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I?i?noa?noai eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie

Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa

?aaiiaa ??eia Oaaei??aia

OAeE 024 +023

*eoaoeuee? ia’?aeiaiiy a ioae?/ieo a?ae?ioaeao:

iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo ? ae?yeueiino?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.08-Eieaiciaanoai, a?ae?ioaeiciaanoai oa
a?ae?ia?aoiciaanoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oiiaa?neoaoi eoeueoo?e i
ienoaoeoa Iiiinoa?noaa eoeueoo?e i ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea?iaiee: Aeieoi? iaaeaaiai/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IAEAEEN I?EIA AEUeAA?OIAIA,

aeaeai aeaia?oaiaioo iieioieiai?

Ieeiea?anueeiai oieiaeo Iaoeiiiaeueiiai

oiiaa?neoaoo «Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea Aeaaeaiiy»

Ioioeieii aiiiaioe: Aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

*A*EI AAeA NAIAI?AIA

caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith a?ae?ioaeiciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa

I?i?noa?noaa eoeueoo?? ? ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie

Eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaiai/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

IAeEIIEA E?IIIA IAAEIAIA

caa?aeoth/a naeoi?ii iaoeiai-aeia?aeeiaiai

aia?aoo oa iae?eo aeieoiaio?a

Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaoeiai-

aeineiaeiiai iinoeoooo a?oiaii? ni?aae oa

aeieoiaioiciaanoaa

I?iaiaeia i?aaiicaoeiy: Oa?eianueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeaiiy eoeueoo?e

Iiiinoa?noaa eoeueoo?e i ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie,

eaoaae?a a?ae?ioaeiciaanoaa

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny «_6″_n?/iy____1999 ?. i 14_aiae.

ia caniaeaiii niaoeiaeiciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee E.26.807.01 i?e Ee?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oiiaa?neoaoi eoeueoo?e i ienoaoeoa (i.Ee?a-133, aoe.Ui?na,
36, aoae. 209).

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Iaoeiaie aiaeiioaoei
Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e i ienoaoeoa (i.Ee?a-133,
aoe. Ui?na, 36).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaiee ____5 a?oaeiy__________ 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee_____________________ I.A.Eiaaeaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA

?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie. Nueiaiaeii a Oe?a?ii aecia/aii i caeieniththoueny
aaee/acii ca nai?i ianyaii oa ianeiaeeaie i?ioeane ooai?aiiy iiaiai
noniieuenoaa. Oea iaoiiaeaii oei, ui Oe?a?ia neiaeii ca ?icaeiooeie
aea?aeaaaie anooia? a iioi?iaoeieio aiioo. Cia/ia ?ieue a oeeo i?ioeanao
iaeaaeeoue aiaeiioaeai. Ii-ia?oa oiio, ui aiaeiioaee, ia iath/e
iiiiiie?? ia ?ioi?iaoe?th, anaae-oaee iaeaieueo iineiaeiaii caa?iaathoue
??, nenoaiaoecothoue i ?iciianthaeaeothoue. Ii-ae?oaa, aiaeiioaee
iaaeathoue nai?i /eoa/ai iiaeeeainoue aeey aoaeoeaiiai iaiiio
iioi?iaoei?th a i?ioeani niieeoaaiiy, a oiio /enei i a ?aieao
aeiyeueiinoi /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue.

Iniiaiith iciaeith ?iaioe /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue ? aeoeaia eiioi?eaoe?y
ei?enooaa/?a a?ae?ioaee, a oiiaao yei? ?ioi?iaoe?y ia o?eueee
ia?aaea?oueny, a e ooi/ith?oueny, oi?io?oueny ? ?icaeaa?oueny. E??i
oiai, a ia’?aeiaiiyo ei?enooaa/i aiaeiioaee iaaoaathoue iaae/ee
noniieueii? aeiyeueiinoi a aeoni oiea?aioiinoi, iaea?aeothoue
iiaeeea?noue aiioeieiiai ?ice??ia/aiiy, ineoieiai/ii? ?ic?yaeee, aeey
ieo noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey naiiae?aco, naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy, ?aaeicaoei?
aeooiaiiai oa iioaeaeooaeueiiai iioaioeiaeo. Ia aeoieo oe?a?inueeiai
oieinioa A.O?eiieuenueeiai noniieuenoai nueiaiaeii ciaoiaeeoueny ia oiio
nooiaii inoi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo, eiee eiai i?ia?an aecia/a?oueny ia
noieueee i?iaeoeoeaiei aeei?enoaiiyi ciaiioiio uiaei ethaeeie ?ano?nia,
neieueee naii?icaeoeii i naiiaaeineiiaeaiiyi naii? ethaeeie.
Iiaeiniaenoinii noinoiee, ui aeieeathoue i?ae /an niieueii? aeiyeueiinoi
/eaiia ia’?aeiaiue, ? aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii nioeiaeueiiai aoooy
noni?euenoaa. Ni?aaaeiy ethaenueea ni?eueiioa, ni?aaaei? ni?eeoaaiiy
i?ae ethaeueie ? iaiiaeeeaeie ia aeiaeieo i?aenoaaao, ie??i ni?aaaeiuei?
nie?aea?iino? oa ?icoi?iiy ethaeeiith naii? naaa ye ?noioe, i?ecia/aii?
aooe a?eueiith (O.-A.Aaaeaia?). Oiio aeyaeaiiy caeiiiii?iinoae
ooieoeiiioaaiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue ye iaeeo a?oi ni?ey? e?auiio
?icoiiiith i?ioeania, ui aiaeaoaathoueny a noniieuenoai a oeieiio.

*eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy ii/aee iniaeeai oaeaeei ?iciianthaeaeoaaoeny c
ii/aoeo 80-o ?ieia. A oeae /an c’yaeeanue aaeeea eieueeinoue
ioaeieaoeie, iaoiaee/ieo iaoa?iaeia, yei ocaaaeueiththoue aeinaiae
eiie?aoieo /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue. ?acii c oeei i?iaeaia oai?aoe/iiai
inieneaiiy ?oiuei? aeiyeueiinoi ye aoaeoeaii? oi?ie a?oiiai? ?iaioe
aiaeiioaee ana ua caeeoa?oueny ia?ic?iaeaiith.

Ia noi?iieao i?ioanieieo aeaeaiue aenaioethaaany iino?oiaioaeueiee
aniaeo aeiyeueiinoi /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue, ui noai?ththoueny i?e
aiaeiioaeao, iai?eeeaae a noaooyo: A. Aeanea?iai?, A. Aei?ai?, N.
Aaeieo?iai?, I. Aieioiaa ? I. Aaa?eeaiei, I. Aaeaeoeiai?, E. Aaeaoiai?,
E. Aioiii?, E. Ioooiii?, A. Eoeaae, I. Eioea?ueiai?, N. Iaoeiii?, I.
Neaeeianueei?, I. Noaieeiii?.

O i?aoeyo TH.I. Iaeaioue?ai?, I.A. Iaeaeen ii?oooaaeinue ieoaiiy i?i
iaiaoiaeiinoue ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie aiaeiioa/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ieo a?oi, aeeth/ath/e ia’?aeiaiiy. Iiae /an
aeeneoni? i?i ia?aaoaeiao eo?no «?iaioa c /eoa/aie» aeayei aaoi?e
aiaecia/aee aaaeeeainoue iiaeaioiaee iiai? eiioeaioei? aiaeiioa/iiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy, caniiaaii? ia aea/aiii nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ieo a?oi oa
iniaenoinoi /eoa/a (A.ss. Aecaiaa?a, N.A. ?ciaa, A.A. Nieieia), caiaeii
c yeith iaeaooiio aiaeiioaea?ia iaiaoiaeii ciaeiieoe ic iaoiaeeeith
noai?aiiy i ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue.

Eeoaia aiaoi?nueea ia’?aeiaiiy, ye iaeia c oi?i ?iaioe ii oi?ioaaiith o
iiaeeioeia ethaiai aei eieae, iio?aae a /eoaiii, noaei i?aaeiaoii
?icaeyaeaiiy aeena?oaoei? I.I. *aiieue. Aaoi? iienaea iniaeeainoi
?oiuei? aeiyeueiinoi, iaa?oiooaaea caeiiiii?iinoi aoiaeaeaiiy iiaeeioeia
a iiaeiaii ia’?aeiaiiy, aea ia noaaeea niai ca iaoo aiaeic i?ioeania
a?oiiaiai ooieoeiiioaaiiy.

*eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy ye oi?ia aiaeiioa/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ianaeaiiy
?icaeyaeaeenue o aeena?oaoeiyo I.I. Ea?iiai?, A.A. Naaeo?nueei?,
I.A.Aa/einueei? oa I.I. Ao?i?. O aeena?oaoei? I.I. Ea?iiai?
aiaeia?aaeaii aeiai?iiee ia?iiae ?icaeoeo ao?oeia, oiaa?enoa «ae?ocia
eieae» i?e aiaeiioaeao. A aeineiaeaeaiii A.A.Naaeo?nueei?
?icaeyaea?oueny ?ieue /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue a i?ioeani oi?ioaaiiy
iiciaaaeueii? aeoeaiinoi noa?oieeanieeia. Aeecueea aei ia? ?iaioa
I.A.Aa/einueei?, yea aeineiaeaeo? oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoinoi iiaeeioeia a
eeoaao ca iioa?anaie a oiiaao aiaeiioaee aeey aeioae a
inoi?eei-iaaeaaiai/iiio, ineoieiai/iiio i aiaeiioaeiciaa/iio aniaeoi.

C oi/ee ci?o aaoi?a iaeaieueo oeieaaa ?iaioa I.I.Ao?i?, yea aea/aea
/eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy i?e aiaeiioaeao ye nioeiaeueia yaeua, ?icaeyaeaea
?o ye oi?io ?iciianthaeaeaiiy eieae oa oi?aaeiiiy /eoaiiyi. Neiae
cacia/eoe, ui aiia aiaeianea ?o aei eiioaeoieo a?oi i aeaea ?i
aecia/aiiy c iiceoeie nioeiaeueii? ineoieiai?, aiaecia/ath/e oaei
oa?aeoa?enoeee a?oie, ye iinoieiee neeaae o/anieeia, nenoaiaoe/iinoue i
o?eaaeinoue niieeoaaiiy, niieueio aeiyeueiinoue, aeoeaiinoue /eaiia,
i?aaiicaoeieii ioi?ieaiee oa?aeoa? aeiyeueiinoi. ?acii c oeei ieoaiiy
a?oiiai? aeeiai?ee, e?aea?noaa oa ea??aieoeoaa, aoai?a ?icaeoeo
/eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue I.I. Ao?ith ia aea/aeenue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoeieia
?iaioa ? /anoeiith aeineiaeieoeueei? i?ia?aie «Nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii
iniiae aiaeiioa/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy» eaoaae?e aiaeiioaeiciaanoaa
Ieeiea?anueei? oiei? Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e i
ienoaoeoa.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoei?. Iaoa aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaa? o
oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaiii aeiyeueiinoi /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue ye
ia?niaeoeaii? oi?ie ?iaioe ioaei/ii? aiaeiioaee, aeyaeaiii iniaeeainoae
?o aeieeiaiiy i ?icaeoeo ye iaei? nioeiaeueii? a?oie, cai?iiiioaaii?
i?ia?aie iiaeaioiaee aiaeiioaea?ia aei ?iaioe c ieie. ?aaeicaoeiy iaoe
iaoiiaeea iinoaiiaeo i ae?ioaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

— aea/aiiy ia?aaeoiia aeieeiaiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue ye oi?ie
aiaeiioa/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ianaeaiiy c ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no.;

— iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiaoiaeiinoi nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iiai aiaeico
aeiyeueiinoi /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue;

— ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee aeineiaeaeaiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue;

— aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae aeieeiaiiy i ooieoeiiioaaiiy /eoaoeueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue o 80-90 ?ieao XX no.;

— aea/aiiy no?oeoo?e iiaeethaenueeeo aiaeiinei o/anieeia /eoaoeueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue i aecia/aiiy iicoey aiaeiioaea?y a iie;

— aecia/aiiy niaoeeoiee aeiyeueiinoi i aieeao /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue
ia iaaeieeoi? eoeueoo?ia na?aaeiaeua;

— ?ic?iaea iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoeie ii noai?aiith ia’?aeiaiue i?e
aiaeiioaeao;

— ?ic?iaea i?ia?aie eo?no ii iiaeaioiaoei aiaeiioa/ieo i?aoeiaieeia aei
a?oiiai? aeiyeueiinoi /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia iieyaa? a oiio, ui i?iaaaeaii
oeieinia iineiaeiaia aeineiaeaeaiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue a
aiaeiioaeao ye iaeeo nioeiaeueieo a?oi c aecia/aiiyi i?eoaiaiieo ?o
?icaeoeo caeiiiii?iinoae. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo aeineiaeaeaiiy
/eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue a i?ioeani ?o aeiyeueiinoi, yea aea?
iiaeeeainoue aeyaeoe a?oiiao aeeiaiieo ia’?aeiaiue, iiaa/eoe
caeaaeiinoue aoaeoeaiinoi ?o aeiyeueiinoi aiae ?iaiy ?icaeoeo
iiaeethaenueeeo noinoie?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia iieyaa? a noai?aiii
?aeiiaiaeaoeie c a?oiiai? ?iaioe ioaei/ii? aiaeiioaee i ?ic?iaoei
i?ia?aie iaa/aiiy aiaeiioaea?ia nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iei iniiaai
aeiyeueiinoi /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O niiaaaoi?noai c iaoeiaei ea?iaieeii I.A.
Iaeaeen i caaiaeoth/ith iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iei aiaeaeieii Iaoeiiiaeueii?
ia?eaiaionueei? aiaeiioaee Oe?a?ie I.A. Iieyeiaith aoei iiaeaioiaeaii
iaoiaee/iee iaoa?iae «*eoaoeueeee eeoa: eiai iaaeaaiiy i i?iaeaie», a
iniiao yeiai iieeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iiai aiaeico
aeiyeueiinoi /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue Ieeiea?anueei? iaeanoi,
i?iaaaeaiiai caeiaoaa/ai. Aiie ae noaee iaoa?iaeii aeey iiaeaioiaee
noaoae I.A. Iaeaeen i caeiaoaa/a o cai?ieeo «Aiaeiioaeiciaanoai».
Iaoiaeeea aeineiaeaeaiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue ?ic?iaeyeanue niieueii
c iaoeiaei ea?iaieeii a ?aieao aeineiaeieoeueei? i?ia?aie.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeena?oaoei?. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoeieiiai
aeineiaeaeaiiy aeiiiaiaeaeenue ia iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iie eiioa?aioei? a
Oa?eiai «Eoeueoo?a Oe?a?ie: inoi?iy i no/aniinoue» (1992 ?.), iaeaniie
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iie eiioa?aioei? a Ieeiea?ai «Nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii
oaeoi?e a caaacia/aiii yeinoi aiaeiioa/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy» (1993 ?.),
OOIII iaoeiaie eiioa?aioei? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo IO
EAeOEII «I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo aeooiaiiai naioo iniaenoinoi a eoeueoo?iiio
nioeioii iiaaeiy Oe?a?ie» (1998 ?.), a oaeiae aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o
aenooiao ia ?iciiiaiioieo caoiaeao c iiaeaeuaiiy eaaeioieaoei?
aiaeiioa/ieo i?aoeiaieeia iaeanoi i?ioyaii 1992-1998 ??.

Ioaeieaoei?. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoei? aoee iioaeieiaaii a 7 noaooyo: o
iaoeiaiio aeo?iaei, a cai?ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, o iaoa?iaeao iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioeie, a iioi?iaoeieii-aiaeioe/iiio atheaoaii, a oaeiae aeeoee
ie?aiei iaoiaee/iei iaoa?iaeii.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoei? iaoiiaeaia ?? iaoith, caaaeaiiyie oa eiaieith
aeineiaeaeaiiy. Aiia neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icaeieia,
aeniiaeia, nieneo aeei?enoaieo eioa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoeia.

Iniiaiee ciino neeaaea? 151 noi?., nienie aeei?enoaii? eioa?aoo?e 15
noi?., aeeth/a? 208 iaeiaioaaiue oai?ia ae?oeo, aeiaeaoee 28 noi?.

INIIAIEE CIINO ?IAIOE

O anooii aenaioeaii aeooaeueiinoue oaie i no/aniee noai ?? aea/aiiy,
iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoaoia, aecia/aii iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a,
aenaioeaii ciino i aoaie ai?iaaoei? ?acoeueoaoia aeena?oaoei?, iaaaaeaii
ioaeieaoei? aaoi?a c oaie aeineiaeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icaeiei aeena?oaoei? «Oai?aoe/ii iniiae aea/aiiy /eoaoeueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue o aiaeiioaeao» i?iaiaeiciaaii noniieueii-inoi?e/ii
ia?aaeoiiae aeieeiaiiy i ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue ye a?oiiai?
oi?ie ?iaioe aiaeiioaee, ii/eiath/e c II iie. XIX co. i caaa?ooth/e
90-ie ?ieaie OO no. Oaeiae aenaioeaii nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii iniiae
aeineiaeaeaiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue ca?aeii oai?i? iaeeo nioeiaeueieo
a?oi, aeiaaaeaia iiaeeeainoue aeei?enoaiiy aeineiaeieoeueeiai
iino?oiaioa?ith nioeiaeueii? ineoieiai? aeey aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae
?icaeoeo aeiyeueiinoi /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue o aiaeiioaeao, aea?oueny
aeaoaeueiee iien iaoiaeeee ?o aeineiaeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio iiae?icaeiei aeineiaeaeothoueny oiiae aeieeiaiiy /eoaoeueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue ye aeaiaioa, oa?aeoa?ecoth/iai nioe?aeueiee noai
noniieuenoaa. I?iaaaeaiee aiaeic aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oei?? a?oiiai?
oi?ie aiaeiioa/ii? ?iaioe aeicaiey? cacia/eoe, ui oiiaaie noai?aiiy
ia’?aeiaiue aenooiathoue ciiie a nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/iiio i iieioe/iiio
?icaeoeo noniieuenoaa, yei caeeaaeathoue aoiaiinoe/ii iniiae
aoaeiaieoeoaa aea?aeaae.

Caiaeii c nioeiieiai/iith oai?i?th aeia?iaieueii oiaa?enoaa aeieeathoue
oiaei, eiee aiae/oaa?oueny iio?aaa o nioeiaeueieo ciiiao. Aiie
aeeiiothoue o?e aaaeeeai ooieoei?: ?iciiaeieythoue iioeue noniieueiiai
aeeooy iiae a?oiaie a?iiaaeyi, caaacia/othoue aeieeiaiiy ii/oooy
caaeiaieaiiy aiae aeaiiino?aoei? iiaeeeainoae neee noniieueiiai
ia’?aeiaiiy i ni?eythoue ooieoeiiioaaiith iaoaiicio noniieueiiai
?icaeoeo. Naia oiio ia?oi /eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy (eaeoeieii eiiini? oa
/eoaoeueei ao?oee naiiinaioe) ii/aee noai?thaaoeny a aiaeiioaeao Oe?a?ie
a II iie. XIX — ia ii/. OO no., eiee i?inoaaiiy e?a?ie aei eaiioaeicio
aeeeeeaei iiyao ia?aaei ioaei/ieo aiaeiioae.

O oeae /an ca?iaeaeothoueny aoiaiinoe/ii iniiae ianeoaiaoaaiiy /eoa/ia
(O.Ae. Ae/aanueea, A.I. Aaooa?ia, I.N. I?oaaaii), iioa?an aei ineoieiai?
/eoaiiy (I.A. ?oaaeii). A?oie, yei aeieeaee a oie /an, iiaeia aiaeianoe
aei oaeeo, ui i?aaioee aei nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo ciii ca aeiiiiiaith
inaioe. Aiaeiioaee a oeae inoi?e/iee ia?iiae aoee iieeeeaii aeeiioaaoe
i?inaioieoeueei ooieoei?, oiio iiyao a ieo iiaeiaieo ia’?aeiaiue iiaeia
aaaaeaoe caeiiiii?iith.

Neiaeoth/ei cia/iei aoaiii ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue aeena?oaio
aaaaea? 20-o? ?.?. OO no., eiee aeieea? iioa?an aei iaoiaeeee
i?aaiicaoei? ?iaioe ia’?aeiaiue. O noaooyo ?. Naaeiia, A. Aaiea aoee
c?iaeaii ni?iae i?ineiaeeoaaoe iaoaiicie a?oiiai? aeeiaiiee /eoaoeueeiai
ia’?aeiaiiy, a iiniaieeo I.Oa?niinueei? ?icaeyaeaeinue aeaa aa?iaioe
noai?aiiy ia’?aeiaiiy (ca iiioeiaoeaith aiaeiioaea?y i ei?enooaa/ia), a
noaooyo I. Noi?iaeaaa oa A. Iie?ianueeiai caa?oaeanue oaaaa ia cia/aiiy
iniaenoinieo yeinoae aiaeiioaea?y aeey i?aaiicaoei? /eoaoeueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue. I?ioa ani oei ni?iae ia iiaee ciaeoe eiai/iiai caaa?oaiiy.
Nioeiaeueia ineoieiaiy o?eueee ?icii/eiaea oai?aoe/io i
aenia?eiaioaeueio ?ic?iaeo oeeo ieoaiue.

Ia i?ioyci anueiai ia?iiaeo c eiioey 20-o ?ieia aei eiioey 70-o
/eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy, a no/aniiio ?icoiiiii ?o ye a?oiiai? oi?ie
?iaioe, a aiaeiioaeao ia noai?thaaeenue. Oieueee c ii/aoeo 80-o ?ieia
aiaeaoeinue ?o ianiaa aeieeiaiiy, eiee ii/aee aiae?iaeaeoaaoeny
noniieueii ia’?aeiaiiy a?iiaaeyi. Aiae?iaeaeaiith /eoaoeueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue ni?eyei noaiiaeaiiy nioeiaeueii? ineoieiai? aiaeiioa/ii?
ni?aae, yea ?icii/aeiny iai?eeiioei 60-o — c ii/aoeo 70-o ?ieia.

Iai?eeiioei 80-o ?.?. noaee noai?thaaoeny /eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy iiaiai
oeio, iiaoaeiaaii ia iniiai iaoi?iaeueieo aiaeiinei o/anieeia. ?oiy
iiyaa aoea iia’ycaia ic c?inoaiiyi i?aaiaiiy iiaeeaiaeia aei ?aaeicaoei?
nai?o aeiei?iiieo iio?aa o iaoi?iaeueiiio niieeoaaiii, aca?iiaei? c
iioeie /e a?oiith ethaeae. Aiie aeoeaii ?icaeaathoueny a 90-oi ?iee, ui
i cioneei caa?iooeny aei i?iaeaie aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae ?o aeieeiaiiy oa
ooieoeiiioaaiiy ye ia?niaeoeaii? oi?ie ?iaioe aiaeiioaee a no/anieo
oiiaao.

O ae?oaiio iiae?icaeiei ?icaeyiooa i?aaiii?iinoue
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iiai aiaeico aeiyeueiinoi /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue.
Aoei aea/aii ?iaioe oe?a?inueeeo, ?inienueeeo, ?a?iiaenueeeo oaoiaoeia a
iaeanoi nioeiaeueii? ineoieiai?: A.I.Iaiiiooi, ?.I.Aieiaaoe,
A.I.Aiae?a?ai?, O.N. Aioeiiii?, I.I. Aiaiiieiai?, I.I. Aieeiaa, ?.I.
Aeoaianueei?, ?.E. E?e/aanueeiai, E.A. Iao?ianueei?, I.N. Noai/?aa, E.I.
Oiainueeiai, Ethaaia Aean?aa oa ii. Oai?aoe/ia ?ic?iaea ieoaiue
aeiyeueiinoi iaei? a?oie aeyaeeanue ei?eniith aeey aecia/aiiy
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee /eoaoeueeiai ia’?aeiaiiy ye
iaei? nioeiaeueii? a?oie.

*eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy iathoue iniiaii iciaee iaei? nioeiaeueii? a?oie:
noniieueii-inoi?e/io iaoiiaeaiinoue aeieeiaiiy i ?icaeoeo, o?eaaea
iniaeno?nia niieeoaaiiy, niieueio aeiyeueiinoue, a oaeiae aoi?eiii:
aiaeie?aiethaaiiy i /ioeo aioo?ioith i?aaiicaoeith, iiaeiniaenoinio
aca?iiaeith oa aca?iiaieea, niieueiinoue iioeaia oa iioa?ania,
oeiiiinoae i ii?i, aioo?ioiie ?iciiaeie ooieoeie i iaaio eieaeicaoeith a
i?inoi?i. Iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiy oeueiio aoei iaea?aeaii a oiaei
aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy. *eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy a aeena?oaoei?
eeaneoieothoueny ye iaoi?iaeueii, ciaiioiueii?aaiiciaaii /e
naiii?aaiiciaaii, ?aoa?aioii, ia?aeiii, oei/aniai, iio?iaa?oii /e
aeno?aaa?oii, naiiaeiyeueii iaei nioeiaeueii a?oie noa?e aieueiiai /ano.

Aaoi? i?iiiio? aeaa aecia/aiiy oeaio?aeueiiai iiiyooy aeena?oaoei?:
caaaeueia i niaoeiaeueia. A caaaeueiiio aecia/aiii /eoaoeueea
ia’?aeiaiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny ye eiioaeoia a?oia ethaeae, yeeo ia’?aeio?
aca?iiee iniaenoiniee iioa?an, i?aaiaiiy aei noa’?eo-noa’?eoiiai
niieeoaaiiy i aca?iiaei?, caniiaaieo ia noaeiio iioa?ani aei eieae i
/eoaoeueei? aeiyeueiinoi. O/anieeaie ia’?aeiaiue iiaeooue aooe /eoa/i a
oe?ieiio ?icoiiiii oeueiai neiaa: nioeiaeueii noa’?eoe /eoaiiy ye
?aaoey?ii? aeiyeueiinoi, — ye? ia caaaeaee ei?enoothoueny iineoaaie
aiaeiioaee. Oiio /eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy aeieeathoue i ooieoeiiiothoue ia
eeoa a aiaeiioaeao.

Niaoeiaeueia aecia/aiiy ia?aaeaa/a? ?icaeyaeaiiy /eoaoeueeiai
ia’?aeiaiiy ye oi?ie aiaeiioa/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ianaeaiiy. *eoaoeueei
ia’?aeiaiiy — oea eiioaeoia a?oia ei?enooaa/ia i i?aoeiaieeia ioaei/ii?
aiaeiioaee, yeeo ia’?aeio? aca?iiee iniaenoee iioa?an i i?aaiaiiy aei
iiaeiniaeno?niiai noa’?eo-noa’?eoiiai niieeoaaiiy i aca?iiaei?,
caniiaaieo ia noaeiio iioa?ani aei eieae i /eoaoeueei? aeiyeueiinoi.
Aiaeoae, niaoeiaeueia aecia/aiiy iiaoi?th? iniiaii iciaee caaaeueiiai,
iiaee?anethth/e iaeaaeiinoue o/anieeia ia’?aeiaiiy aei aiaeiioaee. Oea
aaaeeeaa aiaeciaea aiaeiioa/ieo /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue oiio, ui
o/anieee, yei ?aiioa ia aoee ei?enooaa/aie aiaeiioaee, iaia’yceiai
noathoue ieie.

Aeaoa?iiiaioaie aeieeiaiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue aenooiathoue
iiaeeaiaeoaeueii iioeae iniaenoinoi, iia’ycaii c i?aaiaiiyi
caaeiaieueieoe iaaii nioeiaeueii iio?aae, ui iaoiiaeaii noeoiiinoth
ciaiioiio oa aioo?ioiio oiia. *eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy a nai?io ?icaeoeo
i?ioiaeyoue aeaeieueea iineiaeiaieo aoaiia. Aeey ?o aea/aiiy
i?iaiaeiciaaii inioth/i a nioeiaeueiie ineoieiai? iiaeaei ?icaeoeo
a?oie: aeaiii?ia A. Oaeiaia, A. Noaioi?aea i A. ?ia?ea, iaeiiii?ia ?.
Iaa?i, aiioeieia I.A. Aieeiaa, ia?aiao?e/ia E.I. Oiainueeiai,
ii?iaoeaii-?ieueiaa I. Iaa?a.

?iaaiue ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueeiai ia’?aeiaiiy caeaaeeoue aiae no?oeoo?e
ethaenueeeo aca?iei /eaiia. Eiaeai o/aniee a?oie caeia? iaaio iiceoe?th
a oeie no?oeoo?i, yea iiaea aooe aecia/aia eieueeinii ca aeiiiiiaith
nioeiiiao?e/iiai iieooaaiiy. Aeena?oaio ?aaeicoaaa a ?iaioi aeoieo
ineoieiaa I.N. Noai/?aa i?i iaia’yceiaa ?icaeyaeaiiy iniaenoinii? i
a?oiiai? noi?ii noaoono. Ia?oa aecia/a?oueny iniaenoinieie yeinoyie
/eaiia ia’?aeiaiiy, ae?oaa — oa?aeoa?enoeeith a?oie. Iniaenoinii
oa?aeoa?enoeee o/anieeia ia’?aeiaiue, caiaeii c eeaneoieaoei?th
aia?eeainueeiai ineoieiaa I. Oio, iiaeia iiaeieeoe ia aiia?aoi/ii
(noaoue, aie), iniaenoinii (noa’?eo-noa’?eoia i?i?ioaoeiy, nioeiaeueia
naineoeaiinoue, i?aaiaiiy aei aeaaee, iaaeieiinoue, aiioeieia noaeinoue)
i caeiaiinoi (?iaaiue iioaeaeoo, eiie?aoii ciaiiy, aaoi?eoa?iinoue).

Aianeiaeie oeieani?yiiaaiiai ii?aoethaaiiy ?iaio oe?a?inueeeo,
?inienueeeo i ca?oaiaeieo aiaeiioaeiciaaoeia iiaeia aecia/eoe, ui
i?iaeaia a?oiiaiai ooieoeiiioaaiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue ua ia ciaeoea
naiai ?ioaiiy, iaeiae c’yaeany iioa?an aei ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c iath. O
?iaioao TH.I. Iaeaioue?ai? noaaeoueny ieoaiiy i?i iaiaoiaeiinoue
aeineiaeaeaiiy niaoeeoiee ianeoaiaoaaiiy nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ieo a?oi.
I?i aieea iaeeo nioeiaeueieo a?oi ia oi?ioaaiiy /eoaoeueeeo iioa?ania
iiaeeaiaea, eiai noaaeaiiy aei aiaeiioaee i cai?iiiiiaaieo oi?i
ianeoaiaoaaiiy eaea iiaa a ?iaioao I.Ae. Aoaianue?aa, A.I. A?aaiii?,
I.Ae. Nii?iaeeinueei?, TH.Ooaiaa. Niieeoaaiiy ye iaeia c iniiaieo
ooieoeie aiaeiioaee, iaa/aiiy aiaeiioaea?ia iniiaai niieeoaaiiy noaee
oaiaie noaoae: A.ss. Aecaiaa?aa, A.I. A?a/iaa, I.E. Aeaea?aei?anueei?,
I.?. Aeia?eiiii?, N.A. ?ciai?, A.A. Ieueaaia?ai?, N.A. Iaoeiii?, I.A.
Iaeaeen, I.A. Noaieeiii?, I.A. Oaiioieeiai?, A. Aoa?aoae, I. Aeuethaeii,
O. Eaai, E ?inn.

Aeena?oaioii c?iaeai aeniiaie i?i oa, ui nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iee
iiaeoiae aei aiaeico aeiyeueiinoi /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue iio?iaii
aaaaeaoe ia oieueee i?aaiii?iei, a e iaiaoiaeiei, ai aii aea? ciiao
aea/aoe i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy ia’?aeiaiue, aoaie ?oiueiai ?icaeoeo,
ia?aiao?e, ui aieeaathoue ia o?eaaeinoue i aoaeoeaiinoue aeiyeueiinoi.

O o?aoueiio iiae?icaeiei ?ice?eoi iaoiaeeeo aeineiaeaeaiiy /eoaoeueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue. Ia’?eoaie aeineiaeaeaiiy aenooieee 4 /eoaoeueeeo
ia’?aeiaiiy, noai?aii i?e oeaio?aeueieo ?aeiiieo aiaeiioaeao
Ieeiea?anueei? iaeanoi. I?e aecia/aiii eieueeinoi ia’?eoia a?aoiaoaaany
oie oaeoi?, ui ooieoeiiioaaiiy iaeeo nioeiaeueieo a?oi iaeiiai aeaeo ia
ia? i?eioeeiiaeo aiaeiiiiinoae. Oiio aeinaiae aea/aiiy eieueeio
/eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue iiaea aooe ?iciianthaeaeaii ia anth noeoiiinoue.
Ia’?aeiaiiy «Aeiaeia» (i. Iiaee Aoa) i «Ei?a» (i. Iiaa Iaeana) aoee
ia’?eoaie iieioiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy, «Naioi/» (n.i.o. Eacaiea) oa «Aeiii»
(i. Aicianainuee) — iniiaiiai.

?ic?iaeyth/e iaoiaeeeo aeineiaeaeaiiy, caeiaoaa/ aeei?enoiaoaaa
iaoiaee, yei oniioii canoiniaothoueny a nioeiaeueiie ineoieiai? aeey
aiaeico ooieoeiiioaaiiy iaeeo a?oi. Oea aieaoa ?inienueeeo nioeiaeueieo
ineoieiaia ?.A. Iinaeei i A.?. Iaeeniai?, nioeiiiao?iy Ae. Ii?aii,
oanoiaa iaoiaeeea aia?eeaioeia O. Ei?i, ?. Eaoa?aa i ?. Nacaea. Aiie
aoee aaeaioiaaii c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeoiee /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue.

Aeey iaea?aeaiiy iioi?iaoei? i?i i?e/eie ooai?aiiy /eoaoeueeiai
ia’?aeiaiiy, neeaae eiai o/anieeia, iniaenoinii iioeae anooio aei
ia’?aeiaiiy, aoaie ?icaeoeo, eiaea?noai aoei aeei?enoaii
iaiianoaiaea?oeciaaia, iiaeeaiaeoaeueia, iniaenoa, ?aciaa iioa?a’th.
Aieaoa aeei?enoiaoaaeanue aeey aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae iiaeiniaenoiniiai
ni?eeiyooy. Ca aeiiiiiaith nioeiiiao?i? aeineiaeaeoaaeanue no?oeoo?a
iiaeethaenueeeo noinoieia. Oanoiaa iaoiaeeea aeicaieeea aea/eoe
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii yeinoi iniaenoinoi.

Nioeiiiao?e/ia iaoiaeeea aoea aia?oa aeei?enoaia aeey aeiaaiinoeee
acaaiei a /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiiyo. Nioeiiiao?e/ii e?eoa?i? aoei
iiaoaeiaaii ia eiie?aoieo neooaoeiyo aiaeiiaiaeii aei iniiaieo noa?
aeoeaiinoi ia’?aeiaiiy: iioaeaeooaeueii?, aiioeieii? i aeieiai?.
Iaea?aeaia nioeiiiao?e/ia iioi?iaoeiy ia?iaeyeanue oeyoii neeaaeaiiy
nioeiiiao?eoeue i iiae?aooieo nioeiiiao?e/ieo iiaeaenia. Ca ?iaiai
nioeiiiao?e/iiai noaoono /eaie /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue ?iciiaeieyeenue
ia: «ci?ie», «oeo, eiio aiaeaeathoue ia?aaaao», «i?eeiyoeo»,
«aeeth/aieo», «iaaeeth/aieo» aiaeiiaiaeii aei aaeaioiaaii? aeena?oaioii
eeaneoieaoei? ss. Eieiieinueeiai, O. Iaeioana, I. Aieeiaa i TH. I?ia.

C iaoith ooi/iaiiy i caaaa/oaaiiy ?acoeueoaoia iioa?a’thaaiiy,
aieaooaaiiy, nioeiiiao?i? i oanooaaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aiaeic
aeieoiaioia i niinoa?aaeaiiy. Aeai?eiaa noeoiiinoue aeieoiaioaeueieo
aeaea?ae aoea noi?iiaaia oaeei /eiii, uia io?eiaoe aeinoiai?io
iioi?iaoeith i?i aoaie ?icaeoeo ia’?aeiaiiy, a oaeiae iiiiaieoe
aiaeiiinoi i?i ?oiio /eaiia. Aeena?oaio aeei?enoiaoaaa aeaa aeaee
niinoa?aaeaiiy: ianoaiaea?oeciaaia aeeth/aia iiae /an iieooaaiiy,
ianoaiaea?oeciaaia iaaeeth/aia iieueiaa iiae /an caniaeaiue ia’?aeiaiiy
«Naioi/».

Aeei?enoaiiy iacaaii? nenoaie iaoiaeia caaacia/eei ai?iaiaeiinoue
?acoeueoaoia aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy, aeicaieeei iaea?aeaoe
iioi?iaoeith i?i nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii iniaeeainoi aeieeiaiiy i
ooieoeiiioaaiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue, aecia/eoe aeioeieueiinoue
canoinoaaiiy oiai /e iioiai iaoiaea nioeiaeueii? ineoieiai?.

O ae?oaiio ?icaeiei aeena?oaoei? «Iniaeeainoi aeieeiaiiy, ?icaeoeo i
aeiyeueiinoi /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue a ioaei/ieo aiaeiioaeao» aeena?oaio
?ice?eaa? aeaoa?iiiaioe aeieeiaiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue, aoaie ?o
?icaeoeo i iniaeeainoi no?oeoo?e iiaeiniaenoinieo aiaeiinei /eaiia ia
iniiai aiaeico aeaieo, io?eiaieo a oiaei nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iiai
aeineiaeaeaiiy ?aaeueii inioth/eo /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue Ieeiea?anueei?
iaeanoi. Aaoi?, nie?ath/enue ia aeciaii a nioeiaeueiie ineoieiai?
caeiiiii?iinoi aeeoo?aeiyeueiinoi iaei? nioeiaeueii? a?oie, aecia/ea
niaoeeoieo ooieoeiiioaaiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue i?e aiaeiioaeao ye
iaeeo nioeiaeueieo a?oi.

O ia?oiio iiae?icaeiei aeeeaaeaii iiaenoiee aea/aiiy iiaeeaiaeoaeueieo
iioeaia aeeth/aiiy iniaenoinoi a a?oiiao aeicaiee?ao aeiyeueiinoue
/eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue. Noaey/e c aiaeico, iaeaieueo yne?aai
ae?aaeaieie iioeaaie ?: i?aaiaiiy aei niieeoaaiiy, ?aaeicaoeiy
iacao?aaoaaiiai oai?/iai iioaioeiaeo, iioya aei caieueoaiiy ciaiue,
i?aaiaiiy iaeaaeaoe aei iaaii? a?oie. Aeena?oaioii iaea?aeaii iaoa?iae
uiaei caeaaeiinoi oi?ioaaiiy iioeaia iiaeeaiaea aiae eiai aiia?aoi/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee, iniaenoinieo yeinoae, ??aiy ina?oe i i?ioanieii?
i?eiaeaaeiinoi.

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy naiae/aoue i?i oa, ui aeiiee aeoeaiioa
i?aoeththoue a /eoaoeueeiio ia’?aeiaiii i noaiiaeyoue eiai aieueoinoue.
Oea iia’ycaii, a ia?oo /a?ao, c oei, ui aeiiie aieueoa i?eaaaeth?
aiioeieia niieeoaaiiy, anoaiiaeaiiy ae?oaeiio noinoieia, iiaeeeainoue
naii?ice?eooy. Ii-ae?oaa, a noniieuenoai inio? iaaia noaoaaa
iaeaioeoieaoeiy nioeiaeueieo ?ieae, aiaeiiaiaeii aei yei? aeiiee
?icaeyaeathoueny ia eeoa ye ae?oaeeie i iaoa?i, aea i ye aa?aaeii
eoeueoo?ieo oeiiiinoae.

Aeei?enoaiiy oanoiai? iaoiaeeee aeicaieeei aecia/eoe iaeaieueo aaaeeeai
aeey aeeth/aiiy a a?oiiai i?ioeane ?ene iniaenoinoi ethaeeie: /oeiinoue,
aeia?ina?aey, iinooieeainoue, eieaeoeaici.

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey oi?ioaaiiy niiioeaeueieo iioeaia anooio
iiaeeaiaea a /eaie /eoaoeueeiai ia’?aeiaiiy ia? aie, inaioa i i?ioanieia
iaeaaeiinoue. Oaoiaoei a iaeanoi nioeiaeueii? ineoieiai? aeyaeee
caaaeueio oaiaeaioeith caanaiiy aeicaiee?ai? aeoeaiinoi ii ii?i
caieueoaiiy aieo ethaeeie. Oey caeiiiii?iinoue ciaeoea nai?
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiy a aeineiaeaeaiii. Aieueoinoue o/anieeia ia’?aeiaiue —
ethaee 30-40 ?ieia, ye? iathoue aeuo aai iacaeii/aio aeuo inaioo i
iaeaaeaoue aei aoiaiioa?ii? iioaeiaaioei?: a/eoaei, eiea?i, i?aoeiaieee
eoeueoo?e i caniaia ianiai? iioi?iaoei?. Niieeoaaiiy caeia? aaaeeeaa
iinoea a ?oiie i?ioanieiie aeiyeueiinoi, oiio, i?aaiicoth/e nai?
aeicaieey, aiie aiaeaeathoue ia?aaaao eiioi?eaoeieiei oi?iai.

Iio?aae ethaeae aeaoa?iiiothoueny oeie nioeiaeueieie i eoeueoo?ieie
oiiaaie, a yeeo aiie aeeaooue. Oiio nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iee aiaeic
i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue ia?aaeaa/a? oa?aeoa?enoeeo
nioeiieoeueoo?ii? neooaoei? a iaaiie iinoeaainoi, ui aoei caeieniaii a
aeena?oaoei?. Aaaeeeaei ciaiioiei oaeoi?ii aeieeiaiiy /eoaoeueeiai
ia’?aeiaiiy ? aeoeaia iiceoeiy aiaeiioaea?y ii noai?aiith oaei?
aoiinoa?e a aiaeiioaoei, yea a ni?eyea /eoaoeueeie aeoeaiinoi,
i?iaoaeaeoaaea i?e?iaeio iio?aao ethaeeie a niieeoaaiii i eieaeoeaiie
aeiyeueiinoi.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy aeiaaei i?aai ia inioaaiiy aeaio aa?iaioia noai?aiiy
/eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue i?e aiaeiioaeao: i ca iiioeiaoeaith
ei?enooaa/ia, i a ca’yceo c oeieani?yiiaaiith aeiyeueiinoth
aiaeiioaea?ia. A oeueiio ieaii aeena?oaioii c?iaeaii aeniiaee. Ii-ia?oa,
iiioeiaoi?ii noai?aiiy ia’?aeiaiiy i eiai eiaea?ii iiaea aooe
iniaenoinoue c iaaieie ?enaie oa?aeoa?o (eiioiieaaaeueiinoue,
aeia?ice/eeainoue, oaaaeiinoue, aeieiaeoinoue oa ii.) i ia caaaeaee oea
— aiaeiioaea?. Ii-ae?oaa, iaaioue o oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeineoue iioeii
iiceoei? a ia’?aeiaii? aiaeiioaea?th iiaea caaacia/eoe eiai iinaaea.
Aieiaia, uia /eoa/i ni?eeiaee aiaeiioaeo ye iinoea, aea aiie ciiaeooue
?aaeicoaaoe nai? nioeiaeueii iio?aae, a aiaeiioaea?i ?iaeee a aeey
oeueiai ana iiaeeeaa.

O ae?oaiio iiae?icaeiei aeena?oaioii i?iaiaeiciaaii iniiaii aoaie
?icaeoeo /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue. Aeiyeueiinoue «Naioi/a» oa «Aeiiia»
?aaeicoaaeanue o aeaio ia?aeaeueii inioth/eo i aca?iica’ycaieo noa?ao:
aeieiaie oa aiioeieiie. Aeena?oaioii ?ic?iaeaia iiaeaeue ?icaeoeo
/eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue, yea aeaiiino?o? iniiaii aoaie oi?ioaaiiy
eiaeii? c ieo.

O nai?io ?icaeoeo ia’?aeiaiiy i?ioiaeyoue oaei aoaie:

I — oaca ia?aeiiiai ni?eeiaiiy;

II — ia?iiae oi?ioaaiiy a?oiiaeo ii?i i oeiiiinoae;

III — eiioeieo;

IV — ia?aoai?aiiy a?oie-anioeiaoei? a a?oio-eiiia?aoeith;

V — i?iaeoeoeaia aeiyeueiinoue a?oie;

VI — ?iciaae a?oie.

Ia /an aea/aiiy «Naioi/» ciaoiaeeany ia i’yoiio aoaii ?icaeoeo, «Aeiii»
— ia oinoiio.

Ia ia?oiio aoaii ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue o aeieiaie noa?i
ae??oo?oueny iinoaiiaea caaaeaiiy ?o noai?aiiy. Oi?ioaaiiy neeaaeo
o/anieeia caeienith?oueny oeyoii i?i?ioaoei? iioaioeieieo /eaiia ca?aeii
iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue. Cia/io ?ieue a oeueiio i?ioeani aiaeia?athoue
ethaenueei iio?aae a niieeoaaiii, iiciaiii, ?aaeicaoei? oai?/iai
iioaioeiaeo. A aiioeieiie noa?i ?icii/eia?oueny oi?ioaaiiy a?oiiai?
no?oeoo?e aiaeiinei /eaiia /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue ia iniiai
iiaeeaiaeoaeueieo noinoie?a, ui aaea neeaeeny iiae ieie, a oiio /ene?
iiae /an aiaeaiaeoaaiiy aiaeiioaee. ?oiie ?icaeoie caeaaeeoue aiae
iniaenoiai aianea eiaeiiai /eaia a aeeooy ia’?aeiaiiy oa aeieeiaiiy
iiaeiniaenoinii? i?eaaaeeainoi.

Ae?oaee aoai oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ia?aoiaeii aiae iiiiiaeueii? a?oie, a
yeie aca?ieie ua ia iiina?aaeeiaaii ciinoii niieueii? aeiyeueiinoi, aei
anioeiaoei? — niieueiinoi, ui ia’?aeioaaeanue o ?iaiie ii?i ia
aiioeieiie i aeieiaie iniiai. A aiioeieiie noa?i aiaeaoaa?oueny
iiaeaeueoa oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e aiaeiinei /eaiia ia’?aeiaiue oeyoii
ioeiiee i naiiioeiiee c o?aooaaiiyi a?oiiaeo ii?i (aeoeaia o/anoue o
iiaeaioiaoei i i?iaaaeaiii caniaeaiue, ?aaoey?ia aiaeaiaeoaaiiy
aiaeiioaee i iaaeaiiy iaiaoiaeii? aeiiiiiae ?? i?aoeiaieeai, iayaiinoue
iniaenoi? aiaeiioaee).

Ia o?aoueiio aoaii ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue a?oiiai ii?ie
ii/eiathoue aeiyoe aeoeaiioa, ui iiaea i?ecaanoe aei eiioeieoo, yeui ia
o anio /eaiia iaeiaeiaa noaaeaiiy aei ieo. Eiioeieo — iaeaaaeeeaioee
aoai a oi?ioaaiii a?oie-eiiia?aoe?, ine?eueee aii aeiiiiaaa? a ?icaeoeo
aiioeieieo noa’?eo-noa’?eoieo noinoieia. A eiioeieoi e?enoaeicothoueny
a?oiiai ii?ie, aecia/a?oueny iinoea ? ?ieue eiaeiiai o/anieea
ia’?aeiaiiy. Naia iiney eiioeieoo ?icei ia?iuo?oueny a?oiiaa
nieiaea?iinoue.

Neiaeoth/ee aoai a aeieiaie noa?i oa?aeoa?eco?oueny eiino?oeoeaiei
ae?ioaiiyi caaaeaiue, ui noiyoue ia?aae ia’?aeiaiiyi. A no?oeoo?i
iiaeiniaenoinieo aiaeiinei aiaeaoaa?oueny iineeaiiy aeeoa?aioeiaoei?
o/anieeia ia’?aeiaiue ic cae?iieaiiyi ooieoeiiiaeueieo ?ieae. Oea aea?
ciiao ia?aeoe aei i’yoiai, iaea?eueo i?iaeoeoeaiiai aoaio, yeee, a
caeaaeiino? a?ae noaio aiioe?eieo aca?iei /eai?a, iiaea o?eaaoe aeiaaee
/an. Ae/a?iai?noue ?ioa?noa’?eoieo noinoie?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei ii/aoeo
?iciaaeo ia’?aeiaiiy.

Aeena?oaio caaa?oo? oeae iiae?icaeie aeniiaeii i?i oa, ui o?eaaeinoue
inioaaiiy aoaeue-yeiai /eoaoeueeiai ia’?aeiaiiy caeaaeeoue aiae ii?e
eiai cia/ouinoi aeey /eaiia a iino?oiaioaeueiiio oa aiioeieiiio ieaiao,
a oaeiae aiae ?icoiiiiy aiaeiioaea?ai iniaeeainoae i?ioieaiiy a?oiiaeo
i?ioeania, ui aeicaieeei a eiio nai?/anii aiineoe iii?aaee a ?icaeoie
aeieiai? i aiioeieii? noa? aeiyeueiinoi a?oie.

O o?aoueiio iiae?icaeiei aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea no?oeoo?e
?ioa?noa’?eoieo noinoieia /eaiia /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue «Aeiii» i
«Naioi/», iaia’yceiaith oiiaith yeeo ? aeciaiiy o/aniee?a eiioi?eaoe??
ye a?eueieo, ??aiii?aaieo noa’?eo?a. A ?icoiiiii aeena?oaioa aiaeic
no?oeoo?e ia?aaeaa/a? aeyaeaiiy iiceoeie iiaeeaiaeia a nenoaii
aioo?ia?oiiaeo aiaeiinei (aeieiaeo i aiioeieieo), i?iaeaio eiaea?noaa oa
iioio iiaeno?oeoo?. Eiaea?e aoee aeyaeaii a eiaeiie noa?i aeiyeueiinoi
ia’?aeiaiue- iioaeaeooaeueiie, aiioeieiie i aeieiaie. Aeena?oaio i?eeoia
aei aeniiaeo, ui ?o iayaiinoue naiae/eoue i?i aeineoue aenieee ?iaaiue
?icaeoeo «Aeiiia» i «Naioi/a». Ii-ia?oa, eiaea?e iaeaieueo iiaii
aoieththoue a niai a?oiiai oeiiiinoi i ii?ie, a aiie aeieeathoue ia ia
ia?oiio aoaii aeiyeueiinoi iaei? a?oie. Ii-ae?oaa, /ei aeua ?iaaiue
?icaeoeo ia’?aeiaiiy, oei aieueoa eieueeinoue eiai /eaiia iiaea caeiaoe
eiaea?nueei iiceoei?. Caaiaeoth/i aiaeiioaeaie, i?e yeeo ooieoeiiioaaee
ia’?aeiaiiy, aoiaeeee aei eiaea?nueei? a?oie.

Ca aeiiiiiaith oanooaaiiy aeena?oaioii aoee aecia/aii aeayei ?ene
iniaenoinoi aiioeieiiai ? aeieiaiai eiaea?ia. Aeey aiioeieiiai eiaea?a
aaaeeeai oaei ?ene, ye aeia?ina?aey, iinooieeainoue, /ooeeaicoue,
aiaenooiinoue i?aaiaiiy aei eiaea?noaa. Aeey aeieiaiai — aeaaeiinoue,
iiiioia aiaaiaiinoue a niai, aeiiaeeainoue i?e iayaiinoi aeia?ice/eeaiai
/oeiiai noaaeaiiy aei ioi/aiiy.

*eaie eiaea?nueeeo a?oi ciaoiaeeeenue iiae niaith a iaaieo noinoieao, ui
neeaaea? ia?oee ?iaaiue no?oeoo?e iiaeiniaenoinieo aiaeiinei. A
ia’?aeiaii? «Aeiii» eiaea?ia ca’ycoaaee, a iniiaiiio, aca?iii iiceoeaii
noinoiee. Aieueo neeaaeii aiaeiineie neeaeeny iiae /eaiaie eiaea?nueei?
a?oie «Naioi/a». Oea iia’ycaii, a ia?oo /a?ao, c eiai cia/ii aieueoei a
ii?iaiyiii c «Aeiiiii» eieueeiniei neeaaeii.

Ae?oaei ?iaiai ? noinoiee /eaiia ia’?aeiaiue c eiaea?aie. I?i nooiiiue
?o cao?oiaaiinoi naiae/eoue cia/aiiy a?oiiaiai nioeiiiao?e/iiai iiaeaeno
ineoieiai/ii? aca?iiinoi. A «Aeiiii» aii aoa cia/ii aeuei, iiae o
«Naioi/i».

Ii?yae c eiaea?aie aeena?oaioii aoei aeyaeaii iioi iiaeno?oeoo?e a
ia’?aeiaiiyo: «/eaie, yeei aiaeaeathoue ia?aaaao», «i?eeiyoi»,
«aeeth/aii» i «iaaeeth/aii». Ia?oi ?acii c eiaea?aie neeaaeathoue yae?i
a?oie, aei yeiai i?eieeathoue «i?eeiyoi». ?aooa /eaiia aoea aiaeianaia
aei «aeeth/aieo». Aiie aa?ooue o/anoue o a?oiiaeo i?ioeanao ia’?aeiaiiy,
aea ia aieeaathoue ia ieo. Ineaaethaaee no?oeoo?o «icieueiaaii» i
«iaaeeth/aii». Iaoa?iaee aeineiaeaeaiiy aeicaieeee c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i
oa, ui aieueoinoue c ieo ia aiaeiiaiaeaea iniiaiei aeiiaai, ui inioaaee
aeey /eaiia ia’?aeiaiue: iaaiee ?iaaiue inaioe oa iioaeaeooaeueiee
iioaioeiae.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy aeyaeei oeieee ?yae caeiiiii?iinoae ooieoeiiioaaiiy
/eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue: caeaaeiinoue iiae aaee/eiith nioeiiiao?e/iiai
noaoono /eaiia i ii?ith aiaeiiaiaeiinoi ?oiuei? iiaaaeiiee a?oiiaei
ii?iai, iiae eieueeinoth «icieueiaaieo», iaaeeth/aieo a iiaeiniaenoinii
noinoiee i oaiaeaioei?th aei ?iciaaeo ia’?aeiaiiy, iiae eieueeinoth
o/anieeia i oa?aeoa?ii ?oiio aiaeiinei a iiaeno?oeoo?ao eiaea? — eiaea?,
a?oia eiaea?ia — /eaie ia’?aeiaiiy.

Aeena?oaioii c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui /eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy iaee
ia iiiaio aeineiaeaeaiiy aiaeiinii i?inoo no?oeoo?o iiaeiniaenoinieo
aiaeiinei, i??a?oiy yeeo iaoiiaeaia noinoieaie /eaiia c eiaea?aie. A ieo
i?aeoe/ii aiaenooii iiaea?oie ci nai?ie eiaea?aie. Aieiaiith
iniaeeainoth no?oeoo?e /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue ? iayaiinoue 3-o eiaea?ia
(aiioeieiiai, aeieiaiai oa iioaeaeooaeueiiai), iia’ycaieo iiae niaith
iiceoeaieie aca?ieiaie. A oeaio?i no?oeoo?e ciaoiaeeoueny eiaea?nueea
a?oia, /a?ac yeo niieeo?oueny aieueoinoue /eaiia ia’?aeiaiiy.

O o?aoueiio ?icaeiei «*eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy ye ia?niaeoeaia oi?ia
?iaioe ioae?/ii? aiaeiioaee» aeena?oaio, nie?ath/enue ia aeoaaeeeaaeaii
oai?aoe/ii iniiae aea/aiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue, iiaenoiee
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iiai aiaeico aeiyeueiinoi ?aaeueii inioth/eo
ia’?aeiaiue, aeiaiaeeoue ?o cia/aiiy ye no/anii? oi?ie ?iaioe ioaei/ii?
aiaeiioaee i aaaeeeaiai eiiiiiaioa eoeueoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua. O ?icaeiei
aeeeaaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoei? c i?aaiicaoei? aeiyeueiinoi /eoaoeueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ?o aeieeiaiiy i ?icaeoeo, a
oaeiae iaaea?oueny i?ia?aia o/aiaiai eo?no «Nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii
iniiae aiaeiioa/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ia’?aeiaiue» aeey nooaeaioia
noaoeiiia?ii? oa cai/ii? oi?i iaa/aiiy, aiaeiioaea?ia-i?aeoeeia, ui
iaa/athoueny a nenoaii iiaeaeuaiiy i?ioanieii? eaaeioieaoei?
aiaeiioa/ieo i?aoeiaieeia.

O ia?oiio iiae?icaeiei aeena?oaio aecia/a? iinoea /eoaoeueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue a ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e oeyoii aiaeicoaaiiy ?oiio ooieoeie,
iaoiiaeaieo iio?aaaie noniieuenoaa i iniaenoinoi. Ca aeiiiiiaith
/eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue, ye naiae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoeieiiai
aeineiaeaeaiiy, ?aaeico?oueny iio?aaa ethaeeie a niieeoaaiii,
caniiaaiiio ia noa’?eoii-noa’?eoieo aca?ieiao. Ia aiaeiiio aiae iioeo
aeaeia aiaeiioa/ii? eiioiieaoei? niieeoaaiiy a /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiiyo
? ca’yceii ?iaiii?aaieo ia?oia?ia, yei i?aaiooue aei niieueii?
aeiyeueiinoi. Iaia’yceiaith oiiaith niieeoaaiiy a /eoaoeueeeo
ia’?aeiaiiyo ? aieueia aoiaeaeaiiy a iueiai /eaiia. Iiooi iieiai ia
i?eiooo? i?eeiaoe oo /e iioo iioi?iaoeith.

A /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiiyo, ye naiae/aoue iaoa?iaee aeena?oaoeieiiai
aeineiaeaeaiiy, caeeaaeaii cia/ii iiaeeeainoi aeey ?aaeicaoei?
iioaioeieieo caeiaiinoae ethaeae. O/anoue a ?iaioi /eoaoeueeiai
ia’?aeiaiiy «Aeiii» aeaea iiaeeeainoue eiai o/anieeai aei?iaoaaoe naaa a
yeinoi i?aaiicaoi?ia aeicaiee?ai? aeiyeueiinoi ?ioae?aaioe?? iinoa
Aicianainueea. Naiiaeiyeueii oaao?aeueii iinoaiiaee ia’?aeiaiue «Naioi/»
(n.i.o. Eacaiea) i «Eioiaeaeai» (n.i.o. A?aonueea) ni?eyee ?aae?caoe??
aeoi?nueeiai i ?aaeena?nueeiai oaeaioo eiai /eaiia. I?eoieueieeia iiaci?
i ciaaoeia iiicaiieo iia cae?aee ia’?aeiaiiy «Ei?a» (n.i.o. Iiaa Iaeana)
i «Ia?aeeaaea/ » (i.Ieeiea?a).

A /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiiyo ae?iaeythoueny iiai oeiiiinoi, yei iiaeooue
iioaineoieoaaoe aeooiaia aeeooy ia eeoa ie?aieo iniaenoinoae, a oaeiae
noniieuenoaa a oeieiio. E?ii oiai, /eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy ni?eythoue
caa?aaeaiith icioth/eo eoeueoo?ieo oeiiiinoae.

Ana oea aea? aeena?oaioo iiaenoaae aaaaeaoe /eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy
ia?niaeoeaiith oi?iith ?iaioe ioaei/ii? aiaeiioaee i aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii
?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e.

O ae?oaiio iiae?icaeiei aeathoueny iaoiaee/ii ii?aaee c i?aaiicaoei?
?iaioe /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue. A ieo ?icaeyaeathoueny aeaa oeyoe
noai?aiiy ia’?aeiaiiy: ca iiioeiaoeaith /eoa/ia i aiaeiioaea?ia. Ia
aiaeiiio aiae aaea inioth/eo ?aeiiaiaeaoeie aeena?oaio cina?aaeaeo?
oaaao ia caaaeaiiyo aiaeiioaea?y ia anio aoaiao ?icaeoeo ia’?aeiaiiy,
aea? ii?iaiaaio a aeena?oaoeieiiio aeineiaeaeaiii iaoiaeeeo
aeiaaiinooaaiiy iniaenoinoi eiaeiiai o/anieea ia’?aeiaiiy, eiai iioeaia
aoiaeaeaiiy a /eoaoeueea ia’?aeiaiiy, no?oeoo?e iiaeiniaenoinieo
aiaeiinei. Iaea?aeaia iioi?iaoeiy aeiiiiiaa? aiaeiioa/iei i?aoeiaieeai a
i?aaiicaoei? niieueii? a?oiiai? aeiyeueiinoi i oi?aaeiiii noinoieaie
/eai?a ia’?aeiaiiy. Aeena?oaio i?iiiio? oi?ie ?iaioe, ui ni?eythoue
aieueo aoaeoeaiiio i?ioiaeaeaiith aeeiaii/ieo a?oiiaeo i?ioeania.

*eoaoeueea ia’?aeiaiiy, ye iieacaee iaoa?iaee aeena?oaoeieiiai
aeineiaeaeaiiy, i?eieiy? nai? inioaaiiy, eiee o eiai /eaiia ae/a?iaii
aca?iiee iniaenoiniee iioa?an oa iioa?an aei i?aaeiaoa niieueii?
aeiyeueiinoi. Aea aiaeiioaea? iiaea i?iaeiaaeeoe eiai aeeooy, yeui aoaea
ciaoe iniaeeainoi nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iiai ?icaeoeo ia’?aeiaiiy.

O o?aoueiio iiae?icaeiei iiaa eaea i?i iaa/aiiy aiaeiioaea?ia
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iei iniiaai aeiyeueiinoi /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue.
?ic?iaeaiee o/aiaee eo?n «Nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii iniiae aiaeiioa/iiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue» iiaea aooe naiinoieiith o/aiaith
aeenoeeieiiith /e neeaaeiaith /anoeiith eo?no «Nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii
iniiae aiaeiioa/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy», ?ic?iaeaiiai I.A. Iaeaeen.
Iniiaiith iaoith eo?no ? iaa/aiiy aiaeiioaea?ia iniiaai ?iaioe c
/eoaoeueeeie ia’?aeiaiiyie ye ia?niaeoeaiith oi?iith ?aaeicaoei?
eiioiieaoeaii? i ?aeaenaoeieii? ooieoeie aiaeiioaee. A iniiao i?ia?aie
eo?no iieeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy.

I?aoethth/e iaae i?ia?aiith eo?no, aeena?oaio aeaoaeueii iciaeiieany c
inioth/ith i?aeoeeith nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iiai iaa/aiiy aiaeiioaea?ia,
eeoaieo i?aoeiaieeia, a/eoae?a, cie?aia, c i?aoeyie I.A. Iaeaeen, I.E.
Aeaea?aei?anueei?, N.A. ?ciai?, A.A. Naiei/aiei.

I?ia?aia eo?no iiaoaeiaaia ia ii?aeiaiii oai?aoe/iiai ciaiiy
nioeiieiai? i ineoieiai? iaei? a?oie i i?aeoe/iiio aeinaiaei a?oiiai?
?iaioe, yeee nooaeaioe ciiaeooue iaea?aeaoe ca aeiiiiiaith aiaeico
aeiyeueiinoi aeith/eo /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue i iiae /an ?iaioe a a?oiao
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iiai o?aiiiao. I?ia?aia eo?no aea? ciaiiy c oaeeo
ieoaiue: iinoea i ?ieue /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue a nenoaii
nioeiaeueii-eiioiieaoeaii? aeiyeueiinoi aiaeiioae,
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii iaoaiicie aeieeiaiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue i
iniaeeainoi i?ioeano ?o a?oiiaiai ooieoeiiioaaiiy, eiaea?noai i
ea?iaieoeoai, iniaeeainoi aca?iinoinoieia /eoa/ia i aiaeiioaea?ia a
ia’?aeiaiiyo, iaoiaeeea nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iiai aea/aiiy /eoaoeueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue i nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iee iiaeoiae aei aiaeiioa/iiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue. Eiaeia caiyooy iiaoaeiaaii oaeei
/eiii, uia ?aiioa caeiaooi ciaiiy c eo?nia «Nioeiaeueia ineoieiaiy»,
«Ianeoaiaoaaiiy /eoa/ia», «Nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii iniiae aiaeiioa/iiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy» aeiiiaithaaeenue iiaeie, i nooaeaioe a?aee aeoeaio
o/anoue a o/aiaiio i?ioeani. Aeeeaaeaiiy eo?no ni?ey? ?icaeoeo
iiaeaeenoeiieiia?ieo ya’yceia i, a ia?oo /a?ao, nioeiaeueii? ineoieiai?
i iniia aiaeiioa/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy.

Aeey nenoaie iiaeaeuaiiy eaaeioieaoei? aiaeiioa/ieo i?aoeiaieeia, ye
iieaco? aeinaiae ?iaioe aeena?oaioa, iaeaieueo i?eeiyoiith oi?iith
aeeeaaeaiiy eo?no ? caiyooy a o?aiiiaiaie a?oii. Aiie aeeth/athoue
ai?aae, aeeneoni?, ?ieueiai ia?e, a oaeiae eaeoei? c o?ueio iniiaieo
oai: oa?aeoa?enoeea /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue ye iaeeo nioeiaeueieo a?oi,
iiaeaeue ?icaeoeo a?oiiaeo i?ioeania a /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiiyo,
no?oeoo?a iiaeiniaenoinieo aiaeiinei ?oiio /eaiia.

A E N I I A E E

Aeieeiaiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue eaaeeoue ia neeaaeiiio ia?ao?anoi
nioeiaeueieo i ineoieiai/ieo aeaoa?iiiaio, na?aae yeeo aaciaeie ?
oaeoi?e nioeiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. *eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy aenooiathoue ye
nai??iaeia ooieoeiiiaeueia iaeeieoey nioeiieoeueoo?ii? no?oeoo?e
noniieuenoaa, aeiyeueiinoue yei? ni?yiiaaia ia iiaeo?eiaiiy aeooiaieo
oeiiiinoaae a noniieuenoai.

I?ioean aeieeiaiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue neeaaea?oueny, ii-ia?oa, c
oi?iaeueiiai noai?aiiy a?oie iiioeiaoi?aie (ei?enooaa/aie aai
i?aoe?aieeaie a?ae?ioaee), a, ii-ae?oaa, iinooiiaiai i?e?aeiaiiy aei
iueiai eiie?aoieo iiaeeaiae?a. Iaoa?iaee aeineiaeaeaiiy aeiaaee, ui nai
oaeo oi?ioaaiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue iaoiiaeai ciaiioieie
ianoaaeiaie, aea ?o aeiyeueiinoue caeaaeeoue aiae iniaenoinieo iioeaia
iiaeeaiaeia, ?o iio?aae a niieeoaaiii, iiciaiii, naii?aaeicaoei?,
aaaeaiiy iaeaaeaoe aei iaaii? a?oie.

Aeaii aeineiaeaeaiiy ?aaeueii inioth/eo /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue
iiaeoaa?aeeee i?aaiii?iinoue i?eiouaiiy aeena?oaioa i?i oa, ui aiie
?icaeaathoueny o aiaeiiaiaeiinoi ic caaaeueieie oaiaeaioeiyie iaeeo
nioeiaeueieo a?oi, aea iathoue iniaeeainoi, yei iia’ycaii ci
niaoeeoieith /eoaoeueei? aeiyeueiinoi.

A oiaei aeineiaeaeaiiy aoea noai?aia iaoiaeeea aea/aiiy /eoaoeueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue, iniiao yei? neeaaeathoue nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii iaoiaee.
Ca ?? aeiiiiiaith aeena?oaio i?iaiaeea aiaeic i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy
/eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue, aecia/aiiy iniiaieo aoaiia ?o ?icaeoeo,
iniaeeainoae no?oeoo?e iiaeiniaenoinieo noinoieia i noaoonii? iiceoei?
aiaeiioaea?ia.

Aoei aecia/aii oinoue aoaiia ?icaeoeo /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue i oaei
iniaeeainoi no?oeoo?e iiaeiniaenoinieo noinoieia: iayaiinoue a?oie
eiaea?ia, neeueia i?i?ioaoeiy /eai?a ia eiaea?ia, aiaenooiinoue iiaea?oi
ci nai?ie eiaea?aie, caeaaeiinoue a?oiiaiai noaoono o/anieeia aiae
iniaenoinieo yeinoae i aianeo a iino?oiaioaeueio i aiioeieio noa?e
aeiyeueiinoi ia’?aeiaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy aeathoue ciiao noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iacaeaaeii
aiae nai?? iiceoei? a ia’?aeiaii?, aiaeiioaea? iiaeiai a?aoe aeoeaio
o/anoue a a?oiiaie aeiyeueiinoi. Oiio eiio iaiaoiaeii ciaiiy
iniaeeainoae aeeiaii/ieo i?ioeania a ia’?aeiaiiyo. Ca iiaenoieaie
aea/aiiy ooieoeiiioaaiiy ?aaeueii inioth/eo ia’?aeiaiue ?ic?iaeaii
iaoiaee/ii ?aeiiaiaeaoei? aeey a?ae?ioaea??a, a oaeiae o/aiaee eo?n
«Nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii iniiae aiaeiioa/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy
/eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue» aeey nooaeaioia aiaeiioa/ieo oaeoeueoaoia aeueo
o/aiaeo caeeaaeia i oeo, ooi iaa/a?oueny a nenoaii iiaeaeuaiiy
eaaeioieaoei? i?aoeiaieeia eoeueoo?e.

I O A E I E A Oe I ?

1. Iaeaeen ?.A., Iaaeaeue/i A.I., ?aaiiaa ?.O. Aieea iniaenoeo yeinoae
a?ae?ioaea?y ia no?oeoo?o /eoaoeueeiai eiioeiaaioo ianiai? a?ae?ioaee //
No/aniee /eoa/ ? a?ae?ioaea / Aea?ae. ?ani. a-ea ONN? ?i.EI?N. — E.,
1991. — N.51-55.

2. Iaaiiaa I.O. *eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy: nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii
iniaeeainoi aeieeiaiiy i ooieoeiiioaaiiy // Eoeueoo?a Oe?a?ie: inoi?iy i
no/aniinoue: ?ani. iaoe.-oai?aoe/. eiio. 26-28 aeiaoiy 1992 ?. / OAeIE.-
O., 1992.- N. 315-316.

3. Iieyeiaa I.A., Iaaiiaa I.O., Iaeaeec I.A. *eoaoeueeee eeoa: eiai
iaaeaaiiy i i?iaeaie (C aeinaiaeo ?iaioe /eoaoeueeeo eeoaia ca
iioa?anaie o aiaeiioaeao Ieeiea?anueei? iaeanoi) / Aea?ae. a-ea Oe?a?ie,
Ieeiea?anueea iae. iaoe. a-ea ii. I. Aie?ueiaa, Ieeiea?a. oieiae Ee?a.
aea?ae. ii-oo eoeueoo?e.- E., 1992.- 8 n.

4. Iaaiiaa I.O. Aeayei nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii aniaeoe aeiyeueiinoi
/eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue // Nioeiieiai/ii aeineiaeaeaiiy a aiaeiioaeao:
iioi?iaoeieii-aiaeioe/iee atheaoaiue.- E., 1993.- Aei.5.-N. 7-16.

5. Eaaiiaa E.O. No?oeoo?a iaaeee/iinoiuo ioiioaiee a /eoaoaeueneeo
iauaaeeiaieyo // Aeaeeioaeiaaaeaiea.- 1993.- N 5-6.-N. 49-55.

6. Iaaiiaa I.O. *eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy: inoi?iy aeieeiaiiy // Ca. noaoae
anii?aioia Ee?anueeiai aea?ae. ii-oo eoeueoo?e.- E., 1995.- Aei.2.- N.
71-76.

7. Iaaiiaa I.O. *eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy: c inoi?i? aeieeiaiiy // Inoi?iy
aiaeiioa/ii? ni?aae a Oe?a?ii: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue / Iii-ai eoeueoo?e i
ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie, Iaoeiii. Ia?e. a-ea Oe?a?ie.- E., 1997.- Aei.2.- N.
75-80.

Iaaiiaa I.O. *eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy a ioae?/ieo aiaeiioaeao: iniaeeainoi
?icaeoeo i aeiyeueiinoi. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiai/ieo
iaoe c niaoeiaeueiinoi 07.00.08. — Eieaiciaanoai, aiaeiioaeiciaanoai oa
aiaeiia?aoiciaanoai. Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao eoeueoo?e i
ienoaoeoa Iiiinoa?noaa eoeueoo?e i ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie. Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoeith i?enay/aii ieoaiith aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo i
aeiyeueiinoi /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue ye ia?niaeoeaii? oi?ie ?iaioe
aiaeiioaee. O aeena?oaoei? oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii
iiaeoaa?aeaeaii oie oaeo, ui /eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy ?icaeaathoueny o
aiaeiiaiaeiinoi c caaaeueieie oaiaeaioeiyie iaeeo nioeiaeueieo a?oi, aea
iathoue iniaeeainoi, iia’ycaii ci niaoeeoieith /eoaoeueei? aeiyeueiinoi.
Noai?aii iaoiaeeeo aea/aiiy /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue. Aecia/aii
niaoeeoieo aeiyeueiinoi i aieeao /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue ia iaaeieeoi?
eoeueoo?ia na?aaeiaeua.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/ii ?aeiiaiaeaoei? ii noai?aiith ia’?aeiaiue i?e
aiaeiioaeao oa i?ia?aio iaa/aeueiiai eo?no ii iiaeaioiaoei aiaeiioa/ieo
i?aoeiaieeia aei a?oiiai? aeiyeueiinoi /eoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue.

Eeth/iai neiaa: /eoaoeueei ia’?aeiaiiy, a?oiiaa aeeiaiiea,
iiaeiniaenoinii aiaeiineie, i?ioanieia inaioa.

Eaaiiaa E.O. *eoaoaeueneea iauaaeeiaiey a ioaee/iuo aeaeeioaeao:
iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey e aeayoaeueiinoe. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.08. — Eieaiaaaeaiea, aeaeeioaeiaaaeaiea e
aeaeeia?aoiaaaeaiea. Eeaaneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eoeueoo?u e
eneonnoa Ieienoa?noaa eoeueoo?u e eneonnoa Oe?aeiu. Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?ino auyaeaiey iniaaiiinoae ?acaeoey e
aeayoaeueiinoe /eoaoaeueneeo iauaaeeiaiee eae ia?niaeoeaiie oi?iu ?aaiou
aeaeeioaee. A aeenna?oaoeee oai?aoe/anee iainiiaai e yenia?eiaioaeueii
iiaeoaa?aeaeai oio oaeo, /oi /eoaoaeueneea iauaaeeiaiey ?acaeaathony a
niioaaonoaee n iaueie oaiaeaioeeyie iaeuo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii, ii eiatho
iniaaiiinoe, naycaiiua ni niaoeeoeeie /eoaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Nicaeaia iaoiaeeea eco/aiey /eoaoaeueneeo iauaaeeiaiee. Ii?aaeaeaia
niaoeeoeea aeayoaeueiinoe e aeeyiey /eoaoaeueneeo iauaaeeiaiee ia
ie?oaeathuoth eoeueoo?ioth n?aaeo.

?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii nicaeaieth iauaaeeiaiee i?e
aeaeeioaeao e i?ia?aiia o/aaiiai eo?na ii iiaeaioiaea aeaeeioa/iuo
?aaioieeia e a?oiiiaie aeayoaeueiinoe /eoaoaeueneeo iauaaeeiaiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: /eoaoaeueneea iauaaeeiaiey, a?oiiiaay aeeiaieea,
iaaeee/iinoiua ioiioaiey, i?ioanneiiaeueiia ia?aciaaiea.

Ivanova I.F. Readers associations in public libraries: peculiarities of
development and activity. Manuscript.

The dissertation for a Candidate of Pedagogical science’s degree,
speciality 07.00.08. — Bibliology, library scince, bibliography science.
Kiev state University of Culture and Arts of Ministry of Culture and
Arts of Ukraine. Kiev, 1998.

The dissertation is dedicated to revealing of peculiarities of readers’
associations development and activity as a promising form of library
work. The fact that the readers’ associations are developing in
accordance with the general tendencies of small social groups but have
peculiarities connected with the specificity of readers’ activity was
theoretically substantiated and experimentally confirmed.

The method of readers’ associations study was developed. The
specificity of readers’ associations activity and their influence on
cultural surroundings was determined.

Methodical recommendations for making associations attached to
libraries and a programme of training course for librarians to prepare
them to the group activity of leisure associations were worked out.

Key words: readers’ associations, the group dynamics, interpersonal
relations, vocational education.

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