Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa

?i. I.N.A?ooaanueeiai

Oa?aoei TH??e Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE — 930.9.943.7.086.

Aeaiie?aoe/iee ?oo o *aoineiaa//ei? 1945-1968 ??.

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.02 — Anana?oiy ?noi??y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii o ??aiainueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aoiai?oa?iiio oi?aa?neoao?
ia eaoaae?? ?noi???.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Iinoieianueeee
?oneai Ieoaeeiae/, ?aeoi? ??aiainueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aoiai?oa?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?aeiyinueeee
Noaiai Aaneeueiae/, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo anana?oiuei? ?noi??? ?
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie;

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Iio?oe Na?oeaia Ieeiea?aia, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e ?noi??? neia’yi Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: *a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
?i.TH.Oaaeueeiae/a, eaoaae?a ?noi??? iiaiai oa iia?oiueiai /ano.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 30 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo ia 11 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.228.01 a ?inoeooo? oe?a?inueei?
a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I.N.A?ooaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: 252001, i.Ee?a-1, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I.N.A?ooaanueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 30 na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Aa?aa ?.A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?aaiethoe?ei? ci?ie o e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?
No?aeii? ?a?iie, ye? a?aeaoeenue o 1989 — 1991 ??., ia eeoa i?aeaeee
i?aenoiie ?nioaaiiy oioae?oa?ieo ?aaeei?a ia ?a?iiaenueeiio eiioeiaio?,
iniiaith ooieoe?iioaaiiy yeeo aoea iiiiiie?y eiioi?noe/ieo ia?o?e ia
aeaaeo, aea e a?aee?eee ia?aae ?noi?eeaie iia? ia?niaeoeae, iinoaaeee
iia? caaaeaiiy.

?nioth/a o ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? ? *NN? io?oe?eia ?noi??ia?ao?y aeoeaii
aeei?enoiaoaaeanue ia eeoa o iaoeiaeo, aea e a ?aeaieia?/ieo oe?eyo aeey
iaa?oiooaaiiy iaaieo iie?oe/ieo aeieo?ei.

Nueiaiaei? ae ia?aae oe?a?inueeith ?noi??ia?ao??th noi?oue aaaeeeaa
caaaeaiiy ?ice?eoe “a?e? ieyie” ia eeoa noa’?eoeaii aena?oethaaii?,
ca?aeaieia?ciaaii? aei 90-o ?ie?a iia?oiuei? ?noi??? oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino?, aea e aieth/? i?iaeaie ?noi??? iaoeo iaeaeeae/eo
e?a?i-non?ae?a, cie?aia *aoineiaa//eie.

I?iaeaia aeaiie?aoe/iiai, aioeoioae?oa?iiai ?ooo o *aoineiaa//ei?
1945-1968 ??. ? iaei??th c i??i?eoaoieo oai a cao?aei?e ?noi??ia?ao??
i?neyai?iiiai /ano, a i?ioyaii 90-o ?ie?a aeoeaii ?ic?iaey?oueny o
*ao??, Neiaa//ei?, ?in??. Iaoii?noue a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? aiia
eiiieaenii ia aena?oethaaeanue, a iioae?eiaai? noaoo? ? i?ae?o/ieee
oe?a?inueeeo ?noi?ee?a-neaa?no?a c ?noi??? e?a?i Oeaio?aeueii? ?
I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? ?a?iie OO noie?ooy eeoa o?aaiaioa?ii ? aea??eiai
?ice?eaathoue ie?ai? noi?iie ia?aii? aaoi?ii i?iaeaie.

Iie?oe/i? e?ece o *aoineiaa//ei? a ethoiio 1948 ? na?ii? 1968 ??.
ni?aaaaeeeai caeiathoue iaeia c oeaio?aeueieo i?noeue o aeena?oaoe?eiiio
aeine?aeaeaii?, ai naia oe? iiae?? aoee “yaeoeii ?ica?aoo” i?ae
io?oe?eiith ?aaeyinueeith oa /aoineiaaoeueeith ?noi??ia?ao??th ?
cao?aeieie oa iacaeaaeieie /anueeeie ? neiaaoeueeeie aeine?aeieeaie.
Naia iiae?? 1948, 1968 ??. iaee ae??oaeueiee aieea ia eeoa ia ?noi??th
*NN?, aea e Oeaio?aeueiiai ? I?aaeaiii-No?aeiiai ?a?iiaenueeeo ?aa?ii?a.
O oie aea /an ni?aaaei? ia?aaeoiiae oeeo aiioaeueieo /aoineiaaoeueeeo
iiae?e aei 90-o ?ie?a caeeoaeenue iica oaaaith io?oe?eii? ?aaeyinueei?
?noi??ia?ao?? aai aena?oethaaeenue iaeiia?/ii. Oiio ?yae o?aeooaaiue
io?oe?eiith /aoineiaaoeueeith ? ?aaeyinueeith ?noi??ia?ao??th iiae?e, ui
a?aeaoeeny a 40-60 ??. o Oeaio?aeuei?e ? No?aei?e ?a?ii?, noai?ththoue
oeaia oyaeaiiy i?i iia?oith ?noi??th ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i, cie?aia
*aoineiaa//eie.

Aeei?enoai? o ?iaio? aeaea?aea aeathoue ciiao ?icoe?eoe eiei aea/aiiy
i?iaeai ? oni?oii i?iaeiaaeeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaeeeaeo iiae?e
iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? *aoineiaa//eie 40-60-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee ?iaioe ioiieththoue ia??iae c 1945 ii 1968 ??., oiaoi
c /ano aecaieaiiy *aoineiaa//eie ?aaeyinueeith a?i??th ? ii/aoeo
ai?ioueae ca i?neyai?iiee aeaiie?aoe/iee ono??e, yea caaa?oeeany
ii?aceith aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee a ?acoeueoao? ethoiaaiai ia?aai?ioo EI*
1948 ?., e?ea?aeaoe??th i?aai?ciaaii? iiiceoe?? eiioi?noe/iiio ?aaeeio e
ooaa?aeaeaiiy a *NN? oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie ?aaeyinueeiai c?acea, aei
iiai? ni?iae aeaiie?aoecaoe?? /aoineiaaoeueei? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie i?ae
/an “I?acueei? aanie” 1968 ?., yea oaae caciaea e?aoo aiane?aeie
aaaaeaiiy a e?a?io a?enuee IAAe a na?ii? 1968 ?.

Ia’?eoii aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeaiie?aoe/iee ?oo o *aoineiaa//ei? a
ia??iae c 1945 ii 1968 ??., i?ae yeei aaoi? ?icoi?? ??ciiiai?oi? oi?ie e
i?iyae ai?ioueae aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee e?a?ie i?ioe noaiiaeaiiy (1945-1948
??.) e ci?oeiaiiy (1948-1967 ??.) oioae?oa?ii-eiioi?noe/iiai ?aaeeio
?aaeyinueeiai c?acea ? ??oo/o ni?iao eiai aeaiie?aoe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
a oiae? “I?acueei? aanie” 1968 ?.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaa i?ioean aeaiie?aoe/ieo ciaaaiue, ye?
i?aai?/ii ii?aeioaaee aoiai?noe/i? o?aaeeoe?? iana?ee?anueeiai
aoiai?cio, cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai ao?aeoaciiai e?aa?ae?cio oa
nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?? ? ia?enecio-eai?i?cio (?aaeyinueeiai a?eueoiaecio).

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaenoaaeaia aei caoenoo aeena?oaoe?y ia? ia iao?,
aeoiaey/e c aeinooiieo aeieoiaioaeueieo aeaea?ae oa ia??iaeeee, iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ioae?oeenoe/ieo i?aoeue, oeyoii ia’?eoeaiiai aiae?co
aeaoe ocaaaeueiaio ea?oeio ?icai?oaiiy /aoineiaaoeueeiai aeaiie?aoe/iiai
?ooo a ia??iae c 1945 ii 1968 ??., aeyaeoe iniiai? eiai iai?yiee oa
oi?ie, aecia/eoe ? aeine?aeeoe niaoeeo?/i? i?e/eie oi?ioaaiiy, aoaie
?icaeoeo ? e?ece.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aaoi? noaaeoue ia?aae niaith oae? iniiai?
caaaeaiiy:

— i?inoaaeeoe i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ? aieea na?aae noni?euenoaa ?aeae oa
i?ia?ai ??ciiiai?oieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e o
?aieao ?aeeiiai Iaoe?iiaeueiiai o?iioo, ?ieue ie?aieo iie?oe/ieo ?
a?iiaaenueeeo e?aea??a, ea??aiee?a aea?aeaae a ?noi??? aeaiie?aoe/iiai
?ooo o *aoineiaa//ei? 40-60-o ?ie?a;

— c’ynoaaoe i?e/eie ? caeiiii??iino? noaiiaeaiiy, ?icaeoeo ? e?ece
eiioeaioe?e “niaoeeo?/iiai /aoineiaaoeueeiai oeyoo aei nioe?ae?cio”,
“iana?ee?anueeiai iicaeeaniaiai noni?euenoaa”, “iinoo i?ae Noiaeii ?
Caoiaeii”, “?ioaeaeooaeueiiai oeaio?o ?a?iie”, “nioe?ae?cio c
ethaenueeei iaee//yi”;

— c?iaeoe ia’?eoeaiee aiae?c ethoiaai? iie?oe/ii? e?ece 1948 ?ieo, ??
ia?aaeoiia ? iane?aee?a oa aeaoe e?eoe/iee aiae?c iiaeyae?a
aeine?aeiee?a ia oeth i?iaeaio;

— c’ynoaaoe ?aaeueio ea?oeio o?ainoi?iaoe?? /aoineiaaoeueei? iiai?iii?
iie?oe/ii? nenoaie o ?aaeyinueeo oioae?oa?io nenoaio, aena?oeeoe o.c.
i?ioean “?aaeyi?caoe??” iie?oe/iiai ? noni?eueiiai aeeooy e?a?ie, a
oaeiae eiai iane?aeee o iie?oe/i?e, aeooiai?e oa aeiiii?/i?e noa?ao;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe i?ioean ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ?aoi?iaoi?nueeiai
aioeoioae?oa?iiai ?ooo o *aoineiaa//ei? o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 60-o ??.,
?ice?eoe ?ieue ?ioae?aaioe?? ? ?aoi?iaoi?nueeiai e?eea EI* o ai?iouea? c
iainoae?i?ciii ? oioae?oa?iei ?aaeeiii A. Iiaioiiai;

— aecia/eoe oa?aeoa? ? ?icaeoie aeaiie?aoe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue o iie?oe/i?e
nenoai? ? a?iiaaeyinueeiio noni?euenoa? o ia??iae “I?acueei? aanie”,
aeyaeoe caeiiii??iino? ? i?e/eie ?aoi?iaoi?nueeiai ?ooo ca “nioe?ae?ci c
ethaenueeei iaee//yi”, iieacaoe ??ciiiai?oi?noue ioe?iie iiae?e 1968
?ieo a ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaie.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeyoue caaaeueiiiaoeia?
i?eioeeie ia’?eoea?cio oa ?noi?ecio. O aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoai?
ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee, i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee, ooieoe?iiaeuei?
iaoiaee oa iaoiae ia??iaeecaoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny iinoaiiaeith naii? oaie
aeena?oaoe?? “Aeaiie?aoe/iee ?oo o *aoineiaa//ei? 1945-1968 ??.” Aeaia
iaoeiaa ?iaioa ? ia?oei a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ocaaaeueiaiei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeacaii? i?iaeaie iia?oiuei? ?noi??? *aoineiaa//eie,
ine?eueee aein? ia aeena?oaoe?eiiio ??ai? ia i?iaiaeeany eiiieaeniee ?
niaoe?aeueiee nenoaiiee aiae?c oa ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea oe???
oaiaoeee. E??i oiai, aeine?aeaeaiiy i?noeoue aaeeeee ianya oaeoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo, yeee aeicaiey? noi?ioaaoe iia? ? ia?aaeyiooe canoa??e?
iioe?ai? oyaeaiiy i?i nooi?noue ? cia/aiiy aeaiie?aoe/iiai oa
aioeoioae?oa?iiai ?oo?a o *aoineiaa//ei? 40-60-o ??. OO noie?ooy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. C?iaeai? o
aeena?oaoe?? aeniiaee, iaaaaeai? iieiaeaiiy, oaeoe iiaeia aeei?enoaoe
i?e i?aeaioiaoe? caaaeueieo ? niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a c anana?oiuei?
(iia?oiuei?) ?noi???, ?noi??? cao?aeieo oa no?aeieo neia’yi OO noie?ooy,
a oaeiae ye ?noi?e/iee iaoa??ae aeey ?ic?iaee eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a c
iie?oieia??, ?noi??? iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue, ?noi??? aeeieiiao??
oa i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, ?ioeo noi?aeieo i?aaeiao?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
ni?eyoeia ia’?eoeaiiio aena?oeaiith i?iaeai iia?oiuei? ?noi??? a oe?eiio
? iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? *aoineiaa//eie 40-60-o ??., cie?aia, aeiiiiiaea
aeeeaaea/ai aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe ? a/eoaeyi oe?e a?eueo aeeaiei ?
ia’?eoeaii iiaeaoe nooaeaioai ? o/iyi iie?oe/i? i?iaeaie iia?oiuei?
?noi???.

Aeei?enoai? aeaea?aea oa e?oa?aoo?a, naia aeena?oaoe?y aeiiiiiaeooue
?icoe?eoe iaoeiao aaco oe?a?inueei? neaa?noeee, ia yeo iiaeooue
nie?aoenue a?o/eciyi? ?noi?eee-aeine?aeieee, ani??aioe, nooaeaioe,
iie?oieiae o iiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo i?iaeai ?noi???
*aoineiaa//eie OO noie?ooy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeeeaaeai? aaoi?ii o aeiiia?aeyo oa iia?aeiieaiiyo ia ainueie
i?aeia?iaeieo oa anaoe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo, cie?aia, ia
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?aai?caoe?y Oe?a?inueeeo
Iaoe?iiae?no?a ? OIA o ai?iouea? c iaoeeciii oa ?iia??ae?ciii”
(?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1995), i?aeaoc?anuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy: oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaeyaeo ?
aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae o nooaeaionueei? iieiae?” (??aia, 1996),
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aieeinueea Iie?nny a
eiioaeno? neia’yinueei? eoeueoo?e” (??aia, 1997), IV I?aeia?iaei?e
aoiia?ao?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo o/aieo “Aoi?/ia ?noi??y ia?iae?a
?a?iie” (Ee?a, 1999).

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? a 11 noaooyo o
ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, oacao iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e. Iaoa??aee ?
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo
eaoaae?e anana?oiuei? ?noi???, iie?oieia?? ?AeI? oa eaoaae?e ?noi???
?AeAO, yeith aeena?oaoe?y ?aeiiaiaeiaaia aei caoenoo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. O ?iaio? aeei?enoaii i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee
i?eioeei. Aiia neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a,
nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa aeiaeaoea. Caaaeueiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy — 208 noi?., nienie aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 393 iaeiaioaaiiy. O i?aoe? aeei?enoai?
aeaea?aea oa e?oa?aoo?a, iaienai? oe?a?inueeith, ?in?enueeith,
/anueeith, neiaaoeueeith, aiae?enueeith, i?iaoeueeith, o?aioeocueeith
iiaaie.

O anooi? aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/aii
o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, iaoo, iniiai? caaaeaiiy, ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao, aeacaii
ia iaoeiao iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiao iiaecio e
i?aeoe/io cia/ou?noue ?iaioe, a oaeiae aeeeaaeai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy,
ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a, ai?iaaoe?th
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e oa aeaea?ae” c?iaeaii aiae?c
iaoeiai?, iaioa?ii? oa ioae?oeenoe/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, aeaea?ae c
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, ei?ioei ioa?aeoa?eciaaii noai iaoeiai?
?ic?iaee. O nai?e ?iaio? aaoi? aeaoaeueii coieiy?oueny ia aeooaeueieo
i?iaeaiao aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo o *aoineiaa//ei? 1945-1968 ??.,
aeei?enoiaoth/e i?aoe? eieeoiuei? io?oe?eii? oa iacaeaaeii?
(ai?a?aionueei?) /aoineiaaoeueei? ? iei?oiuei? /anueei? oa neiaaoeueei?
?noi??ia?ao??, yea ua iaei a?aeiia a Oe?a?i?. Cia/ia oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny aiae?co aiaei-aia?eeainuee?e ?noi?e/i?e e?oa?aoo??.
Aeei?enoaii i?aoe? ? i?aaenoaaiee?a ?aaeyinueei? ?noi??ia?ao??, ye?
oaeiae i?eae?eyee iaaio oaaao aeine?aeaeaiith aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo o
*aoineiaa//ei?, aea caeaa?eueoiai ia??iaeo 1945-1948 ??. Ia?aaaaeii oey
i?iaeaia ?icaeyaeaeany nooi c eeaniaeo ? ia?o?eieo iiceoe?e, a iiae??
iicaaaeyeenue ia’?eoeaieo iaoeiaeo ioe?iie.

??cei ci?ieeanue neooaoe?y o 1990-1991 ??. A ?in?? c’yaeeeny iaoeia?
noaoo?, iiiia?ao?? ?c oe?ieei aeei?enoaiiyi ca?oa?aeieo oa a?o/eciyieo
a?o?a?a, ye? ii-iiaiio ioe?ithaaee iie?oe/io ?noi??th *aoineiaa//eie
40-60-o ??.

Cia/iee iaoeiaee ?ioa?an aei i?iaeai aeaiie?aoecaoe?? /aoineiaaoeueeiai
noni?euenoaa i?neyai?iieo ?ie?a a inoaii?e /an i?iyaeythoue oe?a?inuee?
neaa?noe: c’yaeeenue ie?ai? i?aoe?, iaoeia? noaoo?, iin?aieee oa
eieaeoeai? ?iaioe. O 1994 ?. aia?oa a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??
c’yaeany i?ae?o/iee aeey aoc?a A.ss?iaiai, yeee aeineoue ia?aeiieeai
caia?a/o? iioe?ai? ioe?iee ? o?aeooaaiiy ?aaeyinueei? neaa?noeee.
Iaoia?aaeaeaii o?aeoothoueny iiae?? o *aoineiaa//ei? 40-60-o ??. o
iaa/aeueiiio iin?aieeo, i?aeaioiaeaiiio ?.Ioaa/ai, ?.Iinoieianueeei oa
?i.

Aeieoiaioaeueiei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi iiaeo iaoeiaeo iiaeyae?a oa?e?anueeeo
?noi?ee?a-neaa?no?a ia oaiiiai “I?acueei? aanie” ? ca??iee aeieoiaio?a o
aeaeyae? o?anoiiao?? aeey aoc?a, i?aeaioiaeaiee ?.Ioaa/ai oa
N.No?aoitheii, o yeiio aia?oa a Oe?a?i? ii?eethaeiththoueny oi?eaeuei?
aeieoiaioe oa na?ae/aiiy i/aaeaeoe?a iiae?e 1968 ?.: oaeno “2000 ne?a”,
“I?iaeo i?ia?aie ?I?”, /anoeiai “I?ia?aia ae?e EI*”, niiaaaee I.Aeoa/aea
oa ?i.

A oe?a?inuee?e neaa?noeoe? i?iaeaie /aoineiaaoeueei? aeaiie?ao?? OO no.
oa ?? aoiai?noe/i? o?aaeeoe?? aena?oeai? o i?aoeyo a?aeiieo oe?a?inueeeo
o/aieo N.A?aeiyinueeiai, ?.Iiia, ?.A?ai/aea, ?.Iinoieianueeiai,
N.Iio?oe, ?.Aiaeaie/a, ?.Nthnueea oa ?i. Aaeeeo e?euee?noue noaoae,
i?enay/aieo o?eaeoeyoe??//th o?aa?/ieo iiae?e o *aoineiaa//ei?,
iioae?eiaaii a oe?a?inuee?e ? ?in?enuee?e i?an? 20-21 na?iiy 1998 ?ieo.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?eae?eaii cia/io oaaao aiae?co aeine?aeaeaiue
/aoineiaaoeueeeo ? no/anieo /anueeeo ?noi?ee?a-neaa?no?a oa i/aaeaeoe?a
iiae?e, ye? iaiaeiicia/ii ioe?iththoue i?iaeaie, ii?ooai? a aeai?e
?iaio?. Oaea ?ica?aei?noue o iiaeyaeao coiiaeaia ia’?eoeaieie
?noi?e/ieie ia?aaeoiiaaie. O?ainoi?iaoe?y /aoineiaaoeueei? ia?iaeii?
aeaiie?ao?? o ?aaeyinueeee oei iie?oe/ii? nenoaie *NN? aeeeth/aea
iiaeeea?noue ?nioaaiiy ia’?eoeaieo ?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue c
iia?oiuei? ?noi??? *aoineiaa//eie, a ?noi??ia?ao?y aoea iinoaaeaia o
caeaaei?noue a?ae iie?oe/ieo aee?aeoea EI*. Iie?oe/i? ci?ie ethoiai 1948
?ieo i?ecaaee aei oaee? aeiooaii? iie?oe/ii? ai?a?aoe?? aaoi?eoaoieo
/aoineiaaoeueeeo iie?oee?a ? a/aieo, ye? naia ca ei?aeiiii aeaeaee ?yae
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue c iia?oiuei? ?noi??? *aoineiaa//eie.

Cie?aia, aaeeeo iaoeiao oe?ii?noue noaiiaeyoue iaioa?i? niiaaaee
i?ia?aeieo /anueeeo iie?oee?a-ai?a?aio?a I. O?a??aea — iaeiiai c
e?aea??a Ia?iaeii? ia?o??, I. Ae?o?ie — i?i?no?a thnoeoe?? o?yaeo E.
Aioaaeueaea 1946-1948 ??.

Iaei??th c ia?oeo ni?ia aeine?aeeoe iie?oe/i? i?ioeane o *aoineiaa//ei?
ia??iaeo 40-o ?ie?a noaea ?iaioa a?aeiiiai a/aiiai-ai?a?aioa E. Ei?aaea,
aiia eyaea a iniiao i?ci?oi? iiiia?ao??, yea iaiaeii?aciai
ia?aaeaeaaaeanue o Aaeeeia?eoai?? ? NOA. O oeeo ?iaioao c?iaeaii aiae?c
iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? iie?oe/ieo e?aea??a (A. Iiaioiiai, I. Aeoa/aea),
aeaa aea?aeaae, iniaeeai A. Aaiaoa oa o?yaeo E. Aioaaeueaea.

?noi?ee-ai?a?aio I. Iaeyio c?iaea aiae?c iioe?aiiy ? nioe?aeueiiai
aieeao nioe?ae?noe/ieo ? ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/ieo aeieo?ei o
*aoineiaa//ei? 40-o ?ie?a, ?icaeyioa ia?aaeaeai?i? i?ia?aie ?
ae?yeuei?noue on?o aieeaiaeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e. Iniaeeao oaaao caa?ioa
ia nooo?a? a?aei?iiino? i?ae oaeoeeith oa no?aoaa??th eiioi?noe/ieo ?
iaeiioi?noe/ieo ia?o?e *ao?? ? Neiaa//eie.

Io?oe?ei? /aoineiaaoeuee? ?noi?eee, ii/eiath/e c aa?aciy 1948 ?ieo, aoee
ciooai? a?aoiaoaaoe oi/eo ci?o ia?o?eiiai ea??aieoeoaa, ioe?ithth/e
iiae?? 1945-1948 ??. Iiaeaaaeaiiy a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy, ??cea e?eoeea
?nioth/i? iie?oe/ii? oa aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ia o?eueee c aieo
iacaeaaeieo o?einio?a ?.Na?oaea, E.Ein?ea, ienueiaiiee?a A.E?ia,
A.Aaaaea, A.Aieaeoothea?a oa i?aaenoaaiee?a aeui? ia?o?eii? iiiaieeaoo?e
C.Ieeia?aea, I.Oeea i?aeooiaoioee ?noi?ee?a aei ia’?eoeaiiai aiae?co
iie?oe/ieo i?iaeai iiai?iii? aeiae. Cie?aia, i?aoey ss.Iiaoa “I?i iiao
aeaiie?ao?th” niiioeaea aei iiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeaeaoiiai /anueeiai ?noi?eea, i?ia?aeiiai ciaaoey no/anii? iie?oe/ii?
?noi??? *aoineiaa//eie ia??iaeo 1945-1968 ??. Ea?aea Eaieaia.
I?aoethth/e o eii?n?? c ?aaa?e?oaoe??, a?i iaa aeinooi aei canae?a/aieo
a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, ye? i?ney i?eaeooaiiy “I?acueei? aanie” coi?a
aeaacoe o O?I ? aeei?enoaoe o nai?o i?aoeyo. Iioae?eiaai? o Cao?aei?e
?a?ii? iiiia?ao?? ? noaoo? i?eianee eiio na?oiaa aeciaiiy, a i?ney
ienaieoiai? ?aaiethoe?? noaee iniiaith no/anieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
o *ao??, Neiaa//ei? ? ca ?oaaaeai.

Aeaiie?aoe/iee ?oo o *aoineiaa//ei? ia??iaeo c aa?aciy 1948 ii /a?aaiue
1968 ?ieo iaaaaaoi iaioa aeine?aeaeaiee ye iacaeaaeiith, oae ?
io?oe?eiith /aoineiaaoeueeith ?noi??ia?ao??th. Iaei??th c iaea?eueo
aaaiieo i?aoeue ? iiiia?ao?y A.Eon?ia, a ye?e aaoi? a?oioiaii aena?oeea
aeoiee ? ?icaeoie oe?ieiai ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai aioeoioae?oa?iiai ?ooo,
cie?aia o o?einio??, ?noi?e/i?e iaooe?, th?eni?oaeaioe??, aeiiii?oe?,
oi/a aeineoue iiaa?oiai — i?aeiaoe?iiaeueio, nioe?aeueii-eeaniao
i?iaeaiaoeeo oa ieoaiiy iie?oe/ieo ?ai?an?e.

Naia oey i?iaeaia noaea iniiaiith oaiith iiiia?ao?e E.Eaieaia oa
?.Iae?eaia.

Oaia “I?acueei? aanie” nueiaiaei? caeeoa?oueny /e ia iaea?eueo
aeooaeueiith. Iioae?eiaaii aaeeeo e?euee?noue iaoeiaeo ? ioae?oeenoe/ieo
i?aoeue, ye? oiiaii iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia o?e a?oie. Aei ia?oi? iaeaaeeoue
io?oe?eia /aoineiaaoeueea ?noi??ia?ao?y ia??iaeo 1969-1989 ??.,
i?aaenoaaieee yei? iaiaaaeenue aeiaanoe, ui iniiaieie i?e/eiaie iiyae
aeieo?ei “nioe?ae?cio c ethaenueeei iaee//yi” aoea ae?yeuei?noue
ia?o?eieo iii?ooi?no?a oa ?aa?c?ii?no?a, ye? ae?yee ni?eueii ?c
cao?aeieie niaoeneoaeaaie. ssne?aaei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai ?,
iai?eeeaae, i?aoe? /aoineiaaoeueeeo ?noi?ee?a ia??iaeo “ii?iae?caoe??”
A.E?aea, ?.A?oce, A.Ieaace, a yeeo c ia?enenonueeeo iiceoe?e, a aeon?
??oaiue OeE EI* aena?oethaaeeny ieoaiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy
/aoineiaaoeueeiai noni?euenoaa iaia?aaeiaei?, i?ae /an oa i?ney
“e?eciaiai ?icaeoeo *NN? a 1968-1969 ??.” Oaei? aeoiee aeio?eioaaeenue
I.Ia?ei, I.Iaoioo, A.Aaeaea oa ?io? iaoeiaoe? oa ioae?oeenoe, ye? o
nai?o i?aoeyo iaiaaaeeny aeiaanoe /oaei??aei?noue ?aoi?iaoi?nueeeo
?aeae I. Oeea, C.Ieeia?aea, A. I?oe?ea, aeoea?no?a “E -231”, “EAI” aeey
/aoineiaaoeueeiai noni?euenoaa. Aiie iaiaaaeenue aei?aaaeaoe ae??
ieoiaoe?eieo a?enuee e?a?i-/eai?a IAAe ? noai?eoe, ianaiia?aae o
?aaeyinueeiai ia?iaeo, oeaia oyaeaiiy i?i iiae?? o *NN? 1968 ?.

I?ioeeaaeio ioe?ieo “I?acueei? aanie” aeaaaea /aoineiaaoeueea
ai?a?aoe?eia ? cao?aeia ?noi??ia?ao?y, yea noaiiaeea ae?oao a?oio ?ia?o.
Oea iaioa?ii-aiae?oe/i? ?iaioe I.Oeea, C.Ieeia?aea, ?.Aaeaioe,
?.Iaeeeaia — aeoeaiiai o/anieea “I?acueei? aanie”, ?ai?aniaaiiai
?aaeeiaie A.Iiaioiiai oa A.Aonaea. C i?ia?aeieo /aoineiaaoeueeeo
aeine?aeiee?a iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? *N? (*NN?) 50-60 ??. iaoeiao oe?ii?noue
yaeythoue i?aoe? C.Aaecea?a, ?.Aa?ea, A.Eon?ia, A.Aieaiiai?, I.Aeoa/aea,
E.*oeaea, ?.O?ie?ea, E.Ii?aaoey oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo. Aei o?aouei? a?oie
iaeaaeaoue iiiia?ao??, noaoo?, eieaeoeai? i?aoe? no/anieo /anueeeo ?
neiaaoeueeeo ?noi?ee?a ? aeine?aeiee?a, iioae?eiaai? i?ney “ienaieoiai?
?aaiethoe??”. Caneoaiaothoue oaaae eieaeoeai? i?aoe? “A?n?i i?nyoe?a
i?acueei? aanie 1968”, “Ia?ao?anoy OO noie?ooy”, “Na?iaiue 1968”, a
oaeiae iaoeiaa ?ic?iaea “*aoineiaa//eia 1945-1967??.”, o ye?e
iioae?eiaai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ?inoeoooo iia?oiuei? ?noi???
Aeaaeai?? Iaoe *?.

Aaee/aciee iaoeiaee ?ioa?an i?aaenoaaey? oi?eaeueia eieaeoeaia aeaioiiia
i?aoey /anueeeo ? neiaaoeueeeo ?noi?ee?a “*aoineiaa//eia 1968 ?ieo”,
aaoi?aie yei? ? A.Aai/ee, A.Eo?ae, A. Iaioee, I. Oaeueoeiai, O.ssia/ae,
?. Ii?aaaoe oa ?io? a?aeii? /anuee? oa neiaaoeuee? iaoeiaoe?. Ii/eiath/e
c 1992-1993 ??., o aeine?aeaeaiiyo /anueeeo ?noi?ee?a oe?iei
aeei?enoiaothoueny iaoa??aee ? aeieoiaioe canae?a/aieo ?ai?oa ia?o?eieo
? aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a, cie?aia A?o?ao eii?n?? c aea/aiiy iiae?e
1967-1970 ??. (AKVSD), ui caa??aathoueny a ?inoeooo? iia?oiuei? ?noi???
o I?ac?, a?o?a?a OeE EI*, ICN *NN?, Iaoe?iiaeueiiai o?iioo, ye?
ciaoiaeyoueny o Aea?aeaaiiio oeaio?aeueiiio a?o?a? i.I?aae (SA), A?o?ao
i?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa (AMZV), A?o?ao eaioeaey??? i?aceaeaioa
?anioae?ee (AKRP), A?o?ao i?aceaeaioa ?O (AI ?O).

Cao?aeia ?noi??ia?ao?y, yea aea/aea i?iaeaie iie?oe/ii? ?noi???
*aoineiaa//eie 40-60-o ??., i?aaenoaaeaia ?iaioaie O.Oaeoi,
O.N?oiia-Oioniia, O.Ai?aeiia-Ne?e?iaa, A.Aaeoa, A.A?aoia, E.Oaeoiaia,
O.Ea?iiee oa aeayeeo ?ioeo aaoi??a. Caeaa?eueoiai cao?aei? iaoeiaoe?
aaeathoueny aei ?noi?eei-o?iiieia?/iiai iaoiaeo, aena?oethth/e i?iaeaii?
ieoaiiy, o oie /an ye iacaeaaeia /aoineiaaoeueea ?noi??ia?ao?y
iaiaaa?oueny ia eeoa iieacaoe ia?aa?a iie?oe/ieo iiae?e, a e c?iaeoe
nenoaiiee aiae?c ia?aaeoiia ? iane?aee?a oeo /e ?ioeo iie?oe/ieo
i?ioean?a.

?aaeyinueea neaa?noeea i?aaenoaaeaia o aeena?oaoe?? ?iaioaie
N.A?aeiyinueeiai, A.Ia?’?ii?, ?.Iaeuei?eiai?, A.Io?aoei, A.Iineiai?, ,
E.Iaaeeinueeiai oa ?ioeo. No/anio ?in?enueeo neaa?noeeo a caeaaeiino?
a?ae o?iiieia?/ieo ?aiie aeine?aeaeaiue iia?oiuei? ?noi???
*aoineiaa//eie 40-60-o ??. iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aea? a?oie.

Ia?oo noaiiaeyoue i?aoe? ?noi?ee?a, ye? aeine?aeaeothoue ie?ai? i?iaeaie
/aoineiaaoeueei? aeaiie?ao?? o 1945-1948 ??., cie?aia iiiia?ao??
A.Io?aoei, A. Aieie?o?ii?, ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae no/anieo ?in?enueeeo
? /anueeeo ?noi?ee?a oa a?o?a?no?a “Oaa?aeue 1948, Iineaa ? I?aaa.
Acaeyae /a?ac iieaaea”, eieaeoeaia ?iaioa i?ia?aeieo ?in?enueeeo
?noi?ee?a-neaa?no?a “Ia?iaeiay aeaiie?aoey: ieo eee ?aaeueiinoue?”. Aei
ae?oai? a?oie iiaeia a?aeianoe ?iaioe ?in?enueeeo o/aieo, ye?
aeine?aeaeothoue i?iaeaie aeaiie?ao?? ia??iaeo “I?acueei? aanie”.
A?aeiiaeaoenue a?ae ?aeaieia?/ieo noa?aioei?a ieneaiiy ?aaeyinueei?
aeiae, na?ae/aiiyi yeeo aoea aiii?iia i?aoey i?aeoi ?aaeyinueeeo
aeo?iae?no?a “E niauoeyi a *aoineiaaeee”, ?in?enuee? a/ai? ia’?eoeaii
ia?ainieneththoue iiae?? 1968 ?ieo, ea?oth/enue ?acoeueoaoaie
aeine?aeaeaiue a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a ? na?ae/aiue i/aaeaeoe?a iiae?e.
Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe ?iaioo I.Eaoeoa, yea aena?oeth? i?iaeaie
/aoineiaaoeueeiai “nioe?ae?cio c ethaenueeei iaee//yi” oa
aca?iia?aeiineie *NN? ? N?N? ia iniia? aaeeeiai ianeao canae?a/aieo
?ai?oa a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a *ao?? ? ?in??.

Aeoeaii ?ic?iaeythoue oaio “I?acueei? aanie” A.Ionaoia, TH.Iiaiiaoei,
?.I?oiy, E.Oea?aieia oa ?io?. Iaeiae aiie iaaeinoaoiuei i?eae?eythoue
oaaao aioo??oi?i i?iaeaiai ? noia?a/iinoyi /aoineiaaoeueeiai
aioeoioae?oa?iiai ?ooo oeueiai ia??iaeo.

Ioaea, ?c c?iaeaiiai iaeyaeo iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e aeieea? iio?aaa
eiiieaeniiai ia’?eoeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo o
*aoineiaa//ei? 1945-1968??. Oea aeiaaa? e?eoe/iiai ia?ainieneaiiy
ca?aeaieia?ciaaieo oai?aoe/ieo iiaeyae?a ? ioe?iie, ii?aoethaaiiy
aaeeeiai ianeao aeaea?ae ? a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? eiiieaen iioae?eiaaieo
aeieoiaioaeueieo i?aoeue, ca??ieee aeieoiaio?a oa iaoa??ae?a,
ia??iaeeea, niiaaaee i/aaeaeoe?a iiae?e. Ianaiia?aae e?eoe/ii
aeei?enoai? aeieoiaioaeuei? aeaea?aea, aeaeai? ye a N?N?, oae ? a *NN?,
a yeeo iie?oe/i? iiae?? o *aoineiaa//ei? a ia??iae, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny
iaie, i?ae?a?ai? ? iiaeai? oaiaeaioe?eii. Aeei?enoai? ca??ieee
aeieoiaio?a, cie?aia ia?oee oii ni?eueii? i?aoe? ?in?enueeeo
?noi?ee?a-neaa?no?a “Ainoi/iay Aa?iia a aeieoiaioao ?onneeo a?oeaia
1944-1953”, o ye?e iioae?eiaai? iaoa??aee A?o?ao ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee
?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? (AAI ?O) oa ?in?enueeiai oeaio?o caa??aaiiy ?
aea/aiiy aeieoiaio?a iia?oiuei? ?noi??? (?OeOEAeIE). O aeine?aeaeai?
aeei?enoai? ?iaioe, a yeeo iaaiaeyoueny a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe, cie?aia
oae?, ye “A?eo nae?aoiinoe niyo. Iioa?e aii?oaeaiiuo nee NNN? a aieiao,
aiaauo aeaenoaeyo e aiaiiuo eiioeeeoao”, “Aeaei Neaineiai. Aeieoiaiou”,
“Io ?ane?uoey a?oeaia ii “I?aaeneie aania” ieeoaea ia oeoe”, “Nai?iee
aeaenoaothueo aeiaiai?ia e eiiaaioeee, caeeth/aiiuo NNN? n eiino?aiiuie
ainoaea?noaaie”, “Oeyoii AEiaoiy. Ca??iee aeieoiaio?a”, “Ak?ni program
KS?”, “ESR a SSSR 1945-1948. Dokumenty mezivladnich jednani”, “Winter in
Prague: documents on Czechoslovak communism in crisis”, “IV Sjezd Svazu
Eeskoslovenskch spisovatelu: (Protocol)”.

Iaeiae aaeeea e?euee?noue aeieoiaio?a ? aein? canae?a/aia. Caa?na
nae?aoiino? /anoeiai aoea ciyoa eeoa c oeo iaoa??ae?a, ye? ca?aeii c
oaiaeith i?aceaeaio?a A.?eueoeeia ? A.Aaaaea aoee ia?aaeai? aeey
aea/aiiy /aoineiaaoeuee?e noi?ii?. Oiiaee oeeo a?o?a?a noaee i?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiue no/anieo /anueeeo ?noi?ee?a, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo iino?eii
ii?eethaeiththoueny o aieiaiiio /anueeiio ?noi?e/iiio aeo?iae? “Soudob
djiny”.

O aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoai? /aoineiaaoeuee? ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy,
cie?aia “Literarni listy”, “Politika”, “Nov mysl”, “Rude prvo”,
“Reporter”, aiaeiiiaia ia??iaeeea: “Problems of Eastern Europe”,
“Survey”, “Washington Post”, “A Journal of Soviet and Eropean Studies”
oa ?io?, a oaeiae ?aaeyinuee?, ?in?enuee? oa oe?a?inuee? aeo?iaee:
“Neaayiiaaaeaiea”, “Aii?inu enoi?ee”, “Iiaay e iiaaeoay enoi?ey”,
“Ioa/anoaaiiua a?oeau”, “?inney e nia?aiaiiue ie?”, “I?iaeaiu ie?a e
nioeeaeecia”, “Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae”, a oaeiae aacaoe
“Ecaanoey”, “I?aaaea”, “Ca ?oaaaeii”, “E?aniay caacaea”, “Eeoa?aoo?iay
aacaoa”, “Iacaaeneiay aacaoa” oa ?io? aeaeaiiy.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaii? ? aeei?enoai? aaaeeea? aiae?oe/i?
a?ae?ia?ao?/i? ca??ieee.

A oe?eiio aanue eiiieaen ii?aoeueiaaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e aea?
ciiao ia o?eueee ae??oeoe iinoaaeai? aaoi?ii caaaeaiiy, aea e
i?iaeiaaeeoe o iaeaooiueiio iaoeiaee iiooe noia?a/eeaeo i?iaeai
aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo o *aoineiaa//ei? ia??iaeo 1945-1968 ??.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iie?oe/ia ai?ioueaa ca aeaiie?aoe/iee ?icaeoie
/aoineiaaoeueeiai noni?euenoaa o 1945-1948 ??.” aena?oeai? aoceia?
ieoaiiy ai?ioueae iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, ui
ae?yee o ?aieao Iaoe?iiaeueiiai o?iioo, oa iie?oe/ieo e?aea??a ca
iiaoaeiao naiiaooiueiai ia?iaeii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?aaeeio a *N?, yeee ae
ii?aeioaaa aeiai?ii? aoiai?noe/i? o?aaeeoe??, cie?aia, aeieo?eio
“iana?ee?anueeiai aoiai?cio” oa, a?aoiaoth/e i?aenoiee Ae?oai? na?oiai?
a?eie, ?aae?coaaa eiioeaioe?th /aoineiaaoeueeiai “niaoeeo?/iiai oeyoo
aei nioe?ae?cio”, i?iaieioaio E.Aioaaeueaeii o Eioeoeuee?e o?yaeia?e
i?ia?ai? 5 ea?oiy 1945 ?. C?iaeaii aiae?c i?aeia?o?eieo noinoie?a,
i?ia?ai ? oaeoeee eaaaeueieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, ye? aei na?aaeeie 1947
?. aeineoue ie?aeii ni?ai?aoethaaee a eiae?oe?eiiio o?yae?.

Aeiaiaeeoueny aeoiea, ui oaeoeea ??cieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa ?o e?aea??a
aoea coiiaeaia ia eeoa eeaniaeie oa ?aeaieia?/ieie ?ioa?anaie, aea e
iaoe?iiaeueiith i?iaeaiith, ine?eueee iiceoe?? /anueeeo ? neiaaoeueeeo
ea??aiee?a ia?o?e uiaei oa?eoi??aeueiiai ono?ith e?a?ie ? iiaiiaaaeaiue
iaoe?iiaeueieo i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy aoee noia?a/eeaeie, a
?ieiee i?ioeeaaeieie. sseui /anuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o??, o oiio /ene? ?
EI*, i?aaioee caa?aaoe oi?oa?io aea?aeaao, oi EIN ? AeIN aeiaaaee
a?eueoi? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? iie?oe/ii? aaoiiii?? Neiaa//eie.
Aeiiae neiaaoeueei? aeaiie?aoe/ii? ia?o?? iaee oe?ieo i?aeo?eieo
ianaeaiiy, i?i ui na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai??a 1946
?., ine?eueee a?eueo?noue neiaae?a i?eoeeueii noaaeeanue aei ?aea?
a?aeiiaeaiiy naiino?eii? aea?aeaae, aea aac eea?eeaeueii-oaoenonueeiai
?aaeeio.

Caaino?thaaa i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? noinoiee ? a?aeiineie i?ae /anueeeie ?
neiaaoeueeeie ia?o?yie noaeiaee i?ioean 1947 ?. iaae eieeoi?i
i?aceaeaioii Neiaa//eie E.O?ni, yeiio aoa aeianaiee nia?oiee ae?ie, a
oaeiae iie?oe/i? i?ioeane iaae 130 oeny/aie neiaae?a, caeioaa/aieo o
eieaai?aoe?ii?ci?.

I?ioeeaaeiith aoea iiceoe?y EI* ? aeaiie?aoe/ieo ia?o?e uiaei a?aeiiae
o?yaeo *N? a?aoe o/anoue o ieai? Ia?oaeea a eeii? 1947 ?., ui icia/aei
?ic?ea ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa *N? c aeiiii?eith e?a?i Caoiaeo,
ia?ai???ioaoe?th ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? aeeeth/ii ia N?N? ? eiai
nithciee?a o No?aei?e ?a?ii?.

Iiai?ioiei iiiaioii o ?noi??? /aoineiaaoeueeiai aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo
noaea ia?aaea ea??aiee?a eiiia?o?e e?a?i Oeaio?aeueii? ? No?aeii? ?a?iie
o Oeey?nuee?e Ii?aia? (o aa?ani? 1947 ?.), aea aoei noai?aii Eii?ioi?i,
a ea??aieee EI* io?eiaee caaaeaiiy ?ica?iieoe aioo??oith ?aaeoe?th.

Caaaeyee aaeee?e aeaea?aeuei?e aac? ?ice?eoi nooi?noue aioo??oiuei?
iie?oeee /aoineiaaoeueeeo eiioi?no?a, aeiaaaeaii, ui eiioeaioe?y EI*
“niaoeeo?/iiai /aoineiaaoeueeiai oeyoo aei nioe?ae?cio” — oea ?acoeueoao
oei/aniaiai iie?oe/iiai iaiaa?o. Aaea iai?ee?ioe? 1947 ?ieo EI*
a?aeiiaeeanue a?ae oe??? eiioeaioe?? ca?aaee caaithaaiiy iiiiiieueii?
aeaaee o aea?aeaa?. Iiai?noth ni?inoiaaii ?nioth/a o ?aaeyinuee?e
?noi?e/i?e iaooe? oyaeaiiy i?i oa, ui /aoineiaaoeuee? nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe
iaeiinoaeii i?aeo?eioaaee EI* ? aoee ?? iie?oe/ieie nithcieeaie.
Caa?oa?oueny oaeiae oaaaa ia noaaeaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo ia?o?e aei EI* oa
?? ieai?a caaithaaoe iie?oe/io aeaaeo. A?aoiaioiaaii aeiaiaeeoueny, ui
NAeI caeiaea i?ii?aeio oeaio?enonueeo iiceoe?th i?ae EI* ? aeaiie?aoaie.

?ica?i/o?oueny ua iaeei i?o i?i oa, ui ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/i? ia?o??
*ao?? ? Neiaa//eie ia ii/aoeo 1948 ?ieo aoee iieioii eiio??aaiethoe?? ?
ieaioaaee ca?ieiee caeieio. Iaeiae naia aa?aneai? ae?? EI* (i?aai?caoe?y
iie?oe/ieo noaeeeeu iaae e?aea?aie AeIN, ica?i?iiy nai?o i?eoeeueiee?a,
iia?ice cai?ineoe ia aeiiiiiao ?aaeyinueeo a?i?th o *N?, caeyeoaaiiy
a?iiaaeyinueeith a?eiith, caoiieaiiy ae?oeiaaieo i?aai?a aeaiie?aoe/ieo
ia?o?e, iai?ioeyoe?? a?iiaaenueeith aeoieith), a ?iiae? iaa?oue oa?i? —
ni?iaa o?ce/ii? e?ea?aeaoe?? I.Ae?o?ie oa ?ioeo i?i?no??a-aeaiie?ao?a
caaacia/eee eiioi?noai ia?aiiao o ethoiio 1948 ?ieo, eiee oai?ee
i?aceaeaio A.Aaiao, i?aeei?yth/enue aeeeoaoo E.Aioaaeueaea, caoaa?aeea
iiaee neeaae o?yaeo.

Aaoi? iiae?ey? aeoieo O.N?oiia-Oioniia, yeee c?iaea aeniiaie, ui ae??
i?i?no??a-aeaiie?ao?a i?ae /an o?yaeiai? e?ece aoee iai?iaeoiaieie,
ine?eueee ia coi?ee io?eiaoe i?aeo?eiee i?i?no??a nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a, a
oaeiae A.Aaiaoa, ss.Iana?eea, ia ni?iaoaaee io?eiaoe a?iiaaenueeo
i?aeo?eieo, caae?yoe a?i?th ? iie?oe?th ? oaeei /eiii i?e?aeee naaa ?
aeaiie?aoe/i? ?aea? ia ii?aceo.

Oae cae?i/eany oe?eaaee ? noia?a/eeaee ia??iae ia?iaeii? ieth?ae?noe/ii?
aeaiie?ao?? o *aoineiaa//ei? 1945-1948 ??., a EI* noaea ?aeeiith
i?aaey/ith ia?o??th, aeaaea yei? aei aeiaoiy 1967 ?. o?eiaeanue caaaeyee
iaeiiia?o?ei?e nenoai?, ianiaei iie?oe/iei ?ai?an?yi, aaniethoi?e
aaaaiii?? aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee iaae caeiiiaeaa/ith ? noaeiaith, cieuaiith
a?eueii? a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee, ath?ie?aoe/iiio aia?aoo, oiaoi
“nia?o?caoe??” an??? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie *N?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “O?ainoi?iaoe?y /aoineiaaoeueei? i?neyai?iii?
aeaiie?ao?? o ?aaeyinueeee oei iie?oe/ii? nenoaie” aiae?cothoueny
iane?aeee ethoiaaiai iie?oe/iiai ia?aai?ioo 1948 ?. ? o? ci?ie, ye?
a?aeaoeeny i?ioyaii aanie-e?oa 1948 ?. o Iaoe?iiaeueiiio o?iio?,
ia?eaiaio? ? iie?oe/i?e nenoai? *N?. Aeyaeai? i?ioe??//y, ye? ?nioaaee
i?ae EI* ? nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoaie, cie?aia o ieoaii? i?e?aeiaiiy, a ii
noo? i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy NAeI eiiia?o??. Ia?aaeon?i aiae?cothoueny
ianoaaeie, a yeeo iieieeenue iie?oe/i? ia?o?? i?ney ethoiai, eiee
Iaoe?iiaeueiee o?iio ? ia?eaiaio ia?aoai?eeeny c aieiaieo ?aaeueii
ae?th/eo iie?oe/iiai ? caeiiiaeaa/iai i?aai?a aeaaee o oi?iaeuei?
i?aai?caoe??, ye? i?aeoe/ii i?/iai ia ae??ooaaee.

O aeine?aeaeaii? aena?oeai? iniiai? i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy ? aoaie e?ece
oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio EI* ia /ie? c E.Aioaaeueaeii ? A.Iiaioiei,
aeiaaaeaii, ui aaoi?eoa?i? iaoiaee ea??aieoeoaa, a?oa? i?i?aooiee, a
/anoi cei/eie o noa?? iie?oeee oa aeiiii?ee ? ianeeueieoeueea
i?eaeooaiiy a?eueiiaeoinoaa oa ?io? oaeoi?e coiiaeee nioe?aeueio e?eco o
noni?euenoa?. Aenoaineai? iaoiaee ae?iaieoeoaa, eiai iecueea
aoaeoeai?noue i?ecaaee aei a?ioiai? ?aoi?ie, coaiae?iiy ianaeaiiy, ui
ni?e/eieei aeaiiino?aoe?? i?ioanoo, caai?ooaiiy o /a?ai? 1953 ?.
I?iaaaeaia ?iaeono??ae?caoe?y oaeiae iia??oeea nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee
noai *aoineiaa//eie, ua a?eueoa ca’ycaaoe ?? c i?e?oa?eciaaiith
aeiiii?eith N?N?.

Ua iaei??th iciaeith /aoineiaaoeueeiai oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio
?aaeyinueeiai c?acea aoea oaeey ianiaeo ?ai?an?e 1948-1954 ??.,
aea?oaaie yeeo noaee iiiaae 100000 /ieia?e. Neea ?ia?oe?? o ea??aieoeoa?
EI* aeyaeeany oaeith aaeeeith, ui iaa?oue i?ney cae?eoi? aeiiia?ae?
I.O?ouiaa ia OO c’?cae? EI?N ? ?icno??eo E.Aa???, o *NN?
i?iaeiaaeoaaeanue eaiiai?y iie?oe/iiai oa?i?o, ni?yiiaaia i?ioe oae
caaieo “ai?ia?a ia?iaeo” ? “naaioaaeiee?a”.

Eaiiai?y iie?oe/ieo ?ai?an?e i?ioe ea??aieoeoaa EIN ia /ie? c A.Aonaeii,
caeioaa/aieo o neiaaoeueeiio ao?aeoaciiio iaoe?iiae?ci?, ?aii?oaaiiy
caeiiieo aeiia neiaae?a iia??oeee i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? a?aeiineie, ui noaei
iaei??th c i?e/ei e?aoo aaoi?eoa?iiai ?aaeeio A.Iiaioiiai, iniaenoi
aeiiiai o aaaaoueio iie?oe/ieo ? aeiiii?/ieo cei/eiao, i?ioea?oaii?
ei?oioe?? oa eaoano?io?/iiio iaae?ii? o 1967 ?ioe? aaoi?eoaoo EI*.

E?eca iie?oe/iiai ?aaeeio A.Iiaioiiai noaea i/aaeaeiith aeey oai?/i?
?ioae?aaioe??, iaoeiaoe?a, aeayeeo ooieoe?iia??a EI* aaea iai?ee?ioe?
1963-1964 ??., eiee aoei caai?iiaii IV c’?cae /aoineiaaoeueeeo ?noi?ee?a
oa iioae?eiaaii i?aoeth C.Ieeia?aea “Aea?aeaaa oa ethaeeia”,
i?aeaioiaeaii ia?o?eiith eii?n??th ia /ie? c I.Oeeii ?aaeeeaeueio
?aoi?io aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie *NN?.

Iiaeaaaeaiiy aioeoioae?oa?iiai ?ooo a?aeaoeinue i?ney noaaeaiiy
o/anieeaie O??? c’?caeo EI*, ui i?ioiaeea c 31 na?iiy ii 4 /a?aiy 1966
?., ni?eeaiai aenooio aaoi?a aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i I.Oeea. Aea
ae??oaeueieie i?e/eiaie iie?oe/ii? e?ece e?ioey 1967 ?., iane?aeeii yei?
noaea a?aenoaaea ia?oiai nae?aoa?y OeE EI* ? i?ecia/aiiy ia oeth iinaaeo
I.Aeoa/aea, aoee ?aaiethoe?ei? aenooie /aoineiaaoeueeeo ienueiaiiee?a ia
?V c’?cae? N*NI ? ianooii? ?ai?an?? i?ioe ieo, iania? aenooie nooaeaio?a
? a?oa? iaiaaeee A.Iiaioiiai ia “neiaaoeueeee iaoe?iiae?ci”.

Ioaea, a?aenoaaea A.Iiaioiiai noaea caeiiii??iei o?iaeii ia no?eueee
aioo??ia?o?eii? ai?ioueae ca aeaaeo, ne?eueee iane?aeeii aaie?oonoaa
?aeae ? aeieo?ei noae?i?cio. Caiaeea ai?ioueaa o ea??aieoeoa? EI* ca
aeaaeo i?ae eiina?aaoi?aie ? ?aoi?iaoi?aie na?ae/eea i?i aeeaieo e?eco
?nioth/i? nenoaie ? iio?aaoaaea ea?aeeiaeueieo ci?i oa aoiai?caoe??
an??? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Aeaiie?aoecaoe?y iie?oe/ii? nenoaie o ia??iae
“I?acueei? aanie” aiae?cothoueny aeaiie?aoe/i? ?aoi?ie, i?e/eie oa
iane?aeee ieoiaoe?? *NN? a?enueeaie e?a?i-/eai?a IAAe o 1968 ?ioe?.
Aeae?eai? /?oe? o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee — iiae?? i?ney 5-ai n?/iy 1968 ?.
(ia?aiiy ia?oei nae?aoa?ai OeE EI* I.Aeoa/aea) — e?iaoeue na?iiy 1968 ?.
(ieoiaoe?y *NN? oa ?aaeoe?y /aoineiaaoeueei? a?iiaaenueeino?).

I?aaeiaoii aiae?co ? iie?oe/ia ai?ioueaa ? aeaiie?aoe/i? ia?aoai?aiiy o
nai?e EI*, caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, ia?o?yo Iaoe?iiaeueiiai o?iioo,
i?ioni?eeiaeo, a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo, iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?yo ?
?ooao. Ia aaaaoiio oaeoe/iiio iaoa??ae? aeiaaaeaii, ui “I?acueea aania”
aoea ni?e/eiaia iac??eeie iie?oe/ieie iaoe?iiaeueieie,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie i?iaeaiaie.

?i?oe?aoi?aie aeaiie?aoe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue o e?a?i? noaee i?aaenoaaieee
oai?/i? ?ioae?aaioe??, aieiaiei /eiii aeo?iae?noe, e?oa?aoi?e,
iaoeiaoe?, ye? i?iaoaeeee a?iiaaenueeo aeoeai?noue, aeiaaath/e
?aaeeeaeueieo ?aoi?i. Aea i?aaenoaaieee aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee ia a?aooaaee
aieiaiiai: a oiiaao iiae?eaii? ?a?iie ? aeeth/aiiy *aoineiaa//eie o
?aaeyinueeee aeie i?ooi ia i?a aeicaieeoe aooe /aoai “a?eeie ai?iiaie” ?
aeaiiino?oaaoe iiaeeea?noue ii?aeiaiiy nioe?ae?cio c aeaiie?ao??th. Oiio
?o i?ia?ao aoa cacaeaeaa?aeue aecia/aiee, aea oiae? i?ia?aneai? neee
oeueiai ua ia ona?aeiiethaaee.

Aiae?c aeaea?aeueii? aace aea? ciiao c?iaeoe aeniiaie: ea??aiee EI*
I.Aeoa/ae ? a?eueo?noue /eai?a Iie?oath?i ia aaaeaee ea?aeeiaeueieo ci?i
o iie?oe/i?e ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e nenoai? *NN? ? ?o aenia?eiaioe ia
aeoiaeeee ca ?aiee ?ic?iaeaii? ieie aeieo?eie aeaiie?aoecaoe??
?nioth/iai nioe?ae?noe/iiai eaaeo.

I?ia?aneai? neee *aoineiaa//eie, ii/eiath/e c aa?aciy 1968 ?.,
ii?oooaaee ieoaiiy i?i iiaia a?aeie?aieaiiy EI* a?ae aea?aeaae, i?i
iiaa?iaiiy *N? aei aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?anioae?ee Iana?eea ? Aaiaoa.
Aaaeeeaith i?iaeaiith caeeoaeiny iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aeiaiaoee?a ?
oeaio?eno?a o ea??aieoeoa? EI* aei a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aieeaiaeo iiiceoe?eieo
ia?o?e ? ?oo?a, ye? iiaee ?aaeueii iaiaaeeoe iiiiiieueio aeaaeo EI* o
aea?aeaa?. Ea??aiee?a E?aiey oo?aoaaei iaa?oue ia oa, ui *NN? iiaea
aeeoe ?c neeaaeo IAAe ? ?AA, a oa, ui aiia, caa??aath/e a??i?noue
aeaiie?aoe/iei ?aeayi, ca?aceoue nai?i i?eeeaaeii ?io? e?a?ie — /eaie
ni?aae?oaeiino?.

Ia iniia? a?o?aieo aeaieo, a oiio /ene? iioae?eiaaieo I.Eaoeoai, aaoi?
aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui iaa?oue yeae ?aaeyinueea ea??aieoeoai
ia ae??oeei canoinoaaoe neeia? iaoiaee, oi i?acuee? ia?o?ei? ?aoi?iaoi?e
ana iaeii i?oee a ia iaiaaeaiiy aeaiie?ao??. I.Aeoa/ae iaa iai??
i?eeiyoe caeii i?i Iaoe?iiaeueiee o?iio, ca?aeii c yeei on? i?aai?caoe??
? ia?o??, ye? ia aoiaeeee aei iueiai, aoee a iinoaaeai? iica caeiiii ?
o?yaeia? i?aaie iiaee a o i?eioniaiio ii?yaeeo ?o e?ea?aeoaaoe.

Oaeei /eiii, eiiaiaea I.Aeoa/aea ia aoea ?i?oe?aoi?ii ?aaeeeaeueieo
aeaiie?aoe/ieo i?ioean?a ? ci?i o noni?euenoa? ? aanue /an iacaeiaaiyea
?o, a ioaea, ia aoea caeaoiith ?o caoenoeoe. I.Aeoa/ae oa i?aceaeaio
E.Naiaiaea, ye? iaee aaoi?eoao o ia?iae?, ia iiaee caeeeeaoe ianaeaiiy
aei iai?iie, ai oea icia/aei eoe ia na?aeiia aac?acoeueoaoia
e?iaii?ieeooy. Ao?i, aiae?c ?aaeoe?? ia oe? iiae?? a N?N? ? na?o?
aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui, ia caaaeath/e ia ieoiaoe?th *NN?,
ia?aiiaa /ao?a ? neiaae?a aoea ii?aeueiith, ? aeeooy oea i?aeoaa?aeeei.

A?enueeai e?a?i IAAe aaeaeiny aac iii?o caeiyoe e?a?io, iaeiae i?ioe
?ioa?aaioe?? aenooieee an? eiinoeoooe?ei? i?aaie *NN? — Iaoe?iiaeuei?
cai?e, i?aceaeaio, o?yae, a?eueo?noue /eai?a Iie?oath?i OeE EI* ?
?yaeia? eiioi?noe. ?aaeyinuee? niaoeneoaeae ? iinieuenoai aeyaeeeny
aacneeeie ooo/ii oai?eoe i?aaia? ia?aaeoiiae aeey ca?ieiiai ao?o/aiiy,
ooai?eoe i?i?aaeyinueeee o?yae ia /ie? c A.?iae?ith. ?aaeyinueeiio
ea??aieoeoao aeiaaeiny ciiao aanoe ia?aaiai?e c oeie ae?y/aie EI*, ye?
aoee caa?aooiaai? oa ?ioa?iiaai? a N?N?. No?ao ia?aae e?iaii?ieeooyi
cionea /aoineiaaoeueeeo e?aea??a i?oe ia i?aeienaiiy nae?aoiiai
iineianueeiai i?ioieieo (na?iaiue 1968 ?.), yeee ocaeiiea ia?aaoaaiiy
?iicaiieo a?enuee aae aei cae?i/aiiy iiaii? “ii?iae?caoe??” neooaoe?? a
e?a?i?. Oeae aeieoiaio a?iiaaenuee?noue *NN? ni?eeiyea ye eai?ooeyoe?th.

Aeena?oaio iiaiaeaeo?oueny c a?eueo?noth aeine?aeiee?a, ye? aaaaeathoue,
ui iineianueeee i?ioieie icia/aa ii/aoie e?ioey /aoineiaaoeueeiai
aenia?eiaioo ?aoi?i. Iaeiae oeae eiii?ii?n ao?ethaaany o aeeooy
iia?eueii. A?i noaa iie?oe/iei aeeeoaoii o?eueee i?ney ea?oiy 1968 ?. A
o? “n?i aaeeeeo aei?a” — c 21 ii 27 na?iiy, eiee any iaoe?y acyea
o/anoue o ?on? i?ioanoo, i?eiee a ia oa?eoee o ?noi??th, yeae ia aoei
iiae?e iiia?aaei?o oanoe i?nyoe?a, eiee, ye na?ae/aoue iaoa??aee
aeena?oaoe??, a?ae?iaeeeanue iacaeaaeia a?iiaaenueea aeoiea ?
i?ieeioeanue iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue. Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, oea aoa
ia??iae iaea?eueoi? a?iiaaeyinueei? naiaiaee, yeo /aoineiaaoeueeee
ia?iae iaa eeoa o 1945-1947 ??.

sse na?ae/aoue a?o?ai? iaoa??aee, i?ae oeneii Iineae I.Aeoa/ae aoa
cai?iaiee A.Aonaeii, yeee aoa aioiaee cae?enieoe ?aaeueii
“ii?iae?caoe?th” neooaoe?? ? e?ea?aeoaaoe caeeoee “I?acueei? aanie”.
Naia A.Aonae ia?aeiieeai a?aeiia?a ia ieoaiiy: “*e iiaeeeaee noae?i?ci c
ethaenueeei iaee//yi?”, eiee o aeaiue ??/ieoe? ieoiaoe?? aeeoae? I?aae
ciiao aeeoee c i?ioanoii ia aoeeoe? ? oe? aeaiiino?aoe?? aoee i?eaeooai?
neeaie neoaeae aea?aeaaii? aaciaee ? oaieaie. Nioi? ii?aiaieo
caeeoeeenue eaaeaoe ia Aaoeeaanuee?e ieiu? i?ae a?eiaie Oaaea?aeueieo
cai??a ? aaea ianooiiiai aeiy aoei ooaaeaii aeae?ao i?i iaiaiaaeai?
iiaiiaaaeaiiy noae?a, neoaea i?aaiii?yaeeo ? aea?aeaaciaee.

O aeniiaeao i?aenoiiaothoueny aaaeeea? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, a
naia:

— a?eueo?noue ianaeaiiy *aoineiaa//eie, ia aaaeath/e iiaa?iaiiy
iaaaoeaieo iiiaio?a ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?aaeeio, ye? noaee
i?e/eiith “ie?ii? ieoiaoe??” ? ?icaaeo *N? o 1938-1939 ??., ?
a?aeaeath/e oaio ?aaeyinuee?e a?i??, yea ca?eueieea e?a?io a?ae
i?iaoeueeiai oaoecio, noaaeueii noaaeeanue aei ?aea? nioe?ae?noe/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue oa ci?oeiaiiy ca’yce?a c N?N? iaa?oue ca ?aooiie
iineaaeaiiy a?aeiinei ?c Caoiaeii, ui ia’?eoeaii ni?eyei iioe?aiith
aieeao EI* ? noaei aaaeeeaith ia?aaeoiiaith iaeaooiuei? noae?i?caoe??
e?a?ie;

— eiioeaioe?y /aoineiaaoeueeiai oeyoo aei nioe?ae?cio, cai?iiiiiaaia
Eiiia?o??th *ao?? a oiae? ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai??a 1946 ?., aeyaeeanue
oaeoe/iei iaiaa?ii, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai aoee caaieiaai? aieine
aeai?oe?a ? i?eniaia oaaaa iiiceoe?eieo EI* iie?oe/ieo nee.
Ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i? oaeoi?e o na?aaeei? 1947 ?ieo cioneee ea??aieoeoai
EI* a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae ni?ai?aoe? c aeaiie?aoe/ieie ia?o?yie a ?aieao
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai o?iioo ? o?yae?, acyoe eo?n ia oaeaeea caaithaaiiy
aeaaee o aea?aeaa?, aeei?enoiaoth/e ye eaaaeuei?, oae ? iaeaaaeuei?
iaoiaee ai?ioueae;

— Iaoe?iiaeueiee o?iio, aoaeo/e c 1945 ii 1948 ??. iniiaith
ia?iaeii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?aaeeio *N?, ae??caeaoiith iie?oe/iith
i?aai?caoe??th, a ?aieao yei? ocaiaeaeoaaeenue ?ioa?ane ??cieo ca
?aeaieia?/iith ni?yiiaai?noth iie?oe/ieo nee, ? iath/e ae??oaeueiee
aieea ia /aoineiaaoeueea noni?euenoai i?ney ethoiaai? e?ece 1948 ?.,
ia?aoai?eany ia oe?io oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio ?aaeyinueeiai c?acea;

— iie?oe/ia e?eca ? ianooiia noae?i?caoe?y *aoineiaa//eie aoee
caeiiii??iei iane?aeeii ae?? ye aioo??oi?o oaeoi??a, a naia — a??a
a?eueoino? /ao?a ? neiaae?a o ni?aaaaeeea?noue nioe?ae?cio, ?ic’?aeiaiiy
/anueeeo ? neiaaoeueeeo aeaiie?ao?a, aa?aneaia ianooiaeueia oaeoeea EI*,
ni?yiiaaia ia iiiiiie?caoe?th iie?oe/ii? aeaaee, iaaeinoaoiy ??oo/?noue
ae?e e?aea??a iaeiioi?noe/ieo ia?o?e ? i?aceaeaioa A.Aaiaoa, oae ?
ciai?oi?o — ii/aoie “oieiaeii? a?eie” ? a?aeiiaa a?ae o/ano? o “ieai?
Ia?oaeea”, a?oaee oene AEI(a) ? Eii?ioi?io ia ea??aieoeoai eiiia?o?e ?
NAeI *aoineiaa//eie, i?aaiaiiy noae?inueeiai ea??aieoeoaa caeeoeoe
e?a?ie Oeaio?aeueii? ? No?aeii? ?a?iie, ca?eueiaieo ?aaeyinueeith
a?i??th, o noa?? naiai aieeao;

— oioae?oa?iee ?aaeei ?aaeyinueeiai c?acea o *aoineiaa//ei? i?a ?nioaaoe
eeoa a oiiaao iie?oe/iiai oa?i?o neeiaeo i?aai?a aeaaee, ?ai?an?e,
anaioiiethth/iai eiio?ieth c aieo ia?o?eii? iiiaieeaoo?e an?o noa?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? noni?euenoaa, cieuaiiy eeaniaeo ai?ia?a, inoaoi/ii?
oeaio?ae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaieo
iaoiae?a ea??aieoeoaa, oioaeueiiai eiio?ieth ia?o?eieo i?aai?a aeaaee
iaae caeiiiaeaa/eie, noaeiaeie ? a?iiaaenueeeie i?aai?caoe?yie a oi?i?
“aeeeoaoo?e i?ieaoa??aoo”;

— a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aeaiie?aoe/iiai aioeoioae?oa?iiai ?ooo o *aoineiaa//ei?
? iiyaa iie?oe/ii? iiiceoe?? o OeE EI* ? EIN o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 60-o ??.
na?ae/eee ia eeoa i?i e?eco ?aaeeio A.Iiaioiiai, aea e i?i aeeaie?
aoiai?noe/i? ei?ai? iana?ee?anueeeo ?aeae, iiioey?ieo o
/aoineiaaoeueeiio noni?euenoa?, i?i aaaeaiiy /ao?a ? neiaae?a iie?i/eoe
c aaoi?eoa?iei ?aaeeiii iiiaieeaoo?e EI*;

— ?aoi?ie 1968 ?. aoee coiiaeai? iacaaeiaieaiiyi aaaaoueio nioe?aeueieo
a?oi ianaeaiiy: ?ioae?aaioe??, nooaeaio?a, ?ia?oiee?a ? neoaeaiaoe?a,
?iceo?eoeaieo naeyi, i?aaenoaaiee?a oea?eae, aeaiie?aoe/ii iaeaooiaaieo
ia?o?eieo ooieoe?iia??a, ?ai?aniaaieo /ao?a ? neiaae?a, caaaeueiei
noaiii iie?oe/ii? ? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie;

— iaeaaaeeea?oith iciaeith /aoineiaaoeueeiai aenia?eiaioo 1968 ?., yeee
o?eaaa n?i i?nyoe?a, aoei i?aaiaiiy aioeoioae?oa?ieo nee aeaiiiooaaoe
?aaeyinueeo iiaeaeue iiaoaeiae nioe?ae?cio. Na?ae/aiiyi aeaiie?aoe/ieo
ci?i noaei noai?aiiy EAIo, E-231 oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e, iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, i?ioni?eeiaeo
ia’?aeiaiue ? iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e a ?aieao iaeiiia?o?eii? nenoaie;

— i?eaeooaiiy “I?acueei? aanie” noaei iane?aeeii ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee
EI?N o No?aei?e ?a?ii? ? aeiaaei iaaaaeaiiy ea??aiee?a “a?aoi?o
eiiia?o?e” ie?eoeny c i?iyaaie aeaiie?ao?? a e?a?iao nioeoaai?o,
cana?ae/eei iaiiaeeea?noue aeaiie?aoecaoe?? ? aoiai?caoe?? iie?oe/ii? ?
aeiiii?/ii? iniiae nioe?ae?cio a ?aieao ?nioth/i? oiae? nenoaie
nioe?ae?noe/ii? ni?aae?oaeiino?;

— *aoineiaa//eia — e?a?ia, a?aeiia na?oo nai?ie aeaiie?aoe/ieie
o?aaeeoe?yie, o ye?e eiiia?o?y ei?enooaaeany i?aeo?eieith ia?iaeo, a
oiio oey aea?aeaaa ? ?? iie?oe/ia nenoaia iiaee noaoe iie?aiiii aeey
?aoi?ioaaiiy “nioe?ae?cio”.

Oaia aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo o *aoineiaa//ei? 1945-1968 ??. a eiioaeno?
iia?oiuei? ?noi??? caeeoa?oueny iaei??th c iaea?eueo aeooaeueieo i?iaeai
aeey no/anieo aeine?aeiee?a. Aea/aiiy i?e/ei ?icaeoeo ? i?eaeooaiiy
aeaiie?aoe/ieo ? aioeoioae?oa?ieo ?oo?a o e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? oa
No?aeii? ?a?iie ?, cie?aia, o *aoineiaa//ei? aeiiiiiaea iieiae?e
oe?a?inuee?e iaooe? iicaaaeoenue ?aeaieia?/ieo noa?aioei?a ?aaeyinueei?
aeiae, a oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? aoaeoaaoe naith iacaeaaei?noue ia iniia?
i?eioeei?a aoiai?cio ? ni?aaaaeeeaino?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? o ianooiieo ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?a:

1. “A?e? ieyie” ?noi??? *aoineiaa//eie // Iiaa iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea. —
??aia. — 1998.- ?2.- N.73-82.

2. Aeaiie?aoe/ia ia?o?y — neiaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
i?neyai?iii? Neiaa//eie // Iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy: oi?ioaaiiy
na?oiaeyaeo ? aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae o nooaeaionueei? iieiae?:
Ca.iaoa??ae?a, oac, i?aeaoc?anueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??.
??aia, 12-13 aa?aciy 1996 ?. — ??aia: ?Ae?E, 1996. — N.64-66.

3. Eaiiai?y noae?inueeiai oa?i?o o *aoineiaa//ei? — e?iaoeue ie?iiai
aoaio ia?iaeii? aeaiie?ao?? // Oeiea ca ie?, aca?ii?icoi?iiy e
nioe?aeueiee ?icaeoie: Ca.iaoa??ae?a I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe??. ??aia, 21-23 o?aaiy 1996 ?. *.??. — ??aia ?AA?, 1996. —
N.89-92.

4. Eiioi?noe/iee ia?aai?io 1948 ?ieo — e?iaoeue /aoineiaaoeueei?
aeaiie?ao?? // Iiaa iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea. — ??aia. — 1998. — ?3. —
N.103-109.

5. Ethoee 1948. No/ania aa/aiiy i?iaeaie // A?niee Aeiiaoeueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. A — aoiai?oa?i? iaoee. — Aeiiaoeuee, 1999. — ?3. — N.

6. Iieiaeue *ao?? oa Neiaa//eie o ai?iouea? ca aeaiie?ao?th // I?iaeaie
?aae?caoe?? aeooiaii-oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo iieiae?: Iiooee, ia?niaeoeae:
Ca.iaoa??ae?a I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. ??aia,
17-18 aeiaoiy 1996. — ??aia: ??IEIE, 1996. — Aei.1. — N.88-90.

7. Iie?oeea A.Aaiaoa a oiae? Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie // Neia’yinueeee
a?niee: I?aea?aeii/ee iaoeiaee ca??iee. Aei.1. / ?aae.eieaa?y:
A.?.*a?i?e, A.A.Iaaethe… — ??aia: ??N ENO, 1998. — N.42-50.

8. Iie?oe/i? eiioeaioe?? A.Aaiaoa o 1938-1948 ??. // Iaoeia? i?aoe?
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
?noi?e/i? iaoee. — Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee: EIAeIO, 1998. — O.2 (4).
— N. 390-399.

9. I?acueea aania: iieiaeue ca ie?, naiaiaeo ? aeaiie?ao?th //
Ie?ioai?/a ae?yeuei?noue oeiee ? aoco: Ca.iaoeiaeo i?aoeue /
?aae.eieaa?y: N.ss.Aeai’yi/oe, A.N.Aeai’yi/oe,… — ??aia: ?AA?, 1997. —
N.136-139.

10. I?iaeaie /aoineiaaoeueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e oa ina?oe
iaia?aaeiaei? “I?acueei? aanie” // Iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean o aoc? oa
oeyoe eiai ?icaeoeo ? oaeineiiaeaiiy: Ca.iaoa??ae?a I?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. ??aia, 14-17 o?aaiy 1999 ?. *.??. —
??aia: ?AA?, 1999. — N.247-253.

11. I?ioenoiyiiy A.Aaiaoa ? eiioi?no?a o neiaaoeueeiio ieoaii?
(1944-1946 ??.) // Iiaa iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea. — ??aia. — 1998. — ?1. —
N.80-85.

12. Neiaaoeueea ieoaiiy o iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? *aoineiaa//eie ae?oai?
iieiaeie 40-60-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy // Aoi?/ia ?noi??y ia?iae?a ?a?iie:
Ca.iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — Naeoe?y ?. Oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie aoiieia?? /
?aae.eieaa?y ?.O.Eo?an,… — E.: Aeaeaaie/ee oeaio? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. 1999. — N.74-79.

13. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie *aoineiaa//eie 1953-1963 ??. //
Iaoeia? caienee Ino?icueei? Aeaaeai??. — Ino?ia: Aeaeaaie/ee oeaio?
Ino?icueei? Aeaaeai??, 1999. — O.??. — *.?. — N.84-87.

14. O?iee “I?acueei? aanie” (aiae?c ca?oa?aeiith ?noi??ia?ao??th
/aoineiaaoeueeeo iiae?e 1968 ?ieo) // Oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a a ?iaiao ?
aeine?aeaeaiiyo: Iaoeia? caienee ?Ae?E. Aei.? / ?aaeeieaa?y: I.A.Aaee/,
A.?.Eeoaei/oe,… ??aia: ?Ae?E, 1997. — N.170-177.

15. Ooi i?ei?n ie? o *aoineiaa//eio? // Iaaeaaia?ea ie?o a
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean? oeiee ? aoco: Ca.iaoa??ae?a
i?aeaoc?anueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. ??aia, 29-30 a?oaeiy
1995 ?. — ??aia: ?AA?, 1995. — N.26-27.

16. *aoineiaaoeueea oai??y ie?iiai ni?a?nioaaiiy a ioe?ioe? ca?oa?aeii?
?noi??ia?ao?? // Iaaeaaia?ea ?aeeiiai ? oe?e?niiai ie?o: nooi?noue,
caaaeaiiy ? iniiai? iai?yiee iaoeiai? ?iaioe oe?e ? aoc?a:
Ca.iaoa??ae?a, oac I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. ??aia,
13-14 ea?oiy 1995 ?. — ??aia: ?AA?, 1995. — N.48-50.

17. *aoineiaaoeuee? iiae?? 1968 ?ieo: ieoiaoe?y /e ca?eueiaiiy? // Neiai
iieiaeei aeine?aeieeai: Ca.oac oa iaoa??ae?a. Aei.VI. / ?aae.eieaa?y:
A.?.*a?i?e,… — ??aia: ?Ae?E, 1998. — N.42-47.

Aiioaoe?y

Oa?aoei TH.I. Aeaiie?aoe/iee ?oo a *aoineiaa//ei? a 1945-1968 ??.
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.02 — anana?oiy ?noi??y. ?inoeooo oe?a?inueei?
a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i.I.N.A?ooaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a,
1999 ?.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia oai? aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo o *aoineiaa//ei?
1945-1968 ??. O aeine?aeaeaii? eiiieaenii i?iaiae?ciaai? iniiai?
caeiiii??iino? ae?yeueiino? aeaiie?aoe/iiai aioeoioae?oa?iiai ?ooo o
*aoineiaa//ei? 40-60-o ??., iaoith yeiai aoea aoiai?caoe?y an???
iie?oe/ii? nenoaie e?a?ie, a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a?eueiiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa, ai?ioueaa ?c i?iyaaie noae?i?cio ? iainoae?i?cio. Ia
iniia? aaeeeiai ianeao e?oa?aoo?e, aeaea?ae ? aeieoiaio?a, na?ae/aiue
i/aaeaeoe?a, cia/ia /anoeia yeeo oia?oa aaiaeeoueny o iaoeiaee ia?a a
Oe?a?i?, e?eoe/ii aiae?cothoueny iaoiaee ae?yeueiino? ? oaeoeea EI* oa
?ioeo /anueeeo ? neiaaoeueeeo ia?o?e, a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo
i?aai?caoe?e, a oaeiae ae?yeuei?noue ?o e?aea??a.

Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eaia aeine?aeaeaiith iie?oe/ieo eiioeaioe?e ?
aeieo?ei, a oaeiae ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iei oaeoi?ai, ye? aieeaaee ia
?icaeoie aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? aeey iaienaiiy ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue, i?aeaioiaee
eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a c anana?oiuei? (iia?oiuei?) ?noi???, ?noi??? cao?aeieo
oa i?aaeaiieo neia’yi, ?noi??? iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue oa ?ioeo
noi?aeieo eo?n?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaiie?aoe/iee ?oo, iie?oe/i? ia?o??, Iaoe?iiaeueiee
o?iio, iie?oe/ia e?eca, oioae?oa?eci, “I?acueea aania”, ?aoi?iaoi?e ?
aeiaiaoeee.

Aiiioaoeey

Oa?aoei TH.I. Aeaiie?aoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea a *aoineiaaeee a 1945-1968 aa.
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.02 — anaie?iay enoi?ey. Einoeooo oe?aeineie
a?oaia?aoee e enoi/ieeiaaaeaiey ei.I.N.A?ooaaneiai IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa,
1999 a.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia oaia aeaiie?aoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a *aoineiaaeee
1945-1968 aa. A enneaaeiaaiee eiiieaenii i?iaiaeece?iaaiu aeaaiua
caeiiiia?iinoe aeaiie?aoe/aneiai aioeoioaeeoa?iiai aeaeaeaiey a
*aoineiaaeee 40-60-o aa., oeaeueth eioi?iai auea aoiaiecaoeey e
aeaiie?aoecaoeey iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu no?aiu, aic?iaeaeaiea naiaiaeiiai
a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa, ai?ueaa n i?iyaeaieyie noaeeiecia e
iainoaeeiecia. Ia iniiaa aieueoiai eiee/anoaa enoi/ieeia, eeoa?aoo?u,
iaioa?ia, aeieoiaioia, naeaeaoaeuenoa o/anoieeia iieeoe/aneeo niauoee
e?eoe/anee aiaeece?oaony oaeoeea e iaoiaeu aeayoaeueiinoe EI* e ae?oaeo
/aoneeo e neiaaoeeeo ia?oee, iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee, a
oaeaea iieeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue eo eeaea?ia.

Naeaeaia iiiuoea auyaeoue e ananoi?iiia i?iaiaeece?iaaoue i?e/eiu e
iineaaenoaey e?ecenia e ii?aaeaiey aeaiie?aoe/aneiai aioeoioaeeoa?iiai
aeaeaeaiey a 1948-1948 aa. Cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeaii
enneaaeiaaieth oao iieeoe/aneeo eiioeaioeee e aeieo?ei, a oaeaea
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua aeeyee ia ?acaeoea /aoineiaaoeeiai
aeaiie?aoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey.

A enneaaeiaaiee ia?aioeaieaathony ?ani?ino?aiaiiua a Niaaoneii Nithca e
ia Oe?aeia i?aaenoaaeaiey i aeayoaeueiinoe ia?oee Iaoeeiiaeueiiai
o?iioa, iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey /aoia e neiaaeia a ia?eiae
iino?iaiey nioeeaeecia niaaoneiai ia?acoea 1948-1967 aa., eioi?ue i?eaae
*aoineiaaeeth e yeiiiie/aneiio canoith ii n?aaiaieth n ainoaea?noaaie
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, iiiiiieecaoeee iieeoe/aneie aeanoe, oie/oiaeaieth
iiiaiia?oeeiinoe.

Iiyoiio a?aaeaeaineay iiaeaea?aeea eaeae aeaiie?aoecaoeee iieeoe/aneie
nenoaiu, “nioeeaeecia n /aeiaa/aneei eeoeii” iaania/eaaee ia?oeeiui
?aoi?iaoi?ai I.Oeeo, E.Ni?eianeiio, C.Ieuia?aeo, E.Iaaaeo, O.E?eaaeth,
A.I?oeeeo e ae?oaei eaaeoeiaoeeth aeaenoaee a ia?eiae “I?aaeneie aaniu”
e aiciiaeiue oniao i?aia?aciaaiee aeaiie?aoe/aneeo ia?aiai,
caaeaeea?e?iaaiiuo a “I?ia?aiia aeaenoaee EI*”.

Aeenna?oaio enneaaeiaae ?acaeoea ?aoi?iaoi?neiai i?ioeanna, a oaeaea
aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia iaai iaeaioia e a oiaea
eioa?aaioeee iyoe no?ai IAAe a *aoineiaaeeth. ?anniao?eaathony
niaoeeoe/aneea iaoiaeu, i?eiaiyaiua Iineaie n oeaeueth i?eaanoe e
iiaeiiaaieth auoaaeoaai ec-iiae eiio?iey nithcieea. Aeey yoiai E?aieai
i?eiaiyeenue ?aciua iaoiaeu: aeaonoi?iiiea e iiiainoi?iiiea ano?a/e,
oaeaoiiiua ia?aaiai?u, iaiaa?u Aa?oaaneiai iaeoa ia oa??eoi?ee
*aoineiaaeee e o aa iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo a?aieoe, ianne?iaaiiua
i?iiaaaiaeenoneea eaiiaiee a n?aaenoaao eioi?iaoeee, i?eaea/aiea ia
naith noi?iio ianoiuo ooieoeeiia?ia n ia?niaeoeaie caiaiu eie
?aoi?iaoi?ia ec /enea noi?iiieeia I.Aeoa/aea.

Enneaaeiaaieai onoaiiaeaii, /oi aeaiie?aoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea a
*aoineiaaeee 1945-1968 aa. eiaei aeoaieea enoi?e/aneea ei?ie. Ia
i?ioeann aai oi?ie?iaaiey aeeyee aoiaienoe/aneea o?aaeeoeee iaaeaiaiiiai
ia?eiaea: aeaiie?aoe/aneea eaeae O.Iana?eea, a oaeaea eiioeaioeee
“aaneeanniaiai /aoineiaaoeeiai iauanoaa”, “iana?eeianeiai nioeeaeecia”,
“niaoeeoe/aneiai /aoineiaaoeeiai iooe e nioeeaeecio”, eioi?ua
i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/aeenue io aeiai nioeeaeecia niaaoneiai ia?acoea.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey iaienaiey
iaiauathueo ?aaio ii i?iaeaiai aeaiie?aoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a
*aoineiaaeee iineaaiaiiiai ia?eiaea, i?e iiaeaioiaea eaeoeeiiiuo eo?nia
ii anaie?iie (iiaaeoae) enoi?ee, enoi?ee caiaaeiuo e thaeiuo neaayi,
enoi?ee iieeoe/aneeo e i?aaiauo o/aiee, ae?oaeo niaaeiuo i?aaeiaoia e
niaoeeo?nia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeaiie?aoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea, iieeoe/aneea ia?oee,
Iaoeeiiaeueiue o?iio, iieeoe/aneee e?ecen, oioaeeoa?eci, “I?aaeneay
aania”, ?aoi?iaoi?u e aeiaiaoeee.

Annotation

Tereshko Y.M. Democratic Movement in Czechoslovakia 1945-1968 years.
Manuscript.

Dissertation for receiving scientific degree of Historic Sciences in
specialty 07.00.02 — World History. M.S.Gruchevsky Institute of
Ukrainian Archeography and Sources Study NAS of Ukraine, Kiev, 1999.

The theme of the dissertation is devoted to democratic movement in
Czechoslovakia in 1945-1968 years. In the research work the author
analyses in complex the main regulative in activity of democratic
antitotalitarian movement in Czechoslovakia which aimed at humanization
of the whole political system of Stalinism and neostalinism. Based on
big quantity of literature, sources and documents, evidences of
witnesses, a big part of those are mentioned for the first time in
scientific researches of Ukraine, methods of acting and tactics of CPC
and other Czech and Slovak Parties, political organizations and activity
of their leaders are given a critical analysis.

Much attention is paid to investigation of political concepts and
doctrines, external political factors, which influenced the development
of democratic movement. Results of the research work can be used in
generalisive works, for preparation to courses of lections in New World
History, History of the Western and Soustern Slavs, History of Political
and Legal Teachings and other adjacent courses.

Key words: democratic movement, political parties, National Front,
political crisis, totalitarian regime, “Prague Spring”, reformatories
and dogmatics.

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