeiao.- A?aeaiue, 1922.- 405n..

Ni?iae aecia/eoe eaa?oeii?noue iie?oe/ii? nenoaie aaoueiaiaoo
cae?enieee aeine?aeieee ?.Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee, Ae.Nieiaae, A.Aeieo?eoei
Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee ?. Iai?yie oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee//?noi?e/i?
anna. E.:Iniiae., o.2. — N.64-93.; Nieiaae Ae. O ni?aa? ioe?iee aeoo
aea?aeaaiiai ia?aai?ioo 29 ea?oiy 1918 ?ieo//Iie?oieia?/i? /eoaiiy.-
1994.- ?3 .- N.222-229.; Aeieo?eoei A. Iiaaeaiiy i?ioeyie Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee o ea?oi? 1918 ?ieo: iia? aeai? c i?iaoeueeeo
a?o?a?a//Iie?oieia?/i? /eoaiiy.- 1994.- ?1.- N.104-120..

Iaea?eueoa oaaae i?iaeaiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?eae?ey?oueny a
i?aoeyo c ?noi??? aea?aeaae oa i?aaa Oe?a?ie. A ocaaaeueithth/eo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo ?noi??? aea?aeaae oa i?aaa aaoueiaiaoo
(A.Eoeue/eoeueeee, A ?iaiaeei, A.?oi`yioeaa, A.Iaithe, I.Oaa/aiei)
?ice?eaa?oueny oi?ia i?aae?iiy, aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith,
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaee ?aaeei Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, aiae?co?oueny
i?aaiaee noaoon aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy, i?aai?a i?noeaaiai
oi?aae?iiy oa naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue
aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a ia??iae aaoueiaiaoo i?noeoueny a i?aoe?
Eiieeaiea I.E., ? Eiieeaiea I.E. Eiieeaiei I.E., Eiieeaiei I.E.
Aea?aeaaa ? i?aai Oe?a?ie. 1917-1920. Iaa/. iin?aiee.- E.: Eea?aeue.-
208n…

Aeine?aeaeaiith aaaaoueio aniaeo?a ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie a
aaoueiainueeee ia??iae i?enay/ai? i?aoe? I.Ie?iiaiea Ie?iiaiei I.
Aeeeoaoo?a I. Nei?iiaaenueeiai ? i?aaa ethaeeie // Iaea aioeeeeiiaae?y
aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa / IAI Oe?a?ie.- ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i.
A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai. ?aaeeie: TH.?.?eia?aiei (a?aei. ?aae.) oa ?i.- E.:
Aeia??a: Aaiaca, 1996.- N.188-191. ; Eiai ae. Caeiiiaeaa/a i?ioeaaeo?a
a Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa?// Oai naii.- N.191-194.;Eiai ae.
Aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiee iiae?e Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae o
ea?oi?-a?oaei? 1918?//Oai naii.- N.259-260.; Eiai ae. E?ao ia??ie?ao??
I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai // Oai naii.- N.306-310.; Eiai ae. I?aaie oi?aae?iiy
caei?aeiiieie ni?aaaie a Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa?// Oai naii.- N.343-345.;
Eiai ae. Oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo cainoa ? i?nueeeo aeoi a
Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa?// Oai naii.- N.428-431.; Eiai ae. Iaoe?iiaeueia
aeaaeoaaiiy a aoaa?i?yo, i?noao ? aieinoyo Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae//
?noi?eei-iie?oe/i? o?iee oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?. Aioeeeeiiaaee/iee
neiaiee. Ca ?aae. aeaaeai?ea OAII ?eia?aiea TH.?.- Ee?a-Aeiiaoeuee,
1998.- N.218-224.. A ieo aena?oeth?oueny i?eo?ae I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai aei
aeaaee, aiae?co?oueny oi?ia i?aae?iiy oa aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/iee ?aaeei
aaoueiaiaoo, aaaaoi oaaae i?eae?ey?oueny aea/aiith
aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeeo a?aeiinei, cie?aia no?oeoo?e, /enaeueiino? oa
eiiiaoaioe?? ie?aieo oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy;
aecia/a?oueny i?aaiaee noaoon i?aai?a i?noeaaiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
oa i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy; aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea I.Nei?iiaaeneiio
ye iie?oe/iiio ae?y/o oa e?aea?o aea?aeaae.

Niaoeeo?/iiio aeaeo ae?yeueiino? aaoueiainueei? aea?aeaae — ?ica?aeoe?
oa eiio??ica?aeoe?-i?enay/ai? i?aoe? A.N?aeaea N?aeae A.N., Noaiaieia
A.N. C ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ?ica?aeee oa eiio??ica?aeee (Ia?ene).-E.:
?inoeooo NA Oe?a?ie, 1994.-402n.; N?aeae A.N. Eiio??ica?aeea inoaiiueiai
Aaoueiaia: Ia?en/ ?inoeooo i?aeaioiaee eaae??a NAO, ?inoeooo ?noi???
Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie.- E., 1995.- 50n.. A ieo aeaoaeueii ?ice?eaa?oueny
i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a oa aiae?co?oueny ae?yeuei?noue niaoeneoaea
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae Aaoueiaia Iaaea Nei?iiaaenueeiai.

Ie?ai? aniaeoe aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? aena?oeththoueny a
noaooyo E.Aaeaeoeiaa, Ae.Aaaeai??aa, I.Iaoaanueeiai, A.Ion??iea
Aaeaeoeia E. Uia i?aoethaaee ia ?? /anoue ? ia ?? neaao. I?aeaioiaea
aeeieiiaoe/ieo eaae??a a Oe?a?i?: iaeia?aeii? oaeoe// Iie?oeea ? /an.-
1998.- ?2 .-N.67-74.; Aaeaeoeia E., Aaaeai??a Ae. Neoaeaa iiaiiai
i?io?eth. ?icaoaeiaa ciai?oiuei-iie?oe/ii? neoaeae Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae Aaoueiaia Iaaea Nei?iiaaenueeiai// Iie?oeea ? /an.- 1998.-
?6.- N.71-78; Ion??iei A., Iaoaaneee I. Oe?a?i?caoe?y i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee a aaoueiainuee?e aea?aeaa? Iaaea
Nei?iiaaenueeiai//?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae.- 1996.- ?1.- N.38-40. .

I?aoe? a/aieo-th?eno?a aeicaieythoue inieneeoe oi?aae?inuee? ooieoe??
aea?aeaae /a?ac th?eaee/i? eaoaai??? oa iiiyooy.

Iacaaaeath/e ia aeineoue aenieee ??aaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy aea?aeaaioai?/eo
i?ioean?a a Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? Aaoueiaia Nei?iiaaenueeiai, iica
oaaaith iaoeiaoe?a caeeoeeinue aaaaoi aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeeo aniaeo?a
ae?yeueiino?  aea?aeaae a ia??iae aaoueiaiaoo. Cie?aia, iaeiia?/ii
aena?oeth?oueny ??aaiue eaa?oeiiino? aeaaee Aaoueiaia Iaaea
Nei?iiaaenueeiai; iaaeinoaoiuei aeeaiei ?ice?eoi
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee aniaeo nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy; iaei
i?eae?yey?oueny oaaae aeine?aeaeaiith ?inoeoooo aea?aeaaii? neoaeae. Ia
noaee ia’?eoii niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?ie oa iaoiaee
oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? aaoueiainueei? aaei?i?no?aoe??.

A ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e?,-“Iaoiaeieia?y oa aeaea?aea aeine?aeaeaiiy
nenoaie a?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae” ?ice?eaa?oueny
iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa oa aeaea?aeueia i?aea?oioy aeena?oaoe??.

Iaea?eueo nooo?aei oa aecia/aeueiei ao?eaooii aoaeue-yei? nioe?aeueii?
nenoaie ? ?? oe?e?ni?noue. O ca’yceo c oeei, a i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aaoi? canoiniao? nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, yeee
aenooia? iaeiei c cania?a iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy nioe?aeueieo yaeu.

I?e iaienaii? ?iaioe aeei?enoaii aeinyaiaiiy oai??? i?aai?caoe??
nioe?aeueieo nenoai oa oai??? nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy.

Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy iaaoaa? aea?aeaaii-i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i, ye?
iaoiiaeai? ooieoe?yie oa iaoiaeaie aieeao ia nioe?aeuei? a?aeiineie.
Iaeii/anii ia iiaa?oi? aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeo yaeu oe? oi?ie
i?iyaeythoueny, ia?o ca ana, o no?oeoo?ao aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ?
/a?ac oe? no?oeoo?e ?aae?cothoueny ?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
a Oe?a?i?: i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae. Eieaeoea aaoi??a: iaoeiaee ea??aiee
Oea?oeia A.A. — E.: I??yie, 1998.- N.56.. O ca’yceo c oeei, aaoi?
aeei?enoiao? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy. A
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?ice?eaa?oueny no?oeoo?a aia?aoo aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, ???a?o?y aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, ?o
aeaee. Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny aeine?aeaeaiith ooieoe?e i?aai?a
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. Ooieoe?y — aioo??oiy aaiethoe?eia caeaoi?noue
aei iaaii? ae?yeueiino? Aaaaeaiea a oai?eth ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaie
i?aaiecaoeee nioeeaeueiuo nenoai. -E.:TH?eieii, 1997.- N.33..
Noeoii?noue ooieoe?e eaae?o?eo?oueny ye eiiiaoaioe?y. A aeena?oaoe??
aeaoaeueii ?ie?eaa?oueny eiiiaoaioe?y Aaoueiaia, ?aaee I?i?no??a,
i?aai?a i?noeaaiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.

A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aaoi?
aeio?eioaaany iaei??? c iniiaieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo aeiia — a?aoe aei oaaae
eiie?aoi? ?noi?e/i? oiiae, a yeeo cae?enith?oueny oi?aae?iiy. ?niothoue,
yeui ia a?aoiaoaaoe ci?oaieo oei?a, aeaa eiie?aoii ?noi?e/ieo oeie
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy: ii?iaeueia (i?aeeia?ia) oi?aae?iiy ? oi?aae?iiy
iaaecae/aeia (aeno?ai?aeeia?ia) Eo?aoaeee A.I. I/a?e oai?ee
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey.- I.:Iaoea, 1987.- N.22.. A Oe?a?inuee?e
aea?aeaa? Aaoueiaia Iaaea Nei?iiaaenueeiai cia/ieo ianooaa?a iaaoee
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? oa a?enueeiai-iie?oe/i? eiioe?eoe, no?aeee,
oa?i?enoe/i? aeoe, aeeaa?n??, ui aea? i?aenoaae eaae?o?eoaaoe aea?aeaaia
oi?aae?iiy ye iaaecae/aeia.

Aeeaieiio ? iiaiiio aeine?aeaeaiith aaoueiainueeiai ia??iaeo ni?ey?
aeei?enoaiiy ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iiai oa ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaiai
iaoiae?a. Ii??aiyiiy ie?aieo aniaeo?a aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueei?
ae?yeueiino? Aaoueiaia Iaaea Nei?iiaaenueeiai c aiaeia?/ieie yaeuaie oa
aeina?aeii ?in?enueei? ?iia???, Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee oa
no/aniino? aea? iiaeeea?noue a?eueo iiaii? oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaie
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aaoueiainueei? aea?aeaae. 

Aaaeeeaei iai?yieii ?ic?iaie niaoe?aeueii-iaoiaeieia?/iiai ??aiy
aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? aecia/aiiy i?noey oa
cia/aiiy i?aaa a i?ioean? oi?aae?iiy Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy: oai??y ?
i?aeoeea. Ca caaaeueiith ?aaeaeoe??th aeieoi?a th?eaee/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?a Aaa?’yiiaa A.A.- E.: TH??ieii-?ioa?, 1998.- N.19.. O ca’yceo
c oeei, a i?ioean? iaienaiiy ?iaioe aeei?enoaii i?aaia? aeaea?aea
(caeiie oa i?aecaeiii? aeoe). Oe?iiei aeaea?aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaie
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? aeieoiaioe iaii?iaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o: i?ioieiee
oa noaiia?aie can?aeaiue i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, aeiianaiiy,
o?yaeia? iia?aeiieaiiy, aeaeea?aoe??, noaoenoe/i? a?aeiiino?.

A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aaoueiaiaoo
aeei?enoaii niiaaaee aeueo iinaaeiaeo in?a Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Oaeei /eiii, i?e iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaia aeinoaoiy
aeaea?aeueia aaca, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue ia’?eoeaii ? anaa?/ii
aeine?aeeoe nenoaio aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ia??iaeo aaoueiaiaoo. 

Ae?oaee ?icae?e,- “Eaa?oeii?noue nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
aaoueiainueeiai ia??iaeo” neeaaea?oueny c aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a.

Ia?oee,- “Neooaoe?y a aaeoc? aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeeo a?aeiinei
iaia?aaeiaei? anoaiiaeaiiy aaoueiaiaoo” i?enay/aiee aiae?co nenoaie
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, noai?aii? iiia?aaeieeii aaoueiaiaoo —
Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith.

Nenoaia naiiaea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ?in?enueei? ?iia??? i?eaaea
noni?euenoai aei oaeiai ??aiy nioe?aeueii? eiio?iioaoe??, ui c?iaeei
iaiiaeeeaei ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Noeo?eiee i?ioano iaea?eueo
iacaaeiaieaieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi noaa ii/aoeii caeiiii??iiai ia?aoiaeo
aei iiaiai ?noi?e/iiai oeio aea?aeaaiiai ?icaeoeo. Iaeiei ?c iane?aee?a
Ethoiaai? ?aaiethoe?? 1917 ?ieo a ?in?? aoa ?iciaae ?iia??? ia e?eueea
aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiue.

Ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae, a yeiio ia?aaoaaea Oe?a?ia a 1917 ?ioe?,
oa?aeoa?ecoaaany a?aenooi?noth ii?i, ye? a eaaae?coaaee aea?aeaaio
aeaaeo. Niaoeeo?/ia oi?ia eaaae?caoe?? aoea oa?aeoa?ia aeey
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. Ca nai?th th?eaee/iith i?e?iaeith ?aaea yaeyea
niaith oi?eaeueia yaeua. Aiia aeieeea ye a?iiaaenueea i?aai?caoe?y ?,
i?ieoiaoe ?yae aoai?a, o?ainoi?ioaaeanue a i?aai?caoe?th
ia?eaiaionueeiai oeio. ?aaea aeinyaea aaaiieo iie?oe/ieo oni?o?a:
i?iaieineea iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie, caoaa?aeeea ?? eiinoeoooe?th,
i?aai?coaaea ? i?iaaea aeai?e aei Onoaiia/eo Cai??a, iaeiae aiie ia aoee
iaoa??ae?ciaai? a aoaeoeai? aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inuee? no?oeoo?e. ?aaea
I?i?no??a OI? aeyaeeanue iacaeaoiith aeeiioaaoe aeeiiaa/i-?icii?yae/?
ooieoe??. Iai?iaeoiaia eaae?iaa iie?oeea i?eaiaeeea aei oiai, ui a
i?aaiao aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee ia aoei aeina?ae/aieo i?ioan?eii
i?aeaioiaeaieo aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a. Oa?aeoa?iei yaeuai a OI? aoei
i?ioe??//y i?ae aeaiia a?eeaie aeaaee: caeiiiaeaa/ith (Oeaio?aeueiith
?aaeith) oa aeeiiaa/ith (?aaeith I?i?no??a). I?noeaaa aea?aeaaia
aaei?i?no?aoe?y a OI? a inia? aoaa?inueeeo oa iia?oiaeo eii?na??a
i?aoethaaea iaaoaeoeaii ? ia iiaea ?aaeueii aieeaaoe ia neooaoe?th a
?aa?iiao. Ae?yeuei?noue io?oe?eieo i?aai?a i?noeaaiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy oneeaaeithaaeanue ia?aeaeueiei ooieoe?iioaaiiyi iaaea?aeaaieo
no?oeoo?, ye? i?aoaiaeoaaee ia aeeiiaiiy aeaaeieo ooieoe?e: naeyinueeeo
ni?eie, ?aaiethoe?eieo eii?oao?a, eii?oao?a ii?yooieo ?aaiethoe?? oiui.

E?eca nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy oa iaae?iiy iie?oe/iiai aaoi?eoaoo
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee aeoea?coaaee ae?yeuei?noue iiiceoe??, yea aaeaei
aeei?enoaaoe iie?oe/io neooaoe?th oa a?enueeiao i?aeo?eieo ?iicaiieo
aea?aeaa, ianeeueieoeueeei oeyoii onoioea ?aaeo a?ae aeaaee.

A ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e?,- “Anoaiiaeaiiy aeaaee Aaoueiaia Iaaea
Nei?iiaaenueeiai” aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?aeaioiaea oa i?iaaaeaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai ia?aai?ioo 29 ea?oiy 1918 ?ieo, yeee caii/aoeoaaa
aaoueiaiao.

Iiiceoe?ei? neee, ye? oio?ee onoiooe a?ae aeaaee Oeaio?aeueio ?aaeo, ca
nai?i nioe?aeueiei neeaaeii, iie?oe/iith i???ioaoe??th oa iaoiaeaie
iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae a?aecia/aeeny ??ciiiai?oi?noth.

Eeaneo?eoaaaoe iiiceoe?th aei Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?e
iniiaieo neee, ae?yeuei?noue yeeo i?eaaea aei ?? iaae?iiy:
oe?ai?ianueeee ?oo (iniiao yeiai neeaaeaee aea? oa/?? – e?aa?aeueia oa
eiina?aaoeaia), i?aai?caoe?y ia?o?eiiai oeio (Oe?a?inueea Ia?iaeia
A?iiaaea) oa i?iaoeuee? ieoiaoe?ei? a?enueea. A aeena?oaoe??
?ice?eaa?oueny i?aeaioia/a noaae?y ia?aai?ioo, eiioaeoe
I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai c i?aaenoaaieeaie oe?ai?ianueeiai ?ooo oa
eiiaiaeoaaiiyi i?iaoeueeeo a?enuee. I?iaiae?ciaaii o?ae aea?aeaaiiai
ia?aai?ioo 29 ea?oiy 1918 ?ieo ? eiie?aoio o/anoue a iueiio
i?aaenoaaiee?a Nithco caiaeueieo aeaniee?a, Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii?
A?iiaaee oa i?iaoeueeeo ieoiaoe?eieo a?enuee. Ni?euei? ae?? oeeo nee
i?ecaaee aei i?eioniaiai ?icioneo Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa neeeeaiiy
oe?ai?ianueeiai c’?caeo, ia yeiio aeaeaaaoe (ca ??cieie aeaea?aeaie a?ae
o?ueio aei oanoe oeny/) ia?aee Iaaea Nei?iiaaenueeiai Aaoueiaiii.

Oaeei /eiii, Iaaei Nei?iiaaenueeee i?eeoia aei aeaaee, ii?aeiaaoe
eaaaeuei? oa iaeaaaeuei? iaoiaee. Eaaaeuei?noue i?iyaeeanue o oi?i?
nai???aeieo iia?/ieo aeai??a, iaeaaaeuei?noue — o i?eioniaiio ?icioneo
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. Aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui
iaaeaiie?aoe/i?noue i?ioeaaeo?e anoaiiaeaiiy aeaaee Aaoueiaia
I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai a?ae?a?aea ae?oai?yaeio ?ieue. No/ania iaoea, ii?yae
c i?ioeaaeo?ith, aecia/a? aieiaiith oi?iith eaa?oei?caoe?? aeaaee
aecenoaioe?eia i?eeiyooy ia?iaeii nenoaie ii?i ? oe?iiinoae, oiia ?
i?aaee “a?e”, aeciaiiy neee ? iaia’yceiaino? ca ianoaiiaaie /e??nue aie?
?yaia N.A. Iie?oieia?/ia oai??y aea?aeaae.- E.:Oaiaeai, 1996.- N.14..

C oi?iaeueii-th?eaee/iiai iiaeyaeo ??aaiue eaa?oeiiino? aeaaee Aaoueiaia
Iaaea Nei?iiaaenueeiai iiaeia eaae?o?eoaaoe ye aeineoue iecueeee. I?ioa
? i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe oaea nooi “th?eaee/ia” aecia/aiiy eaa?oeiiino? ia
oe?eeii caaeia?eueiei. Eaa?oeii?noue aeaaee ia?aaeaa/a? ?nioaaiiy ?ioeo,
ia iaio nooo?aeo, i?ae oi?iaeueii-th?eaee/i? e?eoa??? aecia/aiiy
i?eeiyoiino? e aeioe?eueiino? o??? /e ?ioi? oi?ie aeaaee ?yaia N.A.
Eaa?oeiaoe?y aeaaee ye nioe?aeueia o?einionueea i?iaeaia
(eiioeaiooaeueii- iaoiaeieia?/iee aiae?c): Aaoi?ao. aeen. ia caeia.
iaoe. nooi. ae-?a. o?einio. iaoe.- E., 1997.- N.5. . A aeaiiio aeiaaeeo
oa /anoeia ianaeaiiy, yea i?aeo?eiaea aaoueiainueeo aeaaeo
a?aecia/aeanue aeuith iie?oe/iith oa i?aaiaith eoeueoo?ith, ui aeaaaei
iiaeeea?noue ia a?eueo aenieiio ??ai? ?icaoaeiaoaaoe Oe?a?inueeo
aea?aeaao.

O?ao?e ?icae?e,- “Nenoaia i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae” neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a.

A ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e?,- “Noaoon Aaoueiaia a nenoai? oeaio?aeueieo
i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy” aiae?co?oueny i?aaiaee noaoon Aaoueiaia
oa eiai ?aaeueia ?ieue a nenoai? i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.
Aaoueiai, ye ? i?aceaeaioe aaaaoueio no/anieo aeaiie?aoe/ieo aea?aeaa,
caeiaa o?e iinaaee: aeaae aea?aeaae, aeaae aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee ?
aieiaiieiiaiaeoth/iai ca?ieieie neeaie. A oie aea /an a?i iaa
iiaiiaaaeaiiy a aaeoc? caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee: naieoe?iioaaa caeiie. Aei
eiiiaoaioe?? Aaoueiaia iaeaaeaee iiaiiaaaeaiiy noaeiai? aeaaee — a?i
i?ecia/aa ia iinaaee aaia?aeueieo noaeae?a, eiio iaeaaeaei i?aai
iiieeoaaiiy, aii?no?? oa iii’yeoaiiy ae?ieo noaeo.

Aaoueiai i?aaenoaaeya Oe?a?io o i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiineiao, iaieiooaaa
noai a?eie oa ie?o.

Aei eaae?iaeo iiaiiaaaeaiue aeaae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae iaeaaeaei
i?ecia/aiiy Aieiae ?aaee I?i?no??a, caoaa?aeaeaiiy oa neanoaaiiy iiaiiai
neeaaeo ?aaee I?i?no??a. Eiei ?ioeo aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a, yeeo
i?ecia/aa Aaoueiai, ia aoei /?oei aecia/aii, aeacoaaeinue o?eueee, ui
a?i iaa i?aai i?ecia/aoe oeo neoaeaiaoe?a, aeey yeeo ia aoei anoaiiaeaii
?ioiai ii?yaeeo caoaa?aeaeaiiy ia iinaaeo.

Aeey cae?eniaiiy nai?o iiaiiaaaeaiue Aaoueiai iaa aeineoue ?icaaeoaeaiee
aia?ao, yeee neeaaeaany c o?ueio no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a: ooaao,
aieiaii? eaa?oe?e oa eaioeaey???.

Caaaeii Aaoueiai aieiae?a aeinoaoiueith ii?iaoeaiith oa iaoa??aeueiith
aacith, aaei?i?no?aoeaiei aia?aoii aeey cae?eniaiiy nai?o iiaiiaaaeaiue.
A aeena?oaoe?? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iniaa Iaaea Nei?iiaaenueeiai ye
iie?oe/iiai ? a?enueeiaiai ae?y/a oa aeui? iinaaeiai? iniae, a oaeiae
aecia/athoueny iaae? aieeao ia iueiai ??cieo iie?oe/ieo nee a i?ioean?
i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue.

Ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e,- “Oeaio?aeuei? i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee” i?enay/aiee ?ice?eooth nenoaie oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, ?o no?oeoo?e oa eiiiaoaioe??, a oaeiae
oa?aeoa?enoeoe? ?inoeoooo aea?aeaaii? neoaeae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Aea?aeaaiei i?aaiii, yeee oiniaethaaa ? caeiiiaeaa/o, ? aeeiiaa/o aeaaeo
aoea ?aaea I?i?no??a. Ia ia? iieeaaeaeenue caaaeaiiy i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei oa i?aai?caoe?y aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy.

I?ia?aeiei i?aaiii a aaeoc? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aoee i?i?noa?noaa.
Ia ii/aoie aaoueiaioaaiiy ?o aoei aeanyoue: aioo??oi?o ni?aa,
caei?aeiiieo ni?aa, o?iain?a, oi?a?ae? oa i?iieneiaino?, i?aoe?,
ia?iaeii? ina?oe, ia?iaeiiai caei?ia’y, oeyo?a, noaeiaeo ni?aa,
a?enueeiaeo ni?aa. Caiaeii aoei ooai?aii ua aeaa i?i?noa?noaa:
caiaeueieo ni?aa oa a??iniia?aeaiue, a i?i?noa?noai noaeiaeo ni?aa
?aoi?iiaaia a i?i?noa?noai thnoeoe??.

No?oeoo?a i?i?noa?noa aoea aeineoue i?inoith, aiie iiae?eyeenue ia
aeaia?oaiaioe, a aeaia?oaiaioe ia a?aeae?ee. Eiaeia i?i?noa?noai
cae?enithaaei caeiiiaeaa/a ?aaoethaaiiy ? oi?aae?iiy a iaai?e aaeoc?
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, yea aecia/aeanue noaoooii i?i?noa?noaa.

A nenoai? i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ooieoe?iioaaea Iaea ?aaea, yea
neeaaeaeany ?c canooiiee?a i?i?no??a. Aei eiiiaoaioe?? Iaei? ?aaee
a?aeiineeenue ?icaeyae caeiiiaeaa/eo oa aaei?i?no?aoeaieo i?iiiceoe?e
ie?aieo i?i?noa?noa, ye? ca ianeeaaei?noth ia aeiaaaee aca?iii? caiaee
oeaio?aeueieo a?aeiinoa o ienueiia?e oi?i?, ?icaeyae i?aaenoaaeaiue
ie?aieo i?i?noa?noa i?i aneaioaaiiy eioo?a, ye? ia aoee ia?aaeaa/ai?
aea?aeaaiei athaeaeaoii.

Aeey i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe ?aaee I?i?no??a aoei ooai?aii aeaa
i?ae?icae?ee: Oi?aae?iiy ni?aaaie ?aaee I?i?no??a oa Aea?aeaaio
Eaioeaey??th.

A Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? i?ioiaeeee i?ioeane noaiiaeaiiy ?inoeoooo
aea?aeaaii? neoaeae. An? aea?aeaai? neoaeaiaoe? iiae?eyeenue ia 14
eean?a, a eaioeaey?nuee? neoaeaiaoe? ia 3 ?ic?yaee. I?e anooi? ia
iinaaeo aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey a?iiaaeyie iiaeii? aoee neeaaeaoe
i?enyao, a?aeiiaa a?ae neeaaeaiiy ?? aoea i?aenoaaith aeey a?aeiiae
i?eeiyooy ia aea?aeaaio neoaeao aai ca?eueiaiiy c ia?.

Iniiaiith i?iaeaiith aea?aeaaii? neoaeae aoei eaae?iaa ieoaiiy,
cie?aia, a?aenooi?noue aeina?ae/aieo aaei?i?no?aoi??a, iaaenieee ??aaiue
i?ioan?iiae?cio. Iaaaoeaii aieeaaee ia nenoaio oi?aae?iiy oae? yaeua ye
ei?oioe?y aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a, i?ioaeoe?ii?ci,
iaaeenoeeie?iiaaiiaai?noue, a ?ieiee, e a?aeaa?oee naaioaae.

A Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? Aaoueiaia Nei?iiaaenueeiai aoee cae?eniai?
ni?iae noai?eoe aoaeoeaiee oa iaae?eiee aia?ao eiio?ieueii? neoaeae.
No?oeoo?a oeaio?aeueieo onoaiia aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth oaeiae
a?aecia/aeanue i?inoioith. I/iethaaa aea?aeaaiee eiio?ieue aaia?aeueiee
eiio?iea?, yeee iaa ?aia i?i?no?a. Eiio i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeenue
Aaia?aeueia Eiio?ieueia ?aaea, 4 eiio?ieuei? aeaia?oaiaioe (caaaeueieo
ni?aa, a ni?aaao oeyo?a, a?enueeiaeo ni?aa, e?aaeeoieo oa o?iainiaeo
ni?aa) oa eaioeaey??y aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth. Eiio?ieue ia i?noeyo
cae?enithaaany aeaa’youeia eiio?ieueieie iaeaoaie (ca e?euee?noth
aoaa?i?e). A ie?aiee aeae ae?yeueiino? aeae?eyany cae?cie/iee eiio?ieue
oa eiio?ieue ii ?aa?c?? aea?aeaaieo iai?ioieo eioo?a. A nenoai?
aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth ae?ya oaeiae aeuee aeenoeeie?ia?iee noae.

A o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e?,- “I?aaie i?noeaaiai oi?aae?iiy oa
naiia?yaeoaaiiy aaoueiainueei? aea?aeaae” aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?aai?caoe?y
i?noeaaiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. Nii/aoeo ?aoi?ia i?noeaaeo
aaei?i?no?aoe?e iineea /enoi oi?iaeueiee oa?aeoa?. Cai?noue aoaa?inueeeo
oa iia?oiaeo eii?na??a aaiaeeeenue iinaaee noa?ino. A nai?e ae?yeueiino?
aiie ea?oaaeenue “Oei/aniaei, ia /an a?eie iieiaeaiiyi i?i aoaa?inueeeo
oa iia?oiaeo eii?na??a”. Aei ?o eiiiaoaioe?? a?aeiineeenue oae?
ieoaiiy: i?aeo?eiaiiy i?aaiii?yaeeo a aoaa?i??, iciaeiieaiiy ianaeaiiy c
ii?iaoeaieie aeoaie ?aaee I?i?no??a, eiio?ieue ca aeeiiaiiyi ii?iaoeaieo
aeo?a, ?ioi?ioaaiiy ?aaee I?i?no??a i?i neooaoe?th a aoaa?i?yo,
eiio?ieue ca ae?yeuei?noth i?noeaaeo i?aai?a oa i?aai?a i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy, iie?oe/iee iaaeyae ca aea?aeaaieie oa a?iiaaenueeeie
i?aai?caoe?yie.

A aaeoc? ii?iioai?/ino? noa?inoe iaee i?aai aeaeaaaoe iinoaiiae a iaaeao
?o eiiiaoaioe?? oa i?eieiyoe ae?th ?icii?yaeaeaiue i?noeaaeo aea?aeaaieo
i?aai?a oa naiia?yaeoaaiue, yeui aiie noia?a/eee /eiiiio caeiiiaeaanoao.

Iinooiiai aei eiiiaoaioe?? aoaa?inueeeo oa iia?oiaeo noa?ino aoea
a?aeianaia any iiaiioa aeaaee ia i?noeyo.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?ice?eaa?oueny oi?aae?inueea ae?yeuei?noue aoaa?inueeeo
oa iia?oiaeo noa?ino oa ?o aca?iia?aeiineie c i?aaiaie i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy — i?nueeeie aeoiaie oa cainoaaie.

Oaeei /eiii, a Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? Aaoueiaia Nei?iiaaenueeiai aoea
noai?aia oi?eaeueia nenoaia i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. Iaei??th c
aieiaieo ?en oe??? nenoaie aoea eiioeaio?aoe?y an??? iiaiioe aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee a i?aaiao aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. ?iciiae?e aeaaee ia
caeiiiaeaa/o, aeeiiaa/o oa noaeiao a aea?aeaaiiio iaoai?ci? ia
canoiniaoaaany. I?aaenoaaieoeueeee caeiiiaeaa/ee i?aai a iie?oe/i?e
nenoai? aaoueiaiaoo aoa a?aenooi?e, a th?eaee/ii iacaeaaeia noaeiaa
aeaaea ia i?aeoeoe? i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeanue oeaio?aeueiei i?aaiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. I??i?eoaoio ?ieue a nenoai? aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy a?ae?a?aaaa i?aai aea?aeaae a iaei?e inia? Aaoueiaia,
iiaiiaaaeaiiy yeiai ?iciianthaeaeoaaeenue a noa?o caeiiiaeaa/i?,
aeeiiaa/i? ? noaeiai? aeaaee. I?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a aeueo i?aai?a
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a?aecia/aeanue i?inoioith iiaoaeiae ? oe?ioith
eiiiaoaioe??. Oaea nenoaia aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aoea iaea?eueo
iioeiaeueiith a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e,- “Aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueea ae?yeuei?noue Aaoueiaia oa
o?yaeo Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae” ioiieth? aeaa i?ae?icae?ee.

I??i?eoaoe oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
i?iaieiooaaeenue a a?aiioao, aeaeea?aoe?yo, o?yaeiaeo caa?iaiiyo,
?ioa?a’th a caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeueo iinaaeiaeo in?a. Aei ieo
iaeaaeaee: ?icaoaeiaa an?o ?inoeooo?a aea?aeaaiino?, i?aeiyooy ia
iaeaaeiee ??aaiue aaoi?eoaoo aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, i?eaaaeaiiy a iaeaaeiee
noai a?iiaaenueeiai ii?yaeeo ? aeio?eiaiiy i?eioeei?a caeiiiino?,
ae??oaiiy aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy, iie?ioaiiy i?aaiaiai oa nioe?aeueiiai
noaoono an?o nioe?aeueieo a?oi.

Iaeiei c ia?oi/a?aiaeo oi?aae?inueeeo caoiae?a Aaoueiaia oa o?yaeo aoei
anoaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaieo ei?aeii?a Oe?a?ie. Oeae i?ioean ?ice?eaa?oueny
a ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e?,- “Oa?eoi??y th?enaeeeoe?? i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy aaoueiaiaoo”. Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith aaoueiainueeiai ia??iaeo
aoei oa, ui Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa aaaaeaeany oeaio?ii, aei yeiai oyae?ee
oa?eoi??? noi?aeieo aea?aeaa, iniaeeai o?, a yeeo ia?aaaaeaei
oe?a?inueea ianaeaiiy. A ?acoeueoao? oi?aae?inueei? aeyeueiino? aoei
?aoi?iiaaii aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiee iiae?e Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae, yeee aeeth/aa a naaa 14 aoaa?i?e oa 120 iia?o?a. A
aeena?oaoe?? iiaea?oueny iiaiee ?o ia?ae?e ?c aeac?aeith ia e?euee?noue
aieinoae a eiaeiiio iia?o?.

A ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e?,- “Oi?ie, iaoiaee oa iniiai? iai?yie
oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a oeaio?aeueiiai oa i?noeaaiai
oi?aae?iiy” aiae?cothoueny oa aeine?aeaeothoueny oi?ie, oa iaoiaee
oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Oeaio?aeuei? i?aaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aaoueiaiaoo canoiniaoaaee
an? iniiai? oi?ie oi?aae?iiy: i?aai?caoe?eio ?iaioo, anoaiiaeaiiy ii?i
i?aaa ? ?o canoinoaaiiy. Oa?aeoa?iei aeey ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a aaoueiaiaoo
aoei ii?aeiaiiy a ieo ?en caeiio ? i?aecaeiiiiai aeoo. Iacaaaeath/e ia
a?aenooi?noue eaaaeueiiai caeiiiaeaa/iai i?aaio, a i?aeoeoe?
ii?iioai?/ino? caeiie canoiniaoaaeenue aeineoue /anoi. Aiae?c
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae aea? i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue caeii?a aoea eieaa?aeueiei oi?aae?inueeei
??oaiiyi (ca ?i?oe?aoeaith Aaoueiaia), yea iaae?aei aeieoiaioaeueii?
oi?ie.

Iaei??th c oa?aeoa?enoee nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? iaoiaee
oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?. Aaoueiainueea aaei?i?no?aoe?y a nai?e
ae?yeueiino? aeei?enoiaoaaea an? iniiai? iaoiaee oi?aae?iiy (i?aaiaa
?aaoethaaiiy, aeaaeia aae?iiy, anoaiiaeaiiy caai?ii, canoinoaaiiy
i?eioniaeo caoiae?a).

A ?iaio? i?iaiae?ciaaii i?aaiaee noaoon a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae
oa ?iicaioe?a. Iaiaaath/enue noaa?e?coaaoe iie?oe/io oa nioe?aeueio
neooaoe?th a e?a?i?, Aaoueiai oa o?yae a i?ioean? oi?aae?inueei?
ae?yeueiino? ia??aeei ii?oooaaee i?aaa ethaeeie. Iaea?eueoiai iioe?aiiy
iaaoei ii?ooaiiy iie?oe/ieo i?aa (naiaiaea neiaa, ia’?aeiaiue, cai??a,
i?oeia?a), iniaenoeo (iaaeioi?eai?noue iniae oa aeeoea, naiaiaea
ia?anoaaiiy) oa aeiiii?/ieo (i?aai ia i?aoeth, no?aeee) i?aa.

A aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeth?oueny i?aeoe/ia cae?eniaiiy oeaico?e
ae?oeiaaieo cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, iaiaaeaiiy ae?yeueiino?
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e.

Aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui i?iaieioai? Aaoueiaiii
I.Nei?iiaaenueeei i??i?eoaoi? iai?yie oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?
aeaaaee iiaeeea?noue aeeiiaoe iaeia ?c iniiaieo caaaeaiue ia?ao?aeiiai
ia??iaeo — i?aeaiooaaoe e?a?io aei aeai??a aeuiai i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai
i?aaio — Onoaiia/eo Cai??a, ye? iaee aecia/eoe iaeaooith oi?io
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Iaeiae, iaaei??ia, a ia??aeei ? iaaei?aaaeaii
aei?noiea canoinoaaiiy i?eioniaeo caoiae?a, ni?eyei aeoea?caoe??
aeanoaa?e?coth/eo oaeoi??a. Ae?aiao?aeueia i?ioeeaaei?nue ?ioa?an?a
??cieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi i?ecaiaeeea aei oiai, ui a?aaoethaaiiy oa
a?aeiinia noaa?e?caoe?y iaei??? noa?e noni?eueieo a?aeiinei aeeeeeaea
aeanoaa?e?caoe?th a ?io?e.

AENIIAEE

1. Anoaiiaeaiiy aaoueiaiaoo a ea?oi? 1918 ?ieo aoei ia’?eoeaii
iaiao?aeiei aoaiii i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. ?icaoaeiaa oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? ia
aeaiie?aoe/ieo i?eioeeiao caciaea ii?acee, aiane?aeie /iai
aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inuee? a?aeiineie ia?aaoaaee a noai? e?ece ? aeiaaaee
i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ia aaoi?eoa?ieo canaaeao.

2. No?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee ??aaiue nenoaie oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, yeee oa?aeoa?ecoaaany aeii?ioaaiiyi Aaoueiaia,
aoa iioeiaeueiei aa??aioii i?aai?caoe?? aia?aoo aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
a oiai/anieo eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo oiiaao. A 1918 ?ioe? noai?aiiy
eaa?oeiiiai eieaa?aeueiiai i?aaio aea?aeaaii? aeaaee aeiaaaei iaaiiai
i?aeaioia/iai ia??iaeo, i?ae /an yeiai ooieoe?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
aeioe?eueii aoei iieeanoe ia i?aai aea?aeaae a iaei?e inia?.

3. Aaoueiai Iaaei Nei?iiaaenueeee aieiae?a aaaaoueia ae?eiaeie,
iie?oe/ieie oa iniaenoeie yeinoyie, iaiao?aeieie aeey aeaae aea?aeaae.
A?i iaa aeanio i?ia?aio aea?aeaaiiai oa iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie,
aea aieea ??ciiiai?oieo ciai?oi?o oa aioo??oi?o oaeoi??a i?eaiaeea aei
ianoaa?eueiino? eiai iie?oe/ieo iiaeyae?a, ui, ia??aeei, aeeeeeaei
iaaaoeai? iane?aeee aeey nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ? aea?aeaae aoe?eiio.

4. Iniiaieie iaaeie?eaie a nenoai? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
aaoueiainueei? aea?aeaae aoee ia?icaeioo?noue ?inoeoooo aea?aeaaii?
neoaeae oa iecueea aoaeoeai?noue ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a i?noeaaiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, ui i?iyaeeinue o iani?iiiaeiino? eiio?iethaaoe
neooaoe?th a ?aa?iiao.

5. Iaoiaee oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? Aaoueiaia oa o?yaeo aecia/aeenue
oei, ui Oe?a?ia ia?aaoaaea a oiiaao iaaecae/aeiiai noaio. O ca’yceo c
oeei, i??i?eoao iaaeaaaany caoiaeai i?eioniaiai oa?aeoa?o, ye? a
cia/i?e i??? ii?oooaaee i?aaa ethaeeie, ui i?ecaiaeeei aei aeenaaeaino
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie.

6. Ni?iae neiioeaio?oaaoe iniiai? iai?yie oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?
ia ?icaoaeia? an?o iaiao?aeieo ?inoeooo?a aea?aeaae oa noaa?e?caoe??
iie?oeei-nioe?aeueii? neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i? aeyaeeenue iaaoaeoeaieie.
Ae?aiao?aeueia i?ioeeaaei?noue ?ioa?an?a ??cieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi
i?eaiaeeea aei oiai, ui a?aeiinia noaa?e?caoe?y a iaei?e aaeoc?
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei aeeeeeaea aeanoaa?e?caoe?th a ?io?e.

7. Aeey oni?oiiai cae?eniaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i? ia
no/aiiio aoai? iaiao?aeii aeaoaeiaoaaoe no?oeoo?o oeaio?aeueieo ?
i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a?aeiia?aeii aei
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ii? neooaoe??, a?aoiaoth/e iie?oe/i?, aeiiii?/i? oa
nioe?aeuei? oaeoi?e; aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iaaeaaaoe ?icaeoeo oa
aaeineiiaeaiith ?inoeoooo aea?aeaaii? neoaeae, eiai i?aaiaei oa
i?aai?caoe?eiei aniaeoai; aeioe?eueii cai?iaaaeeoe eiio?aneaiaoe?th
iinoaiiae Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a. I?aaiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a i?ioean?
?o ae?yeueiino? iaiao?aeii iaeneiaeueii a?aoiaoaaoe i?aaa oa caeiii?
?ioa?ane ie?aieo a?iiaaeyi oa nioe?aeueieo a?oi.

8. A aea?aeaa? cia/ia oaaaa iiaeiia i?eae?eyoeny iiia?aaeaeaiith
eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e ??cieo ??ai?a. Ia?aeaeueii c ?ic?iaeith oai???
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a cae/aeieo oiiaao iaiao?aeii i?iaeiaaeoaaoe
?ic?iaeo eiioeaioe?? oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaith a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao oa
i?iaiaeeoe ?iaioo ii aaeineiiaeaiith oa ?icoe?aiith i?aaiai?,
i?aai?caoe?eii?, iaoa??aeueii? oa eaae?iai? aac aeey oi?aae?iiy a oiiaao
iaaecae/aeiiai noaio.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??:

1. ss?aiaiei I.?. Aaei?i?no?aoeaia ?aoi?ia Aaoueiaia Iaaea
Nei?iiaaenueeiai.- A?iieoey: Eiioeiaio-I?ei, 1998.- 40n.

2. ss?aiaiei I.?.Nenoaia oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae (ea?oaiue-a?oaeaiue 1918?.)// A?niee OAAeO.-
1998.- ?4.- N.40-47.

3. ss?aiaiei I.?.Aea?aeaaia aeaaea a oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo:
a?o/eciyiee aeina?ae 1918-1920 ??.// I?aeoaeno.- 1998.- ?51/52
(121/122). N.32-35.

4. ss?aiaiei I.?.Iie?oeea Aaoueiaia Iaaea Nei?iiaaenueeiai a aaeoc?
aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa // Iaoeia? caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? A.Aiaothea. Aei VII.
Na??y: ?noi??y: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue./ Ca ?aae. i?io.
I.I.Aeaen??aoey.- Oa?iii?eue, 1998.- N.74-78.

5. A?eai?/oe I.N., ss?aiaiei I.?., Iiae?eey a ia??iae aaoueiaiaoo:
aeaye? aniaeoe iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo // Iiae?eey ? Aieeiue a eiioaeno?
?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy: Iaoeiaee ca??iee.-
Eai`yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee: Aeiey, 1995.- N.60-67.

6. ss?aiaiei I.?. I?aaiaee noaoon iniae a Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa?
Aaoueiaia I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai // I?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie ? neeaaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?: ?noi??y oa no/ani?noue. Oace aeiiia?aeae
Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??.- Iaeana, 1994.-
N.130-132.

7. ss?aiaiei I.?. I?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie a ia??iae aaoueiaiaoo:
ea?oaiue-a?oaeaiue 1918?.// Iaean?-200. Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??.- Iaeana, 1994.- N. 67-71.

8. ss?aiaiei I.?. Oeaico?ia ni?aaa a Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? Aaoueiaia
Iaaea Nei?iiaaenueeiai // Oe?a?inueea ia??iaeeea: ?noi??y oa
no/ani?noue. Aeiiia?ae? oa iia?aeiieaiiy Anaoe?a?inueei?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eioa?aioe??.- AEeoiie?-Euea?a, 1995.- N.38-39.

Aiioaoe?y

ss?aiaiei I.?. Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy a Oe?a?i? a ia??iae aaoueiaiaoo
(ea?oaiue-a?oaeaiue 1918?.).- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 25.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.- Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, Ee?a,1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? aiae?cothoueny aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inuee? i?ioeane a
Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? Aaoueiaia Iaaea Nei?iiaaenueeiai. Nie?ath/enue ia
oe?ieo aeaea?aeueio aaco, aecia/aii ??aaiue eaa?oeiiino? aeaaee
Aaoueiaia, ?ice?eoi eiai i?aaiaee noaoon, i?noea oa ?ieue a nenoai?
i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. Aeine?aeaeaii no?oeoo?o oa
eiiiaoaioe?th oeaio?aeueieo oa i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii ?inoeooo aea?aeaaii? neoaeae Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae.

A ?iaio? aena?oeaii i??i?eoaoi? iai?yie oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?
aaoueiainueei? aaei?i?no?aoe??. Iaeiei ?c ia?oi/a?aiaeo oi?aae?inueeeo
caoiae?a aoee — aecia/aiiy oa?eoi???, ia yeo iioe?thaaeeny ??oaiiy
i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? anoaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaieo ei?aeii?a.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?ice?eoi oi?ie oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?, iniiaieie c
yeeo aoee i?aai?caoe?eia ?iaioa, anoaiiaeaiiy ii?i i?aaa oa ?o
canoinoaaiiy. Aena?oeaii iaoiaee oi?aae?iiy, ye? canoiniaoaaee
oeaio?aeuei? oa i?noeaa? i?aaie Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae: i?aaiaa
?aaoethaaiiy, aeaaeia aae?iiy, anoaiiaeaiiy caai?ii, canoinoaaiiy
i?eioniaeo caoiae?a. Aeine?aeaeaii i?aeoe/ia cae?eniaiiy aea?aeaaieie
i?aaiaie oeaico?ii? ni?aae, i?iaiae?ciaaii i?aaiaee noaoon a?iiaaeyi
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae oa ?iicaioe?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Aaoueiai Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, nenoaia aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy, eaa?oeii?noue, aaoueiaiao, i?aai aea?aeaae,
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaee aeo, iinaaeiaa iniaa, aea?aeaaiee neoaeaiaaoeue,
iaoiaee oi?aae?iiy.

Aiiioaoeey

ss?aiaiei A.E. Ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea a Oe?aeia a ia?eiae
aaoueiaiaoa (ai?aeue-aeaeaa?ue 1918a.).- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 25.00.01 – oai?ey e
enoi?ey ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey.– Oe?aeineay Aeaaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey i?e I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999. A
?aaioa inouanoaeai eiiieaeniue aiaeec ainoaea?noaaiii-oi?aaeai/aneeo
ioiioaiee a Oe?aeia a ia?eiae aaoueiainoaa I.Nei?iiaaeneiai. Aeaia
ioeaiea ninoiyieth nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey a Oe?aeia a
ia/aea 1918 aiaea e ii?aaeaeai o?iaaiue eaaeoeiiinoe aeanoe Aaoueiaia
I.Nei?iiaaeneiai.

Ia iniiaa no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiiai aiaeeca e nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea
?ane?uoi i?aaiecaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey e eiiiaoaioeeth
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia. Aeaaiie iniaaiiinoth nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey Oe?aeiu a enneaaeoaiue ia?eiae auei aeiieie?iaaiea i?aaia
ainoaea?noaa a iaeiii eeoea – Aaoueiaia iaae ae?oaeie i?aaiecaoeeyie.
Aaoueiai, eae e i?aceaeaiou iiiaeo nia?aiaiiuo aeaiie?aoe/aneeo
ainoaea?noa, caieiae o?e aeieaeiinoe: aeaau ainoaea?noaa, aeaau
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe e aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaai aii?oaeaiiuie neeaie. A oi
aea a?aiy aai iieiiii/ey ioiineeenue e caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe (i?aai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie eieoeeaoeau, naieoeeiie?iaaiea caeiiia) e noaeaaiie
(iacia/aiee noaeae, i?aai aiienoee e iiieeiaaiey).

Aaeieieno?aoeey Aaoueiaia ninoiyea ec o?ao no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee:
ooaaa, aeaaiie eaa?oe?u e eaioeaey?ee. I?aaiaie noaoon yoeo i?aaiecaoeee
ii?aaeaeyeny iiaecaeiiiuie ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie.

A aeenna?oaoeee aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea I.Nei?iiaaeneiai eae aeaau
ainoaea?noaa e iieeoe/aneiai eeaea?a, enneaaeiaaia aai aiaiiay e
iieeoe/aneay ea?ua?a.

Aunoei i?aaiii caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe aue Niaao
Ieieno?ia. E aai eiiiaoaioeee ioiineeinue i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee e iaiin?aaenoaaiiia inouanoaeaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey. Niaao Ieieno?ia ninoiye ec 12 ieienoa?noa:
aioo?aiieo aeae, oeiainia, oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe, o?oaea, ia?iaeiiai
ia?aciaaiey, ia?iaeiiai caei?iauey, iooae niiauaiey, thnoeoeee, iai?iiu,
caiaeueiuo aeae, aa?ieniiaaaeaiee, eiino?aiiuo aeae. Aeey i?aaiecaoeee
?aaiou Niaaoa Ieieno?ia auei ia?aciaaii aeaa iiae?acaeaeaiey:
Oi?aaeaiea aeaeaie e Ainoaea?noaaiiay eaioeaey?ey.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea ia ianoao inouanoaeyee aoaa?ineea e oacaeiua
noa?inou. Eo ooieoeee ninoiyee a iiaeaea?aeaiee i?aaiii?yaeea,
iciaeiieaiee ianaeaiey n ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie Niaaoa Ieieno?ia, eiio?ieue
ca eniieiaieai ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia, eioi?ie?iaaiea aunoeo i?aaiia
oi?aaeaiey i neooaoeee ia ianoao.

Iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe oeaio?aeueiuo e
ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe auee: noaiiaeaiea anao iaiaoiaeeiuo einoeoooia
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, noaaeeecaoeey iieeoe/aneie neooaoeee, ai?ueaa n
i?anooiiinoueth. Aeey aeinoeaeaiey yoeo oeaeae aaoueiaineay
aaeieieno?aoeey aeoeaii i?eiaiyea ia?u i?eioaeeoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a. A
?aaioa ?ane?uoi i?aeoe/aneia inouanoaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie
(Oi?aaeaieai ia/aoe) oeaico?u ia?eiaee/aneeo ecaeaiee, ia?u,
iai?aaeaiiua ia ia?aie/aiea naiaiaeu aeayoaeueiinoe iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee
e iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?iaiaeece?iaai i?aaiaie noaoon a?aaeaeai Oe?aeineiai
ainoaea?noaa e eiino?aioeaa a oaeaea i?eioeeiu acaeiiioieoaiee
oece/aneeo eeoe n ainoaea?noaii e i?aaiaie oi?aaeaiey. Iieacaii, /oi a
i?ioeanna inouanoaaeaiey oi?aaeaiey ia?ooaeenue i?aaa /aeiaaea
(iieeoe/aneea, ee/iua, yeiiiie/aneea). I?eaiaeyony noaoenoe/aneea
aeaiiua i eiee/anoaa a?anoiaaiiuo i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuie i?aaiaie
a?aaeaeai n iay ii aeaeaa?ue 1918 aiaea. *anoi a?anou i?iecaiaeeeenue
aac aeinoaoi/iuo ia oi iniiaaiee.

Aaoueiaineay aaeieieno?aoeey aeinoeaea cia/eoaeueiuo oniaoia a iaeanoe
oi?aaeaiey ia?aciaaieai, eoeueoo?ie, iaoeie.

Aeeaiao?aeueiay i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue eioa?ania ?acee/iuo nioeeaeueiuo
a?oii i?eaiaeeea e oiio, /oi ioiineoaeueiay noaaeeecaoeey a iaeiie noa?a
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee noaaaea i?e/eiie aeanoaaeeecaoeee a ae?oaie.

Oceay nioeeaeueiay aaca aaoueiaineie aeanoe, iaee/ea aeanoaaeeece?othueo
oaeoi?ia, aii?oaeaiiay ai?ueaa iiiiceoeee i?eaaee e eeeaeaeaoeee
iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu aaoueiaiaoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Aaoueiai Oe?aeineiai ainoaea?noaa, nenoaia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey, eaaeoeiiinoue, i?aai ainoaea?noaa,
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaie aeo, aeieaeiinoiia eeoei, ainoaea?noaaiiue
neoaeauee, iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey.

Summary

Yaremenko I.I. State Management in Ukraine during the hetamanate
(April-December, 1918). The manuscript.

Dissertation for a Candidate’s degree in State Management on speciality
25.00.01 – the theory and history of State Management.- The Ukrainian
Academy of State Management at the cabinet of President of Ukraine,
Kyiv, 1999.

In this dissertation are analysed state management processes in the
Ukrainian state during the government of the Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky.
Relying upon a wide range of sources, the level of the ligimacy of the
Hetman’s power was defined, his lawful status, the place and role in the
system of the organs of state government was revealed. Th0e structure
and competence of the central and local organs of state government were
investigated, and the institution of state service of the Ukrainian
state was described.

In the dissertation the forms of management activity are revealed, the
main of which were organization work, the establishment of legal
requlation and ther usage.

The methods of management are explored, which were applied by the
central and local governmental organs of the Ukrainian state: law
requlation, the establishment of different kinds of interdictions and
the application of the forced measures. The practical implementation of
censorship was investigated, the lawful status of the citizens of
Ukraine and foreigness was analized.

In this work the major directions of the management activity of the
Hetman’s administration were explored. One of the foremost state
measures was to determine the territory, on which the jurisdiction of
the organs of state government spreaded, and to set the frontiers.

Key-words: Hetman of the Urkainian state, system of state management,
ligimacy, hetmanate, organ of government, laws and decrees, an official,
state employee, methods of management.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 18.03.99?. Oi?iao 60o90/16

Oi.ae?oe.a?e. 1,0. Iae.-aeae. a?e. 0,8.

Iaeeaae 100. Caiiaeaiiy ?98.

?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/ee a?aeae?e AAeIO.

i.A?iieoey, aoe. Ino?icueeiai, 32.

Похожие записи