EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

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O?AAAI ?ai? Aiaoie?eiae/

OAeE 321.015

OeEA?EUeIEE EIIO?IEUe IAAe CA?IEIEIE NEEAIE

A AeAIIE?AOE*I?E AeA?AEAA?

(AeINA?Ae NOA ? I?IAEAIE OE?A?IE)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 23.00.02 —

iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe oa i?ioeane

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a Aeaaeai?? Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie oa Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio
ICAAeIANUeEEE Aaiiaae?e Ieeieaeiae/, Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea, aeioeaio eaoaae?e iie?oe/ieo iaoe.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? A?EEIA TH??e Na?a?eiae/,
Aeaaeai?y Neoaeae aaciaee Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?noi??? ?
iie?oieia??.

— eaiaeeaeao iie?oe/ieo iaoe ?EUe*OE Eaii?ae ?aaiiae/, Ee?anueeee
?inoeooo Nooiiooieo a?enuee, ia/aeueiee eaoaae?e iie?oieia??.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaoe?iiaeueiee ?inoeooo no?aoaa?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue i?e ?aae? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ? iai?iie Oe?a?ie,
a?aeae?e ai?iii? iie?oeee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 26 » ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo

i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E26.001.41 a
Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252033, i.Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60, aoae. 330).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252033, i.Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii » 26 » aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeioeaio
I.Naeoianueeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaii ieceith ianoaaei
oai?aoe/iiai ? i?aeoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o.

Ii-ia?oa, a Oe?a?i? aeieeea iaiao?aei?noue aoae?aieoeoaa a?i?? iiaiai
oeio naia aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae. Oiio aeioe?eueii ? ei?enii aeey
iaa?oiooaaiiy oeyo?a aoae?aieoeoaa Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie ie?aeii
aeei?enoaoe aeina?ae aeaiie?aoe/ieo aea?aeaa, i?aoe? cao?aeieo, cie?aia
aia?eeainueeeo iie?oieia?a. Aiie yne?aai na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui o
i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th a NOA
iaeiie/aii aaeeeee oai?aoe/iee ? oaeoieia?/iee iaoa??ae. Iniaeeai oea
noino?oueny oaeeo ieoaiue, ye aecia/aiiy ?ie? ? i?noey ca?ieieo nee a
no?oeoo?? aea?aeaaieo ?inoeooo?a, aeaiie?oecaoe?y ? i?ioan?iiae?caoe?y
a?i?? oiui.

O a?eueo eiie?aoiiio ieai? ia?aiiy naia aia?eeainueei? iiaeae?
oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th iiaea aooe iaa?oioiaaii oaeeie
i??eoaaiiyie:

1. Niieo/ai? Ooaoe Aia?eee ? aeciaiith o na?o? i?aaiaith aeaiie?aoe/iith
aea?aeaaith.

2. Niieo/ai? Ooaoe a?athoue i?ia?aeio ?ieue o IAOI, yea iaaeeaea?oueny
aei ei?aeii?a Oe?a?ie ? c yeith iaoa e?a?ia anoaiiaeea iniaeea?
a?aeiineie.

3. Oe?a?ia ? NOA aeciaee iaeei iaeiiai no?aoaa?/iei ia?oia?ii ?
iinooiiai oa iine?aeiaii iaiaaathoueny iaiiaieoe oeth oi?ioeo eiie?aoiei
ci?noii.

4. NOA iaeiie/eee aaeeeee aeina?ae a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa i?ioyaii
?icaeoeo nai?? e?a?ie a oiiaao aeaiie?ao??.

5. I?aoe? ai?iieo iie?oieia?a NOA, a yeeo oey oaiaoeea ?ic?iaeaia
aeinoaoiuei aeeaiei, iaeaea iaciaeii? oe?a?inueeei aeine?aeieeai.

Ii-ae?oaa, a Oe?a?i?, yea ciaoiaeeoueny ia oeyoo o?ainoi?iaoe??,
aeaiie?aoe/i? ?inoeoooe ? ua neaaeeie. Aiie a?eueo o?aceea?, i?ae o
e?a?iao c??ei? aeaiie?ao??, ine?eueee caeeoa?oueny iaaaciaea o?yaeiaeo
e?ec, aeiiii?/ii? aeai?an??, aneaeaoe?? ianeeey aai ceiaaeeaaiiy neeith.
Oiio anoaiiaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? ia aeaiiio aoai? aeaiie?aoe/iiai
oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th, aacoiiaii, iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe
ye aaaeeeao neeaaeiao /anoeio o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a.

Ii-o?ao?, ia oeueiio neeaaeiiio aoai?, yeee ia?aaeeaa? ca?ac Oe?a?ia
aoaeoeaiee aeaiie?aoe/iee eiio?ieue neaniao? niieono a?i?? ye
aeanii?o/ii ao?o/aoeny o iie?oeeo, oae ? noaoe cia?yaeaeyi aeey
caoiieaiiy iie?oe/ii? aeaaee aoaeue-yeith iie?oe/iith ia?o??th /e
e?aea?ii.

Ii-/aoaa?oa, cae?i/aiiy “oieiaeii? a?eie”, ?iciaae nioe?ae?noe/iiai
oaai?o o oe?eiio ? ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco cie?aia noeioethaaei
aeoea?caoe?th aoi?/ieo, ?ae?a?eieo ? iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo nee, ye?
iaiaaathoueny caeo/eoe a?i?th aei ae??oaiiy iie?oe/ieo i?iaeai
ona?aaeei? aea?aeaae. Naia oeea?eueiee eiio?ieue iaae ca?ieieie neeaie ?
cia/iith ia?aoeiaeith ao?eaiith o aeeooy oeeo oe?eae.

Ii-i’yoa, Oe?a?ia naia acyea ia naaa ciaia’ycaiiy ? i?aeoaa?aeeea oea a
i?aeia?iaeieo ? io?oe?eieo aea?aeaaieo aeieoiaioao i?i nai? i?aaiaiiy
noai?eoe nenoaio ae?enii aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae
ca?ieieie neeaie oiui.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaieie iaoiaeaie, ye? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?ae
/an aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ? nenoaiiee ? ii??aiyeueiee. Naia
aiie aeaee ciiao aeyaeoe ye aaaaoiiai?oio oe?e?ni?noue i?iaeaie
oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th, oae ? cia/ou?noue aeina?aeo NOA o
oeueiio ieoaii? aeey iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie.

Nooi?iue ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Ieoaiiy aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeea?eueiiai
eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th a ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? i?inoi ia i?aei?iaeiny,
ine?eueee aaaaeaeiny, ui “ia?iae ? a?i?y ?aeei?”, “a?i?y — ieioue a?ae
ieio? ia?iaeii?».

Aea i?iaeaiai a?aeiinei a?i?? c noni?euenoaii, aea?aeaaith ? iie?oeeith
aoea i?enay/aia aaeeea e?euee?noue ?ia?o ?aaeyinueeeo ai?iieo
aeine?aeiee?a. Na?aae ieo iiaeia iacaaoe Aa?noeiaa ?.?., Aieeiaiiiaa
Ae.A., Ai?iaueeiaa E.A., Aeaee?einueeiai A.?., Ai?iaoeiaa A.A.,
Eaiaanueeiai A.?., Eeeiiaa ?.A., Eaaaaeaaa A.E., Iaiiioiaa TH.A.,
Ieeiaaiiaa A.?., Na?aa?yiieeiaa A.A., Oeii?eia I.I., Ooiaea?ueyia A.I.,
Othoeaae/a N.I., *aeaeeiiaa I.A., *a?eanaiea I.?., *e?eeia A.?.,
Oaaa?aeiia I.I. oa aaaaoi ?ioeo.

Ia iaoo aeoieo, aiae?c ?ia?o oeeo aeine?aeiee?a aea? i?aenoaae
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui a ieo ii?o/ c iaaieie caeiaooeaie a inieneaii?
neeaaeieo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo i?iaeai a?i??, ia? i?noea i/aaeaeia
caeaaei?noue ?o iiaeyae?a a?ae iiceoe?e ia?enenonueei-eai?inueei? iaoee
uiaei ?ie? ? i?noey ca?ieieo nee o noni?euenoa?. A?aecia/eaoe caiia/aiiy
naii? oaie aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th ca
?aaeyinueeeo /an?a, na?aae iniiaieo oaeeo iiceoe?e ia?enecio-eai?i?cio
iaiao?aeii iacaaoe ianooii?:

Ii-ia?oa, iaeaaaeeea?oei i?eioeeiii ?aaeyinueeiai a?enueeiaiai
aoae?aieoeoaa aaaaeaany i?eioeei ea??aieoeoaa ca?ieieie neeaie c aieo
Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o??.

Ii-ae?oaa, aea?aeaaa, c oi/ee ci?o ia?enenonueei? oai???, iineoue
eeaniaee oa?aeoa?, oiio a?i?y ye “a?aeaeoie” noni?euenoaa ia? oaeiae
eeaniao nooi?noue.

Ii-o?ao?, aaaaeaeiny, ui ca?iei? neee ? ia o?eueee ia’?eoii iie?oeee, a
iaeii/anii — e ?? noa’?eoii.

Ii-/aoaa?oa, aacoth/enue ia i?aoeyo eeanee?a ia?enecio-eai?i?cio:
O.Aiaaeuena oa A.Eai?ia, noaa?aeaeoaaeiny, ui c ?icaeoeii nioe?ae?cio
aioo??oiy ooieoe?y a?i?? a?ae?i?a.

O naith /a?ao, cao?aei? ai?ii? iie?oieiae i?iaaee aeeaie? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaie aeaiie?aoe/iiai eiio?ieth iaae ca?ieieie neeaie, ieie aoei
?ic?iaeaii aaaaoi iiaeaeae nenoai oeea?eueii-a?enueeiaeo a?aeiinei.
Aeoaea aaeeea /anoeia oe??? ?iaioe iaeaaeeoue aia?eeainueeei a/aiei.
Na?aae ieo iiaeia iacaaoe N.Oaio?iaoiia, Ae.O?anea, *.Eie?aia, A.Aeaea,
A.Aoaeianoa?a, I.Aiaa?aea, A.I?eeaoa, A.Ni?oa, ?.Eiia, N.Na?eanueyia,
Aeae.N?ca?a, I.ssiiaeoey, A.Eioaia, I.O?aa?a oa aaaaoi ?ioeo.

Aiae?coth/e ?iaioe oeeo aaoi??a, iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui a NOA, ye
c?aooith ? a ?ioeo cao?aeieo e?a?iao, iacaeaaeii a?ae ?ici???a oa
ai?caeaoiino? ca?ieieo nee, aeieiaiai aai iicaaeieiaiai noaoono
aea?aeaae, ?nio? eiinainon c ieoaiiy iaiao?aeiino? oeea?eueiiai
eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th ye aeaiaioo i?aeo?eiee oa caa?aaeaiiy
aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae.

C ?iciaaeii ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco, a neeaaeieo oiiaao
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe??, ui neeaeany inoaii?ie ?ieaie a
Oe?a?i?, no??ieiai nei?i/aiiy ca?ieieo nee o oe?eiio oa
a?enueeiai-iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo ?inoeooo?a
cie?aia, eaoano?io?/ii cieceeany iaoeiaa aeoeai?noue oe?a?inueeeo
a?enueeiaeo aeine?aeiee?a. Aeey oao?aoe?a c noni?eueii-aoiai?oa?ieo
ieoaiue neooaoe?y caaino?eeany ua e oiio, ui A?enueeiai-iie?oe/ia
aeaaeai?y — iniiaia a ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? eociy a?enueeiaeo a/aieo c
aoiai?oa?ieo i?iaeai ai?iii? noa?e ? noiaeua aaeeei? e?eueeino? aeaea?ae
c oeeo ieoaiue caeeoeeiny ia oa?eoi??? non?aeiuei? aea?aeaae.

I?ioyaii ?nioaaiiy Oe?a?ie ye iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae c’yaeeany iaaia
e?euee?noue noaoae, ui a iniiaiiio oi?eaeeny a?eueo caaaeueieo i?iaeai —
a naia ?ie? oa i?noey ca?ieieo nee a iiaiio oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?
oa i?ioeano aeaiie?aoecaoe?? a?i?? (Eiaeoaa N., *i?iee A., *a/eei A.,
?eue/oe E., Aaeaethe A., Ia?aieeeoey A., Ooeea I., ?aaeaoeueeee A.,
?aiaoaiei I., Iaiae?aaaey A., E?ioeeia A., A?eeia TH., Iae?aa N. ,
Iaia/einueeee I. oa ?io?).

Cae/aeii, oaea neooaoe?y cia/ii aieeioea ? ia i?aeaioiaeo oa caoeno
aeena?oaoe?eieo ?ia?o c i?iaeaie oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th,
yeeo iiee ui cian?i iaia?. Ie??i oeueiai, aeoaea iaei aoei ? noaoae c
oeueiai ieoaiiy (Eiaaeueneee A., A?aiaiei TH., Aoaaiei A.,
Ne?iaeuenueeee I., Oa?ai N., Eaaoinueeee A., A?a/ai?iia A. oa ?io?).

Oaeei /eiii, iaeyae ?nioth/eo oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?noi?e/ia
iaiao?aei?noue ae??oaiiy iiaeo caaaeaiue, ye? iinoaee ia?aae iieiaeith
iacaeaaeiith Oe?a?iith a ?? aaaeaii? i?e?aeiaoeny aei na?oiai?
aeaiie?ao??, aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui caaaeaiiy
eiiieaeniiai aiae?co aeina?aeo NOA, ye aea?aeaae c aeaai?ie
aeaiie?aoe/ieie o?aaeeoe?yie, a noai?aii? nenoaie oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth
iaae nai?ie ca?ieieie neeaie ? ?icaeyaeo iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy eiai
a i?ioean? aoae?aieoeoaa a?i?? Oe?a?ie ? aaeueie aeooaeueiei.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nenoaia oeea?eueiiai
eiio?ieth iaae ca?ieieie neeaie a aeaiie?aoe/i?e aea?aeaa?.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeina?ae NOA oa i?iaeaie
Oe?a?ie o i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie oeea?eueii-a?enueeiaeo a?aeiinei aaciina?aaeiuei
iia’ycaia c ?ica’ycaiiyi caaaeaiiy uiaei noai?aiiy oiia aeey noaiiaeaiiy
aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae Ca?ieieie Neeaie Oe?a?ie,
yea noi?oue ia?aae aeueie i?aaiaie ea??aieoeoaa aea?aeaaith o oe?eiio ?
I?i?noa?noaii iai?iie Oe?a?ie cie?aia. Oea caaaeaiiy cae??ieaia iaoith
e?a?iith o i?aeia?iaeieo ? io?oe?eieo aea?aeaaieo aeieoiaioao, o
Aea?aeaai?e i?ia?ai? aoae?aieoeoaa oa ?icaeoeo Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie ii
ia??iae aei 2005 ?ieo. A?aeiia?aeia i?iaeaiaoeea ciaeoea a?aeia?aaeaiiy
o ieaiao iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe i?ae?icae?e?a Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie,
cie?aia o ieai? iaoeiai? ?iaioe Aeaaeai?? Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o cae?eniaii? eiiieaeniiai
aiae?co no/anii? nenoaie aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae
ca?ieieie neeaie NOA oa ?icaeyae? iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy ?o aeina?aeo
a i?ioean? o?ainoi?iaoe?? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe cae?enithaaeiny a aeena?oaoe?? iinooiiaei
ae??oaiiyi oaeeo caaaeaiue:

aecia/aiiyi ?ie? ? i?noey i?iaeaie, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny, a nenoai?
oeea?eueii-a?enueeiaeo a?aeiinei, ?? oa?aeoa?ieo ?en oa iniaeeainoae;

aiae?co nooiino? i?iaeaie oeea?eueii-a?enueeiaeo a?aeiinei a
aeaiie?aoe/i?e aea?aeaa? oa aecia/aiiy iiiyooy «oeea?eueiee eiio?ieue
iaae ca?ieieie neeaie»;

?icaeyaeo ?noi?e/ieo aeoie?a oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aeaiie?aoe/iiai
oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae ca?ieieie neeaie NOA;

iieaco aaiethoe?? i?ioeano eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th c aieo caeiiiaeaa/i?,
aeeiiaa/i? oa noaeiai? a?eie aeaaee NOA;

?icaeyaeo iniiaieo niinia?a cae?eniaiiy oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth;

aiae?co no/aniiai noaio oa a??ia?aeieo oeyo?a iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo a
Oe?a?i? nenoaie aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae ca?ieieie
neeaie oa iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy aeina?aeo NOA o oeueiio ieoaii? a
iaoeo oiiaao.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia caoeno aeiinyoueny ianooii?
iieiaeaiiy, ui noaiiaeyoue iaoeiao iiaecio ?iaioe:

i?iaiae?ciaaii aeina?ae ?icaeiooeo aeaiie?aoe/ieo e?a?i Caoiaeo,
cie?aia, NOA o anoaiiaeaii? oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae ca?ieieie neeaie
c iaoith a?aooaaiiy eiai i?ae /an i?ioeano aeaniiai aoae?aieoeoaa
Oe?a?iith nenoaie oeea?eueii-a?enueeiaeo a?aeiinei;

aeaii aecia/aiiy iiiyooy «aeaiie?aoe/iee oeea?eueiee eiio?ieue iaae
ca?ieieie neeaie»;

iieacaii cia/aiiy aeey aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae ?nioaaiiy nenoaie
oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th;

i?iaeaiiino?iaaii a?aeiineie i?ae caeiiiaeaa/ith, aeeiiaa/ith oa
noaeiaith a?eeaie aeaaee a ?o noaaeaii? aei ca?ieieo nee;

aecia/aii oi?ie ? niiniae oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th, ?ice?eoi
?o oe?e?nii-nenoaiiee oa?aeoa?;

i?aee?aneaii cia/ou?noue i?ioan?iiae?caoe?? oa aeaiie?oecaoe?? ca?ieieo
nee, ?iciaaeoaaiiy ooieoe?e oa iiaiiaaaeaiue i?ae i?i?noa?noaii iai?iie
? aaia?aeueiei ooaaii ca?ieieo nee, aaaeeea?noue oaeoo ?nioaaiiy
oeea?eueiiai i?i?no?a iai?iie oa eiai aia?aoo aeey anoaiiaeaiiy,
i?aeo?eiaiiy ? caa?aaeaiiy aeaiie?aoe/iiai ono?ith a aea?aeaa?;

iai?/aii iiaeeea? oeyoe noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeea?eueiiai
eiio?ieth iaae Ca?ieieie Neeaie Oe?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe:

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoai oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae ca?ieieie
neeaie NOA ? Oe?a?ie iiaeooue ni?eyoe:

a?eueo aeeaieiio ?icoi?iith ?ie? oeueiai nioe?aeueiiai yaeua a oiiaao
aeaiie?aoe/iiai noni?euenoaa;

a?eueo ia’?eoeaiiio i?aeoiaeo aei noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie aeaiie?aoe/iiai
oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae Ca?ieieie Neeaie Oe?a?ie;

iiaeaeueoiio aea/aiith nooiino? oa iniaeeainoae i?aai?caoe?? no/anieo
iiaeaeae oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th a ?ioeo e?a?iao na?oo c?
noaeeie aeaiie?aoe/ieie o?aaeeoe?yie;

ai?iaaaeaeaiith a aeeooy iaia’yceiaiai iciaeiieaiiy neooa/?a Aeaaeai??
Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie ? eo?naio?a a?enueeiaeo ?inoeooo?a c oeei ieoaiiyi.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe

Iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? aiae?oe/ieo aeieoiaio?a aeey ea??aiiai neeaaeo I?i?noa?noaa
iai?iie Oe?a?ie, a iaa/aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i?e ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a
eaoaae?e noni?eueii-aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe Aeaaeai?? Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie.
I?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
iie?oe/ieo iaoe Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea oa
eaoaae?e noni?eueii-aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe Aeaaeai?? Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie. Ca
?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aoea c?iaeaia aeiiia?aeue ia ??-e
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe??: «Aoiai?oa?ia ina?oa o a?enueeiaeo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao» (Euea?a, 1998 ?.).

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe a?aeia?aaeaii o 5 ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Oa?aeoa? oa niaoeeo?ea iinoaaeaieo
aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue coiiaeee no?oeoo?o ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y
i?noeoue anooi, o?e ?icae?ee, aeniiaee ? nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 150 noi??ieao, aeeth/a? iaeio noaio ? iaeei
iaethiie. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae iae?/o? 221 iaeiaioaaiiy, 91 c
ieo ?iicaiieie iiaaie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aecia/aii ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ice?eoi
ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie; iaoeiao iiaecio
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a; i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe; iaaaaeaii
a?aeiiino? i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — «Nooi?noue oa ?noi?e/i? aeoiee i?iaeaie
oeea?eueii-a?enueeiaeo a?aeiinei», ?icaeyiooi nooi?noue i?iaeaie
oeea?eueii-a?enueeiaeo a?aeiinei a oiiaao aeaiie?ao?? ? nooi?iue
iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oeueiai ieoaiiy, ia?aii iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
i?iaiae?ciaaii ?noi?e/i? aeoiee oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie oeea?eueiiai
eiio?ieth iaae ca?ieieie neeaie a Niieo/aieo Ooaoao Aia?eee.

O ?icae?e? noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui i?iaeaia oeea?eueii-a?enueeiaeo
a?aeiinei a aeaiie?aoe/i?e aea?aeaa? ia? ia?aaeien: c iaeiiai aieo,
aeaiie?aoe/ia noni?euenoai iio?aao? ca?ieieo nee ye iaeiiai c ?inoeooo?a
aea?aeaae aeey caaacia/aiiy eiai caoenoo a?ae ciai?oi?o ai?ia?a, c
?ioiai — iaa?oue i?e aeaiie?ao?? caeeoa?oueny iaaaciaea a caoiieaii?
iie?oe/ii? aeaaee a aea?aeaa? a?enueeiaeie. Oei naiei noai?th?oueny
caa?ica naiiio ?nioaaiith aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?aaeeio a e?a?i?.

Ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai ia?aaeieno a ?iaio? ie?aneththoueny aea?
aca?iii?ioeeaaei? ? iioaioe?eii eiioe?eooth/? noi?iie oe??? i?iaeaie.
Aiae?coth/e ia?oo noi?iio oe??? i?iaeaie, aa?oi cacia/eoe, ui ca?iei?
neee iiaeii? aooe aeineoue neeueieie, uia ia?aiaaaoe o a?eiao. A?eueo
oiai, ?o neea ia? aooe a?aeiia?aeiith caa?icai, ui noiyoue ia?aae
noni?euenoaii. Ca?iei? neee iiaeii? aooe caaaeaee ai?caeaoieie, iaa?oue
oiae?, eiee aiie i?eiee ia aeei?enoiaothoueny ca i?yiei i?ecia/aiiyi.
Iaaaeaeaaoiee ciai?oi?i caa?icai a?enueeiaee ?inoeooo iiaea aooe a??oei
yaeuai o aeeoo? noni?euenoaa, i?ae yeui a a?i cian?i ia ?nioaaa.
Aeaeeia, a ia oaeoe/ia eiai i?oeue eeoa oeaii caniieith? iie?oe/ieo
e?aea??a a ?o iiieeeia?e aiaaiaiino?, i?eaiaeeoue ?o aei aacaeocaei?
iiaaae?iee ? oaeei /eiii aei ii?acee a inoaoi/i?e a?enueeia?e
noia?a/oe?.

Ae?oaa noi?iia i?iaeaie oeea?eueii-a?enueeiaeo a?aeiinei ? eia?/ii
a?aeiia?aeiith ia?o?e, aea i?aeoe/ii i?ioeeaaeia ?e: oi/ii oae, ye
ca?iei? neee iiaeii? caoeuaoe aea?aeaaiee ono??e a?ae ciai?oi?o ai?ia?a,
oi/ii oae aiie iathoue naaa iiaiaeeoe o noni?euenoa?, uia ia c?oeioaaoe
eiai. C iaeiiai aieo, ine?eueee ca?iei? neee iathoue i?ioenoiyoe
ciai?oi?i ai?iaai, aiie iiaeii? iaoe i?eioniao neeo, caeaoi?noue
iaa’ycoaaoe naith aieth ?ioei. C ?ioiai — yeui ca?iei? neee iathoue
iaaio i?eioniao neeo, aiie iiaeooue oaeiae iaa’ycoaaoe naith aieth ?
noni?euenoao, yea noai?eei ?o. I?yia caoiieaiiy iie?oe/ii? aeaaee
a?enueeiaeie ? iniiaiith o?aaeeoe?eiith i?iaeaiith
oeea?eueii-a?enueeiaeo a?aeiinei.

Iaio yaiith, aea oi/ii oaeith ae oeaiith, ? caeaoi?noue ca?ieieo nee
c?oeioaaoe noni?euenoai oeyoii aeniaaeoaaiiy eiai ?ano?n?a i?e iaiaaaii?
noai?aiiy a?eueo neeueii? a?i?? ii??aiyii c? ca?ieieie neeaie ai?ia?a
nai?? aea?aeaae.

Ua iaeia i?iaeaia i?noeoueny o iiaeeeaino? ?nioaaiiy
a?enueeiaeo-aaaioth?eno?a, ui iiaee a aoyaiooe noni?euenoai o a?eie ?
eiioe?eoe, ye? a ia a?aeiia?aeaee aea?aeaaiei ?ioa?anai.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, na?oiaee aeina?ae na?ae/eoue, ui cia/ia ?ieue
a?enueeiaeo o oi?ioaaii? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee caaaea? aea?aeaa? aaeeei?
oeiaee, iiaea iaoiiaeoe iaaei??io i?e?oa?ecaoe?th noni?euenoaa, i?ae?ea
aeiiii?/ieo nee, noaoe iaei??th c aieiaieo i?e/ei oyaeeiai noaiiaeua oa
iecueeiai aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ia?iaeo. Oiio a aeaiie?aoe/ieo e?a?iao
anoaiiaeaii iaiioeoi? i?eioeeie: caa?oi?noue oeea?eueieo no?oeoo? aeaaee
iaae a?enueeiaeie; aeeeth/aiiy a?enueeiaeo c aeaaeieo iie?oe/ieo
no?oeoo?; caaaeaiiy i?ecia/aiiy a?i?? aeeeth/ii aeey oiai, uia caoeuaoe
noni?euenoai, aea ia oi?aaeyoe iei; aecia/aiiy aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee, o
oiio /ene? iai?iiii?, oeea?eueiith aea?aeaaiith aeaaeith.

Ia i?aenoaa? ?icaeyaeo nooiino? oeea?eueii-a?enueeiaeo aca?iei a oiiaao
aeaiie?ao?? ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui aeaiie?aoe/iee oeea?eueiee eiio?ieue
iaae ca?ieieie neeaie icia/a? aeoaea neeaaeiee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy
(eiio?ieth) iaae a?i??th c aieo ia?iaeo ye /a?ac aea?aeaai? ?inoeoooe,
oae ? /a?ac nai? iaoi?iaeuei? iacaeaaei? ia’?aeiaiiy, ni?yiiaaiee ia oa,
uia noai ? canoinoaaiiy ca?ieieo nee a?aeiia?aeaee iio?aaai oa ?ioa?anai
noni?euenoaa. A ?icaeiooiio aeaiie?aoe/iiio noni?euenoa? i?ioean
oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae ca?ieieie neeaie cae?enith?oueny a ??cieo
oi?iao ? ca aeiiiiiaith ?icaaeoaeaiiai eiiieaeno niinia?a, ui noiyoue ia
ia?aoeiae? iiaeeeaino? iaaacia/ieo aeey noni?euenoaa aioeaea?aeaaieo
ae?e a?enueeiaeo.

Aeae? o ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny ?noi?e/i? oeyoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa
?icaeoeo nenoaie oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae ca?ieieie neeaie a NOA, ye
iaei??? c aea?aeaa Caoiaeo c? noaeeie aeaiie?aoe/ieie o?aaeeoe?yie.

O oiae? oeueiai aiae?co aeiaiaeeoueny oa, ui ?aeay aeaiie?aoe/iiai
oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae ca?ieieie neeaie iaea aaeeeee aieea ia
noni?euenoai a ia?o? aei? ?nioaaiiy aia?eeainueei? ?anioae?ee, eiee aoea
iaienaia ? i?eeiyoa aia?eeainueea eiinoeoooe?y ? noi?iiaaiee, ca?aeii c
?? iieiaeaiiyie, oaaea?aeueiee o?yae. I?ioyaii ia?oiai noie?ooy
?nioaaiiy ?anioae?ee oeea?eueiee eiio?ieue noaa /anoeiith iaoe?iiaeueii?
o?aaeeoe??, aeo?eiaaoe na?eici? caa?ice i?ae /an a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie
(1861-1865 ??.). A?i caa??a ana nai? cia/aiiy i?ioyaii OO noie?ooy,
iacaaaeath/e ia aea? na?oia? a?eie ? aeiaaee ia??iae i?aeia?iaeii?
iai?oae, a?aeiiiai ye «oieiaeia a?eia». Ca?ac o?aaeeoe?y oeea?eueiiai
eiio?ieth a NOA i?oeia ye i?eiee. Aea i??i?eoao a NOA a?iiaaeyinueeeo
oe?iiinoae oa ?inoeooo?a ia noaa ia?aoeiaeith aeey noai?aiiy
aenieiaoaeoeaieo ca?ieieo nee, eiee a ieo aeieeaea iio?aaa.

Oaeei /eiii, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, 200-??/iee aeina?ae ?ic?iaee oa
oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th a NOA, aac
noii?ao, iio?aao? aeaoaeueiiai aea/aiiy iieiaeeie aeaiie?aoe/ieie
e?a?iaie na?oo, o oiio /ene? e Oe?a?iith.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — «Iniiai? oi?ie, niiniae ? neeaaeia? oeea?eueiiai
eiio?ieth iaae ca?ieieie neeaie NOA», aeinoaoiuei aeaoaeueii
?ice?eaa?oueny any no/ania nenoaia oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae
aia?eeainueeith a?i??th, aiae?cothoueny iniiai? oi?ie ? niiniae
cae?eniaiiy oaeiai eiio?ieth, ie?aneththoueny iniiai? eiai neeaaeia?.

O ?acoeueoao? ?icaeyaeo nenoaie oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae ca?ieieie
neeaie NOA noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui a?i ia? oi?iaeuei? ? iaoi?iaeuei? oeyoe
nai?? ?aae?caoe?? — /a?ac aea?aeaao ? /a?ac iaaea?aeaai? i?aai?caoe??
a?aeiia?aeii. I?e/iio, a ?iaio? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui ia’?eoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy noaea nenoaia oi?iaeueiiai oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae
a?i??th a aeaiie?aoe/i?e aea?aeaa?.

Ine?eueee NOA ? i?aceaeaionueeith ?anioae?eith, aeena?oaio aecia/a?
?nioaaiiy a i?e o?ueio iniiaieo oi?i oi?iaeueiiai oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth
iaae a?i??th: c aieo caeiiiaeaa/i?, aeeiiaa/i? oa noaeiai? a?eie aeaae.

Aiae?coth/e oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo aca?iei i?ae oi?iaie aeaiie?aoe/iiai
oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae ca?ieieie neeaie NOA c aieo caeiiiaeaa/i? ?
aeeiiaa/i? a?eie aeaaee, aaoi? ?iaeoue oae? aeniiaee:

aeei?enoaiiy a NOA o a?enueeia?e noa?? eiinoeoooe?eii? nenoaie
«no?eioaaiue ? i?ioeaaa» i?eiee ia aoei i?inoith aai eaaeith ni?aaith;

aaiethoe?y aeaaee neiioeaio?oaaea eaaiao /anoeo ai?iieo iiaiiaaaeaiue a
?oeao i?aceaeaioa;

?aoi?ie 70-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy aeaui e?ea?aeoaaee aeenaaeain o
a?aeiineiao i?ae i?aceaeaioii ? eiia?anii, iaeiae, an? oe? iaiaaeaiiy
ai?iieo iiaiiaaaeaiue i?aceaeaioa ia ciiaee iinoaaeoe ?o i?ae eiio?ieue
eiia?ano;

aeeiiaa/a aeaaea ? ia nueiaiaei? i?iaeiaaeo? a?aoe ae??oaeueio ?ieue o
aecia/aii? ai?iii? iie?oeee NOA;

eiia?an a?ae?a?aaaa ? i?iaeiaaeo? a?ae?a?aaaoe aaaeeeao ?ieue, aea
oa?aeoa? ieoaiue i?aeia?iaeii? aaciaee ? neeaaei?noue i?aeia?iaeii?
iie?oeee, ui i?aeaeuo?oueny, noai?th? caeiiiaeaa/?e aeaae? aaaee? oiiae
aeey ea?oaaiiy iaoe??th aai eiio?iethaaiiy i?aceaeaioa o iecoe?
iie?oe/ieo ?i?oe?aoea;

aeuee caeiiiaeaa/?e i?aai NOA a neeo eiai, ia?o ca ana,
i?aaenoaaieoeueei? ?ie? oa oi?aae?iiy ?iciiae?eii o?iain?a e?a?ie
caeeoa?oueny na?eiciith i?ioeaaaith o aeiaaeeo ceiaaeeaaiiy aeaaeith o
noa?? ai?iii? iie?oeee c aieo i?aceaeaioa e?a?ie.

Coieiyth/enue ia o?ao?e oi?i? oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth — c aieo noaeiai?
aeaaee, o ?iaio? a?aecia/a?oueny oa, ui oaiaeaioe?y ca?eueoaiiy
eiio?iethth/i? ?ie? aea?aeaae iaae ca?ieieie neeaie NOA ca aeiiiiiaith
noaeiai? aeaaee aeyaey?oueny o aaaaoueio i?eeeaaeao cae?eniaiiy ?aoi?i o
oe?e noa??, ye? iaee i?noea i?ney Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie, ui aeyaeeeny
o:

noai?aii? A?enueeiai-aiaeyoe?eiiai noaeo a 1968 ?ioe? c oaaea?aeueiei
noaoonii ? oeea?eueiei neeaaeii noaeae?a;

iai?aeii?yaeeiaaiino?, ca?aeii c /eiiei caeiiiaeaanoaii, a?enueeiaeo
noae?a i?i?no?o iai?iie;

iaoiaeaeaii? a?enueeiaeo noae?a i?ae iaaeyaeiaith th?enaeeeoe??th
ia?eaiaionueeeo eii?oao?a c ieoaiue ca?ieieo nee;

iaea?aeaii? Aa?oiaiei noaeii NOA a 1984 ?ioe? i?aaa ca aeiiaaaiiyi
iaaeioaa/aiiai a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey aai aea?aeaae ia?aaeyaeaoe a
inoaii?e ?inoaioe?? ni?aae, ye? ?icaeyaeaeeny a?enueeiaeie noaeaie.

O ?iaio? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui eiaeia oi?ia oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae
a?i??th a NOA ia? nai? niiniae ?aae?caoe??. Na?aae iniiaieo niinia?a
cacia/athoueny oae?:

c aieo aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee — i?aceaeaio NOA ? aieiaiieiiaiaeoth/ei
ca?ieieie neeaie oa aieiaith ?aaee iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee, yea iaaea?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? i?aceaeaioo uiaei i?iaaaeaiiy ai?iii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae
o ?aieao caaacia/aiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee;
a?i ia? i?aai i?eeiaoe ??oaiiy uiaei ?ici?uaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy a?i?? ca
ei?aeiiii ? ona?aaeei? e?a?ie oa cae?eniaiiy aieiaeo ae?e a iaiaaeaiee
ia??iae; i?ecia/aiiy oa ca?eueiaiiy aeueo iinaaeiaeo in?a ca?ieieo nee;
iaieioaiiy iia?e?caoe?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aaa?ae?? i?ae /an aoi?aiaiiy aai
aeey i?eaeooaiiy caeieioo oiui;

c aieo caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee — eiia?an noaaeth? a?enueeiaee athaeaeao;
iaieioo? a?eio; caoaa?aeaeo? i?aai?caoe?ei? no?oeoo?e a?i??; caaacia/o?
nioe?aeueiee caoeno a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a oa /eai?a ?o n?iae; iaieioo?
o ai?iiee /an anacaaaeueio iia?e?caoe?th; aecia/a? oiiae ? ii?yaeie
i?ioiaeaeaiiy a?enueeiai? neoaeae, ?ici??e ieaoi? ? o.ae.;

c aieo noaeiai? aeaaee — Aa?oiaiee noae NOA i?eeia? ??oaiiy uiaei
eiinoeoooe?eiino? caeiiiaeaa/eo ? aeeiiaa/eo aeoe?e o a?enueeia?e noa??;
o Oaaea?aeueiiio ie?oaeiiio noae? iiaeooue ii?oooaaoeny noaeia? ni?aae
i?ioe a?i?? o ca’yceo c? oeiaeaie, caiiae?yieie a?enueeiaeie;
A?enueeiai-aiaeyoe?eiee noae ia i?aeeyaa? ea?oaaiith /e eiio?ieth c aieo
i?i?no?a iai?iie ? ia? o nai?io neeaae? eeoa oeea?eueieo noaeae?a ?
o.?i.

Iniiaieie neeaaeiaeie oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae ca?ieieie neeaie
aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae, o oiio /ene? ? NOA, ?, ia aeoieo aaoi?a,
aeaiie?oecaoe?y ? i?ioan?iiae?caoe?y ca?ieieo nee, a oaeiae
?iciaaeoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue ? ooieoe?e i?ae i?i?noa?noaii iai?iie ?
aaia?aeueiei ooaaii.

A a?i?? NOA aeaiie?oecaoe?y aeyaey?oueny a aeaia?oecaoe?? a?enueeiaeo;
caai?ii? a?aoe o/anoue a iie?oe/ieo aeoe?yo, ui i?iaiaeyoueny aac
aeicaieo a?aeiia?aeieo i?aai?a aeaaee, o neoaeaiaee /an, o a?enueeiaiio
iaeiino?i?, ia oa?eoi??? ?icoaooaaiiy a?enuee, o ia??iae i?ioiaeaeaiiy
neoaeae ca ei?aeiiii; iaiaaeai?e o/ano? o aeai?ao aei i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a oiui. Ana oea, ia iao ?icaeyae, ni?ey? oiio, ui
a?i?y ia aoyao?oueny o ai?ioueao ??cieo iie?oe/ieo nee ca aeaaeo a
e?a?i?, ia a?aeaa?oa? oaaae a?enueeiaeo a?ae nooi ?o i?ioan?eieo ni?aa.

C ??aiai aeaiie?oecaoe?? a?i??, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, o?nii iia’ycaia
ae?oaa neeaaeiaa aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae ca?ieieie
neeaie — i?ioan?iiae?caoe?y a?i??. A aia?eeainueeeo ca?ieieo neeao aiia,
ia?aaeon?i, aeyaey?oueny a i?eioeei? eiiieaeooaaiiy a?enuee ia
aeia?ia?euei?e iniia?, yeee ?nioaaa a Niieo/aieo Ooaoao iaeaea i?ioyaii
an??? ?o ?noi??? ? noaa aaea o?aaeeoe?eiei.

Aaoi? caa?oa? oaaao ia oa, ui aaeeea cia/aiiy a NOA iaaea?oueny /?oeiio
?iciaaeoaaiith iiaiiaaaeaiue ? ooieoe?e i?ae i?i?noa?noaii iai?iie oa
aaia?aeueiei ooaaii (Ia’?aeiaiei eii?oaoii ia/aeueiee?a ooaa?a),
iineeaiith oeea?eueiiai ea??aiiai aeaiaioo a ca?ieieo neeao, yeee
caeia?oueny aeeeth/ii aecia/aiiyi iaoe?iiaeueieo iie?oe/ieo oe?eae oa
no?aoaa?/ieo ieai?a, caeeoath/e ia aeieth a?enueeiaeo caaacia/aiiy
iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy ca?ieieie neeaie. I?e oeueiio
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe? aeoiaothoueny o aeon? a?aeaeaiino? ia ye?enue
iie?oe/i?e ia?o??, a aeaiie?aoe/ii ia?ai?e aea?aeaai?e aeaae?, yea, a
naith /a?ao, i?aeca?oia ia?aae nai?ie aeai?oeyie — ia?iaeii.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — «Noai oa i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie
aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae Ca?ieieie Neeaie Oe?a?ie»,
aiae?cothoueny oeyoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th
Oe?a?ie, o?oaeiiu?, ye? iathoue i?noea o ia?aa?ao ae??oaiiy oe???
i?iaeaie, oa iiaeeea? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo oeueiai i?ioeano, o oiio /ene?
ca aeiiiiiaith aeei?enoaiiy aeina?aeo ?iicaiieo aeaiie?aoe/ieo e?a?i
na?oo caaaeii ? NOA cie?aia.

Ia?aae ii/aoeii ?icaeyaeo oeeo ieoaiue aaoi? coieiy?oueny ia aiae?c?
?noi??? Oe?a?ie, yea o ca’yceo c iino?eieie a?eiaie, ui oi/eeeny ia
oa?aiao iaoi? e?a?ie, oa iaeaea aacia?a?aiei ia?aaoaaiiyi Oe?a?ie a
neeaae? ?ioeo aea?aeaa ia ni?eyea anoaiiaeaiith oaeiai eiio?ieth iaae
ca?ieieie neeaie.

I?ae /an iauiaeaaiueiai ?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo ca?iei? neee
eiio?iethaaeeny Eiioi?noe/iith ia?o??th. Aaoi? iaa?oioiao?, ui oi/a oeae
eiio?ieue ? aoa ?aaeueiei oa aoaeoeaiei, aea a?i ia aoa aeaiie?aoe/iei ?
ia ae?enii oeea?eueiei.

Aeena?oaio cacia/a?, ui, ia aeeaey/enue ia oaea nai? ieioea ?
a?aoiaoth/e aeiiae ia?aoiaeo aei aeaiie?ao?? oa aeina?ae ?icaeiooeo
e?a?i na?oo, ca ?iee nai?? iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ia c?iaeea iaai? e?iee ia
oeyoo noaiiaeaiiy aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae ca?ieieie
neeaie. Na?aae ieo aecia/athoueny oae?:

iaieioaiiy iiaii? aeaia?oecaoe?? a?i??, caai?iia a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyi
a?aoe o/anoue o ae?yeueiino? iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ? ?oo?a, ie?aneaiiy iaae?
o/ano? a?enueeiaeo o iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? e?a?ie;

aecia/aiiy i?aaiaeo iniia ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee
(Aa?oiaii? ?aaee, I?aceaeaioa, Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a) uiaei caaacia/aiiy
iai?iie Oe?a?ie;

ia cian?i aaeaeee aeina?ae 1994-1995 ?ie?a i?ecia/aiiy ia ea??ai?
iinaaee a i?i?noa?noa? iai?iie oeea?eueieo in?a (i?i?no?a iai?iie,
ia/aeueieea oi?aae?iiy ciai?oi?o ca’yce?a, ia/aeueieea Aieiaiiai
oi?aae?iiy ica?i?iiy oiui);

aeneiaeaiiy Oe?a?iith naiai i?aaiaiiy anoaiiaeoe nenoaio aeaiie?aoe/iiai
oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th a io?oe?eieo i?aeia?iaeieo ?
aea?aeaaieo aeieoiaioao: Oa?o?? i?i iniaeeaa ia?oia?noai c IAOI (9 eeiiy
1997 ?ieo) oa Eiioeaioe?? (iniiae aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee) iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee Oe?a?ie (16 n?/iy 1997 ?ieo);

noai?aiiy ?aaee iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ? iai?iie (1994 ?.), yea
eii?aeeio? ? eiio?ieth? ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee o noa??
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee oa Aaia?aeueii? a?enueeiai? ?iniaeoe?? i?e
I?aceaeaio? Oe?a?ie (aa?anaiue 1995 ?ieo);

iiyaa oeaco I?aceaeaioa i?i ?iciiae?eaiiy ooieoe?e oa
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?ae I?i?noa?noaii iai?iie ? Aaia?aeueiei ooaaii
Ca?ieieo nee Oe?a?ie (na?iaiue 1997 ?ieo) oiui.

Aiae?coth/e ia?o? e?iee iaoi? aea?aeaae ia oeyoo anoaiiaeaiiy
oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th, aaoi? ie?aneth? ieceo o?oaeiiu?a, c
yeeie c?oeioeany Oe?a?ia ia oeueiio aoai?. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ?
iaiao?aeiei ?iciiae?eeoe oe? i?iaeaie ia aea? noa?e: oeea?eueio oa
a?enueeiao.

O oeea?euei?e noa?? aeae?eythoueny oae? iniiai? i?iaeaie:

1. Iaeaea iiaia a?aenooi?noue oeea?eueieo aenia?o?a c iai?iie oa
aaciaee.

2. A?aenooi?noue iaiao?aeii? nioe?aeueii? i?aeo?eiee a?i??, ui ?
iane?aeeii ia?icaeiaii? i?e?iaee a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a
Oe?a?i?.

3. Aiaaiai?noue oeea?eueieo o oiio, ui a?enueeia? i?iaeiaaeothoue
cae?enithaaoe o?aaeeoe?eiee «ianeaiee ii??» oeea?eueiiio eiio?ieth.

O a?enueeia?e noa?? iiaeia coieieoeny ia oaeeo iniiaieo i?iaeaiao:

1. A?aenooi?noue aeina?aeo ni?ai?aoe? c oeea?eueieie, ye? a
ciaoiaeeeeny ia aenieeo iinaaeao a i?i?noa?noa? iai?iie /e ia?eaiaio?.

2. Iaia?ciai?noue i?i ?ieue a?i?? a aeaiie?aoe/iiio noni?euenoa? oa
o/anoue oeea?eueieo o ae??oaii? iai?iiieo ieoaiue.

3. A?ae/oooy naiai iaia’yceo caa??aaoe a?i?th a?ae aeaa?aaeaoe?? ?c-ca
iaeiiiaoaioe?? oeea?eueieo iie?oee?a.

4. Noaaeaiiy aei nueiaiaei?oi?o oe?a?inueeeo iie?oee?a ye aei oei/aniaeo
o?ao? (oae, ca n?i ?ie?a iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ia ia? nueiiee neeaae
Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a), /ee aieea ia iai?iiio iie?oeeo ? iacia/iei.

?acii c oei, aeoiaey/e c ?icaeyaeo oa aiae?co ieoaiue aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaoi? ?iaeoue aeaye? aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
oeyo?a anoaiiaeaiiy nenoaie aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae
Ca?ieieie Neeaie Oe?a?ie ? aeei?enoaiiy aeina?aeo NOA o oeueiio i?ioean?
c oaeeo i?iaeai:

1. ?ieue ? aca?ieie i?ae iniiaieie oi?iaie oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae
a?i??th.

O iei?oi?e /an aeeiiaa/a aeaaea a Oe?a?i? o ii??aiyii? c NOA ia ia?
oaeeo oe?ieeo iiaiiaaaeaiue a iai?iiieo ieoaiiyo. O oeueiio, ia iaoo
aeoieo, i?noeoueny a?aei?ii?noue i?ae aia?eeainueeith i?aceaeaionueeith
oa oe?a?inueeith i?aceaeaionueei-ia?eaiaionueeith ?anioae?eaie.
I?aceaeaio NOA ? aeaaith aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, a a Oe?a?i? aeuee i?aai
oe??? a?eee aeaaee — Eaa?iao i?i?no??a, a I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie aenooia? ye
iniaeeaa a?eea aeaaee — i?aceaeaionueea.

Ca ?icoi?iiyi aaoi?a, o iei?oi?e /an i?aceaeaionueea aeaaea Oe?a?ie, ye
oea a?aeaoaa?oueny ? a NOA, a?ae?a?a? i??i?eoaoio ?ieue o ae??oaii?
a?enueeiaeo ieoaiue.

A ?iaio? aaoi? a?aecia/a?, ui, oaea oaiaeaioe?y ia?aaaaeii? ?ie?
i?aceaeaionueei? aeaaee a iai?iiieo ieoaiiyo aoaea caa??aaoeny i?ioyaii
anueiai ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo, ine?eueee /a?ac neeaaei?noue ?
iaaecia/ai?noue aioo??oiuei? iie?oeei-?aeaieia?/ii? neooaoe?? ona?aaeei?
e?a?ie Ca?ieiei Neeai Oe?a?ie iaiao?aei? a?eueo aaoi?eoa?i? iaoiaee
ea??aieoeoaa, ye? iiaea aaeeoe ia aeaiee /an a?eueo oeaio?ae?ciaaia
aeaaea, oiaoi i?aceaeaionueea. Aei oiai ae, aei oaeeo iaoiae?a
ea??aieoeoaa a?i?y Oe?a?ie aoea aioiaa, oae ye ? iaei??th ?c
niaaeei?iieoeue ?aaeyinueei? a?i?? c ?? aei?noieei oeaio?ae?ciaaiei
i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiyi.

Aea, yeui eiia?an NOA iaaciic? ciaaaoeny c i?aceaeaioii ca oi/ ae ??aio
eiai o/anoue a oi?aae?ii? ca?ieieie neeaie /a?ac aeoeaio aeaiaea?inueeo
?ieue oe??? aea?aeaae a na?o? (aaeeea e?euee?noue a?enuee o ??cieo
eooi/eao ieaiaoe, /anoa ?o aeei?enoaiiy c i?eaiaeo oae caaieo «caa?ic
iaoe?iiaeueiei ?ioa?anai NOA» iio?aaothoue a?eueo iia?aoeaiiai
oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai oa?aeoa?o oi?aae?iiy c aieo i?aceaeaioa, a ia c aieo
a?ii?caeeiai iaiia?aoeaiiai eiia?ano), oi Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie o
ca’yceo c /enoi iai?iiieie ooieoe?yie a?i?? Oe?a?ie a i?ioean? ia?aoiaeo
iaoi? e?a?ie aei aeaiie?ao??, iaaeaaiiy ianaeaiiyi Oe?a?ie
aeaiie?aoe/ieo oe?iiinoae, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iaiaei?iii aoaea iinooiiai
e?ea?aeiaoaaoe ia naith ei?enoue oeae aeenaaeain i?ae i?aceaeaionueeith,
aeeiiaa/ith ? caeiiiaeaa/ith a?eeaie aeaaee.

Oeueiai aeiaaa? ? oie oaeo, ui aeuee caeiiiaeaa/ee i?aai aea?aeaae o
iaea?eueo iiaiiio aeaeyae? neioaco? ? a?aeia?aaea? ?ioa?ane an?o
i?ioa?e?a oa a?oi ianaeaiiy.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, oi?ia aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae
a?i??th c aieo noaeiai? a?eee aeaaee a Oe?a?i? ?nio?, aea e aiia
iio?aao? iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy ? a oeueiio ieoaii? iiaea aooe
aeei?enoaiee aeina?ae NOA. O ?iaio? iaa?oioiao?oueny, ui cai?ia ooaoieo
a?enueeiaeo iinaae o aeu?e a?enueeia?e ?inoaioe?? — a?enueeia?e eieaa??
Aa?oiaiiai noaeo Oe?a?ie ia oeea?euei? ? oe?eeii aeioe?eueiith. I?ioa,
noai?aiiy ie?aiiai aeuiai a?enueeiaiai noaeiaiai i?aaio, iiae?aiiai aei
A?enueeiai-aiaeyoe?eiiai noaeo NOA, ia iao iiaeyae, ? iaiio??aiei,
ine?eueee oea eeoa oneeaaeieoue a?enueeiao noaeiao nenoaio.

2. Aeaiie?oecaoe?y ca?ieieo nee.

Caaaeii, oeae i?ioean a a?i?? Oe?a?ie ?icaeaa?oueny ? i?io?ea? oni?oii,
ui ia? aeoaea aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey iino?aaeyinueei? ?anioae?ee, yea
i?aaia aeeoe a oiiaao ieth?ae?noe/iiai aeaiie?aoe/iiai noni?euenoaa.
Aeaiie?oecaoe?y Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie aeyaeeany a caai?ii?
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoeyi a?aoe o/anoue o ae?yeueiino? iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ?
?oo?a, i?eieiaii? ? caai?ii? aoaeue-yei? aeene?ei?iaoe?? ca?ieieo nee ia
iie?oeei-?aeaieia?/ieo i?aenoaaao oiui.

3. I?ioan?iiae?caoe?y a?i??.

Nueiaiaei?oiy a?enueeiaa nenoaia Oe?a?ie, ui iniiaaia ia caaaeueiiio
a?enueeiaiio iaia’yceo eiiieaeooaaiiy a?i??, ca ?icoi?iiyi aaoi?a, ia
a?aeiia?aea? ?aae?yi no/aniiai /ano, i?ecaiaeeoue aei aaeeeeo aeo?ao,
c?inoo iai?oae a oeea?eueii-a?enueeiaeo a?aeiineiao, iia??oaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a oa /eai?a ?o n?iae.

Aea, a?aoiaoth/e ne?ooio nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io neooaoe?th, ui neeaeany
nueiaiaei? a Oe?a?i?, o ?iaio? noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui aiai?eoe i?i
oaeaeeee ia?ao?ae Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie ia eiio?aeoiee niin?a
eiiieaeooaaiiy ia oyaey?oueny iiaeeeaei. Oiio aaoi? i?aeo?eio?
Aea?aeaaio i?ia?aio aoae?aieoeoaa oa ?icaeoeo Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie ii
ia??iae aei 2005 ?ieo, yea ia?aaeaa/a? aeei?enoaiiy ci?oaiiai niiniao
eiiieaeooaaiiy ye i?ii?aeiiai aoaio.

4. ?iciaaeoaaiiy ooieoe?e oa iiaiiaaaeaiue i?ae I?i?noa?noaii iai?iie ?
Aaia?aeueiei ooaaii Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie.

C aeoiaeii Oeaco I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae 21 na?iiy 1997 ?ieo:
«Iieiaeaiiy i?i I?i?noa?noai iai?iie Oe?a?ie» ? «Iieiaeaiiy i?i
Aaia?aeueiee ooaa Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie» io?oe?eii oaea ?iciaaeoaaiiy
?nio?, aea, ia iiaeyae aaoi?a, ca ?aae?yie nueiaiaei?oiueiai aeiy oea
oaeoe/ii ia a?aeiia?aea? ae?eniino?. Aanue aia?ao I?i?noa?noaa iai?iie ?
nai i?i?no? caeeoathoueny a?enueeiaeie, ui ia iiaeii? caeiaoeny oeie
ieoaiiyie, yeeie ciaia’yco? ?o caeiaoeny aeua cacia/aia Iieiaeaiiy i?i
I?i?noa?noai iai?iie Oe?a?ie ? ye? ?, ca aeina?aeii ?nioaaiiy nenoaie
aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th aeaiie?aoe/ieo e?a?i
na?oo, i?a?iaaoeaith iie?oee?a. Oea cieaeo? ??aaiue i?ioan?iiae?caoe??
a?i??, a?aeaa?oa? oaaao aeuiai a?enueeiaiai ea??aieoeoaa a?ae nooi
a?enueeiaeo ni?aa.

5. Caaacia/aiiy a?aee?eoino? a?i??.

Ca ?icoi?iiyi aaoi?a, ae??oaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy iiaea i?inoaaoeny ca
aeayeeie iniiaieie iai?yieaie, iaeaaaeeea?oei c yeeo ? noai?aiiy a
I?i?noa?noa? iai?iie Oe?a?ie oe?e?nii? nenoaie ii ca’yceao c
a?iiaaenuee?noth.

6. I?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a oa
/eai?a ?o n?iae.

Aaoi? a?aecia/a?, ui /an aeiaaa? ?ic?iaee ?aaeueieo aea?aeaaieo
nioe?aeueieo i?ia?ai aeey a?i??, o?iainiaa caaacia/aiiy yeeo ae /?oei
iaiai?thaaeiny o a?enueeiaiio athaeaeao? e?a?i?, a ?o aeeiiaiiy
ciaoiaeeeiny ae i?ae aei?noeei eiio?ieai an?o a?eie aeaaee.

Ioaea, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, oaeeie ? iniiai? i?iaeaie, ye? iaiao?aeii iaoe
ia oaac?, ae??ooth/e ieoaiiy anoaiiaeaiiy aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeea?eueiiai
eiio?ieth iaae Ca?ieieie Neeaie Oe?a?ie.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiththoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O aeaiie?aoe/iiio noni?euenoa? ?ieue oa i?noea ca?ieieo nee iathoue
aecia/aoeny aeiiaaie oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th, ui ?
iaia’yceiaei, aeoaea aaaeeeaei ao?eaooii aeaiie?ao??. ?icoi?th/e oea,
aeua ea??aieoeoai iaoi? aea?aeaae i?iaieineei iaiao?aei?noue
anoaiiaeaiiy nenoaie aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae
Ca?ieieie Neeaie Oe?a?ie, ui aoei cae??ieaii a io?oe?eieo aea?aeaaieo oa
i?aeia?iaeieo aeieoiaioao.

Aiane?aeie niaoeeo?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei oeea?eueii-a?enueeiaeo a?aeiinei
ca ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a Oe?a?ia ia ia? naiai iniaenoiai aeina?aeo a
oeueiio ieoaii?. Ine?eueee oey i?iaeaia c iaeiiai aieo ? aeoaea
aaaeeeaith aeey iaoi? aea?aeaae, a c ?ioiai — aeineoue neeaaeiith, ??
iaiao?aeii nii/aoeo oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe, a?aoiaoth/e aeina?ae e?a?i
c? noaeeie aeaiie?aoe/ieie o?aaeeoe?yie.

Niieo/ai? Ooaoe Aia?eee aoee iaei??th c ia?oeo aea?aeaa na?oo, ye?
?icii/aee ao?ethaaoe o aeeooy nenoaio eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th c aieo
aeaiie?aoe/ii ia?aieo (i?ecia/aieo) oeea?eueieo iinaaeiaeo in?a.

Ioaea, aeoiaey/e ?c neooaoe??, yea neeaeany ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue a
iao?e e?a?i?, aaoi? noaa?aeaeo?, ui i?ioean anoaiiaeaiiy aeaiie?aoe/iiai
oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae Ca?ieieie Neeaie Oe?a?ie iinooiiai
?icai?oa?oueny ? aaea c?iaeaii iaai? ia?o? e?iee ia oeueiio oeyoo.
I?e/iio oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo iniiaieo oi?i ? niinia?a oeea?eueiiai
eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th a Oe?a?i? ? aaaaoi a /iio iiae?aieie oei, ye?
?niothoue a aeaiie?aoe/ieo e?a?iao na?oo, o oiio /ene? — a Niieo/aieo
Ooaoao Aia?eee. Aea ?niothoue ? nooo?a? a?aei?iiino?, ye? aeyaeythoueny
o oiio, ui Oe?a?ia ciaoiaeeoueny o?eueee ia ii/aoeo oeueiai oeyoo, a
aiie aaea i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano caeiathoueny oe??th i?iaeaiith,
iai?eeeaae, NOA — iiiaae aeaio noie?oue. Ie??i oeueiai, eiaeia ie?aia c
oeeo aea?aeaa ia? naith ?noi??th, eoeueoo?i? o?aaeeoe??, nai???aeiee
eiiieaeo aea?aeaaieo oa a?iiaaenueeeo ?inoeooo?a, iaeiae, uiaeaiia
i?aeoeea na?ae/eoue, ui oe?ieee niaeo? aeina?aeo cao?aeieo e?a?i, o oiio
/ene? ? NOA, iiaea o aeayeeo iiiaioao aooe ei?eniei i?e ?icaoaeia? iiaeo
oeea?eueii-a?enueeiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?.

Oaeei /eiii, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iaea?aeai? i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeathoue i?aenoaae i?aee?aneeoe iaaaeueio iaiao?aei?noue aeaoaeueiiai
aiae?co i?iaeaie aca?iiae?? a?i?? oa noni?euenoaa caaaeii ? anoaiiaeaiiy
nenoaie aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae Ca?ieieie Neeaie
Oe?a?ie cie?aia a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo iaoi? aea?aeaae aei aeaiie?ao??. Aea
ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny eeoa i?ioyaii iaaiiai
aeineoue o?eaaeiai /ano ? iio?aao? iiaeaeueoi? oai?aoe/ii? ?ic?iaee
coneeeyie iaoeiaeo eieaeoea?a ? aeine?aeiee?a.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II

I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. O?aaai ?.A. Oeea?eueiee eiio?ieue iaae ca?ieieie neeaie — iaeei c
iniiaieo ao?eaoo?a aeaiie?ao?? // O?eaoia. — ? 7-8. — 1998. — N. 24-25.

2. O?aaai ?.A. A?i?y ? ethaee a oeea?eueiiio // A?/a. — ? 10. — 1998. —
N.61-76.

3. O?aaai ?.A. Aeaiie?oecaoe?y ca?ieieo nee o no/ani?e aeaiie?aoe/i?e
aea?aeaa? (ia i?eeeaae? Niieo/aieo Ooao?a Aia?eee) // I?aeoaeno. — 1998.
— ? 51-52. — N.28-32.

4. O?aaai ?.A. Ia oeyoo anoaiiaeaiiy aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeea?eueiiai
eiio?ieth iaae Ca?ieieie Neeaie Oe?a?ie // O?oaee Aeaaeai??. — ? 4. —
?ia.? 34935. — 1998. — N.114-117.

5. O?aaai ?.A. ?iciaaeoaaiiy ooieoe?e oa iiaiiaaaeaiue i?ae
i?i?noa?noaii iai?iie oa aaia?aeueiei ooaaii ca?ieieo nee aeaiie?aoe/ii?
aea?aeaae (ia i?eeeaae? Niieo/aieo Ooao?a Aia?eee)//O?oaee Aeaaeai??. —
? 3. — ?ia. ? 888. — 1998. — N.26-29.

AIIOAOe?ss

O?aaai ?.A. Oeea?eueiee eiio?ieue iaae ca?ieieie neeaie a aeaiie?aoe/i?e
aea?aeaa? (aeina?ae NOA ? i?iaeaie Oe?a?ie). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai noaiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 23.00.02 — iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe oa i?ioeane. —
Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aiae?co oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo iniiaieo oi?i ?
niinia?a oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae ca?ieieie neeaie aeaiie?aoe/ii?
aea?aeaae. C iaeiiai aieo, iniiaiei ac??oeai oaeiai eiio?ieth aoea acyoa
iiaeaeue oeea?eueiiai eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th NOA. C ?ioiai —
i?iaiae?ciaaii noai oa oeyoe ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie a Ca?ieieo Neeao
Oe?a?ie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oeae i?ioean a Oe?a?i? ?icii/aany ? aaea
aeinyaiooi iaaieo oni?o?a, aea a?i ? aeiaaio?eaaeei. Ia nueiaiaei?
Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa ciaoiaeeoueny o?eueee ia eiai ii/aoeiaiio aoai?.

O ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iicaiiiai aeina?aeo oa ia?oeo ni?ia
Oe?a?ie ae??oeoe oea ieoaiiy iaaeaii i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c
iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo iniiaieo oi?i ? niinia?a aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeea?eueiiai
eiio?ieth iaae a?i??th Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oeea?eueii-a?enueeia? a?aeiineie, a?i?y, ca?iei? neee,
a?enueeiaa noa?a, i?i?noa?noai iai?iie, aaia?aeueiee ooaa,
aeaiie?aoe/iee oeea?eueiee eiio?ieue, aeaiie?oecaoe?y,
i?ioan?iiae?caoe?y.

AIIIOAOeEss

O?aaai E.A. A?aaeaeaineee eiio?ieue iaae aii?oae?iiuie neeaie a
aeaiie?aoe/aneii ainoaea?noaa (iiuo NOA e i?iaeaiu Oe?aeiu). —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iieeoe/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 23.00.02 — iieeoe/aneea einoeooou e i?ioeannu. —
Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aiaeeco oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey iniiaiuo oi?i e
niiniaia a?aaeaeaineiai eiio?iey iaae aii?oae?iiuie neeaie
aeaiie?aoe/aneiai ainoaea?noaa. N iaeiie noi?iiu, ca iniiaiie ia?acaoe
oaeiai eiio?iey auea acyoa iiaeaeue a?aaeaeaineiai eiio?iey iaae a?ieae
NOA. N ae?oaie — i?iaiaeece?iaaii ninoiyiea e iooe ?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu
a Aii?oae?iiuo Neeao Oe?aeiu. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi yoio i?ioeann a Oe?aeia
ia/aeny e oaea aeinoeaioou ii?aaeae?iiua oniaoe, ii ii i?iaeieaeeoaeai.
Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue Oe?aeia iaoiaeeony oieueei ia aai ia/aeueiii
yoaia.

A ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiey eiino?aiiiai iiuoa e ia?auo iiiuoie Oe?aeiu
?aoeoue yoio aii?in noi?ioee?iaaiu i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
iai?aaeaieth ?acaeoey iniiaiuo oi?i ? niiniaia aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
a?aaeaeaineiai eiio?iey iaae a?ieae Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: a?aaeaeainei-aiaiiua ioiioaiey, a?iey, aii?oae?iiua
neeu, aiaiiay noa?a, ieienoa?noai iai?iiu, aaia?aeueiue ooaa,
aeaiie?aoe/aneee a?aaeaeaineee eiio?ieue, aeaiieeoecaoeey,
i?ioanneiiaeecaoeey.

SUMMARY

Khraban I.A. Civil Control over Armed Forces in Democratic State
(Experience of USA and Problems of Ukraine). — Manuscript.

Thesis for degree of Candidate of Political Sciences by speciality
23.00.02 — political institutions and processes. — Kyiv University named
after Taras Shevchenco, Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis is dedicated to analysis of tendencies of development of main
forms and methods of civil control in a democratic state. On the one
hand the model of civil control over the US Armed Forces was taken as a
main pattern of such control. On the other hand the state and the
directions of resolving the problem in the Armed Forces of Ukraine were
analysed. It is defined that the process in the Ukraine has begun and
has already achieved some successes, but it is a long one, and the
Ukraine is only on its initial stage..

It is necessary to say that during the decades of communist rule the
true democratic civil control of armed forces was not existed. The
peaceful revolutions in Eastern Europe states brought about radical
changes in society and had a radical impact on the civil-military
relations as well. True political pluralism and democracy are
incompatible with the former symbiosis of the military and the dominant
political party. The steps aimed at restoring rearranging the place of
the armed forces in society, therefore, became urgent.

Situation created now in the world after the end of Cold War testimonies
that democracy and market economy in the Ukraine, or in the other
Central and Eastern European countries will never will achieved if
national security issues are not resolved. Based on this argument, in
the work it is proved that one of the principal way of resolving the
problem is the development civil democratic control over Armed Forces.

The military scientists propose different ways and means for building
the democratic control system. They consider that the individual NATO
countries can provide a wide variety of experience to their Central and
Eastern Europe neighbours. According to author’s opinion separate
Western models of the civil-military relations cannot and should not be
copied by the new democracies, because they do not fit in with their
historical and societal realities, which are different. However,
everyday practice demonstrates that the wide range of experiences can be
usefully studied and taken into consideration when developing new
civil-military relations in Eastern Europe.

One must pay attention that in mind of modern political scientists the
developments that determine the nature of civil-military relations in
the future are likely to be driven by civilian rather than military
policies and actions. Future civil-military relations will be shaped by
the success or failure of civilian governments in implementing economic
reform and preserving law and order, and by the ability of weak
political leaders to resist the temptation to look to the military for
support.

The essence of the notion of civil control is that civil policy is
translated into military reality by mutual effort of both policy staff
and military personnel.

In order to obtain this in reality, it is necessary:

knowledgeable civilians in every aspect of military affairs, including
technology, training, tactics and strategy;

military personnel who:

understand the necessity of military subordination to civil authority;

respect their civil counterparts;

know how to work within the conditions bureaucracy created;

defense environment with the necessary conditions of constitution,
structure, budget, industry, procurement, social support, etc.

As a result of the research of foreign experience and first attempts the
Ukraine in resolving the problem some practical recommendations on
directions of development of main forms and methods of the democratic
civil control over the Armed Forces of Ukraine were given.

Thus according to author’s opinion the results of the research give
possibility to emphasize urgency of a detail analysis of the problems of
correlation of Armed Forces and society in general and creation of the
system of civil control over army in particular in the conditions of
transition of the Ukraine to democracy. But resolving the problem need
further theoretical elaboration by the efforts of scientific collective
bodies and researchers.

Key words: civil-military relations, army, Armed Forces, military
sphere, ministry of defense, general headquarters, democratic civil
control, depolitization, professionalization.

Aia?eeainueeee oa?i?i «army» icia/a? Nooiiooi? a?enueea. Iiiyooy
«a?i?y» o iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoiao?oueny ye oioiaeia iiiyooth
«ca?iei? neee».

Oa?i?i «oeea?eueiee eiio?ieue iaae a?i??th» (civilian control) ?
aeine?aiei ia?aeeaaeii c aiae?enueei? ia oe?a?inueeo iiao ? a?i aaea
cae??ieany o a?o/eciyi?e ai?iii-iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??, oi/ o nieneiaiio
ia?aeeaae? a?i icia/a? ia eeoa eiio?ieue, a, ia?o ca ana, oi?aae?iiy.

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