1

EUeA?ANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? ?AAIA O?AIEA

?aaiiaa Iaoae?y Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 519.6:517.958

*ENAEUeIA IIAeAETHAAIIss IIAIAeAEAIIss

AIO*EEO CNOAIEO IAIEIIIE C

AeAOI?I?AIITH II?IAEETH

01.01.07 – ia/enethaaeueia iaoaiaoeea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Euea?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Euea?anueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia
O?aiea ia eaoaae?? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Oeiea?aiei Aai?a?e Aiae??eiae/,

Euea?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e ?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Neiiueianueeee ?iiai Aieiaeeie?iae/, Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, i?ioani? eaoaae?e i?eeeaaeii? iaoaiaoeee;

eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Oiiiethe TH??e Iaaeiae/,

?inoeooo i?eeeaaeieo i?iaeai iaoai?ee ? iaoaiaoeee ?iai?
ss.N.I?aeno?eaa/a IAI Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo
/enaeueieo iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/ii? o?ceee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo e?aa?iaoeee ?iai? A.I.Aeooeiaa IAI Oe?a?ie,
i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 23 aa?aciy 2000 ?. i 1520 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.051.07 o Euea?anueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea ca aae?anith: 79602, i.
Euea?a, aoe. Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 1, iaoai?ei-iaoaiaoe/iee oaeoeueoao,
aoae. 377.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (aoe.
Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 20 ethoiai 2000 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ss.A.Ieeeothe

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. I?iaeooaaiiy oiieino?iieo ?iaeaia?ieo
eiino?oeoe?e neeaaeii? oi?ie, ye? aenieoaoothoueny a oiiaao
??ciiiai?oiiai noaoe/iiai ? aeeiai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ye i?aaeei,
ia?aaeaa/a? i?iaaaeaiiy eaae?o?eiaaiiai ia/enethaaeueiiai aenia?eiaioo,
yeee aeiaaa?:

· iaaii? ?aaeoeoe?? o?eaei??ii? e?aeiai? caaea/? oai??? i?oaeiino? aei
aeaiaei??ii? e?aeiai? caaea/? aeey aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio na?aaeeiii? iiaa?oi? iaieiiee;

· canoinoaaiiy aaeaeaaoieo /enaeueieo noai aeey aiae?co ?ica’yce?a
aaeeoi? oai??? iaieiiie.

Aaaeeeao ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? iniiaieo a?iioac oa o iiaoaeia? eeth/iaeo
??aiyiue aaiiao?e/ii iae?i?eii? oai??? iaieiiie oa iaoiae?a ?o
?ica’ycoaaiiy c?a?aee i?aoe? E.ss. Aeiiee, N.A. Aiaa?oeoiyia,
?.A. Aoaiiaa, A.C. Aeaniaa, ?.?. Ai?iae/a, E.C. Aae?iiaa,
ss.I. A?eai?aiea, A.I. Aocy, A.O. Aaneeaiea, ss.O. Eathea,
A.A. E?enueei, O.I. Ioooa??, A.A. Iiaiaeeeiaa, A.I. Iaeiooeia,
?.A. ??ea?aena oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo a/aieo.

I?ioyaii inoaii?o aeanyoee?oue i?e ?ica’ycaii? caaea/ oai??? iaieiiie
noaee iaaecae/aeii iioe?aieie /enaeuei? iaoiaee, caniiaai? ia
aa??aoe?eieo i?eioeeiao, ye? ? oi?aa?naeueiei niiniaii iieno
aia?aaoe/ieo caeiiii??iinoae iaoaiaoe/ieie caniaaie. Ooiaeaiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy c oeueiai ieoaiiy aeeiiai? a i?aoeyo
A.E. Aa?aee/aanueeiai, E. Aan?aeco, E. Eaioeioa, E.N. Iieeaea,
E. ?aeoi?ena, E.A. ?ic?ia, J.T. Oden, J.N. Reddy oa ?i.

Ieoaiiy ?nioaaiiy oa ?aeeiino? ?ica’yce?a aa??aoe?eieo caaea/ oai???
iaieiiie oni?oii ?ica’ycothoueny iaoiaeaie ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aiae?co. A
i?aoeyo ?. Aeaaa/aea, ?. Aeia?ine?, A. Aethai, I.A. Eaaeeaeainueei?,
AE.-E. E?iina, ?. Iaaeaeaiana, N.A. I?oe?ia, ?. Ia/ana aoee iiaoaeiaai?
eiino?oeoeai? iaoiaee aeiaaaeaiiy ?nioaaiiy oa ?aeeiino? ?ica’yce?a
aa??aoe?eieo caaea/, ye? aacothoueny ia iiaoaeia? iine?aeiaiino?
ai?ieneiaoe?e Aaeuei?e?ia oa iiaeaeueoiio a?aie/iiio ia?aoiae? a
i?inoi?ao aeiionoeieo ooieoe?e. Iaeiei c eeth/iaeo ieoaiue a oaeeo
aeiaaaeaiiyo ? ieoaiiy eia?oeeoeaiino? a?e?i?eii? oi?ie, yea
a?aeiia?aea? iioaioe?aeuei?e aia?a?? iaieiiee. Aeiaaaeaiiy oeueiai oaeoo
aeey iaaieo eean?a iaieiiie a iaaeao oai??e E??oaioa-Eyaa oa oai???
iaieiiie Oeiioaiea-I?iaee?ia iiaeia ciaeoe a i?aoeyo ?. Aeaaa/aea,
?. Ia/ana, A.A. Eeoaeiiaa, i?ioa ia aeaiee /an aaaeei ciaeoe aeiaaaeaiiy
eia?oeeoeaiino? a?e?i?eii? oi?ie aa??aoe?eii? caaea/? aeey iaieiiee
aeia?eueii? oi?ie. Aeaye? i?aeoiaee aei aeiaaaeaiiy ?nioaaiiy oa
?aeeiino? ?ica’yce?a aa??aoe?eieo caaea/ oai??? iaieiiie iiaeia ciaeoe a
i?aoeyo ?.TH. Oiie, I.I. Ea?/aanueeiai oa ?i.

Aoaeoeaia ?ica’ycoaaiiy no/anieo caaea/ oai??? iaieiiie iiaeeeaa i?e
canoinoaaii? oaeeo iiooaeieo /enaeueieo iaoiae?a ye
aa??aoe?eii-??cieoeaaee oa iaoiae ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a (INA). Cia/iee
aianie o ?icaeoie oeeo iaoiae?a c?iaeee A.A. Aaioeia, ?. Aaaooea,
I. Caieaae/, ?.Ae. Eaca?ia, A.E. Iaea?ia, A.?. Ia?/oe, N.A. I?oe?i,
AE.-I. Iaai, ss.A. Naaoea, A.A. Naia?nueeee, A. No?aia, O. Nuey?ea,
A.A. Oeiea?aiei oa ?i.

Iaei??th c iaea?eueo iioe?aieo a aaeoc? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaieiieiaeo
eiino?oeoe?e ? oai??y iaieiiie Oeiioaiea-I?iaee?ia, yea aaco?oueny ia
a?iioac? i?i iacaeaaeiee iiai?io ii?iae? iaieiiee. A i?aoeyo
A.A. Aiaaeaiiae/a, A.N. Aieuei??a, E.C. Aae?iiaa, ?.?. A?eaiethea,
?.A. ??ea?aena caii/aoeiaaii aeine?aeaeaiiy oanoeiiaeaeueiiai aa??aioo
ocaaaeueiaii? oai???, a yeiio ?icaeyaeathoueny o?e eiiiiiaioe aaeoi?a
ia?ai?uaiue na?aaeeiii? iiaa?oi? oa o?e ooieoe??, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue
iiai?io oa iaoene ii?iae?, i?e/iio aeoiaey/e c iaaieo iaoai?/ieo
i??eoaaiue a aeaieo i?aoeyo aoei ciaoooaaii iaaieie eiiiiiaioaie caeiieo
aeaoi?iaoe?e.

Ioaea, ia aeeaey/enue ia cia/i? ?acoeueoaoe, aeooaeueieie oa aaaeeeaeie
aoaiaie oai?aoe/iiai oa i?eeeaaeiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaieiieiaeo
eiino?oeoe?e caeeoathoueny ieoaiiy: iiaoaeiae iiaeaeae, caeaoieo
iaeaaeiei /eiii a?aeoai?thaaoe iae?i?eiee oa?aeoa? ?o aeaoi?ioaaiiy,
iiai?io oa a?aeiinia aeaeiaaeaiiy aieieii ii?iae? na?aaeeiii? iiaa?oi?
oiui; ei?aeoiino? ii/aoeiai-e?aeiaeo oa a?aeiia?aeieo aa??aoe?eieo
caaea/; iiaoaeiaa ? iaeaaeia iaa?oiooaaiiy /enaeueieo noai aeey
ocaaaeueiaieo iiaeaeae iaieiiie; ?ic?iaea aeai?eoi?a oeeo noai oa
a?aeiia?aeiiai i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy.

Iaoith i?aoe? ? ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae, aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o
ei?aeoiino? oa iiaoaeiaa i?iaeoe?eii-n?oeiaeo noai aeey ?ica’ycoaaiiy
aa??aoe?eieo caaea/ ocaaaeueiaii? oai??? aio/eeo iaieiiie, a naia:

· ?ic?iaea eeth/iaeo ??aiyiue, iinoaiiaea ii/aoeiai-e?aeiaeo caaea/
aaiiao?e/ii iae?i?eiiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaieiiie c o?aooaaiiyi iaoeneo
ii?iae? ia aac? oanoeiiaeaeueiiai aa??aioo oai??? iaieiiie
Oeiioaiea-I?iaee?ia oa oi?ioethaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo aa??aoe?eieo caaea/;

· aeiaaaeaiiy eia?oeeoeaiino? a?e?i?eii? oi?ie, yea a?aeiia?aea?
iioaioe?aeuei?e aia?a?? i?oio?iiii? iaieiiee c aeinoaoiuei ?aaoey?iith
na?aaeeiiith iiaa?oiath aeia?eueii? oi?ie;

· anoaiiaeaiiy oiia ei?aeoiino? iiaoaeiaaieo aa??aoe?eieo caaea/ oeyoii
aeiaaaeaiiy ?nioaaiiy, ?aeeiino? oa iaia?a?aii? caeaaeiino? ?ica’yceo
a?ae aeaieo caaea/?;

· iiaoaeiao /enaeueieo noai noi?ioeueiaaieo aa??aoe?eieo caaea/ c
aeei?enoaiiy INA aeey aeene?aoecaoe?? caaea/ ca i?inoi?iaeie ci?iieie oa
iaeiie?ieiaeo ?aeo?aioieo noai ?ioaa?oaaiiy a /an?;

· aeine?aeaeaiiy oiia no?eeino? oa ioe?iie oaeaeeino? ca?aeiino?
iiaoaeiaaieo /enaeueieo noai;

· i?ia?aiia ?aae?caoe?y iiaoaeiaaiiai aeai?eoio aeey ?ic?aooieo aio/eeo
iaieiieiaeo eiino?oeoe?e;

· oanooaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae? aio/eeo iaieiiie c aeaoi?i?aiith
ii?iaeeth, /enaeueieo noai oa i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy oeyoii
?ica’ycoaaiiy iiaeaeueieo caaea/ oa aiae?co ca?aeiino? io?eiaieo
?ica’yce?a.

Caaaeueia iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue. A ?iaio? aeei?enoai? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aaiiao?e/ii iae?i?eii? oai??? i?oaeiino?. Oeyoii ona?aaeiaiiy
oa?aeoa?enoee iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio a iai?yieo ii?iae? aei
na?aaeeiii? iiaa?oi? iaieiiee iiaoaeiaaii caieiaio nenoaio eeth/iaeo
??aiyiue oanoeiiaeaeueii? aaiiao?e/ii iae?i?eii? oai??? iaieiiie
a?aeiinii iaa?aeiieo ci?uaiue oa iiai?io?a na?aaeeiii? iiaa?oi?
iaieiiee. Noi?ioeueiaai? ii/aoeiai-e?aeia? caaea/? aeine?aeaeothoueny ca
aeiiiiiaith aa??aoe?eieo iaoiae?a c aeei?enoaiiyi i?eioeeio a??ooaeueieo
?ia?o. Io?eiai? aa??aoe?ei? caaea/? ?ica’ycothoueny ca aeiiiiiaith
iai?aaeene?aoecaoe?? Aaeuei?e?ia oa aeei?enoaiiy iaeiie?ieiaeo
?aeo?aioieo noai ?ioaa?oaaiiy a /an?. Aeiaaaeaiiy ei?aeoiino?
aa??aoe?eieo caaea/ oa no?eeino? ? ca?aeiino? /enaeueieo noai
cae?enith?oueny iaoiaeaie ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aiae?co oa oeyoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo aia?aaoe/ieo ??aiyiue c iiaeaeueoith
iiaoaeiaith ai??i?ieo ioe?iie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeaii? i?aoe? iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:

· iiaoaeiaaia nenoaia eeth/iaeo ??aiyiue, ye? iienothoue i?ioean
aeaoi?ioaaiiy aio/eeo iaieiiie aeia?eueii? oi?ie c o?aooaaiiyi iaoeneo
ii?iae? oa e?i?eiiai iiaiaeaeaiiy eiiiiiaio oaici?a iiai?ioo ii oiauei?
iaieiiee;

· cae?eniaii aeiaaaeaiiy ei?aeoiino? iinoaaeaieo aa??aoe?eieo caaea/
e?i?eiiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy cnoaieo iaieiiie aeia?eueii? oi?ie c o?aooaaiiyi
iaoeneo ii?iae?;

· iiaoaeiaaii noaie eaac?e?iaa?ecaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaieo aa??aoe?eieo
caaea/ ia iniia? iaoiaeo Iuethoiia;

· iiaoaeiaaii noaie /enaeueiiai ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ e?i?eiiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy cnoaieo iaieiiie c o?aooaaiiyi iaoeneo ii?iae? ia iniia?
iai?aaeene?aoecaoe?? Aaeuei?e?ia c aeei?enoaiiyi ai?ieneiaoe?e INA oa
iaeiie?ieiai? ?aeo?aioii? noaie Iuethia?ea;

· anoaiiaeaii aeinoaoi? oiiae no?eeino? oa iiaoaeiaaii ioe?iee
oaeaeeino? ca?aeiino? aeuacaaaeaieo /enaeueieo noai.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o noai?aii?
iaa?oioiaaii? iaoiaeeee /enaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy caaea/ aeaoi?ioaaiiy
iaieiieiaeo eiino?oeoe?e neeaaeii? aaiiao??? a oiiaao ??ciiiai?oiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ? ??cieo niiniaao cae??ieaiiy oa o iiaoaeia? aeai?eoio
/enaeueiiai ?ica’ycaiiy io?eiaieo caaea/. ?ic?iaeaiee i?ia?aiiee
eiiieaen iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey e?i?eiiai oa iae?i?eiiai aiae?co
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio iaieiieiaeo eiino?oeoe?e c i?oio?iiieo
iaoa??ae?a.

?aae?caoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Aeaia i?aoey aeeiiaia
a ?aieao ieai?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aea?aeathaeaeaoii? oaiaoeee
eaoaae?e i?eeeaaeii? iaoaiaoeee oa eaoaae?e ?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai
Euea?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeeth/ai? a ca?o iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaie Ii-785A
“Iaoaiaoe/ia oa i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy
aaiethoe?eii? aca?iiae?? o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo iie?a”, yea aeeiioaaeanue
i?ioyaii 1997-99 ??. eaoaae?ith ?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai ca?aeii i?ia?aie ?
45 Eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie.

A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a caaacia/o?oueny oai?aoe/ieie iieiaeaiiyie
iaoai?ee nooe?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua; aeiaaaeaiiyi ei?aeoiino? iinoaaeaieo
aa??aoe?eieo caaea/; iiaoaeiaith ai??i?ieo ioe?iie oaeaeeino? ca?aeiino?
i?iaeoe?eii-n?oeiaeo noai; a?aeiia?aei?noth ne?i/aiiiaeaiaioieo
?ica’yce?a oanoiaeo caaea/ c ?o aiae?oe/ieie ?ica’yceaie; ii??aiyeueiei
aiae?cii iaaeeaeaieo ?ica’yce?a ia iine?aeiaii caouoaaieo n?oeao ye ca
i?inoi?iaeie ci?iieie, oae ? a /an?; ni?anoaaeaiiyi c ?acoeueoaoaie
?ic?aooie?a, io?eiaieo ?ioeie aaoi?aie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeaii? i?aoe? aeiiia?aeaeenue ia
aeaio Anaoe?a?inueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo “Canoinoaaiiy ia/enethaaeueii?
oaoi?ee, iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy oa iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a o iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo” (Euea?a, 1997, 1998), ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? c ieoaiue iiaeaethaaiiy oa aeine?aeaeaiiy no?eeino? nenoai
(Ee?a, 1997), i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Eiii’thoa?ia iiaeaethaaiiy” (Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee, 1998), ca?oieo
eiioa?aioe?yo Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1997, 1998), a oaeiae ia
iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e i?eeeaaeii? iaoaiaoeee oa eaoaae?e
?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai Euea?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
?aaia O?aiea (1996-1999).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? i?aoe? a?aeia?aaeai? o
10 noaooyo oa oacao aeiiia?aeae iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e, c yeeo 5 iaoeiaeo
noaoae o aeaeaiiyo c ia?ae?eo, caoaa?aeaeaiiai AAE Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya i?aoe?. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo e?oa?aoo?e. Aiia i?noeoue 140 noi??iie
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 11 ?enoie?a oa 11 oaaeeoeue. A?ae?ia?ao?y
neeaaea?oueny ?c 214 e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? i?aoe?
io?eiai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii. A oie aea /an a i?aoeyo [1-4],
iioae?eiaaieo a ni?aaaoi?noa? c I.I. Aaa?iei oa A.A. Oeiea?aiei,
aeena?oaioo iaeaaeeoue ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? iiaaae?iee aio/eeo
cnoaieo iaieiiie c aeaoi?i?aiith ii?iaeeth, aeiaaaeaiiy V-ae?ioe/iino?
a?e?i?eii? oi?ie, yea ii?iaeaeaia iioaioe?aeueiith aia?a??th cnoaii?
iaieiiee c aeaoi?i?aiith ii?iaeeth, iiaoaeiaa i?iaeoe?eii-n?oeiaeo noai
? aeiaaaeaiiy ?o no?eeino? oa ca?aeiino?, ?ic?iaea i?ia?aiiiai
caaacia/aiiy oa i?iaaaeaiiy /enaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a. A i?aoe? [2]
aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue oi?ioethaaiiy caaea/? i?i iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee
noai iaieiiie, iiaoaeiaa aa??aoe?eieo iinoaiiaie aeaieo caaea/ oa
aeiaaaeaiiy ?o ei?aeoiino?. Ni?aaaoi?o I.I. Aaa?io ia ??aieo i?aaao c
aeena?oaioii iaeaaeaoue ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?iaee caaaeaieo iaoaiaoe/ieo
iiaeaeae iaieiiie, ?ic?iaee aeai?eoi?a i?iaeoe?eii-n?oeiaeo noai,
eiino?othaaiiy i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy oa i?iaaaeaiiy ?ic?aooie?a.
Iaoeiaiio ea??aieeo A.A. Oeiea?aiei iaeaaeeoue iinoaiiaea caaea/?
aeena?oaoe??, aiae?c oa iaaiai?aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o iiaeyeo iaoeiaiio ea??aieeo i?ioani?o, aeieoi?o
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe A. A. Oeiea?aieo oa iaoeiaiio eiinoeueoaioo
aeioeaioo, eaiaeeaeaoo o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe I. I. Aaa?io ca iino?eio
aeiiiiiao, oaaao, i?aeo?eieo oa oe?ii? ii?aaee a i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy
oe??? ?iaioe.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaaiai?th?oueny aaaeeea?noue oa aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeai, ye?
?icaeyaeathoueny a aeena?oaoe?ei?e i?aoe?.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iaoiae?a
/enaeueiiai ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ oai??? iaieiiie oa iaeyae iaoeiaeo
?ia?o ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??. Noi?ioeueiaaii oe?e? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iaoeiaa iiaecia, a oaeiae iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno. Iiaeaii aiioaoe?th aeena?oaoe?? ca ?icae?eaie.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeaii? i?aoe? iiaoaeiaaii eeth/ia? ??aiyiiy oa
noi?ioeueiaaii ii/aoeiai-e?aeiao caaea/o oai??? aio/eeo cnoaieo iaieiiie
c aeaoi?i?aiith ii?iaeeth.

?icaeyiaii iaieiieo ne?i/aiiiai ia’?io

.

C iaeyaeo ia iaeo a ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie oa?aeoa?ieie ?ici??aie iaieiiee
oiaueio h, ?icai?iaii eiiiiiaioe aaeoi?a ia?ai?uaiue oi/ie iaieiiee ca
oi?ioeith Oaeei?a a ieie? na?aaeeiii? iiaa?oi?

(2.1)

Ooo.

Oaeei /eiii aeey aecia/aiiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio aio/ei?
iaieiiee c aeaoi?i?aiith ii?iaeeth iaiao?aeii iiaoaeoaaoe nenoaio oanoe
??aiyiue ?ooo aeey aecia/aiiy aaeoi?a ocaaaeueiaieo ci?uaiue.

I?aenoaaeyth/e ai?ieneiaoe?? (2.1) a a?aeii? aeaoi?iaoe?ei?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aio/eeo o?e ? a?aeeeaeath/e a ieo /eaie ii?yaeeo O(h2)
oa aeua, io?eia?ii aeaoi?iaoe?ei? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aio/eeo iaieiiie c
aeaoi?i?aiith ii?iaeeth

??aiyiiy ?ooo aio/eeo iaieiiie c aeaoi?i?aiith ii?iaeeth iiaoaeiaaii ia
iniia? aa??aoe?eiiai i?eioeeio Ino?ia?aaenueeiai-Aai?eueoiia.
I?aenoaaeaoe o ae?ac aeey iioaioe?aeueii? aia?a?? i?oaeiiai o?ea
aeaoi?iaoe?ei? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (2.3) oa aa?aoe ona?aaeiai? ca oiaueiith
iaieiiee oa?aeoa?enoeee iai?oaeaiue aeaeyaeo

, oiui,

i?e??aiy?ii a ??aiyii? aa??aoe?eiiai i?eioeeio
Ino?ia?aaenueeiai-Aai?eueoiia eiao?oe??ioe i?e iacaeaaeieo aa??aoe?yo
ia?ai?uaiue; a ?acoeueoao? io?eia?ii nenoaio ??aiyiue ?ooo aio/eeo
cnoaieo iaieiiie c aeaoi?i?aiith ii?iaeeth

(2.5)

I?e ia?aoiae? aei e?i?eii? oai??? iaieiiie iiai?ioaie iiaeia ciaoooaaoe,
oiio iiaiaaaaeai? coneeey ? iiiaioe ni?aiaaeooue ?c a?aeiia?aeieie
neiao?e/ieie ?, ine?eueee ??aiyiiy ?ooo (2.5) caienai? a e?i?ei?e oi?i?,
oi (2.5) aaciina?aaeiuei noathoue ??aiyiiyie ?ooo e?i?eii? oai???
iaieiiie c aeaoi?i?aiith ii?iaeeth.

Aeiiiaiththoue nenoaio c aeaoi?iaoe?eieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue (2.4), ??aiyiue
?ooo (2.5) oa noaoe/ieo e?aeiaeo oiia (2.6) ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?oaeiino?
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, (2.8)

aea.

Oaeei /eiii, a caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo, ii/aoeiai-e?aeiaa caaea/a oai???
aio/eeo cnoaieo iaieiiie c aeaoi?i?aiith ii?iaeeth iieyaa? o oiio, uia

ciaeoe oaeee aaeoi? ocaaaeueiaieo ci?uaiue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, ui aeaoi?iaoe??
picscalex1000100090000032601000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e01180000000500000031020100
0000050000000b0200000000050000000c022002e0021200000026060f001a00ffffffff
000010000000c0ffffffa6ffffffa0020000c60100000b00000026060f000c004d617468
54797065000050001c000000fb0205fee300000000009001000000020402001053796d62
6f6c000063040ad74a88ed775388ed77d067ef7763040ad700000a00040000002d010000
08000000320a7e01ff000100000028791c000000fb0205fee30000000000900100000002
0402001053796d626f6c00006f020a504a88ed775388ed77d067ef776f020a5000000a00
040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a7e0149020100000029791c000000
fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e20
43797200d067ef7763040ad800000a00040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000
320a80016b010100000075791c000000fb0280fe00000000000090010100000204020010
53796d626f6c00006f020a514a88ed775388ed77d067ef776f020a5100000a0004000000
2d01010004000000f001000008000000320a800128000100000065790a00000026060f00
0a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc01020222
53797374656d0077ab0366d807008a0100000a000600000007008a0100000a0004000000
2d01000004000000f00101000300000000000000000000000000 oa coneeey ?
iiiaioe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 caaeiaieueiythoue
aeaoi?iaoe?ei? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (2.4), o?ce/i? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (2.8),
??aiyiiy ?ooo (2.5) a iaeano? na?aaeeiii? iiaa?oi? iaieiiee, noaoe/i?
e?aeia? oiiae (2.6) ia /anoei? eiioo?o eiioo?a na?aaeeiii? iiaa?oi? ,
aaiiao?e/i? e?aeia? oiiae

picscalex1000100090000030201000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e01180000000500000031020100
0000050000000b0200000000050000000c02600200041200000026060f001a00ffffffff
000010000000c0ffffffa6ffffffc0030000060200000b00000026060f000c004d617468
54797065000070001c000000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d65
73204e657720526f6d616e2043797200d067ef774e020ac500000a00040000002d010000
08000000320ae00149030100000067791c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc
0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200d067ef77ba010ae300000a00
040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a8001740201000000757908000000
320a80012e000100000075791c000000fb0280fe00000000000090010000000204020010
53796d626f6c00004e020ac64a88ed775388ed77d067ef774e020ac600000a0004000000
2d01000004000000f001010008000000320a80015401010000003d790a00000026060f00
0a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc01020222
53797374656d00777805668f07008a0100000a000600000007008a0100000a0004000000
2d01010004000000f00100000300000000000000000000000000 ia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, (2.9)

oa ii/aoeia? oiiae

picscalex1000100090000037801000003001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e01180000000500000031020100
0000050000000b0200000000050000000c028002c0051200000026060f001a00ffffffff
000010000000c0ffffffb7ffffff80050000370200000b00000026060f000c004d617468
547970650000700008000000fa0200001000000000000000040000002d01000005000000
14025a001401050000001302260214011c000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc
0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200d067ef7758040ae400000a00
040000002d01010008000000320af400050501000000307908000000320a380219020100
000030791c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e2043797200d067ef779c050a9200000a00040000002d01020004000000
f001010008000000320aa001280401000000757908000000320aa0012e00010000007579
1c000000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f
6d616e2043797200d067ef7758040ae500000a00040000002d01010004000000f0010200
08000000320a38023e010100000074791c000000fb0280fe000000000000900100000002
0402001053796d626f6c00009c050a934a88ed775388ed77d067ef779c050a9300000a00
040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320aa0010803010000003d791c000000
fb0220ff0000000000009001000000020402001053796d626f6c000058040ae64a88ed77
5388ed77d067ef7758040ae600000a00040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000
320a38029501010000003d790a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000
fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00779d04662e07008a01
00000a000600000007008a0100000a00040000002d01020004000000f001010003000000
00000000000000000000,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 a . (2.10)

Cae?eniaia ooo ?aaeoeoe?y caaea/? oai??? i?oaeiino? i?eaiaeeoue aei
a?aeiia?aeieo caaea/ oai??? iaieiiie, yea aeicaiey? a?aoiaoaaoe
aaiiao?e/ii iae?i?eio iiaaae?ieo (aio/e?noue) iaieiiee, i?oio?iii?
aeanoeaino? ?? iaoa??aeo, aeaoi?iaoe?? ? iai?oaeaiiy cnoao oa iiai?ioe ?
a?aeiini? noene/aeaeiaaeaiiy ii?iae? na?aaeeiii? iiaa?oi? iaieiiee.
Noi?ioeueiaai? ii/aoeiai-e?aeiaa oa e?aeiaa caaea/? oai??? aio/eeo
cnoaieo iaieiiie ?c aeaoi?i?aiith ii?iaeeth ocaaaeueiththoue aeia?a
a?aeii? iiaeae? E??oaioa-Eyaa ? Oeiioaiea-I?iaee?ia oa iaea?eueo iiaii ?
iine?aeiaii iienothoue iai?aaeene?aoio iiaeaeue oai??? i?oaeiino? ca
oiia e?i?eii? ai?ieneiaoe?? aaeoi?a ci?uaiue a?aeiinii ci?iii? oiaueie.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? noi?ioeueiaaii aa??aoe?ei? caaea/? oai??? aio/eeo
cnoaieo iaieiiie c aeaoi?i?aiith ii?iaeeth, yea aoea ?icaeiaia a
ae?oaiio ?icae?e?. Iniiaieie ?acoeueoaoaie aeaiiai ?icae?eo ?
aeiaaaeaiiy oiia ei?aeoiino? aa??aoe?eieo caaea/ noaoe/ii? ??aiiaaae oa
aeeiai?ee e?i?eii? oai??? cnoaieo iaieiiie c aeaoi?i?aiith ii?iaeeth.

Oai?aia 3.1. i?i V-ae?ioe/i?noue a?e?i?eii? oi?ie

Iaoae na?aaeeiia iiaa?oiy i?oio?iiii? iaieiiee ? iaiaaeaiith iiaa?oiath
eeano C2 c iaia?a?aiith ca E?ioeoeai iaaeath .

)

Noi?ioeueiaaiee a aeai?e oai?ai? oaeo aea? iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeoe iaeei
?c iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a noiniaii e?i?eii? aa??aoe?eii? caaea/? noaoeee
iaieiiie c aeaoi?i?aiith ii?iaeeth.

Iniiaiei ?acoeueoaoii /aoaa?oiai ?icae?eo ? iiaoaeiaa
i?iaeoe?eii-n?oeiaeo noai aeey aa??aoe?eieo caaea/ oai??? aio/eeo
cnoaieo iaieiiie c aeaoi?i?aiith ii?iaeeth oa ?o iiaiee aiae?c ia
i?aaeiao no?eeino?, ai?ieneiaoe?? oa ca?aeiino? aeey aeiaaeeo e?i?eieo
caaea/ oe??? oai???. ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ cae?enith?oueny iaoiaeii
ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a. Aeey oeueiai a i?inoi?? V iae?a?oueny
iine?aeiai?noue ne?i/aiiiaei??ieo i?aei?inoi??a Vh oaea, ui dim Vh =N
i?e h0, oa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 u?eueii aeeaaeaiee o V.

Iine?aeiai?noue ai?ieneiaoe?e Aaeuei?e?ia uhV ?ica’yceo uV aa??aoe?eii?
caaea/? noaoeee (3.4) ooea?ii ye ?ica’ycee ianooiieo caaea/

caaeaii
picscalex100010009000003de00000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e01180000000500000031020100
0000050000000b0200000000050000000c02c001c0031200000026060f001a00ffffffff
000010000000c0ffffffc6ffffff80030000860100000b00000026060f000c004d617468
54797065000030001c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d65
73204e657720526f6d616e2043797200d067ef77e3040a6000000a00040000002d010000
08000000320a6001120201000000567908000000320a60012e00010000006c791c000000
fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020402001053796d626f6c0000be050a124a88ed77
5388ed77d067ef77be050a1200000a00040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000
320a4901360301000000a27908000000320a6001e70001000000ce790a00000026060f00
0a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc01020222
53797374656d00776502662507008a0100000a000600000007008a0100000a0004000000
2d01000004000000f00101000300000000000000000000005000 oa h=const0;

ciaeoe aaeoi? uh Vh oaeee, ui (4.1)

aN(uh,v)= l,v v Vh.

Aeae?ath/e c aaeoi?ieo ooieoe?e ?ici??iino? 61 aacen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 i?inoi?o Vh, iiaeaii ?ica’ycie
caaea/? (4.1) o aeaeyae? e?i?eii? eiia?iaoe??

(4.2)

c iaa?aeiiei aaeoi?ii eiao?oe??io?a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. Oiae? aeey ciaoiaeaeaiiy ?ica’yceo uh
aeene?aoeciaaii? caaea/? (4.1) io?eia?ii nenoaio iae?i?eieo aeaaa?e/ieo
??aiyiue

Kq=R (4.3)

aeey a?aeooeaiiy iaa?aeiieo q1,,qN ?icaeiaiiy (4.2). Ooo oa. I?e
?ica’ycoaaii? aa??aoe?eii? caaea/? e?i?eii? oai??? iao?eoey K iaaoaa?
aeaeyaeo.

Aaaeeea? oa?aeoa?enoeee ai?ieneiaoe?e Aaeuei?e?ia e?i?eii? aa??aoe?eii?
caaea/? noaoeee anoaiiaeth? Oai?aia 4.1.

Iaoae aeeiiaii oiiae oai?aie 3.2 oa uV — ?ica’ycie e?i?eii? aa??aoe?eii?
caaea/? i?i ??aiiaaao iaieiiee. Oiae? aeey iine?aeiaiino? ai?ieneiaoe?e
Aaeuei?e?ia uh a??i? ianooii? oaa?aeaeaiiy:

(!) aeey eiaeiiai o?eniaaiiai h0 eiao?oe??ioe ?icaeiaiiy (4.2)
ai?ieneiaoe?e Aaeuei?e?ia uhVh iaeiicia/ii aecia/athoueny nenoaiith
e?i?eieo aeaaa?e/ieo ??aiyiue (4.3) c neiao?e/iith aeiaeaoii aecia/aiith
iao?eoeath K;

(!!) aeey eiaeiiai h0 ai?ieneiaoe?y Aaeuei?e?ia uhVh ? iaee?auei
iaaeeaeaiiyi (a?aeiinii aia?aaoe/ii? ii?ie, ii?iaeaeaii?
iioaioe?aeueiith aia?a??th a i?inoi?? V) aei ?ica’yceo uV e?i?eii?
aa??aoe?eii? caaea/? a i?inoi?? Vh, oiaoi

; (4.4)

(!!!) iine?aeiai?noue ai?ieneiaoe?e Aaeuei?e?ia uh i?e h0 ca?aa?oueny a
i?inoi?? V aei ?ica’yceo e?i?eii? aa??aoe?eii? caaea/?.

Noaia iaoiaeo ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a aeey ?ica’ycoaaiiy iae?i?eieo caaea/
aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaieiiie aoaeo?oueny ia iniia? i?eioeeio iiaeeeaeo
ia?ai?uaiue aai aa??aoe?eiiai i?eioeeio Eaa?aiaea, ca?aeii yeiai na?aae
an?o e?iaiaoe/ii aeiionoeieo ci?uaiue v ?c i?inoi?o V, ?noeiieie
aoaeooue o?, ye? iaaeathoue ooieoe?iiaeo iiaii? iioaioe?aeueii? aia?a??

(4.5)

noaoe?iia?iiai cia/aiiy, oiaoi oae? uV, ui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.

?icai?oath/e iioaioe?aeueio aia?a?th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 a ieie? i-ai iaaeeaeaiiy ui aei noaio ??aiiaaae, oa
iaoooth/e eiai /eaiaie aeua eaaae?aoe/ieo, io?eia?ii

, (4.6)

ca?aeee ae?noa?ii nenoaio e?i?eieo aeaaa?e/ieo ??aiyiue aeey aecia/aiiy
iaa?aeiiiai i?e?inoo u

, (4.7)

aea KT oa K – iao?eoe? oaiaaioe?aeueii? oa n?/ii? aei?noeino?.

?ica’ycaiiy nenoaie e?i?eieo aeaaa?e/ieo ??aiyiue (4.7) a?aeiinii u aea?
ia (i+1)-e ?oa?aoe?? iao?eoeth-noiaiaoeue aoceiaeo ia?ai?uaiue ?
iiai?io?a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. Aeai?eoi ciaoiaeaeaiiy noaoe?iia?iiai
cia/aiiy iioaioe?aeueii? aia?a?? ii/eia?oueny c aeiionoeiiai ?ica’yceo
u0=0, i?e oeueiio ia ia?o?e ?oa?aoe?? io?eio?oueny ?ica’ycie aaiiao?e/ii
e?i?eii? caaea/?.

A i’yoiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy i?ia?aiii? ?aae?caoe??
i?iaeoe?eii-n?oeiaeo noai ?ica’ycoaaiiy noi?ioeueiaaieo caaea/ oa
?acoeueoaoe /enaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oanoiaeo caaea/, aeey yeeo
i?iaaaeaii ni?anoaaeaiiy c aiae?oe/ieie ?ica’yceaie oa c /enaeueieie
?ica’yceaie, io?eiaieie ?ioeie aaoi?aie. Aeey ?ica’ycoaaiiy aeaieo
caaea/ aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ?ciia?aiao?e/i? eaaae?aoe/i? ai?ieneiaoe?? ia
n?oeao e?eaie?i?eieo /ioe?eeooieo ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a.

A oaae. 1 aeey caaea/? i?i aeaoi?iaoe?th oeee?iae?e/ii? iaieiiee i?ae
ae??th neioni?aeaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aeaeyaeo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, aeey yei? a?aeiiee
aiae?oe/iee ?ica’ycie, i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy ?ica’yce?a a iaaeao
cai?iiiiiaaii? a aeai?e i?aoe? oai??? c ?ica’yceaie a iaaeao o?eaei??ii?
oai??? i?oaeiino?, eeane/ii? oai??? E??oaioa-Eyaa oa i’yoeiiaeaeueii?
oai??? iaieiiie oeio Oeiioaiea-I?iaee?ia. ?ic?aooiee aeeiioaaeenue aeey
R=60, l=120 oa ??cieo cia/aiue h, n oa k. A oaae. 1 a inoaii?o o?ueio
noiaioeyo iaaaaeai? cia/aiiy ?aae?aeueieo ci?uaiue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 aeayeeo cia/aiue aeacaieo ia?aiao??a, io?eiai?
ia iniia? oai??? i?oaeiino? (?), cai?iiiiiaaii? oai??? iaieiiie c
aeaoi?i?aiith ii?iaeeth (cia/aiiy, aeae?eai? eo?neaii a ?), oai??? oeio
Oeiioaiea (II) oa eeane/ii? oai??? (III). Aeey caaea/? i?i caei
iieine-ieanoeie iiaoaeiaaii aiae?oe/iee ?ica’ycie aeey e?i?eiiai
aeiaaeeo oa aeine?aeaeaii oi/i?noue ? oa?aeoa? ca?aeiino? /enaeueieo
?ica’yce?a ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaieo a aeai?e i?aoe? aeai?eoi?a. Ia
?en. 1 iaaaaeai? a?ao?ee i?iaei?a a oeaio?? i?yiieooii? ieanoeie
ne?i/aiieo ?ici???a i?ae ae??th ?iioeueniiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, eiee /an
ae?? iaaaioaaeaiiy aei??aith? ia??iaeo T1 eieeaaiue ii ia?o?e aeani?e
/anoio?. E?eaa 1 a?aeiia?aea? ?ica’yceo ia n?ooe? c 9 ne?i/aiieo
aeaiaio?a, c yeeo iaeei aeaiaio iaaaioaaeaiee, c e?ieii ii /ano t=0.5.
E?ea? 2 oa 3 a?aeiia?aeathoue ?ica’yceai ia n?ooe? c 9 ne?i/aiieo
aeaiaio?a c e?ieaie ii /ano t =0.25 oa 0.125 a?aeiia?aeii; e?ea? 4 oa 5
a?aeiia?aeathoue ?ica’yceai ia n?ooe? c 36 ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a c e?ieii
ii /ano t =0.25 oa 0.125. E?eaa 6 a?aeiia?aea? aiae?oe/iiio ?ica’yceo
caaea/? a iaaeao oai??? E??oaioa-Eyaa. Iaaaaeai? a?ao?ee aeaiiino?othoue
aeia?o ocaiaeaeai?noue /enaeueieo ?ica’yce?a c aiae?oe/iei oa ?o
ca?aei?noue i?e ciaioaii? e?ieo ii /ano. I?iaaaeaii ni?anoaaeaiiy
?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo a iaaeao cai?iiiiiaaii? a aeai?e i?aoe? oai???
i?e aeei?enoaii? ??cieo n?oie ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a oa iine?aeiaii
ciaiooaaieo e?ieao ii /ano. Iaaaaeai? oaeiae /enaeueiee ?ica’ycie a
iaaeao oai??? Oeiioaiea oa aiae?oe/iee ?ica’ycie, io?eiaiee ia iniia?
a?iioac oai??? E??oaioa-Eyaa.

Aeey a?eueoino? caaea/ i?iaaaeaii ni?anoaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
?ic?aooie?a, io?eiaieo a e?i?ei?e ? iae?i?ei?e iinoaiiaeao.

AENIIAEE

1. Ia aac? iae?i?eii? oai??? i?oaeiino? oeyoii iine?aeiaiiai
caa?aaeaiiy an?o /eai?a iaeiaeiaeo (O(h2)) ii?yaee?a iaeino? iiaoaeiaaii
eeth/ia? ??aiyiiy aaiiao?e/ii-iae?i?eii? oai??? iaieiiie oeio
Oeiioaiea-I?iaee?ia oa noi?ioeueiaaii a?aeiia?aei? aa??aoe?ei?
iinoaiiaee io?eiaieo e?aeiai? oa ii/aoeiai-e?aeiai? caaea/.

2. Aeiaaaeaia eia?oeeoeai?noue a?e?i?eii? oi?ie, yea a?aeiia?aea?
iioaioe?aeuei?e aia?a?? iaieiiee.

3. Oeyoii aeiaaaeaiiy ?nioaaiiy, ?aeeiino? oa iaia?a?aii? caeaaeiino?
?ica’yceo caaea/? a?ae ?? aeaieo anoaiiaeaii i?eaeaoi? aeey canoinoaaiue
oiiae ei?aeoiino? iiaoaeiaaieo aa??aoe?eieo caaea/.

4. Iiaoaeiaaii /enaeuei? noaie ?ica’ycoaaiiy noi?ioeueiaaieo
aa??aoe?eieo caaea/ c aeei?enoaiiyi INA aeey aeene?aoecaoe?? caaea/? ca
i?inoi?iaeie ci?iieie oa iaeiie?ieiaeo ?aeo?aioieo noai ?ioaa?oaaiiy a
/an?. Aeine?aeaeaii oiiae no?eeino? oa ca?aeiino? iiaoaeiaaieo
/enaeueieo noai.

5. Iiaoaeiaai? aeai?eoie ?ic?aooieo aio/eeo iaieiieiaeo eiino?oeoe?e c
o?aooaaiiyi iaoeneo ii?iae? ?aae?ciaai? o aeaeyae? i?ia?aiiiai
eiiieaeno.

6. Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue aio/eeo iaieiiie c aeaoi?i?aiith ii?iaeeth,
/enaeuei? noaie oa i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy i?ioanoiaai? oeyoii
?ica’ycoaaiiy iiaeaeueieo caaea/ oa aiae?co no?eeino? oa ca?aeiino?
io?eiaieo /enaeueieo ?ica’yce?a.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Aaa?i I.I., ?aaiiaa I.A. Iae?i?eia aeaoi?ioaaiiy aaaaoioa?iaeo
iaieiiie. //Euea?a oi-o. — Euea?a, 1996. — 27 n. — Aeai. a Oe??IOA?
20.12.96 ?285 Oe96.

2. Aaa?i I.I., ?aaiiaa I.A., Oeiea?aiei A.A. Aiae?c cnoaieo iaieiiie:
ei?aeoi?noue oa ai?ieneiaoe?y aa??aoe?eieo caaea/ aeeiai?ee. //
Iaoaiaoe/i? nooae??. — 1998. — O. 10, ?2. — N. 188-198.

3. Aaa?i I.I., ?aaiiaa I.A., Oeiea?aiei A.A. I?i iaeio iaoaiaoe/io
iiaeaeue aeeiai?/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy aio/eeo iaieiiie. //Aeiiia?ae? IAI
Oe?a?ie. — 1999. — ? 6. — N. 54-60.

4. Aaaei I.I., Eaaiiaa I.A., Oeiea?aiei A.A.
Iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea oi?oaeo aeaeeo iiiaineieiuo
iaiei/ae. // I?eee. iaoaieea. — 1998. — O. 34, ? 8. — N. 94-103.

5. ?aaiiaa I.A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiiao?e/ii-iae?i?eiiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy
aaaaoioa?iaeo iaieiiie. // I?iaeaie aeiiii?/iiai oa nioe?aeueiiai
?icaeoeo ?aa?iio ? i?aeoeea iaoeiaiai aenia?eiaioo. — 1997. Aei. 13.
-C. 321-330.

6. ?aaiiaa I.A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy caaea/ noaoeee aaiiao?e/ii-iae?i?eiiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy aaaaoioa?iaeo iaieiiie. // Oace Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe?? “Canoinoaaiiy ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee, iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy oa iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo”,
Euea?a, 1997. — N. 42-43.

7. ?aaiiaa I.A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy /enaeueieo ?ica’yce?a caaea/
aeaoi?ioaaiiy cnoaieo iaieiiie. // A?niee Euea?a. oi-oo, na?. iao.-iao.,
1998. Aei. 50. — C. 106-110.

8. ?aaiiaa I.A. Iae?i?eia aeaoi?ioaaiiy aio/eeo iaieiiie c aeaoi?i?aiith
ii?iaeeth. // A?niee Euea?a. oi-oo, na?. iao.-iao., 1997. Aei. 46. — C.
43-49.

9. ?aaiiaa I.A. *enaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano iae?i?eiiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy aaaaoioa?iaeo iaieiiie. // I?aei. iaoe. eiio. c ieoaiue
iiaeaethaaiiy oa aeine?aeae. no?eeino? nenoai. Ee?a, 19-23 o?aaiy
1997 ?. Oace aeiiia?aeae. — N. 61.

10. ?aaiiaa I.A., Iaeaoeue ?.A. *enaeueia iiaeaethaaiiy iae?i?eiiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy cnoaieo iaieiiie. // I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia
eiioa?aioe?y “Eiii’thoa?ia iiaeaethaaiiy”. Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee, 24-26
/a?aiy 1998 ?. Oace aeiiia?aeae. — N. 12-13.

I?iaeie oeee?iae?e/ii? iaieiiee.

?aaiiaa I. A. *enaeueia iiaeaethaaiiy iiaiaeaeaiiy aio/eeo cnoaieo
iaieiiie c aeaoi?i?aiith ii?iaeeth. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.01.07 — ia/enethaaeueia
iaoaiaoeea Euea?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?aaia O?aiea,
1999.

A aeai?e ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaai? oi?ioethaaiiy, iaa?oiooaaiiy oa iaoiaeeea
/enaeueiiai ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ aaiiao?e/ii-iae?i?eii? oai??? cnoaieo
iaieiiie oeio Oeiioaiea-I?iaee?ia c o?aooaaiiyi iaoeneo ii?iae?. E?aeia?
oa ii/aoeiai-e?aeia? caaea/? aeine?aeaeothoueny ca aeiiiiiaith
aa??aoe?eieo iaoiae?a. I?e oeueiio aeei?enoiaothoueny aa??aoe?ei?
??aiyiiy i?eioeeio a??ooaeueieo ?ia?o, aeene?aoecaoe?y iaoiaeii
Aaeuei?e?ia (a?aeiia?aeii, iai?aaeene?aoecaoe?y aaiethoe?eii?
aa??aoe?eii? caaea/?) ca i?inoi?iaeie ci?iieie, ai?ieneiaoe?? iaoiaeo
ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a oa iaeiie?ieiaa ?aeo?aioia noaia ?ioaa?oaaiiy a
/an? aaiethoe?eii? caaea/?. Aeey e?i?eieo iinoaiiaie caaea/ aeiaaaeaia
ae?ioe/i?noue a?e?i?eii? oi?ie, ii?iaeaeaii? iioaioe?aeueiith aia?a??th
iaieiiee. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeene?aoeciaaieo caaea/ cae?enith?oueny oeyoii
aiae?co a?aeiia?aeieo aia?aaoe/ieo ??aiyiue. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeai?eoi oa
i?ia?aiia ?aae?caoe?y ?ica’ycoaaiiy iiaoaeiaaieo caaea/. Aoaeoeai?noue
aeai?eoi?a oa /enaeueieo noai aeine?aeaeaia ia oanoiaeo i?eeeaaeao oa
caaea/ao c ?iaeaia?ii? i?aeoeee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ii/aoeiai-e?aeiaa caaea/a, oai??y iaieiiie, aa??aoe?eia
caaea/a, ei?aeoi?noue, aia?aaoe/ia ??aiyiiy, iaoiae Aaeuei?e?ia, iaoiae
ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a, ?aeo?aioia noaia, oiiae no?eeino?, ai??i?i?
ioe?iee oaeaeeino? ca?aeiino?.

Ivanova N. V. Computer modelling of the behaviour of flexible shear
shells with deformable normal. — Manuscript.

The thesis for the Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences
degree on the speciality 01.01.07 – Computational Mathematics. (Ivan
Franko National University in L’viv, 1999).

A formulation, substantiation and method of computer solution of the
problems of the geometrically non-linear theory problems of the
Timoshenko-Mindlin-type shear shells with deformable normal are
proposed.

Boundary-values problems and initial boundary-value problems are
investigated by using variational methods. The variational equations of
virtual work principle, the Galerkin method discretization (the
semi-discretization of the evolutional problem respectively) by space
variables, the finite element method approximations and the recurrent
scheme of integration by time variable are used. For the linear variants
of the formulated problems, the coercivity of bilinear form generated by
shell potential energy is proved. The analysis of the discretized
problems is carried out by means of energy equations. An algorithm and a
program implementation of the solutions of the formulated problems are
proposed. The effectiveness of the algorithms and the numerical methods
was examined by solving test and engineering problems.

Key words: initial boundary-value problems, theory of shells,
variational problem, correctness, energy equation, Galerkin method,
finite element method, recurrent scheme, convergence, steadiness
conditions, a priori estimates of convergence speed.

Eaaiiaa I. A. *eneaiiia iiaeaee?iaaiea iiaaaeaiey aeaeeo naeaeaiauo
iaiei/ae n aeaoi?ie?oaiie ii?iaeueth. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.01.07 — au/eneeoaeueiay
iaoaiaoeea Eueaianeiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai oieaa?neoaoa eiaie Eaaia O?aiei,
1999.

A aeaiiie ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeaiu oi?ioee?iaea, iainiiaaiea e iaoiaeeea
/eneaiiiai ?aoaiey caaea/ aaiiao?e/anee-iaeeiaeiie oai?ee naeaeaiauo
iaiei/ae oeia Oeiioaiei-Ieiaeeeia n o/aoii iaaeaoey ii?iaee.
Noi?ioee?iaaiiua caaea/e iaiauatho iiaeaee oai?ee iaiei/ae Ee?aioa-Eyaa
e Oeiioaiei-Ieiaeeeia e iineaaeiaaoaeueii iienuaatho iieoaeene?aoioth
iiaeaeue oai?ee oi?oainoe i?e oneiaee eeiaeiie ai?ieneiaoeee aaeoi?a
ia?aiauaiee ioiineoaeueii oieueiu iaiei/ee. E?aaaua e ia/aeueii-e?aaaua
caaea/e enneaaeothony n iiiiuueth aa?eaoeeiiiuo iaoiaeia. I?e yoii
eniieuecothony aa?eaoeeiiiua o?aaiaiey i?eioeeia ae?ooaeueiuo ?aaio,
aeene?aoecaoeey iaoiaeii Aaea?eeia (niioaaonoaaiii, iieoaeene?aoecaoeey
yaiethoeeiiiie caaea/e), ii i?ino?ainoaaiiui ia?aiaiiui, ai?ieneiaoeee
iaoiaea eiia/iuo yeaiaioia e iaeiioaaiaay ?aeo??aioiay noaia
eioaa?e?iaaiey ai a?aiaie yaiethoeeiiiie caaea/e. Aeey eeiaeiuo
iinoaiiaie caaea/ aeieacaia yeeioe/iinoue aeeeiaeiie oi?iu,
ii?iaeaeaiiie iioaioeeaeueiie yia?aeae iaiei/ee n na?aaeeiiie
iiaa?oiinoueth i?iecaieueiie oi?iu. N iiiiuueth aiaeeca noiaeeiinoe
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe iieoaeene?aoiuo ai?ieneiaoeee Aaea?eeia iino?iaii
eiino?oeoeaiia aeieacaoaeuenoai nouanoaiaaiey ?aoaiey yaiethoeeiiiie
aa?eaoeeiiiie caaea/e. Aeene?aoece?iaaiiua caaea/e enneaaeothony iooai
aiaeeca niioaaonoaothueo yia?aaoe/aneeo o?aaiaiee. Aeey eeiaeiiai
aa?eaioa onoaiiaeaiu oneiaey noieeinoe, ai?ieneiaoeey e nei?inoe
noiaeeiinoe iino?iaiiuo i?iaeoeeiiii-naoi/iuo noai. I?aaeeiaeai aeai?eoi
e i?ia?aiiiay ?aaeecaoeey ?aoaiey iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/. Yooaeoeaiinoue
aeai?eoiia e /eneaiiuo noai enneaaeiaaia ia oanoiauo i?eia?ao e caaea/ao
eiaeaia?iie i?aeoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia/aeueii-e?aaaay caaea/a, oai?ey iaiei/ae,
aa?eaoeeiiiay caaea/a, ei??aeoiinoue, yia?aaoe/aneia o?aaiaiea, iaoiae
Aaea?eeia, iaoiae eiia/iuo yeaiaioia, ?aeo??aioiay noaia, oneiaey
onoie/eainoe, ai?ei?iua ioeaiee nei?inoe noiaeeiinoe.

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