IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO A?OAIEIA??

IAAIIAAeIA Ai?en A?eoi?iae/

OAeE 903.16

*A?IssO?ANUeEA EOEUeOO?A. I?IAEAIA AOIINO

?noi?e/i? iaoee — 07.00.04 — a?oaieia?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii o a?aeae?e? neia’yinueei? a?oaieia?? ?inoeoooo
a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e AI Aeui? ina?oe

Aeiieo? ?ii N?oeaae/

Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/

eaoaae?e ?noi??? No?aeii? ?a?iie ? a?oaieia??

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AI E?eio

Aa?aiia ?ai? Aaai??iae/

?aaea i?i?no??a E?eio,

Aieiaa ?anioae?eainueeiai eii?oaoo ii ioi?ii? oa aeei?enoaiith iai’yoie
?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Uoe?i Ia?e Ai?eniae/

Aea?aeaaiee A?i?oaae,

I?i?noa?noai eoeueoo?e ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea:
eaoaae?a a?oaieia?? oa ioca?ciaanoaa, eaoaae?a aoiia?ao?? oa
e?a?ciaanoaa.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «26» aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 1400 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee (oeo? Ae 26.234.01) i?e
?inoeooo? a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie. 254655, Ee?a-210, i?. Aa?i?a
Noae?ia?aaeo, 12.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo a?oaieia??
IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: i. Ee?a, i?. Aa?i?a Noae?ia?aaeo, 12.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «8» aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
A. I. Iao?aoaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

*a?iyo?anueea eoeueoo?a aaaaea?oueny iaeiei c iaea?eueo yne?aaeo yaeu a
?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa an??? No?aeii? ?a?iie I oen. i.a. aae aei noaiiaeaiiy
Aeaaiuei?onueei? aea?aeaae. ??ciiiai?oi?noue ?a/iaiai ?iaaioa?th,
aeiiiaoae?aieoeoaa, iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo aeacothoue ia neeaaeiee
i?ioean ?? oi?ioaaiiy. No/ani? aeine?aeieee aeiaea?aeothoueny ia?aaaaeii
iie?aoi?/ii? eiioeaioe?? /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e, ia iaeiaeiai
?icoi?th/e ?? ??ciiieai?ii?noue; aei iniiaieo ?? iin??a ca?aoiaothoue
neia’yi, aa?iaioe?a, na?iao?a, aaoi-aeae?a. Ca inoaii? ?iee caeiaooi oa
iioae?eiaaii aaaaoi iiaeo iaoa??ae?a noiniaii /a?iyo?anueei?,
ee?anueei?, na?iaonueei? oa iecee oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeeo eoeueoo?;
c’yaeeenue iia? ocaaaeueithth/? aeine?aeaeaiiy c o?iiieia?? oa c ??cieo
eaoaai??e ciao?aeie — i?ee?an, aeaoaeae iaeyao, ca?i? oiui. Aiae?c oa
ni?anoaaeaiiy oeeo aeaieo aeicaiey? a?eueo iaa?oioiaaii oa ia’?eoeaii
i?ae?eoe aei i?iaeaie aoi?/iiai neeaaeo ianaeaiiy I?aaeaiii-No?aeii?
?a?iie a i?ciuei?einueeee /an, a a oe?oiio ieai? — aei aena?oeaiiy
?noi?e/ieo iiae?e oeueiai /ano oa ianooiiiai ia??iaeo i?a?aoe?e. Oaeei
/eiii, iaiao?aei?noue ae??oaiiy iacaaii? i?iaeaie ia iiaiio ??ai? ciaiue
iaoiiaeth? aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie. sse nai?/ania, oey oaia aoea
aeeth/aia a iaoeiaee ieai ?inoeoooo a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ?
aeeiioaaeanue a neeaae? iaoeiai? oaie a?aeae?eo a?oaieia?? ?aii?o
neia’yi “Neia’yie ? ianeia’yinuee? ieaiaia ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie a?ae
?oaaaeo i.a. aei ?aiiueiai na?aaeiueia?//y”.

Ca?aeii c oaiith, i?ia?aeiith iaoith aeaii? ?iaioe ? aecia/aiiy
aoi?/iiai neeaaeo /a?iyo?anueeiai ianaeaiiy a ie?aieo ?aa?iiao ? ia
oa?eoi??? iioe?aiiy an??? eoeueoo?e, a oaeiae aena?oeaiiy ?noi?e/ii?
aeie? /a?iyo?anueeeo ieaiai. C iaoe aeieeaa? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:
aiae?c an?o a?oaieia?/ieo aeaea?ae c iiaeyaeo ?o eoeueoo?ii-aoi?/iiai
iioiaeaeaiiy, ii iiaeeeaino? — ni?anoaaeaiiy a?oaieia?/ieo aeaieo c
?noi?e/ieie na?ae/aiiyie. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? /a?iyo?anueea
eoeueoo?a a on?o ?? i?iyaao, a e??i oiai, iia’ycai? c iath neio?iii? oa
aeecuee? ca /anii eoeueoo?e Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie (aaeueaa?nueea,
ioaai?nueea oa ?i.), eoeueoo?e neia’yinueei? e?i?? ?icaeoeo
(coa?eoeueea, ee?anueea, i?acueea, iaiuee?anueea), oaeiae eoeueoo?e:
eeieoeueea, ea?iaonueeeo eo?aai?a, Ii?iaoo?-Aa?oeoeueie,
aioe/ii-?einuee? noa?iaeeoiino? I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y, Na?aaeiueiai
oa Ieaeiueiai Iiaeoiaa’y, iai’yoee na?iao oa i?ci?o ne?o?a.

Aeaea?aeaie ?iaioe ? /eneaii? noa?iaeeoiino? /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e,
caeiaoo? i?ioyaii noi??//y a?oaieiaaie Oe?a?ie, ?in??, Iieaeiae oa
?oioi??. Aeaea?aeiciaa/o aaco neeaaeathoue aeecueei 200 iinaeaiue oa 120
iiaeeueiee?a, ?iceiiaieo oe?ieith ieiuath, a oaeiae 3,5 oen. iai’yoie,
a?aeiieo ca ?ica?aeeiaeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie. ?acoeueoaoe a?eueoino? ?ia?o
iioae?eiaaii, ?aooo ii?aoeueiaaii ca iaoa??aeaie Iaoeiaiai a?o?ao oa
Oiiae?a ?A IAIO oa ioca?a Oe?a?ie. Aaaeeea? iaoa??aee caeiaooi naiei
aaoi?ii ?iceiieaie ia iai’yoeao Eaai?aa, Eai’yiea-Ai/ae?ae,
Ieaenaiae??aea, Ai?iaeie, Ooeiiin?aea, Oa?oi?, Eo?ieee, Eiceia,
A?aa?iee, Aaeeea Ni?oeiea, A?iieoey-Aeoaiueea, Iao?ee?aoe? o
Ieeiea?anuee?e, Iaeanuee?e, A?iieoeuee?e oa Ee?anuee?e iaeanoyo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa:

1. Noai?aii iaeiiai?oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaieo iai’yoie oa a?oaoaeo?a
/a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e.

2. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c iaoa??ae?a /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e ia an?e
oa?eoi??? ?? iioe?aiiy: a Oe?a?i?, Iieaeia?, ?oioi??, ?in??.

3. Aeae?eaii o?e oeie iai’yoie oa aea? eoeueoo?i? a?oie, ui
a?aeiia?aeathoue eieaeueiei aoi?/iei a?oiai a iaaeao /a?iyo?anueei?
eoeueoo?e.

4. Aeiaaaeaii ia?aaaaeaiiy aa?iainueeiai (aionueeiai) aoi?/iiai
aeaiaioo, iieacaii ?ieue, i?noea oa aaia?ao?/ia iioe?aiiy
neia’yinueeiai, na?iaonueeiai, i?ciueine?onueeiai oa o?ae?enueeiai
aeaiaio?a a ?aa?iiao /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iiaeaii? ?iaioe iieyaa? o aecia/aii? aoi?/iiai
neeaaeo ianaeaiiy /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e, o aeae?eaii? iniiaiiai
aa?iainueeiai — aionueeiai, a oaeiae na?iaoi-aeainueeiai,
i?ciueine?onueeiai, neia’yinueeiai oa o?ae?enueeiai aeaiaio?a. Caaaeuei?
aeniiaee oa ie?ai? ?ic?iaee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e
iaienaii? ocaaaeueithth/eo e iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo ?ia?o c aeaaiuei?
?noi??? ? a?oaieia?? Oe?a?ie oa ?a?iie a oe?eiio, i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
i?ae?o/iee?a e eo?n?a eaeoe?e, aeey i?aai?caoe?? iocaeieo aeniiceoe?e.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ieoee a?oioiaio ai?iaaoe?th. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeeeaaeaii a iecoe? iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, na?aae yeeo
iaeia ?iaeea?aeoaeueia oa o?e eieaeoeai? iiiia?ao??. Ca o/anoue a
iaienaii? iaei??? c inoaii?o aaoi?a oaeinoi?ii caaiiyi eao?aaoa
Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie a aaeoc? iaoee ? oaoi?ee ca 1991 ?. ??ci?
aniaeoe ?iaioe aoei aeeeaaeaii o aeiiia?aeyo ia e?eueeio i?aeia?iaeieo
ia?aaeao: V oa VI eiia?anao neia’yinueei? a?oaieia?? (Ee?a, 1985;
Iiaai?iae, 1996), ia eiioa?aioe?yo “Iaeaeaai?o? ni?eueiino? caiea?ia?a
oa neioa??a I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y” (Eeoei?a, 1991), “A?caio?y oa
ia?iaee I?e/i?iiii?’y” (N?ioa?iiieue, 1994), ia eieiea?oiao “Iia?e?
?eio ? aiaeae? aa?aa??a” (Ia?eae, 1992), “Ioaai?nueea eoeueoo?a”
(Ethae?i, 1992), “Eoeueoo?a Neioaia-*a?iyo?a” (Aa?e?i, 1995),
“I?ciuei?einueea aeiaa o Oeaio?aeuei?e oa No?aei?e ?a?ii?” (Eiaecue,
1996), “Na?iaoe oa aa?iaioe?” (Ia?ao?a, 1997), a oaeiae ia ananithcieo,
caaaeueiioe?a?inueeeo oa ?aa?iiaeueieo eiioa?aioe?yo o Iinea?,
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?c?, Eueaia?, Oa?eia?, Iaean?, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo,
A?iieoe?, Eai’yioe?-Iiae?euenueeiio, A?eai?iae?-Aei?no?ianueeiio oiui. A
iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo, ui iaae?oeiaai? o ni?aaaoi?noa? c I.?.Eaaaaeith,
A.?.Eoaeoaaei oa E.?.Ea?i?aith, iniaenoei aianeii caeiaoaa/a ?
oai?aoe/ia ?ic?iaea iniiaieo iieiaeaiue ? aiae?oe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?oaieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo; o noaooyo, ui aeeoee o ni?aaaoi?noa? c
A.Ae.Aa?aiii oa ?.E.Ai?ioianueeei — iien aecia/aeueieo ?en
/a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?oeiien neeaaea?oueny c anooio, ainueie
?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a (anueiai 363 noi?.); c nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae (1000 iaeiaioaaiue), /ioe?ueio aeiaeaoe?a, aeueaiio
?ethno?aoe?e (104 ?en.).

CI?NO ?IAIOE

Anooi

Aecia/aii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, iaoa, i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
aeaea?aea, caaaeaiiy, iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

?icae?e 1. ?noi??ia?ao?y

Coa?iaeeoiino? /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e aoei a?aee?eoi aeey iaoee
i?ioyaii 1898-1903 ??. aeine?aeaeaiiyie o ?iiaoeao oa *a?iyoia? [Oaieea
1901], Ianeooia? [Hadaczek 1900] ? Ia?ionaioaii? (iei? Neioaia aea
Io?ao) [Kovacs 1912]. Iiaeyaee a/aieo uiaei aoi?/ii? i?eiaeaaeiino? oeeo
iaoa??ae?a ?icae?eeeeny. A.A.Oaieea, a ca iei I.O.A?eyoaanueeee oa
E.Aaaea/ae aaaaeaee ?o aoaiii o ?icaeoeo i?noeaai? eoeueoo?e aeaai?o
neia’yi. A?oaieiae i?iaoeueei? oeiee iaaieiooaaee ia iiae?aiino?
noa?iaeeoiinoae oeio *a?iyoiaa oa Ieaeiuei? A?nee, iia’ycoth/e ?o c
aa?iainueeeie ieaiaiaie aio?a aai aai?ae?a (I.?aeiaea A.Aethia,
A.Einn?iia, E.Aeeeoeaneo). A.A?aiia? oa I.Aaa?o ii?aeioaaee iai’yoee
Oe?a?ie oa Iiaeoiaa’y a iaeio eoeueoo?io a?oio, a ye?e, ia aeoieo
inoaiiueiai, e??i aionueeeo, i?inoaaeothoueny e i?noeaa? eoeueoo?i?
aeaiaioe. A i?aeai?iiee /an ia aeecueeeo iiceoe?yo noiyee iieuenuee?
a/ai? A.Aioiiaae/, TH.Einoaeaanueeee, E.Eiceianueeee. Oaeei /eiii
neeaeeny iniiai? iiaeyaee ia aoi?/ia caaa?aeaiiy iai’yoie
/a?iyo?anueeiai oeio.

Aei ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie aea/aiiy /a?iyo?anueeeo iai’yoie
i?iaiaeeeinue ia?aaoey?ii. A iiai?iiee /an, i?ioyaii 40-60o ??. a
Oe?a?i?, Iieaeaa?? oa ?oioi?? aoei cae?eniaii ianooaai? iieueia? ?iaioe,
aeaeaii aaaaoi iaoa??ae?a. Oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaeeny caeaa?eueoiai a
?one? neia’yii-?onueei? a?oaieia??: aeoiea i?i i?eiaeaaei?noue
/a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e neia’yiai-aioai, aeeacaia a ia??iae ai?ioueae c
i?iaoeueei-oaoenonueeith ?aeaieia??th [A?oaiiiia 1940; ?uaaeia 1943],
noa? iai?aio?oe?eiith eiioeaioe??th. Iiya? ?ioeo iiaeyae?a ia
/a?iyo?anueeee aoiin ni?eyei a?aee?eooy ?aiiueineia’yinueeeo
noa?iaeeoiinoae i?acueei-ei?/aenueeiai oa ee?anueeiai oei?a, a oaeiae
iai’yoie “oeio Aeeoeie/?a” (oiaoi aaeueaa?nueeeo). Oiae? ae aeyaeaii
aa?oiueiaei?no?ianueeo a?oio /a?iyo?anueeeo iinaeaiue c neia’yinueeeie
?enaie [Aa?ai 1961]. Iaei cia/aiiy ? iii’yeoaiiy a e?a?i? iie?oe/ii?
ianoaiiaee, i?ney yeiai ii/aee c’yaeyoeny ?iaioe, aea aaoi?e
aeneiaethaaee aeoiee i?i iiaia ia?aaaaeaiiy aa?iaioe?a [A?oaiiiia 1956]
aai, ne?aeii ca TH.A.Eooa-?aiei [1954], i?i aaaaoiaoi?/i?noue
/a?iyo?anueeiai ianaeaiiy [Oeoaiiaa 1957; O?aoueyeia 1958; Oaaei?ia
1960]. ?iciaaeoaaiiy iiaeyae?a ?aaeyinueeeo a?oaieia?a i?iaeaiiino?oaaee
ia?aaee 1957 (Ee?a) oa 1967 ?. (Euea?a). Aeey ?icoi?iiy /a?iyo?anueei?
eoeueoo?e iaee cia/aiiy aeaeaiiy ea?oe ?? iai’yoie [Iaoii 1960] oa
ocaaaeueithth/i? iiiia?ao?? I.TH.A?ae/aanueeiai [1964], ??ciia?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy A.I.Neiiiiae/a. ?iceiiee /a?iyo?anueeeo iai’yoie
o?eaathoue o 70-80? ??., aea o 90? nei?i/othoueny. A oe? ?iee
iiaeeaeth?oueny aea/aiiy iayaieo iaoa??ae?a, ?acoeueoaoii /iai noaei
e?eueea iiiia?ao?e [Aeiieo? 1972; ?eeiai 1975; Ni?eaiei 1975; Aa?ai
1981; Ieeeoeia 1985; 1995; 1996; ?aoaeiae/ 1986; Iaaiiaaeia 1987; Aae,
Aaaeai 1997], a oaeiae aaeeea e?euee?noue noaoae.

No/ani? aeine?aeieee ia?aaaaeii aeio?eiothoueny iie?aoi?/ii? eiioeaioe??
/a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e, aea ?icoi?thoue oea ii-??ciiio. Ia aeoieo
aeayeeo a/aieo, e?ninoaiiaa ciia Oe?a?ie aoea canaeaia a a?eueoino?
neia’yiaie [Aeiieo? 1989; 1997], [Naaeia 1994]. A.Ae.Aa?ai aiaaiaii
iia’yco? c neia’yiaie, e??i aa?oiueiaei?no?ianueei? a?oie, iinaeaiiy c
aeaiaioaie ee?anueei? eoeueoo?e, a c aa?iaioeyie — iai’yoee c
aaeueaa?nueeeie aeaiaioaie [1996; 1998]. Ia aeecueeeo iiceoe?yo noiyoue
Ae.I.Eicae [1994] oa A.A.Aoaeeiaa [1996]. Aaaaoi c aeine?aeiee?a
iia’ycothoue /a?iyo?anueeo eoeueoo?o ia?aaeon?i c ia?iaeii aio?a, ia
caia?a/oth/e i?e/aoiino? aei ia? ? ?ioeo aoiin?a. Oea /anoeia
?in?enueeeo oa oe?a?inueeeo a?oaieia?a [Uoeei 1979; 1989; Iaaiiaaeia
1987; 1996; 1998; Magomedov 1998; Terpilovskij, Magomedov (in Druck)], a
oaeiae i?aeoe/ii an? aaoi?e c e?a?i “aeaeaeiai ca?oa?aeaey” [God?owski
1979; Bierbrauer 1980; 1994; A??a?aoa? 1995; Kazanski 1991; Kokowski
1995; M?czynska 1996]. ?oioinuee? eieaae i?e oeueiio i?aee?aneththoue
i?enooi?noue a “eoeueoo?? Neioaia aea Io?ao” ea?inueeiai aai
aeae?enueeiai aeaiaioo [Diaconu 1964; Ionitha 1972].

?icae?e 2. Oa?eoi??y /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e

Aieiaiith iciaeith, yea aeicaiey? ia’?aeiaoe ianoiae? ca oeiaie
aeeoeiaoae?aieoeoaa oa iioiaaiue iai’yoee /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e,
aenooia? aii/a?iee iinoae “/a?iyo?anueeiai oeio” c eiai ye?nieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie e iniaeeaeie oi?iaie (o?e?o/i? aace, a?eii?/i? aeaee,
i?iaiaioiaai? eaeeoe). Ine?eueee oaea ea?ai?ea o?aiey?oueny e ia
iai’yoeao non?aei?o eoeueoo? (aaeueaa?nueea, ee?anueea), aeey aecia/aiiy
?o iaeaaeiino? ae??oaeueiei ? ieoaiiy: oey ea?ai?ea aeaioiaeaia
i?noeaaei ianaeaiiyi, /e aoea ?iii?oiaaiith? Ia iao iiaeyae, iio?aaa a
iinoae? iiaea aaeiaieueiyoeny ca ?aooiie ?iii?oo ia a?eueoa, i?ae ia
20-30%.

Aeey /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e niaoeeo?/i? oaeiae aeaye? oeie ?a/ae,
ae?iaeai? ia iniia? oeaio?aeueii-?a?iiaenueeeo i?ioioei?a — a?aaai? oeio
Oiian ???, iaai? oeie i?yaeie, i?aea’ycieo oa ueoeiaeo o?aoe.
Iaeiaeia?noue ianiaeo ?ai?nie/eo ae?ia?a “/a?iyo?anueeiai oeio” ?
i?iaeoeoii ?aeeii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie, ui noi?ioaaeany ia iniia?
caaaeueiiai aioo??oiueiai ?eieo.

I?ioa, i/aaeaei? aoiia?ao?/i? iniaeeaino? eoeueoo?e ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a
ana?aaeei? ianeao /a?iyo?anueeeo iai’yoie. Iaie aeae?eaii oae? ?aa?iie:
Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia, Aa?oi?e Aei?noa?, Oeaio?aeueia Oe?a?ia, No?aeia
Oe?a?ia, Ieaei?e Aei?i?i (?aeii Ii?ia?a), I?ai?/ia I?e/i?iiii?’y,
Iieaeiaa, Ioioai?y, O?ain?eueaai?y (i?aee?aneth?ii, ui iacae ?iiae?
aeineoue oiiai?). Oa?eoi??y ?icnaeaiiy /a?iyo?anueeeo ieaiai caaaeii
a?aeiia?aea? cii? ?iaeth/eo a?oio?a e?ninoaio oa noaio, ?o i?aaeaiiee
a?aae iaiaaeaiee *i?iei ii?ai oa Ieaei?i Aeoia?i. I?ioyaii ?nioaaiiy
eoeueoo?e ?? ei?aeiie ci?ithaaeeny, ui aena?oeaii o ?icae?e? 8.

?icae?e 3. Iinaeaiiy oa aeeoea

Aea?? i?noey iinaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny ca oa?aeoa?ii iniiaii?
ae?yeueiino? eiai iaoeaioe?a — n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeith, i?iieneiaith,
oi?aiaaeueiith aai a?enueeiaith. A?eueo?noue n?euenueeeo iinaeaiue
?icoaoiaaia ia iecueeeo aa?aaao iaaaeeeeo ??/ie, c?o/ieo aeey
caiea?ianoaa. Iaei/enaeuei? i?iieneia? naeeua aoaathoue i?ea’ycai? aei
?iaeiaeu i?ia?ae?a. A?oio iinaeaiue ?c caeeoeaie ae?iaieoeoaa aei?ai
ciaeaeaii iiaeeco n?e Eoaiaa oa AEi?ieua (A?iieoeueea iae.), aea
aeaeiaoaaeanue i?eaeaoia aeey oeueiai oooiiiae?aia ii?iaea. Ca iaaeaie
a?aaeo eoeueoo?e ia Neaao? ?nioaaei /a?iyo?anueea naeeua aeiaoaa/?a nie?
Aai?/anueea A??ea. ?io? ?aianea oa i?iienee (iaoaeo?a?eia ae?iaieoeoai
ia aac? aieioyieo ?oae, eiaaeuenueea, aii/a?ia, einoi??cia)
?ici?uoaaeenue ia cae/aeieo n?euenueeeo iinaeaiiyo. A?aeii? o?e
/a?iyo?anuee? ai?iaeeua: Aaoia/ea, Ieaenaiae??aea, Ai?iaeie. Aei nenoai
?o oi?oeo?eaoe?? aoiaeeee ?iae, aaee, anea?ie, eai’yi? no?ie oa aaooe.
Ca no?aoaa?/iei iieiaeaiiyi aiie noiyoue ia i?aaeaiii-no?aeiiio ei?aeii?
/a?iyo?anueeiai a?aaeo, ia oeyoo «noaiiaiai ei?eaei?o», yeei c Ac??
iino?eii i?inoaaeeny ei/iaeee: a ?einueeee /an na?iaonuee? ieaiaia,
iio?i aoiie. Ai?iaeeua aeeiioaaee ia o?eueee iai?iii? ooieoe??, aea e
aoee aaei?i?no?aoeaieie oeaio?aie oa ?aceaeaioe?yie a?enueeiaeo
aiaeae?a.

Iaie ii?aoeueiaaii iaoa??aee 197 iinaeaiue ?c caeeoeaie aeeoeiaeo
aoae?aaeue ??cieo oei?a, ui ?ieiee ni?a?nioaaee. Caaeeaeai? aeeoea
aeine?aeaeaii ia 80 ioieoao, iacaii? ea?eanii? eiino?oeoe?? — ia 119; ia
30 iinaeaiiyo a?aee?eoi eai’yi? aoaeeiee. Ni?a?nioaaiiy aeaio ia?oeo
oei?a oa?aeoa?ia aeey aaeueaa?nueei? oa ioaai?nueei? eoeueoo?. A?eueo ye
ia 20 iinaeaiiyo aeyaeaii “aeiaa? aoaeeiee” ieiuath 60-160 i2, ye?
iia’ycai? c aa?iainueeith o?aaeeoe??th. A ?aa?ii? Aa?oi?e Aei?noa?
cia/ii ia?aaaaeathoue caaeeaeai? aeeoea. Ia ?o iniia? iai?ee?ioe? 4 no.
ae?iaey?oueny oei eaaae?aoieo i?acaieyiie c i?//th-eai’yieith, yeee c 5
no. noa? oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth ?aiiueineia’yinueeeo eoeueoo?.
Eai’yia aeiiiaoae?aieoeoai oeiiaa aeey I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y ?
i?iaeiaaeo? i?ciueine?onueeo o?aaeeoe?th. Ia aeaio i?aaeaiieo iinaeaiiyo
o?aieeeny ?aooee ei/?aieoeueeeo th?o.

?icae?e 4. Iioiaaeueiee ia?yae

*a?iyo?anueeee iioiaaeueiee ia?yae a?aecia/a?oueny ??ciiiai?oi?noth.
Iaeaea an? iiaeeueieee a??eooaeuei?. Iioiaaiiy-?iaoiaoe?? (a
na?aaeiueiio 70%) iathoue ??cio eiino?oeoe?th yi: i?inoa a?oioiaa
(iiai?noth ia?aaaaea?), c caie?/eaie, c i?aeai?i, eaoaeiiaa. Ca ie?aieie
aeeeth/aiiyie, iaa?ae/ee?a eeaee aieiaith ia i?ai?/ (iiiaae 80%
iioiaaiue) aai ia cao?ae. E?aiaoe?? iiae?eythoueny ia e?eueea oei?a
o?iiaeo oa aaco?iiaeo (inoaii? ia?aaaaeathoue). O?aieythoueny iioiaaiiy
i?aaenoaaiee?a a?enoie?ao??, ui iathoue ia?aeae? a Oeaio?aeuei?e ?a?ii?.
Cae/aeii aiie aeae?eythoueny ca ?iaaioa?ai, ui aeeth/aa iaa?? aeey
o/ano? a iioiea?/iiio aaieao? (iinoae aeey aeia, i?eiaeaaeiino? ?ai?),
aea aeey ?iaoiaoe?e iaeaaaeeea?oei e?eoa???i ? iayai?noue yie aaeeeeo
?ici???a c aea?aa’yiith eiino?oeoe??th.

Ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui aieiaia ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? /a?iyo?anueeiai
iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo iaeaaeaea aaeueaa?nuee?e eoeueoo??, ia?yae yei?
oaeiae ia aoa iaeii??aeiei. E??i a?eueoino? aaeueaa?nueeeo
iiii?eooaeueieo iiaeeueiee?a c niaeaiiyie ?nioaaee, cie?aia ia noiae?
Iieueu?, a??eooaeuei? iiaeeueieee c aenieei i?ioeaioii o?eiiieeaaeaiue:
A?oe?ii-Eine?, Ae?iae/ei, Noa?a A?nue (37-42%); Ianeiiai/, A?oaeae
(90-96%); ?iaoiaoe?? o?aieythoueny e ia Aieei?. Aeey iaio eoeueoo?
anoaiiaeaii, ui ?o ia?yae c /anii ci?ithaaany ca ?aooiie c?inoaiiy
e?eueeino? ?iaoiaoe?e. I?e/eie ci?i e?ethoueny a aaiethoe?? ?ae?a?eieo
oyaeaiue, oa?aeoa?i?e aeey ??cieo aa?iainueeeo ieaiai i?ciuei?einueeiai
/ano oa aeiae i?a?aoe?e. A /a?iyo?anuee?e eoeueoo?? oeae i?ioean
iineethaaany i?ae aieeaii noaiiaeo ia?iae?a.

A?eueo?noue oei?a /a?iyo?anueeeo iioiaaiue c e?aiaoe?yie ia?
aaeueaa?nuee? a?aeiia?aeieee. Aei No?aeii? ?a?iie iio?aieythoue
i?aaenoaaieee e ?ioeo aa?iainueeeo eoeueoo?. Cie?aia ?i iaeaaeaoue
niaeaiiy ioaai?nueeiai oeio ?c ca?i?th (Eiiiai?eoe?, Caaaae?aea,
Aaaonoei?aea, Inae?aea, Iaea?ooe, Oainea-Eooa??y, Oe?aoi?, Iiaioaiue).
Iiiaae 80% ?iaoiaoe?e (a i?inoeo yiao, i???ioiaaieo ia i?ai?/)
a?aeiia?aeathoue aaeueaa?nueeei cae/ayi, oi/a oeae oei iioiaaiue iaaiith
i??ith aeanoeaee e na?iaoai. A iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae? aa?iainueeee
(aaeueaa?nueeee) aeaiaio i?aaenoaaeaiee ia an?e oa?eoi??? /a?iyo?anueei?
eoeueoo?e, a iae/eno?oiio aeaeyae? — a ?aa?ii? Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia, a
cao?aei?e /anoei? Ioioai?? oa a ?aeii? Aei?i?ianueeeo Ii?ia?a. O?eueee a
ie?aieo ?aa?iiao o?aieythoueny iiaeeueieee aac yaieo eiai iciae
(O?ain?eueaai?y, I?e/i?iiii?’y) aai ae iiaeeueiee?a acaaae? aeoaea iaei
(Aa?oi?e Aei?noa?).

A i?ioean? ?icaeoeo /a?iyo?anueei? ni?eueiino? aei ia? aeieo/athoueny
i?aaenoaaieee iaaa?iainueeeo ia?iae?a ?c nai?ie iioiaaeueieie cae/ayie.
Aianie iin??a ia?yaeo o?einiaeaiiy (neia’yie, o?ae?eoe?) i?a iaoe
eieaeueia cia/aiiy e aeeeth/eoe eiai iaiiaeia, aea aeae?eeoe oae?
iioiaaiiy iaiiaeeeai iaa?oue noaoenoe/ii (ca ia?aaaaeaiiyi a ?aa?ii?
iaaiiai oeio e?aiaoe?e). Aianie iin??a ia?yaeo ?iaoiaoe?? — na?iao?a oa
i?ci?o ne?o?a — aeyaeany aeoaea /?oei.

O No?aei?e ?a?ii? aeey ?aii?o a?oi na?iao?a (?ienieaie, ai?ne)
oa?aeoa?i? iioiaaiiy c ia?aaaaeaiiyi i?ai?/iiai i???iooaaiiy a i?inoeo
yiao, c i?aeaiyie oa c caie?/eaie; i?ino? yie c i?aaeaiiei
i???iooaaiiyi, iaaooue, caeeoai? yceaaie. C 2 no. ?o i?noea a
I?e/i?iiii?’? caeiathoue aeaie, aeey yeeo cae/aeieie ? iioiaaiiy a
eaoaeiiaao oa i?aeaiyo. Na?iaonueeee aeaiaio i?aaenoaaeaiee ia aaaaoueio
/a?iyo?anueeeo iiaeeueieeao, na?aae yeeo aeae?eaii aea? eieae?ciaai?
a?oie. Aeey ia?oi?, ?ici?uaii? a I?e/i?iiii?’? aeanoea? iioiaaiiy c
i?ai?/iei i???iooaaiiyi a eaoaeiiaao oa i?aeaiyo (A?eaiueea, Oo?iai?aea,
Eiaeaai, Ieeiea?aea, Aaeeea Ei?aieoa). Aeey ae?oai? a?oie oa?aeoa?i?
i?ino? yie c i?aaeaiiei i???iooaaiiyi iiia?eeo (Iao?ianaea 2 oa
Oeioeiaea a Iiaeoiaa’?). Iaea?eueo ianiaee na?iaonueeee aeaiaio
(i?ai?/ia i???iooaaiiy a yiao c i?aeaiyie oa caie?/eaie) ia iiaeeueieeao
aenooia? ye aeii?oea aei iniiaiiai aa?iainueeiai aeaiaioo. A?i
o?aiey?oueny ia aaaaoueio iai’yoeao Iieaeiae oa ia aeayeeo Oeaio?aeueii?
Oe?a?ie, iiiaeeiiei i?iieea? a Cao?aeio Oe?a?io (Iaeei?aoe?,
Iao?ee?aoe?).

Iioiaaeueiee ia?yae i?ci?o ne?o?a ii/aoeo iiai? a?e (eieaeoeai?
iioiaaiiy a eaoaeiiaao) c /anii ci?ithaaany a a?e caeeaeaiiy c ia?yaeii
ianaeaiiy ia?eoa??? aioe/ieo i?no. I?ae aieeaii o?aaeeoe?e ianaeaiiy
E?eio oa n?euenueei? ie?oae Ieuea?? o i?ci?o ne?o?a iioe?th?oueny oei
iiaee c caie?/eaie. A?aeia?aaeaiiyi o?aaeeoe?eieo ne?onueeeo ?ae?a?eieo
oyaeaiue ? cao?aeia i???iooaaiiy iiia?eeo. I?eiaeaaei?noue iiae?aieo
/a?iyo?anueeeo iioiaaiue i?ci?i ne?oai i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeaieie
aio?iiieia?? oa aeayeeie aeiaeaoeiaeie iciaeaie: i?aeiacea aeia yie
caeaiith aeeiith, iayai?noue na?aae ?iaaioa?th eaaaioe?a oiui. sse
neeaaeiaa /anoeia /a?iyo?anueeiai ia?yaeo, i?ciueine?onueeee aeaiaio
i?aaenoaaeaiee a I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’? a /enoiio aeaeyae? (Oieinueea,
?aiaeaaa, Eai’yiea-Ai/ae?ae) oa ?acii c ?ioeie aeaiaioaie (Oo?iai?aea,
A?eaiueea, Eiaeaai, A?eoi??aea, Aaa?ee?aea). O Oeaio?aeuei?e oa No?aei?e
Oe?a?i? a?i aeii?io? ia iiaeeueieeao Eai?a, Aeaieeiaa Aaeea, AEo?aaea,
Eo?ieee, Ai?iiey, i?enooi?e ia aeayeeo ?ioeo, aea anthaee ?acii c
aa?iainueeei aeaiaioii (ia iiaeeueieeao ? niaeaiiy aai ?oi? ne?aee). A
cao?aeio iaeanoue /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e i?ciueine?onueeee aeaiaio
i?iieea? iaioa. A ?aa?ii? Iieaeiaa a?i o?aiey?oueny ?acii c na?iaonueeei
aeaiaioii e o?eueee o i?ai?/iee noa?aa?ii (Na?aaei?e Aei?noa?) i?iieea?
a cia/i?e ian? (?iiaie?aoe?, Ai?ioaaa, Iaeay).

O?iiieia?/ii ?icaeoie /a?iyo?anueeiai iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo iiaeia
oyaeoe oae. Iniiaith eiai aoa ia?yae aaeueaa?nueei? eoeueoo?e. Ia
?aiiueiio aoai? (iniaeeai a Iieaeia?) ie?ai? a?oie na?iao?a iiaee
?ioaa?oaaoeny a aa?iainuee? a?iiaaee e i?eaianoe o?aaeeoe??
o?eiiieeaaeaiiy c i?ai?/iei i???iooaaiiyi o yiao c i?aeai?i, caie?/eaie,
a oaeiae a i?inoeo yiao, ye? iaiiaeeeai a?aeie?aieoe a?ae
aaeueaa?nueeeo. A e?ioe? 3 — ii/aoeo 4 no., c iioe?aiiyi /a?iyo?anueei?
eoeueoo?e o I?e/i?iiii?’y, ooo ? ia iiaeeueieeao E?ninoaio c’yaeythoueny
i?ciueine?onuee? iioiaaiiy c cao?aeiei i???iooaaiiyi, a oiio /ene? a
yiao c caie?/eaie. C na?aaeeie 4 no. e iniaeeai a aoiinueeee /an na?aae
/a?iyo?anueeiai ianaeaiiy, ia?aaaaeii ia I?aaei?, c’yaeythoueny aeaie ?c
cae/a?i iioiaaiiy a eaoaeiiaao oa i?aeaiyo. C Na?aaeiueiai ia Ieaei?e
Aeoiae i?iieeathoue ia/eneaii? a?oie ycea?a, ui caeeoeee ?iaoiaoe?? ?c
ca?i?th oa i?aaeaiiei i???iooaaiiyi iiia?eeo. A ?acoeueoao?
iaiaeii?aciaeo iaoa?oaaiue e?eueeio eoeueoo?ii-aoi?/ieo oei?a ianaeaiiy
neeaaea?oueny oa no?ieaoa ea?oeia iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo /a?iyo?anueei?
eoeueoo?e, yeo ie aa/eii a?oaieia?/ii.

?icae?e 5. ?a/iaee eiiieaen

Ea?ai?/iee iinoae i?noeaaiai aeaioiaeaiiy. Aeey oeiieia?/iiai aiae?co
ea?ai?ee aeei?enoai? a?aeii? eeaneo?eaoe?? oa ?ic?iaeaii iia?. Ie
iiae?ey?ii iinoae, ia?o ca ana ca i?eioeeiii ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
i?ecia/aiiy, iine?aeiaii ia eaoaai???, aeaee, oeie oa aa??aioe. A
eaoaai??? eooiiii? ea?ai?ee ?icaeyiooi ai?ueee, a oaeiae ie?ai?
ciao?aeee neiai??aeie. Na?aae noieiai? ea?ai?ee aeae?eaii oae? aeaee:
ienee, aace (aac ?o/ie), o?e?o/i? aace, aeaee, eooe?, iaeii?o/i? aace,
eaeeoe, ea?ai?/i? a?ae?a, oe?aeeeee. Aei eaoaai??? iinoaeei-noiaeu
a?aeianaii i?oine. Ea?ai?/i? oeyae, ui o?ao?othoue a e?oa?aoo?? ye
/a?iyo?anuee?, ia iaoo aeoieo iaeaaeaoue aei i?ci?oiai /ano.

Ii iiaeeeaino? i?inoaaeaii aaiacen eiaeiiai oeio ea?ai?ee. A iniia?
/a?iyo?anuee? aii/a?i? ai?ueee, ienee oa i?oine iaeaea aac ci?i
iiaoi?ththoue oi?ie, ui ianiai ae?iaeyeeny a aeoiaenueeeo iaenoa?iyo. A
aaaaoueio oeiao aeae?a iiaeia ai?ciaoe ?einuee? i?ioioeie, aea
a?eueo?noue c ieo iaaoaa? a?eii?/iiai i?io?eth, i?eoaiaiiiai
aaeueaa?nueeiio iinoaeo. A ?ioeo oeiao aeae?a, a eooeyo, ??cieo oeiao
aac i?noeaa? iaeno?e ?icaeaaee a aii/a?i?e oaoi?oe? “aoiia?ao?/i?” oi?ie
aaeueaa?nueeeo aai ioaai?nueeeo ? iaa?oue thoeaiaenueeeo ac??oe?a. A
oiiaao ianiaiai aaeeaaiiy aii/a?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? cia/ia /anoeia e?iieo
oi?i iane?aeo? aii/a?iei. *anoeio e?iiiai iinoaeo ?iaeyoue a noa?eo
aoiieoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo. Aea oe? o?aaeeoe?? aaea ia ?icaeaathoueny e
iia? oeie ia ?o iniia? ia aeieeathoue. Oeiieia?y /a?iyo?anueeiai e?iiiai
iinoaeo a iniiaiiio aeeaaea?oueny a ?aiee aaea ?nioth/eo oeiieia?e
iiia?aaei?o aai non?aei?o eoeueoo? oa eoeueoo?ieo oei?a. *?oeo
eieae?caoe?th ia? iinoae iai’yoie oeio *a?aiei-Oa?aioe? (?aa?ii Aa?oi?e
Aei?noa?) oa i?e/i?iiii?nueeiai oeio. Ia ?aoo? oa?eoi??? aecia/aeueiee
e?iiee iinoae a?aeiia?aea? aaeueaa?nueeei a?oiai Oeiaeea?a-Aieiiaaae/a,
a a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao — ee?anueeei oeiai ca ?.A.Oa?ieeianueeei aai
ea?ii-aeae?enueeei oeiai. Aaeueaa?nueea ea?ai?ea a?aeiia ia?aaaaeii ia
iai’yoeao ?aiiueiai aoaio. ?? iaei aai iaia? cian?i a ?aa?iiao, aea
aa?iainueea ianaeaiiy aoei i?aaenoaaeaia neaai (Aa?oi?e Aei?noa?), aai
aea /a?iyo?anueea eoeueoo?a iioe?eeanue i?ci?oa, a ia??iae, eiee e?iiee
iinoae aoa a cia/i?e i??? aeoeniooee ?ai?nie/eie ae?iaaie
(I?e/i?iiii?’y, Ioioai?y, O?ain?eueaai?y).

I?iaiaioaoe?y /a?iyo?anueei? noieiai? ea?ai?ee ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi oa
?icaeoeii noeeth ioi?ieaiiy iinoaeo aaeueaa?nueei? eoeueoo?e. Iane?aeeii
ia?aoiaeo aei ianiaiai noaieiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa noaei aeayea ni?iuaiiy
a?ao?/iiai aeaei?o: ??aeoa canoiniaothoueny neeaaei? iiaeeo?eaoe??
ceacaao e /ano?oa n?oea. Ia /a?iyo?anueeeo ia?aaeieo iinoaeeiao
c’yaeythoueny a?eueo neeaaei? nieneia? eiiiiceoe?? oa nthaeaoi?
cia?aaeaiiy.

*a?iyo?anueeee aii/a?iee iinoae, ia a?aei?io a?ae e?iiiai, yaey? niaith
?aeeiee oeiieia?/iee eiiieaen. Eieaeuei? a?aei?iiino? iaai?o iinoaeo a
iaaeao eoeueoo?e aecia/athoueny a ia?oo /a?ao iayai?noth i?noeaaeo
oei?a, a aeey aeayeeo ?aa?ii?a — aeuei iieacieeii e?iii? ea?ai?ee. Oae?
a?aei?iiino? iiaeia iiynieoe aeaiia iniiaieie i?e/eiaie. Ia?oith ?
o?aaeeoe?? i?noeaaiai (noano?aoiiai) ianaeaiiy. A ?aa?ii? Aa?oi?e
Aei?noa? oea i?iyaeeiny a i?i?iaeuei?e iayaiino? «ia?aaeieo» aii/a?ieo
oi?i (aace, i?iaiaioiaai? aeaee, eaeeoe) oa aaeueaa?nueeiai e?iiiai
iinoaeo, a oaeiae oe?ieiio aeei?enoaii? i?noeaaeo oei?a e?iii? ea?ai?ee
(34-60%). Oa ae oaiaeaioe?y iaio /?oei i?iyaeeany o I?e/i?iiii?’?.
Ae?oaa i?e/eia eieaeueieo a?aei?iiinoae — aoiia?ao?/i? iniaeeaino?, ui
?icaeioeenue o i?noeaaeo aii/a?ieo oeieao.

O?iiieia?/i? iiceoe?? ie?aieo oei?a ea?ai?ee aeyaeoe aaaeei /a?ac
a?aeiinii aocuee? /ania? ?aiee /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e. Aeaui i?ino?oa
c oeiaie, ui ?i?oothoue aeaoiaai? ?iii?oi? iinoaeeie. Aaaaoi ea?ai?/ieo
eoae?a iane?aeo? neei oei?a Nae?ao-Aaioeeia oa Eiaaeuee, aeaye? — /ao?
ia e?eueoeaaiio i?aeaeii? oa c nei?ie e?aieyie. Oae? iinoaeeie iiaeooue
neoaeeoe ca o?iiieia?/i? ?iaeeeaoi?e. Oa ae noino?oueny aeae?a oei?a 12a
oa 13a (eaiaeueiaai?, ie?oaeiai i?io?eth), ui ?i?oothoue iaoaeaa?
iinoaeeie inoaiiuei? /aa?o? 4 — ii/aoeo 5 no. C oeeo oei?a ?icaeeenue
a?eueo a?aeiia?aei? i?noeaaei niaeai oeie 1 oa 6 (eaiaeueiaai?,
a?eii?/i?). Ia iaoo aeoieo, inoaii? aeaa oeie aeae?a ?acii c
“e?aiaa?aaeiei” oeiii o?e?o/ieo aac (A- aai O-iiae?ai? a?ioey c iaoeeii
iaciai?) c’yaeythoueny a Ioioai?? oa Iieaeia? i?ney 376 ?., caianai?
i?a?aioaie ?c No?aeii? Oe?a?ie (aeea. ?icae. 8. “Ia?en ?noi???…”).

*a?iyo?anueeee iaa?? iinoaeo, e??i ainiiaea?/eo aeae?a (eooiii? ai?ueee
oa i?oine), aeeth/aa ?icaeiooee ani?oeiaio noieiaeo oi?i, na?aae yeeo
iii?oia i?noea caeiathoue iinoaeeie aeey iaii?a. Oeei /a?iyo?anueeee
iinoae ??cei a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae iinoaeo oeo eoeueoo?, c yeeie
iia’ycothoue neia’yinueeo e?i?th ?icaeoeo (i?ciueica?oaeiaoeuee?
iai’yoee, coa?eoeueea, ee?anueea, eiei/einueea, iaiuee?anueea, i?acueea
eoeueoo?e). A oie aea /an aiia aeaiiino?o? cia/io aeecuee?noue c
aaeueaa?nueeei iaai?ii oi?i, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny e oeiieia?/ieie
ia?aeaeyie. A /a?iyo?anuee?e eoeueoo?? c’yaeythoueny e iia? aeaee
ea?ai?ee: i?oine, noieia? a?ae?a; aaaaoi/enaeueieie e oeiieia?/ii
??ciiiai?oieie noathoue aeaee, aace, eoaee. Oe? iiaiaaaaeaiiy i?ioiaeeee
ii aeaio iai?yieao: 1) caiice/aiiy oa ia?a?iaea a i?noeaaiio na?aaeiaeu?
i?ia?ioe?aeueii-?einueeeo aii/a?ieo oi?i, 2) iiyaa iiaeo oi?i iinoaeo a
?acoeueoao? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa.

Ia i?aeeyaa? noii?ao, ui /a?iyo?anueea oaoiieia?y aii/a?iiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ?acii c iniiaieie oi?iaie noaieiai? ea?ai?ee aoea
caiice/aia cciai?. Aea/aiiy aii/a?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? iaenoa?aiue Ieaeiueiai
oa Na?aaeiueiai Aeoiath, Ieuea?? oa O??e, oei a?eueo, ea?ii-aeae?enueeeo
eoeueoo?, i?eaiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui aiie ii ie?aiino? ia iiaeooue
aaaaeaoeny ca ?aeeia aeaea?aei /a?iyo?anueeiai aii/a?noaa. Iiaeeeai, oea
ieoaiiy ia ia? iaeiicia/iiai ??oaiiy.

A ia??iae ooai?aiiy /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e /an?a Ne?onueeeo a?ei ??
iin?? iaee i?yi? eiioaeoe c a?aei-?einueeei ianaeaiiyi — a
ieaeiueiaeoiaenueeeo, aaeeainueeeo oa iaeiac?enueeeo i?ia?ioe?yo
?iia???, a O??? oa Ieuea??. Oni?oi? a?enueeia? ae?? noi?iaiaeaeoaaeenue
caoiieaiiyi iieiiaieo, a oiio /ene? ?ai?niee?a, ? oaiaeii ?o a aeeaeii?
?aeiie aa?aa?nueeeo caiaeue. Ae?iaieoeoai /a?iyo?anueei? aii/a?ii?
ea?ai?ee ii/eia?oueny aac aoaeue-yeeo ia?ao?aeieo aoai?a iae?aco ia
aenieiio ??ai?, ui iiaeia iiynieoe o?eueee aaciina?aaeiueith o/anoth o
i?ioean? i?ia?ioe?eieo iaeno??a-i?ioan?iiae?a. A i?eea?iaonuee? iaeano?
i?iieeaee oaeiae iaeno?e c non?aeiuei? I?aaeaiii? Iieueu?. Caaaeyee
aenieiio iiieoo ia e?oaeaeueio ea?ai?eo ?? ae?iaieoeoai ?icoe?thaaeinue
ca ?aooiie iaa/aiiy i?noeaaeo ?ai?niee?a. C?aceaie i?iaeoeoe?? neoaeeee
ia o?eueee ?einuee? oi?ie iinoaeei, aea e oeie e?iii? ea?ai?ee, ui
a?aeiia?aeaee niaeai oa cae/eai niiaeeaa/a. A ?acoeueoao? neioaco
i?ia?ioe?eii? ?ai?nie/i? oeiee oa i?noeaai? o?aaeeoe?? neeaany
i?ea?iaeueiee /a?iyo?anueeee noeeue ea?ai?ee ?c nai?i ani?oeiaioii oi?i,
yeee iiiiaithaaany /a?ac iane?aeoaaiiy ?iii?oiei iinoaeeiai c ??cieo
iaoa??ae?a.

?iii?oiee iinoae c ea?ai?ee, neea oa iaoaeo, a iniiaiiio ae?iaieoeoaa
no?aeieo i?ia?ioe?e ?eio ? iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith /a?iyo?anueeiai
?a/iaiai eiiieaeno.

Aioi?e. Aeoaea iioe?ai? na?oeiaeeiyi? aocueeiai?e? oeie, ui, eiia??ii,
iioiaeyoue c Neiiie. A eiiieaenao 3 no. o?aieythoueny oeaiee
“oaia?nueeeo” aioi? (oei D ca Ae.A.Oaeiaei). Iae/ano?oa ciaoiaeyoue
“?iea?iainuee?” iinoaeeie (oei F), ui ae?iaeyeeny i?ioyaii 4 no. Oei A
aeaoothoue e?ioeai 4 — ia?oith iieiaeiith 5 no. Ia an?o iinaeaiiyo
I?e/i?iiii?’y o?aieythoueny oeaiee oe?ieiai?eeo /a?aiiiaeeiyieo aioi? —
oei Caano 100 (“Aeaeaeao”). Aeaooaaiiy ?o inoaoi/ii ia c’yniaaia: aai a
oe?eiio 4 no. aai c 360-380 ??. ii 6 no. Aioi?e oeio I.273 (“ssaiyoei”,
4 — ia?oa iieiaeia 5 no.) o?aieythoueny ia?aaaaeii a cao?aei?e iaeano?
/a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e. Oei “Oa?aen 33” a?aeiinyoue aei e?ioey 4 —
ia?oi? iieiaeie 5 no. ??aee?nieie ? oiieino?ii? aioi?e oeio Caano 95
inoaiiuei? /aa?o? 4 — 6 no. oa iaeaiuee? iaeii?o/i? oeio M.275-276
e?ioey 4 no. A?oia iaaaeeeeo aioi? 4 no. c e?e/anoei ai?eii iioiaeeoue c
Iieaeiae oa Ioioai??.

Aioe/iee noieiaee iinoae c aeeie. *a?aiiieaeiaee iinoae iaeiac?enueeeo
oeaio??a 4 — ii/aoeo 5 no. o?aiey?oueny cae/aeii a I?e/i?iiii?’?, ??aeoa
— a Oeaio?aeuei?e Oe?a?i?. Ia iai’yoeao Iiaeoiaa’y i?enooi?
/a?aiiiaeeiyi? aeaee-ieiioi? ae?iaieoeoaa. aeoiaenueeeo i?ia?ioe?e. A
Ioioai?? ciaeaeaii aeaa iieea’yieo aeaee; a Iaiiii?? aiaeia?/i? oi?ie
c’yaeythoueny ia ?ai?oa 380 ?.

?einueeee iaoaeaaee iinoae a?aeiiee a iae?e e?eueeino?. Ii/anoe oea
iiynith?oueny oei, ui eieuei?iaee iaoae, aeeth/ath/e a?iico, oe?ioaaany
aeoaea aeniei e c?iniaai? ?a/? oe?eeii ooee?coaaeeny. A?eueo?noue oe?eeo
iinoaeei ia /a?iyo?anuee?e oa?eoi??? iioiaeeoue c nea?a?a.

Neeyiee iinoae. Iacia/ia eiai e?euee?noue ae?iaeyeanue ia /a?iyo?anuee?e
oa?eoi???, a Eiia?ia? [Ni?oei, 1964]. Iniiaio iano neea
no?aeii?a?iiaenuee? ieaiaia ?iii?ooaaee. Iinoaeeie, aeaei?iaai?
“aaa?y/o” (iaeeaaeaiiy ieoie, “?aa?a”) iiaeooue iioiaeeoe c ??cieo
i?ia?ioe?e. I?e aeaei?oaaii? “aoieiaeio” ei?enooaaeeny oe?ooaaeueiei
e?oaii, yeei iaiineeenue iaaee (oanaoee) aai i?yi? e?i??. Oaeee niin?a
oe?iei aaeeaaee a ?iia?aoi?nueeeo iaenoa?iyo, ye? o 4 no. aoei
ia?aaaaeaii aei Eiinoaioeiiiiey c ?eio. Iaea?eueo ?aii? c a?aeiieo ia
/a?iyo?anueeeo iai’yoeao neeyieo /ao, iaeaaeaoue aei ia??iaeo aeecueei
e?ioey 3 — ii/aoeo 4 no. A?eueo?noue ia? e?eueoeaao i?aeeo aai
i?ee?aoai? “?aa?aie”. Iaeii/anii c’yaeythoueny iinoaeeie, aeaei?iaai?
oanaoeaie (/aoa oeio Aaaa?n 216 c Oe?aoi?a). *anii aeecueei ae?oai?
/aa?o? 4 no. aeaoothoueny i?anoa?e/i? eoaee oei?a Nae?ao II oa Aaioeeia.
Aei oeio Aaaa?n 223 iaeaaeeoue iiae?aia aaeeea /aoa c Ia?ayneaaa.
Iaea?eueo iioe?aieie ? eoaee ae?oai?-o?aouei? /aa?o? 4 no. oeio Eiaaeuee
(Aaaa?n 230). A aoiinueeee /an (inoaiiy /aa?oue 4 — ii/aoie 5 no.)
aoiaeyoue a iiaeo ii-??ciiio ioi?ieai? eaeeoe eii?/ii? oi?ie, ?iiae? ia
i?aeoe?. Aei?ia? ae?iae i?ee?aoaeeny oanaoeaie: oeie Eai?ana?oo (oei
Oaaai, No?aoia VII), No?aoia VIII oa IX. *ano?oa o?aieythoueny aeaoaa?
oiieino?ii? iinoaeeie, aeaaee? aai c ai?eciioaeueieie e?i?yie. A
AEo?aaoe? oa Einaiia? ciaeaeaii eii?/i? iinoaeeie, i?iaiaioiaai?
“aaa?y/o” ceacaaaie. Aecaiiey?e oeio Ein?ii (Aaaa?n 195) i?ee?aoai?
aaeeeeie iaaeaie. Ia ii/aoeo aoiinueeiai ia??iaeo c’yaeythoueny eii?/i?
oa i?anoa?e/i? iinoaeeie, i?ee?aoai? nei?ie e?aieyie (“i/eaie”). Aeoaea
??aeei o?aieythoueny ia?ooia?i? oeaeiie — aaeuecaia??? aai i?i?aoth?i?
aea/eee.

Aeaiaioe einothio. Aeania aeaoaeyie iaeyao ? cano?aee-o?aoee oa i?yaeee;
iaienoa, ??ci? i?aea?nee, a?aneaoe, ia?ni? oa oeei? a?eaie oaeiae
iaeaaeaoue aei einothio, aea ? i?ee?anaie. Iaea?eueo iania? eaoaai???
oeeo ?a/ae iaiaeii?aciai aoei ?icaeyiooi niaoe?ae?noaie. Ei?enooth/enue
?oi?ie ioae?eaoe?yie, ie ia noaaeee caaaeaiiy ia?aaeyaeo eeaneo?eaoe?e
aai aeaooaaiue, iai?aaeyth/e coneeey a iniiaiiio ia aeyniaiiy ca’yce?a
a?oi ?a/ae c iaaieie eoeueoo?ieie iaeanoyie. I?e aiae?c? /a?iyo?anueeeo
o?aoe oa i?yaeie ie ei?enooaaeeny ia?aaaaeii i?aoeyie A.E.Ai?ioianueeiai
[1988], yeee ?ic?iaea ?o aeaoaeueio eeaneo?eaoe?th c iaa?oioiaaieie
aeaooaaiiyie.

O?aoee neoaeaoue aeineoue iaae?eieie o?iiieia?/ieie iieaae/eeaie. Aeaye?
oeie, ae?iaeai? ia oeaio?aeueii-?a?iiaenuee?e iniia?, ? aoiia?ao?/iei
ao?eaooii /a?iyo?anueeiai ianaeaiiy. Oea “i?iaioo? i?aea’yci?” o?aoee
“/a?iyo?anueei?” i?aea?oie, oaoeaoiaai? “ai?inuee?”, “i?aaeaiii-no?aeia
i?aea?oia” a?oie Aeueia?ai VII, ieao?a/ao? (ueoeia?) o?aoee. I?ci?
aea?eaaoe inoaii?o i?ney cieeiaiiy /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e i?ioyaii
aeaio a?e?a eeoathoueny oeiiaith aionueeith i?ee?anith. A?eueo ??aee?ni?
oeie o?aoe iae/ano?oa ? ?iii?oaie c Oeaio?aeueii? oa I?ai?/ii? ?a?iie:
i?aea’yci? c i?ae?oaei c?aiooeie nieieaie e ca?iaieie e?eueoeyie,
“Buegelknopffibel”, “monstruoso”. “Eo/eia?” o?aoee (Eaai?aa, Aoaeaooe)
oa?aeoa?i? aeey na?iao?a.

Oe?eaa? ?acoeueoaoe iaea?aeaii ia iniia? ea?oia?ao?? a?oi ieao?a/aoeo
o?aoe [Kokowski, 1996]. A?oie A oa A (iae? o?aoee — aei 60 ii) aoee
iioe?ai? a onueiio /a?iyo?anueeiio a?aae?, e??i O?ain?eueaai??. A?oie C,
D, E (aaeee?) o?aieythoueny o aaeee?e e?eueeino? a
Aei?no?i-Aeoiaenueeiio ?aa?ii?, ??aee?ni? i?ae Aei?no?ii oa Aei?i?ii e
a?aenooi? o No?aei?e Oe?a?i?. Ca iaaeaie /a?iyo?anueeiai a?aaeo aaaaoi
aaeeeeo o?aoe iioiaeeoue c E?eio, oi/a iaeeo ciaeaeaii anueiai aea?.
Oaea ?iciiae?eaiiy ciao?aeie aeia?a iia’yco?oueny c ?noi?e/ieie
iiae?yie. Iae? o?aoee ie?aneththoue oa?eoi??th aio?a iaia?aaeiaei?
aoiinueei? iaaaee, oiaoi a?aae /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e ii?e ??
?icea?oo. sseui aaeee? o?aoee c’yaeythoueny i?ney 375 ?., c?icoi?ea ?o
a?aenooi?noue o No?aei?e Oe?a?i?, ui caiono?ea nei?i i?ney oe??? aeaoe
[Iaaiiaaeia, 1997]. Iinooiiai ??aeoaei ianaeaiiy e o Oeaio?aeuei?e
Oe?a?i?, aea oaeeo ciao?aeie iaei. *anoeia aio?a ia?anaey?oueny aei
E?eio e i?eiineoue nai? aoiia?ao?/i? i?ee?ane. A cao?aei?e iaeano? e o
I?e/i?iiii?’? /a?iyo?anueea eoeueoo?a caa??aa?oueny aeiaoa; iiaeeeai,
eeoa a aoiinueeee /an aiia iioe?th?oueny ia O?ain?eueaai?th (iae?
ieao?a/ao? o?aoee oai ia a?aeii?).

O?aoee, ui iaeaaeaoue aei eiea ?a/ae c ae?i/anoeie aiaeyie (aa?aa?nuee?
aiae?) oa?aeoa?i? aeey ee?anueei? eoeueoo?e ? ia i?eoaiaii?
/a?iyo?anuee?e. I?ioa a *a?iyoia?, ?iiaoeao, o Aaeee?e Ni?oeioe?
ciaeaeaii aiaeaa? o?eeooi? o?aoee c o?auaoei e?ioeai (i?aeoei III.2 ca
A.O. Ei?coo?iith). Iaeaea an? ciao?aeee neiioeaio?iaai? o aocueeiio
?aa?ii? Ee?anueeiai Iiaei?i?ia’y, ui na?ae/eoue ia ei?enoue ?o
i?noeaaiai aeaioiaeaiiy. *an ?o iiaoooaaiiy iaiaaeaiee na?aaeeiith 3 —
ii/aoeii 4 no., oiaoi ia??iaeii aeoeaiiai i?iieeiaiiy a oeae ?aeii
“/a?iyo?anueeiai” ianaeaiiy. I?eionea?ii, ui oe? o?aoee (ye ? ?io?
aiae?) iio?aieee ia /a?iyo?anuee? ioieoe ia?aaaaeii ye a?enueeiaa
caeiae/, iiaeeeai ?acii c i?aaenoaaieoeyie ee?anueeeo ieaiai.

I?yaeee oa ?io? aeaoae? oe??yieo ?aiai?a ii a?eueoino? aoee aeaoaeyie
iiyna, ??aeoa iaeaaeaee aei ii?ooia? aai aei acoooy. Ia?aaaaeia
a?eueo?noue i?yaeie iaeaaeeoue aei a?oie i?inoeo ie?oaeeo, aei
“/a?iyo?anueei?” i?aea?oie, ui ia?, iaaooue, i?e/i?iiii?nueea
iioiaeaeaiiy. Aeai/ani? oi?ie oei?a “iiaaa” oa “D”, i?yaeee-e?eueoey
(Guertelringe) a?aeiia?aeathoue oeaio?aeueii-?a?iiaenueeei ae?iaai.
C??aeea a /a?iyo?anueeeo iiynao aaeeaaeeny ?io? iaoaeaa? aeaoae? —
ieao?aee aeey e??ieaiiy oa iaeiia/ieee ?aiai?a.

I?aea?nee ie a?aeiineii aei eaoaai??? i?ee?an c iaaiei canoa?aaeaiiyi,
ai aiie /anoi neoaeeee ia?aae on?i ca aioeaoe. Aaaea?oeaiiae?ai?
i?aea?nee iiae?eythoueny ia e?eueea oei?a: oeee?iae?e/i?, eioeeiiiae?ai?
(a oiio /ene? cieio? c o?e?a?aiith oa ca?ith), ?icaoeiiiae?ai?,
aeaeiaaeaii-eii?/i?, o?eeooi?. Na?aae eoiieoeue i?eae?eaii oaaao
neeaaeiei i?ee?anai c ?iia?/ieie i?ea?neaie (??ii?a, Aeai/aie, Ae?eaae,
Iaeaoea). Aiie iio?aieythoue aei /a?iyo?anueeeo ieaiai c Aa?iai?? oa
Neaiaeeiaa??, iaaii, a aoiinueeee /an. ?icaeyiooi oaeiae “niee?ee Oi?a”,
e?eueoey c caa’ycaieie e?ioeyie, i??ai?aeaeuei? i?aea?nee (iaeeoey
Aa?aeea), ao?ooeiia? a?eaiaeaei?, i?aea?nee c iooe? oa ?eea oaa?ei.
Neeyi? i?aea?nee o?aieythoueny ??aeei: oea iaaeaeueeiie oa aioeaoe o
oi?i? eiie (Komma-Perlen). I?aea?nee ?iaeee c i?i?aoth?ieo a?aaai?a,
iiiao, oa ?ioeo niaoe?aeueii ia i?ecia/aieo aeey oeueiai ?a/ae: a?aeueia
e?noue (Aeai/aie), aeyoea a?ae e?inueei? ca?o? o aeaeyae? eaaa
(*a?aiei).

Iaienoa aoee aeey /a?iyo?anueeiai ianaeaiiy iiioey?iith e aeineoue
aeinooiiith i?ee?anith. Ia?aaaaeia ?o a?eueo?noue iaaeoiaeeea o No?aeio
?a?iio ye aioe/iee ?iii?o. Iii?/aii, ui a /a?iyo?anueeeo iaai?ao iaieno,
o ii??aiyii? c neio?iiieie aioe/ieie eiiieaenaie, iaeaea a?aenooi?
ae?iae c ?aeiaonueeiai oayino, aaaaoo, aao??o, oaeoeaaeiio, neeyi?
iie?o?iii? oa ciei/ai?. Oea iiynith?oueny ?o cia/ii aeuith aa?o?noth.
Niaee i?ai?/ieo aa?aa??a oe?eeii caaeiaieueiyeeny aeaoaaith ianiaith
a?aeooa???th. A oie aea /an aeey eoeueoo? Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie (ye?
iaea?aeoaaee iaienoa c cao?aeieo iaenoa?aiue) cian?i ia oa?aeoa?i? aone
c na?aeie?eo oa ei?ae?a, ye? neeaaeathoue caaaeii aeecueei 18%
/a?iyo?anueeiai iaai?o. Oaeei /eiii, neeaae iaienoa aecia/aany ia
no?eueee o?aaeeoe??th aai niaeaie, ne?eueee aa?o?noth oiaa?o oa
iai?yieii ca’yce?a.

?aooa i?ee?an, ia a?aei?io a?ae iaieno aai i?aea?nie, ia aoiaeeee aei
ainaiaeth o?aaeeoe?eiiai einothio e o?aieythoueny ??aeei. Ia?ni? c
a?iice, n??aea oa cieioa, ?ieiee neeyi?, ii a?eueoino? i?ino? ca
eiino?oeoe??th. A?aeii? anoaaee aei ia?ni?a ?c neea, ao?ooeio oa
na?aeie?eo, ciaeaeaii yoiiao aaiio-“aa?anaen” (Iao?ee?aoe?).
O?aieythoueny a?aneaoe c a?iice oa c ieaiy/iai ?iao, iaeeie/i? oieeueee
(?iiaoee, Aaa?ee?aea), na?aaeee, oeei? a?eaie c a?iiciaiai ae?ioo c
cano?aeaie (Einai?a, *a?aiei, Iyo?a O?aeaoeae). A?eueo?noue ?icaeyiooeo
oei?a i?ee?an, e??i neeyieo iaieno oa na?iaonueeeo aai aioe/ieo
na?aaeie, aoea iioe?aia na?aae ianaeaiiy eoeueoo? Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie.

Iayai? aeaoae? iaeyao oa ?o ?ici?uaiiy a iioiaaiiyo iaaeathoue
iiaeeeaino? aei ?aeiino?oeoe?? einothio. A?aei?iiino? a /ieia?/iio oa
ae?ii/iio iaeyc? aecia/athoueny neaai. AE?ii/? iioiaaiiy cae/aeii
aeae?eythoue ca iayai?noth iaieno, a?eueo, i?ae iaei??? o?aoee, a oaeiae
i?yneeoeue, caeeoe?a oeaooeie. *ieia?/? iioiaaiiy c aeaoaeae iaeyao
iiaeooue ai?uoaaoe o?aoeo oa i?yaeeo, c i?ee?an ?iiae? e?eueea iaienoei
oa i?aea?neo-aioeao. Ainaiaeue ae?ii/iai einothio aeiiiaithaaea
noiea-aaiai aeey ae??aieo ?a/ae: oaaoeueeeo i?eiaeaaeiinoae, a?aaaiy,
aioeao?a oiui. *a?iyo?anueea iiaeaeue aoea i?iaeiaaeaiiyi e?i?? ?icaeoeo
ae?ii/iai oai?o aa?iainueeeo ieaiai Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie e i?aeoe/ii
a?aeiia?aea? iiaeae? oeaoeaeuenueei? oace aaeueaa?nueei? eoeueoo?e
[Tempelmann-M?czynska, 1989]. Aeeae/a aei o?iaeueii? oace /a?iyo?anueei?
eoeueoo?e ana a?eueoa iaaoaa? iioe?aiiy iaa?? c ia?e o?aoe (/anoi
ueoeiaeo), i?yaeee oa iaienoa. Oeae aea iaa?? caa??aa?oueny o
?aiiueina?aaeiueia?/iiio ae?ii/iio einothi? inoaio?a ?oae??, aanoaio?a
?niai?? oa e?einueeeo aio?a [Bierbrauer, 1994].

I?aaeiaoe ica?i?iiy, nii?yaeaeaiiy eiiy oa aa?oieea. C i?aaeiao?a
ica?i?iiy ia /a?iyo?anueeeo iai’yoeao ciaoiaeyoue ia/? oa aeaoae? i?oa,
eeiaeaeaee, aeaoae? ueo?a, niee?e, iaeiia/ieee ae?ioee?a, nien?a oa
no??e; c nii?yaeaeaiiy eiiy oa aa?oieea — oii?e oa aoaeeea. Oeiieia?/iee
aiae?c oeeo i?aaeiao?a na?ae/eoue, ui ?o iaeaeeae/? aiaeia?? iioiaeyoue
c Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie, a iniiaiiio c iai’yoie ioaai?nueei? eoeueoo?e.
Oaea ae ica?i?iiy iaee e aaeueaa?nuee? ieaiaia, iaeiae aiii o?aiey?oueny
??aeoa aiane?aeie iniaeeainoae iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo e iaei? e?eueeino?
?iceiiaieo iinaeaiue [Kokowski, 1993]. Iiyaa ia i?ciueiio aoai?
/a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e aeiaaeo eeiaeaeae?a, a oaeiae aeaoaeae
neeaaeiiai eoeo a?aeaeaa? iineeaiiy aeainueeiai aieeao.

Ca nai?i i?ecia/aiiyi ca?iy ieaiai /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e (ye e ?ioeo
noni?euenoa ?aiiueiai cae?ciiai a?eo) i?aaenoaaeaia aeaiia eaoaai??yie.
Ae?ioeee, niene, eoe oa no??ee iaeaaeaoue aei oi?aa?naeueieo aeae?a,
ine?eueee ieie ei?enooaaeeny e aeey ioioe, e aeey a?eie. Oe??th ca?i?th
nii?yaeaeaeiny iiie/aiiy ?yaeiaeo ai?i?a, aeey yeeo a?eia ia aoea
aieiaiei caeiyooyi. Ia/?, ueoe, niee?e ? aeeeth/ii aieiaeie aeaeaie
ica?i?iiy, oni?oii ei?enooaaoeny yeeie iiaee eeoa niaoe?aeueii
i?aeaioiaeai? ethaee. Iayai?noue oe??? eaoaai??? ca?i? na?ae/eoue i?i
i?enooi?noue o noni?euenoa? nioe?aeueii? a?oie ai?i?a-i?ioan?iiae?a. Oea
ni?aiaaea? c na?ae/aiiyi ienueiiaeo aeaea?ae i?i caaiie c e?aueo ai?i?a
(oiaoi ae?oaeeiiee?a) i?e aionueeeo aiaeaeyo. Aeaoae? nii?yaeaeaiiy
aa?oieea iaee ia eeoa aieiaa i?ecia/aiiy, aea e aoee ?aiaiaith iciaeith
a?enoie?ao?a. Ii/aoeiaa ia?aaaaeaiiy ieaiai aio?a o a?enueeia?e
i?aai?caoe?? oa a ica?i?ii?, yea aaeineiiaethaaeinue o a?eiao,
aeicaieeei ?o aiaeaeyi oo?eioaaoe i?ioyaii i?aoi?a noie?ooy aaeeeo
oa?eoi??th a?ae iecia’y Aeoiath aei E?aiaa?aaeaey Aei?i?a. A oeae
ia??iae i?ioan?ei? aeaee ca?i? aoee ia aeanoea? aeey a?eueoino? in?eeo
ieaiai I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? ?a?iie, a oiio /ene? neia’yinueeeo. Oaea ca?iy
ia oe?e oa?eoi??? c’yaey?oueny e cieea? ?acii c aa?iainueeeie ieaiaiaie,
o yeeo nioe?aeuei? a?oie i?ioan?eieo ai?i?a noi?ioaaeenue ?ai?oa.

Iiaooia? i?aaeiaoe. Iniiaieie ?o a?oiaie aenooiathoue ae??ai?
oi?aa?naeuei? cia?yaeaey (iiae?, oeea, aieee), ?a/? ooaeaoiiai
i?ecia/aiiy oa i?aaeiaoe aeiiaoiueiai aaeeoeo.

Iiae? ??ciyoueny ca iaoa??aeii oa i?ecia/aiiyi. Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue
cae?cieo iiae?a iaea oi?aa?naeueia aai ainiiaea?nueea i?ecia/aiiy.
A?aeiiee oei iiae?a c aeiaaith oi?aeiaaiith ?oeiyooth c iaoeath ia
e?ioe? oa c oiieei eacii. ?nio? aeoiea i?i ?o o??o?a?/ia i?ecia/aiiy,
aea, nei??oa, aiie i?aaeee ca a?eoae. Ooaeaoia i?ecia/aiiy iaee oaeiae
i?i?aoth?i? iiae? oa i?oaeeii? iiaeeoe?, i?ioeaoe oa eiiiooee c a?iice e
n??aea, ui o?aieythoueny ia?aaaaeii a /ieia?/eo iioiaaiiyo. Aaeee?
cae?ci? iiaeeoe? iaee ainiiaea?nueea i?ecia/aiiy. A iioiaaiiyo
ciaoiaeyoue oeea oa oaaoeuee? aieee, /anoi ?acii c oooey?aie-aieueieeaie
c ioaoeii? e?noee.

Ooaeaoi? a?aaai? aeaioiaeyeeny c ieaiy/iai ?iao. ?ic?iaeaii ?oi?
eeaneo?eaoe?? ia ?a?iiaenueeiio oa ia /a?iyo?anueeiio iaoa??ae? [Thomas,
1960; Ieeeoeia, 1969]. Ca A.O. I?e?o?iith, aei oeio I iaeaaeaoue ae?iae
c i?ae?oaeith nieieith, aei oeio ?? — c nieieith o aeaeyae? o?aiaoe??
(aiie iaei i?aaenoaaeai? o Oeaio?aeuei?e ?a?ii?, aea ia?aaaaea? o?eeooia
oi?ia). O a?aaai?a oeio ??? nieiea ia? aenooiath/o i?ae?oaeo na?aaeith
/anoeio. Oei c’yaey?oueny a 4 no., iaea?eueoa eiioeaio?aoe?y ciao?aeie
i?eiaaea? ia /a?iyo?anueeo oa?eoi??th, aea oey oi?ia e c’yaeeany. Ie?aio
a?oio ciao?aeie neeaaeathoue cae?ci? a?aaai?, ye? eiioeaio?othoueny
oaeiae a I?aaeaii?e Neaiaeeiaa?? ?, iiaeeeai, aoee iia’ycai? c
?ae?a?eiei eoeueoii.

Aeca?eaea c a?eiai nieaao oeio *i?-A?eaaoe?i (Ianeiai, A?eueoaiea,
Eanueee, Ai?iaeie) iioe?eeenue a ?a?ii? a aoiinueeee /an e oa?aeoa?i?
aeey noaiiaeo eoeueoo?.

Na?aae ?a/ae aeiiaoiueiai aaeeoeo a?eueo?noue i?eiaaea? ia ea?ai?/iee
iinoae. ?aooa i?aaeiao?a neeaaea? ia/eneaiio, aea ??ciiiai?oio a?oio
ciao?aeie. Na?aae ieo — aaeee? eeth/? aeey aeaa?ieo aea?aa’yieo
caie?a-canoa?a, oeee?iae?e/i? caiee c i?oaeeiiei iaoai?ciii (??ii?a,
?oaee/aiea, Aaa?ee?aea, Eaai?aa). A aaaaoeo iioiaaiiyo ciaoiaeyoue
iaoae?/i? aeaoae? a?ae aea?aa’yieo ne?eiueie. O?aieythoueny aeaoae? a?ae
iinoaeo c i?aai?/ieo iaoa??ae?a. Cae/aeii oea cae?ci? ia?o/? oa aooea
a?ae aea?aa’yieo a?aea?. C Eaioaie??aee iioiaeyoue caeeoee aea?aa’yii?
/ao? c aooeii-e?eueoeai; ?? a?ioey aoei iaaeoi n??aieie ieanoeiaie.
A?iiciaee iaeiia/iee a?ae ?iaa-?eoiia ciaeaeaii a Aeai/aiao. E?anaea
iaeaaeaoue aei a?oie no?eaeiaaeo. Ia?oee oei ia? aeaeyae a?onea c
e?eueoeai (Oe?aoi?, Iiaioaiue, Aae/aiue, Iaoana?o, ssne, Aaeeea
Ni?oeiea, ?aeiaaoeue). Ae?oaee oei ia oeeueiiio aioe? ia? aocueeee
aea?aeae (Oe?aoi?, Eai?a). ?einuee? ea?ai?/i? eaiie ciaeaeaii a
Eiia?ia?, Niaa??, Eai’yioe?-Ai/ae?ae, Iao?ian?; a?aeii? i?noeaa?
aii/a?ia (Nooe?aea) oa e?ii? (Ao?aeioe?, Eiaeaai) iane?aeoaaiiy.
A?aeii? aeiaa? aeaeaeee oeaio?aeueii-?a?iiaenueeiai oeio aeey
i?eaiooaaiiy i’yna (??ii?a, Aeai’yi?a, Aeaaaoa). A na?aaeiaeu?
?a?iiaenueeeo aa?aa??a iioe?eeenue aioe/i? ?a?e. A Eaai?c?,
Eaioaie??aoe?, Aeai/aiao ciaeaeaii eoaeee aeey a?e a eino? (alea). O a??
calculi cae/aeii aaeeaaeeny aeaoiie c oaiiiai oa na?oeiai neea; a?aeii?
aeaoiie c aeeie oa ia?io?o (AEo?aaea, Eanueee, Eoaiaa).

?a/? ??ciiiai?oiiai i?ecia/aiiy, ui aaeeaaeeny ianaeaiiyi
/a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e, ciaoiaeyoue aiaeia?? ia?aaaaeii a
aa?iainueeeo eoeueoo?ao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie oa a i?ia?ioe?yo ?eio;
aeaye? oeie ia o?e aea iniia? aoei ae?iaeaii ia i?noe?.

?icae?e 6. Ae?iaieoeoai oa oi?a?aey

N?euenueea ainiiaea?noai. *a?iyo?anueea nenoaia caiea?ianoaa
a?ae??ciyeanue a?ae nenoai iiia?aaei?o i?noeaaeo eoeueoo? cia/ii aeuei
oaoi?/iei iniauaiiyi. C /a?iyo?anueeith eoeueoo?ith iia’ycaia ianiaa
iioe?aiiy o No?aei?e ?a?ii? cae?cieo ia?aeueiee?a, iiaeo oei?a na?i?a oa
e?n, ?o/iiai ieeia. Oe? iiaiaaaaeaiiy iaaeoiaeeee c i?ia?ioe?e ?eio.
??cieoey a ani?oeiaio? eoeueoo?ieo ?ineei i?ae iaeanoyie a?aeaeaathoue
ia?aae on?i niaoeeo?eo i?e?iaeieo cii, e o iaio?e i??? o?aaeeoe??
niiaeeaaiiy. I?eeoe? caiea?iae ia?aeiaee aeina?ae aai?eaaiiiai ianaeaiiy
e ae?iuoaaee iaei?iaeoeoeai?o? eoeueoo?e, i?enoiniaai? aei i?noeaaeo
a?oio?a oa ee?iaoo. I?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/i? iniaeeaino? iaei e
oaa?eiieoeoai. Eiai oiaa?iiio ?icaeoeo o noaiiaeo ?aeiiao ni?eyea
aeecuee?noue ?eie?a: a?aeiii, ui ia Aeoia? aioe i?iaeaaaee ?eieyiai
ooaeiao oa oe??e. A I?e/i?iiii?’?, aea aaeeeo /anoeo ianaeaiiy neeaaeaee
i?ci? ne?oe oa na?iaoi-aeaie, cia/ia ?ieue iaeaaeaea ?icaaaeaiith eiiae.
C aioe/ieie oa i?ai?/ii-aa?iainueeeie eoeueoo?ieie o?aaeeoe?yie
iia’ycaia no?eeiaa oo?eiaiiy ooaeiae.

Iaoaeo?a?y oa iaoaeiia?iaea. Ne?aee ae??aiiai cae?ci?iaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
ia aac? aieioyieo ?oae ciaeaeaii ia a?eueoino? /a?iyo?anueeeo iinaeaiue
E?ninoaiiai? ciie. Aoee iiaeiaaeai? a?eueo ?aii? o?aaeeoe?? Oiainueeiai
iaoaeo?a?eiiai ?aeiio: oai a?aee?eoi aeecueei 20 iinaeaiue ?c caeeoeaie
caeiae/? cae?ca. A cao?aei? ?aa?iie iaaeoiaeeea i?iaeoeoe?y
Naaioieoeaenueeiai oeaio?o (I?aaeaiia Iieueua). *a?iyo?anueeiio
eiaaeuenueeiio ?aianeo i?eoaiaiia aeniea oaoi?/ia eoeueoo?a, aeecueea
aei o?aaeeoe?e ioaai?nueeeo ieaiai ?aeiio E?aeiaa e non?aei?o iaeanoae
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie [Aicianaineay, 1972].

*a?iyo?anueeee iaa?? i?aeieo nieaa?a ? i?iaeoeoii aca?iiae?? aeaio
aaeeeeo cii iaoaeiia?iaee — i?eaaeo?enueei? oa i?e/i?iiii?nueei?
[*a?ieo, Aa?oeaaa, 1972]. Ia iaoo aeoieo, neeaae /a?iyo?anueeeo i?aeieo
nieaa?a aecia/aany ia no?eueee o?aaeeoe?yie neeaaeaiiy ?aoeaioo?,
ne?eueee aeaea?aeaie iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ne?iaeie. Neeaaeiee oeeieiaee nieaa
o aeaeyae? ceeoe?a i?a aeinoaaeyoeny c i?aeiicaeiaoaath/eo iaeanoae
Neaiaeeiaa??, ye? caaacia/oaaee aaeo?enueeee ?aa?ii, a oaeiae iia’ycai?
c iei eoeueoo?i? iaeano?.

Ea?ai?/ia ae?iaieoeoai. I?ioeaioia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?iii? oa aii/a?ii?
ea?ai?ee ia iinaeaii? a?aeia?aaea? nooi?iue o/ano? aeaii? a?iiaaee a
?eieiaeo a?aeiineiao ? a oie aea /an ? ?iaeeeaoi?ii i?eiaeaaeiino?
iai’yoee aei /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e. I?ioean c?inoaiiy niiaeeaaiiy
aii/a?iiai iinoaeo iiaeia oiiaii ?icae?eeoe ia o?e aoaie. Ia ia?oiio
iiieo ia oeae iinoae caaeiaieueiy?oueny ca ?aooiie ?iii?oo, yeee iaa?yae
/e neeaaeaa a?eueoa, i?ae 20-30% ea?ai?/iiai eiiieaeno. Iai’yoee c oaeei
iieacieeii ia iiaeooue aaaaeaoeny /a?iyo?anueeeie (iai?eeeaae,
aaeueaa?nuee? oa ee?anuee?). I?e aeaeueoiio c?inoaii? iiieoo
?iieoeueoo?iiio ae?iaieeo noa? aeiiii?/ii aea?aeii ia?aiineoe oei/aniaa
ae?iaieoeoai ia oa?eoi??th niiaeeaa/a. Ia oeueiio, ae?oaiio, aoai?
i?noeaa? iaeno?e ii/eiathoue inaithaaoe iiao oaoiieia?th e aeoeneathoue
i?eeoeeo ?ai?niee?a i?e ia?aoiae? aei o?aoueiai aoaio, eiee /anoea
aa?noaoiiai iinoaeo ca?eueoo?oueny, ca i?eiouaiiyi, aei 60-70% e
c’yaeythoueny noaoe?iia?i? iaenoa?i?. Ianaeaiiy /a?iyo?anueeeo iai’yoie
oeio *a?aiei ciaoiaeeeinue, iaaooue, ia ae?oaiio aoai? niiaeeaaiiy
aii/a?ii? ea?ai?ee, yea neeaaea? ooo cae/aeii a?ae 40-48 aei 66%
(??ii?a) [Aa?ai, 1981].

Caeeoee aeiaethaaeueieo ai?i?a a?aee?eoi iaeaea ia i’yoaeanyoe
iinaeaiiyo oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie oa ?anioae?ee Iieaeiaa e ia e?eueeio
ioieoao a ?oioi?? [Aia?eineee, 1991]. ?o eiino?oeoe?y a ni?iuaiiio
aeaeyae? iane?aeo? i?ia?ioe?ei? ac??oe?. Aea/aiiy ae?iaie/eo nii?oae oa
aii/a?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? aeicaiey? ?aeiino?othaaoe oaoiieia?th ae?iaeaiiy
e?oaeaeueiiai iinoaeo.

Einoi??cia ae?iaieoeoai. Niaoe?ae?caoe?y oeueiai ?aianea noaeany
caaaeyee ianiaiio iiieoo ia aaaaoineeaaeia? a?aaai? c ieaiy/iai ?iao. ?o
aeaioiaeaiiy iio?aaoaaei aeniei? iaenoa?iino? oa niaoe?aeueiiai oiieiai
cia?yaeaey (ieeee, naa?aeea). Aaeee? iaenoa?i?, ui i?aoethaaee ia
?eiie, aea/aeeny ia iinaeaiiyo Ae?eaae-Aaey Ny/a oa Aaeeea Ni?oeiea. Ia
oeeo iaoa??aeao aeine?aeaeaii oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee a?e ae?iaieoeoaa.

Eaiaiy?nueea oa ?io? ae?iaieoeoaa. Eaiaiy?noai iaei ianiaa iioe?aiiy
eeoa a na?aaeiaeu? i?ciueine?onueeiai ianaeaiiy iai’yoie
i?e/i?iiii?nueeiai oeio. Ia?iaea i’yeeo ii??ae aaiiyeo aeey i?noeaaeo
iio?aa ia aeiaaaei aaeeei? eaae?o?eaoe??. Ianiaa iioe?aiiy ?ioaoe?eieo
ieei?a ia an?e oa?eoi??? eoeueoo?e aeeeeeaei iiyao eaiaiy?noaa ye aaeoc?
i?ioan?eiiai ?aianea. O A?iieoeuee?e iaeano? aoei iaeaaiaeaeaii caeiae/
oa ae?iaieoeoai aei?ai c aoeeai?/iiai oooo, ye? ciaoiaeeee oe?ieee caoo.
?ai?nie/ei niiniaii ae?iaeyeeny, iaaooue, e inaeee noaiaea?oii? oi?ie c
ae??aiica?ienoiai i?uaieeo.

Iiaeia eacaoe i?i ?ai?nie/o niaoe?ae?caoe?th aeayeeo neeaaeieo
aea?aaiia?iaieo ?ia?o — oiea?i?, aiiaea?i?. Iaeaea? oaoiieia??
c’yaeythoueny o aa?aa?nuee?e ?a?ii? a i?ciuei?einueeee /an e iia’ycai? c
aieeaii I?ia?ioe?e. I?yae?iiy oa oeaoeoai eeoaeeny o?aaeeoe?eieie
aeiiaoi?ie ae?iaieoeoaaie. A ae?ii/eo iioiaaiiyo ciaoiaeyoue aeaoae?
aa?aoai — “aa/eiaeaei? aoeaaee”, n??ai? oa a?iicia? o?oa/ano? ieiaee,
iiae?ai? aei iioe?aieo o Oeaio?aeuei?e oa I?ai?/i?e ?a?ii?. E??i
ea?ai?/ieo i?yneeoeue, o?aieythoueny eai’yi?, ?iaia?, e?noyi?, neeyi?.
I?i aeei?enoaiiy aa?oeeaeueiiai oeaoeueeiai aa?noaoo na?ae/aoue
ciao?aeee aeeiyieo a?ocee.

Oi?a?aey. Ii/aoeiaee aoai oiaa?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa, oiaoi aeaioiaeaiiy
oiaa??a ia ?eiie, iia’ycaiee c iayai?noth ?ai?nie/eo iaenoa?aiue —
eiaaeuenueeeo, thaae??ieo, aii/a?ieo, einoi??cieo. Iiaeeeai, aaeeea
thaae??ia ae?iaieoeoai ?nioaaei a ?aeii? n.A?aae?aenuee ia Aei?i??, aea
ciaeaeaii nioi? o?aoe oa i?aei? ceeoee. Ca i?eiouaiiyi, ooo ?nioaaa
oi?a?aaeueii-?ai?nie/?e oeaio?, ui aeiee ia ia?ao?ano? o?aaeeoe?eieo
oeyo?a [?ooeianeay, 1979]. Iiae?aiee oeaio? i?a aooe ia iinaeaii?
Eaian?aea ia oeyoo i?ae Aaeo?enueeith oa *i?iiii?nueeith iaeanoyie. Ooo
aeyaeaii caeeoee iaoaeo?a?eiiai, thaae??iiai, aii/a?iiai ae?iaieoeoa, a
na?aae e?iii? ea?ai?ee aeae?eaii oeie, oa?aeoa?i? aeey e?eueeio
eoeueoo?ii-aoi?/ieo a?oi [Oeoaiiaa, 1966; 1978; Uoeei, 1989]. Iaeia c
aaaeeeaeo i?noeue a aeiiii?oe? iin?aeaea nieyia oi?a?aey. Caeiae//th
nie? caeiaeeny ia I?eea?iaoo? oa ia Neaao?.

A ia??iae /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e oi?a?aey aa?aa??a No?aeii? ?a?iie c
aioe/iei na?oii aeinyaa? naiai iaeaeuiai ?icaeoeo, i?i ui na?ae/aoue
ciao?aeee ?iii?o?a ia eiaei?e iai’yooe?. Aaciina?aaeiuei ianaeaiiy
/a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e oi?eathoueny na?aeioeoaa ienueiiaeo aeaea?ae
i?i oi?a?aeth aanoaio?a c ?eieyiaie ia Aeoia?. Ooo aioe io?eioaaee c
?iia??? aeii, n?eue, ie?th, ca?ith, iaeya, i?ee?ane. I?iaeaaaee aiie
aieiaiei /eiii ?aa?a, a oaeiae ooaeiao oa oe??e [Ei?noineee, 1965].
Oi?a?aey c i?ia?ioe?yie aeeaiei oa?eoea a iiaoo /a?iyo?anueeiai
noni?euenoaa e i?aeo?eioaaeanue eiai aiaeaeyie. A ie?iee /an aionuee?
eoioe? a?eueii oi?aoaaee ia an?e oa?eoi??? i?eei?aeiiii? i?ia?ioe??
O?ae?y. Aaaea?ii, ui caeeoeaie ?einueeeo oaeoi??e ia aa?aa?nueeeo caieyo
? eiiieaene eai’yieo aoae?aaeue o Eai’yioe?-Ai/ae?ae, Niaa??, *?i?oaiue;
oi?a?aaeueii-?ai?nie/o oaeoi??th yaeyea niaith neei?iaia iaenoa?iy a
Eiia?ia?. I?noa Ieuea?y oa O??a aoee aeeth/ai? a /a?iyo?anueeo
iie?oeei-aeiiii?/io nenoaio. Ooo ae?yee aii/a?i? iaenoa?i?, ui ae?iaeyee
aenieiye?nio n??iaeeiyio ea?ai?eo; a ii?nuee? ii?oe iaaeoiaeeea
i?iaeoeoe?y no?aeii?einueeeo i?no e ca?aene ?icoiaeeeanue ii
aa?aa?nueeeo caieyo.

Ii??aithth/e ?iciiae?eaiiy iaea?eueo ianiaeo ?iii?o?a ca ?aa?iiaie
/a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e, iiaeia iii?oeoe ??cieoeth i?ae no?aeiith oa
cao?aeiith iaeanoyie, iaaea i?ae yeeie i?ioiaeeoue i?eaeecii ii
Aei?no?o. A?aoeuee? eieii?? oa aa?aa?nuee? ieaiaia I?ai?/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y caeaaia oi?aoaaee c Iaeith Ac??th, ca?aeee iaaeoiaeeea
aaee/acia e?euee?noue aeia o na?oeiaeeiyieo aioi?ao oa /a?aiiieaeiaa
ea?ai?ea. Ioioai?y oa ii/anoe Iieaeiaa, aea iioe?ai? ?io? oeie aioi?ii?
oa?e oa ?iii?oiiai iinoaeo, io?eioaaee oiaa?e ia?aaaaeii c Aeoiaenueeeo
aai Aaeeainueeeo i?ia?ioe?e. Neeyi? ae?iae, ui eoee c Eiinoaioeiiiiey oa
Aeecueeiai Noiaeo, iioe?thaaeenue a?eueo-iaio ??aiii??ii.

Aeey aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e iaei cia/aiiy
aaia?ao?/ia iieiaeaiiy ?? oa?eoi???. I?aaeaii? iaae? ni?eueiino?
i?ieyaaee ii *i?iiii?nueeiio ocaa?aaeaeth oa Aeoiath, eoaee
a?aei-?einuee? eoioe? caiceee oiaa?e aeey oi?a?ae? c i?ai?/ieie
aa?aa?aie. ?aooa ei?aeii?a i?eeyaaea aei na?oo e?niaeo oa noaiiaeo
ieaiai, ui yaeyee niaith aaciaaeiee ?eiie caooo oeeo oiaa??a. Aea
iaea?eueoa cia/aiiy iaa ??/eiaee iiio?enueei-aaeo?enueeee oi?aiaee oeyo
acaeiaae I?aaeaiiiai Aoao (Aei?no?a) — Cao?aeiiai Aoao — A?nee.
O?aiceoieie oiaa?aie aoee neeyi? eaeeoe oa ?ioa i?iaeoeoe?y iaenoa?aiue
No?aeiiai Na?aaecaiiiii?’y. C I?aaeaiii? I?eaaeoeee neei ii?nueeeie
oeyoaie ?icoiaeeeinue ii aa?aaao Aeai??, Oaaoe??, Ii?aaa??, ui aeia?a
i?inoaaeaii i?e ea?oia?aooaaii? ciao?aeie. A iai?i /a?iyo?anuee?
oi?a?aoe? i?eaiceee ao?ooei, iniiaia /anoeia yeiai o?aiceoii eoea a
?iia??th, a oaeiae eieuei?iaee iaoae.

Ia oa?eoi??? No?aeii? ?a?iie a?aeiii aaaaoi oeny/ ciao?aeie ?einueeeo
iiiao, ia?aaaaeii iia’ycaieo c /a?iyo?anueeith eoeueoo?ith. I?e oeueiio
aaniethoia ?o a?eueo?noue ? n??aieie aeaia??yie, ea?aiaaieie o 2 no.,
eiee oey eoeueoo?a ua ia ?nioaaea. Ie caiaei? c aeine?aeieeaie, ye?
i?e/eio iaaeoiaeaeaiiy oeeo iiiao c cai?ciaiiyi aa/aoue o aenieiio
ai?uaii? a ieo n??aea a ii??aiyii? c i?ci?oeie aeioneaie (iaioa
iieiaeie). Ca iaioaaiiy i?iiai? oi?a?ae? iiiaoiee iaoae ni?eeiaany ye
oiaa?, cia/ia eiai /anoeia eoea ia thaae??i? ae?iae. Aa?aa?e aeiaaaee
a?ae ?einueeeo ia?oia??a “ue?iai” n??aea, ia ui o? aeiooai? aoee
caaaeaoe.

?icae?e 7. Aoi?/iee neeaae ianaeaiiy /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e

Aio?iiieia?/i? aeai?. A?eueo?noue c aea/aieo /a?ai?a iaeaaeeoue aei
aocueeieeoeueiai aeie?oie?aiiiai oeio, aeecueeiai aei na??e oio?iai?
eoeueoo?e Na?aaeiuei? ?a?iie. Aeaye? a?ae??ciythoueny aaeeeeie
?ici??aie, ui i?eoaiaiii aa?iainueeei a?oiai i?ai?/ii-?a?iiaenueeiai
oeio. Oe? oeie iaea?eueo a??ia?aeii iia’ycaoe c aa?iainueeith /anoeiith
/a?iyo?anueeiai ianaeaiiy, yea, c iaeyaeo ia a?oaieia?/i? oa ?noi?e/i?
aeai?, aeeth/aei i?ai?/ii- oa no?aeii-aa?iainuee? aeaiaioe. Ia aeayeeo
iiaeeueieeao I?aaeaiii? e Oeaio?aeueii? Oe?a?ie oa Iieaeiae (Oieinueea,
AEo?aaea, *a?iyo?a, Iaea?ooe) aeae?eaii na??? i?ciueine?onueeiai oeio,
ui ei?aeththoueny c iioiaaiiyie, i???ioiaaieie aieiaith ia cao?ae.
O?aieythoueny a?ao?e?aii? /a?aie na?iaonueeiai aeaeyaeo. Oei,
oa?aeoa?iee aeey ?a?iiai?aeieo aeai?a ?einueeiai /ano, aio?iiieiaaie
aein? ia aeae?eaii. Na?aaecaiiiii?nueeee oei, a?aeiiee ia iiaeeueieeao
Iieaeiae oa ?oioi??, a?aeia?aaea? ca’ycee c o?ae?enueeei aai a?aoeueeei
ianaeaiiyi. Neia’yinueeee aeaiaio a e?ai?ieia?/ieo na??yo /a?iyo?anueei?
eoeueoo?e ia aeae?eaii.

Aa?iaioe?. A a?eueoino? ?aa?ii?a /a?iyo?anueeiai a?aaeo i?enooi?
aeaiaioe aaeueaa?nueei? eoeueoo?e, caeeoaii? ieaiaiai aio?a. Oeae ia?iae
ia ii/aoeo iiai? a?e aeeth/aa aeo?aeoe?a ?c Neaiaeeiaa?? oa
i?aaeaiii-i?eaaeo?enuee? ieaiaia ieneanueei? eoeueoo?e. A iaaeao
/a?iyo?anueeiai a?aaeo aionuee? ieaiaia iiae?eyeeny ia aeaa
a?aeaaeoaeaiiy: ia no?ae a?ae Aei?no?a iaoeaee a?aeooiae, cao?aei?oa
?ici?uoaaeenue oa?a?iae. A aoiinueeee /an aei oeeo ieaiai
aeei?enoiaothoue naiiiacae: “ino?iaioe” oa “aacaaioe”. Ia a?oaieia?/iiio
iaoa??ae? ??cieoey i?ae ieie i?aeoe/ii iaa?ae/ooia. Ie?ai? aionuee?
oa?oioaaiiy ?nioaaee o O?ae?? (“iae?” aioe) oa a E?eio.

I?ney ia?anaeaiiy aio?a o I?e/i?iiii?’y ia ii/aoeo 3 no. iia?
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/i? oiiae, ii-ia?oa o?niee eiioaeo c
i?ia?ioe?eii-?einueeith oeea?e?caoe??th, ca ei?ioeee i?ii?aeie /ano
aeeaiei ci?ieee ?oith aeooiaio oa iaoa??aeueio eoeueoo?o. I?ioyaii
ianooiieo aeaio noie?oue ?noi??y aio?a ? ia?aaaaeii /anoeiith ?noi???
ianaeaiiy /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e. Ia /a?iyo?anueeeo iai’yoeao
aaeueaa?nueeee aeaiaio, /anoi o oi?i?, caaaeuei?e aeey aa?iainueeeo
eoeueoo? Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie, aeyaey?oueny o ??cieo a?oiao
a?oaieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo (?o ?icaeyiooi o a?aeiia?aeieo ?icae?eao).
Ine?eueee a /a?iyo?anuee?e eoeueoo?? iayai? noa?iaeeoiino? ??ciiai
eoeueoo?ii-aoi?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy, iaeaaeeoue aeae?eeoe oei iai’yoie,
yeee ie iia’yco?ii c aionueeei aoiinii. Oea “eeane/i?” /a?iyo?anuee?
noa?iaeeoiino?, ye? oiiaii iiaeia iacaaoe “oei Einai?a”. Aieiai? iciaee
oeio: ia iinaeaiiyo — iacaii? ea?eani? oa caaeeaeai? aeeoea; iiaeeueieee
a??eooaeuei?, oa?aeoa?i? ?iaoiaoe?? a i?inoeo yiao c i?ai?/iei
i???iooaaiiyi; na?aae eoeueoo?iiaecia/aeueii? e?iii? ea?ai?ee
ia?aaaaeathoue aaeueaa?nuee? oeie.

Ienaii? aeaea?aea na?ae/aoue, ui a i?ciuei?einueeee /an c aioaie
anooiaee o aca?iia?aeiineie ?io? aa?iainuee? ieaiaia. Aai?aee iaee c
aioaie caaaeueia iioiaeaeaiiy e ia ?aiiueiio aoai? nai?? ?noi???
i?aeoe/ii ia a?ae??ciyeenue a?ae ieo ca nai?th iaoa??aeueiith
eoeueoo?ith. C ieie, iiaeeeai, iia’ycaia i?ciy oaca aaeueaa?nueeiai
canaeaiiy Iacia??, I?aeeynny oa Aieei? [God?owski, 1985; Uoeei, 1994].
Aaiaeaee aaaaeathoueny iniiaiei aoi?/iei aeaiaioii ioaai?nueei?
eoeueoo?e, c yeith iia’ycothoue e?aiaoe?? c ca?i?th, a?aeii? ia ainueie
/a?iyo?anueeeo iiaeeueieeao, a oaeiae iioe?aiiy o?e?o/ieo aac. Aa?oee a
na?aaeei? 3 no. aoee aeoenioo? aeaiaie c THoeaiaenueeiai i?aino?iaa.
Ca’ycee /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e c oeei ?aeiiii i?inoaaeai? ca
aaia?ao??th iioe?aiiy “aeiaaeo aoaeeie?a” (iniaeeai o?eiaoieo) oa
aeayeeo ?a/ae. Noa?iaeeoiino? oaeoae?a, ao?aoiae?a, iaae?i?a oa ai?ai?a
iiee ui c aiaaiai?noth ia aeae?eai?.

??aioe?. Na?aae ianaeaiiy /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e a?aeii? aea? a?oie
i?aaenoaaiee?a ia?iae?a ??ainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy — na?iaoe oa i?ci?
ne?oe.

Na?iaonuee? ieaiaia ycea?a, ?ienieai?a oa ai?n?a iaa?yae /e c?iaeee
iii?oiee aianie aei i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e,
ine?eueee inoaii? ?oi? oa?oioaaiiy ia?anaeeeeny c Ieaeiueiai ia
Na?aaei?e Aeoiae ia i?ci?oa na?aaeeie 3 no. Ua c 2 no. oe?a?inueeee noai
caeiathoue aeaie — iin?? cae/ath iioiaaiue a eaoaeiiaao oa i?aeaiyo c
i?ai?/iei i???iooaaiiyi iiia?eeo. Oae? iiaeee ?acii neeaaeathoue a
a?eueoino? /a?iyo?anueeeo ?aa?ii?a aeecueei 1% iioiaaiue ? eeoa a
I?e/i?iiii?’? — 20%. Oe? oeeo?e aei aeayei? i??e a?aeaeaathoue ieoiio
aaao na?iaoi-aeainueeiai aeaiaioo na?aae /a?iyo?anueeiai ianaeaiiy.
Noaey/e c oei?a iioiaaiue, aeaie yaeyee a?eueo?noue ianaeaiiy ie?aieo
/a?iyo?anueeeo a?iiaae o Aoaeaeaoeueeiio noaio (iiaeeueieee A?eaiueea,
Oo?iai?aea) e neeaaeaee iii?oiee i?ioeaio iaoeaioe?a i?ae
O?e?aoeuenueeei eeiaiii oa Ieaei?i Aei?i?ii. Ooo ia iae?iiieyo i?enooi?
oaeiae ?iaoiaoe?? c cao?aeiei i???iooaaiiyi oa o?einiaeaiiy. Oea iiaeia
iiynieoe oei, ui aeaie cae/aeii in?aeaee ia aaea ?nioth/eo naeeuao.
Iaaooue, aiie /anoeiai caa??aaee o?aaeeoe?eiee ainiiaea?/ee ono??e
(a?aea?iia neioa?noai), aea a eoeueoo?iiio oa aeiiii?/iiio a?aeiioaiiyo
aoee o?nii iia’ycai? c /a?iyo?anueeeie caiea?iaaie. O No?aei?e Oe?a?i?
non?aeaie /a?iyo?anueeiai-aionueeiai ianaeaiiy aoee ei/ia?
aeaie-oaia?oe. Aei 375 ?. iaeaeaa ia?iaee caa??aathoue ie?i? a?aeiineie.
Aei oeueiai /ano iaeaaeaoue ie?ai? i?aeai? ia /a?iyo?anueeeo
iiaeeueieeao (Ai?iiey, Eiiiai?eoe?). A aeainueeeo eaoaeiiaao I?eacia’y
oa Iiaeiiiy ciaeaeaii /a?iyo?anuee? ?a/?. Ia iiaeeueieeao Oeioeiaea
(O?ain?eueaai?y) oa Iao?ianaea 2 (Ioioai?y) iaeaea an? iioiaaiiy iathoue
i?aaeaiia i???iooaaiiy, a ?iaoiaoe?yo ciaeaeaii ca?ith. ?o iiaeia
iia’ycaoe c na?iaoaie-yceaaie c Oai?nueei? Ioooe.

I?ci? ne?oe I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y, ia a?aei?io a?ae aieiaie/eo
na?iaonueeeo ieaiai, ia i?eaa?oaee oaaae aeaai?o aaoi??a. Aeaye? iiiaioe
a ?noi??? oeueiai ianaeaiiy ia yni?, iniaeeai ia??iae i?ney ?ica?iio
aeaiaie ai?iaeeu Ieaeiueiai Aei?i?a a na?aaeei? 2 no. Iaaooue, /anoeia
eiai aeeeany a n?euenueea ioi/aiiy Ieuea?? oa O??e e i?ci?oa iioe?eeanue
o Aoaeaeaoeueeee noai, a ?ioa /anoeia ?icnaeeeany o Ne?onueeiio oea?noa?
a E?eio. Aei eiai neeaaeo aeeth/aeenue i?aaenoaaieee na?iao?a oa
aee?i?a. I?ciueine?onueeee aoiin I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y, ye aaaaoi
?ioeo iai?aaa?aa?nueeeo ni?eueiinoae a?aei-?einueeiai na?oo, iaa
ae?i?ciaaio eoeueoo?o oa, aeoaea a??ia?aeii, ei?enooaaany a?aoeueeith
iiaith. Aea e o 4 no. a?i caa??aaa aio?iiieia?/iee oei ei/iaee?a
I?e/i?iiii?nueeiai noaio eeane/iiai ia??iaeo.

I?ney iioe?aiiy o I?e/i?iiii?’? /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e (aeecueei
?oaaaeo 3-4 no.) /anoeia i?ci?o ne?o?a ia?anaey?oueny o ?aa?iie,
canaeai? ia?aaaaeii aioaie: a Oeaio?aeueio Oe?a?io e a iaio?e e?eueeino?
o No?aeio Oe?a?io oa Iieaeiao. Ia aeeeth/aii, ui i?aaenoaaieee oeueiai
ia?iaeo a noni?euenoa? neeaaeaee oi?a?aaeueii-?ai?nie/ee i?ioa?ie.
Aecia/aeueieie ?enaie ?o iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo ? cao?aeia i???iooaaiiy
iiia?eeo (ui a?aeaeaaei o?aaeeoe?ei? aeey ne?o?a ?ae?a?ei? oyaeaiiy) oa
yie c ia?ae?eooyi (?c caie?/eaie). Ia I?aaei? i?ci? ne?oe ?acii c
a?oiaie aeai, ui ?icnaeeeeny na?aae ieo, caeeoeee iai’yoee
i?e/i?iiii?nueeiai oeio, aeey yeeo oa?aeoa?ia eai’yia aeiiiaoae?aieoeoai
c iaaiei oeiii aoae?aaeue, a iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae? — ?iaoiaoe?? a yiao
neeaaeieo oi?i, i?eoaiaiieo iaii aoiinai (c caie?/eaie, c i?aeaiyie oa
eaoaeiia), a e?ii?e ea?ai?oe? — “i?ciueine?onuee?” ai?ueee [Iaaiiaaeia,
1987].

Neia’yie. Neia’yinueeee (aai i?ioineia’yinueeee) aoiin o neeaae?
/a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e iiaeia aiaaiaii iia’ycoaaoe c aeaiia a?oiaie
iai’yoie. Ia caoiae? Oe?a?ie oea iinaeaiiy oei?a *a?aiei oa Oa?aioe?, o
no?aeieo iaeanoyo — iai’yoee c aeaiaioaie ee?anueei? eoeueoo?e.

Aaiaoe/iee ca’ycie cao?aeii? a?oie iinaeaiue c ?aiiueineia’yinueeith
i?acueeith eoeueoo?ith ia?aeiieeai aeiaaaeaiee [Aa?ai, 1965; 1981;
1983]. Aei iai’yoie oeio *a?aiei ie a?aeiineii ianea iinaeaiue aa?o?a’?a
Aei?no?a oa Cao?aeiiai Aoao (*a?aiei, Aiao?a, ??ii?a, ?aeiaooe,
Aeai’yi?a, *eaeee?a, Ianeoo?a, Aa?oi?e ?aai?a, Aa?acaoeue); aei oeio
Oa?aioe? — /anoeio iinaeaiue Na?aaeiueiai Aei?no?a (Oa?aioe?, Aaeioa,
Nie?e, Aa?iao?aea). Oe? iai’yoee iathoue caaaeuei? ?ene, ui
a?ae??ciythoue ?o a?ae “eeane/ieo” /a?iyo?anueeeo noa?iaeeoiinoae oeio
Einai?a e iiaeooue aaaaeaoeny aoiia?ao?/ieie iniaeeainoyie ianaeaiiy
aeaiiai ?aa?iio. AEeoea ia iinaeaiiyo oeio *a?aiei iaeaea aeeeth/ii
caaeeaeai?, i?e/iio o?aieythoueny aeeaie? caieyiee. Eioeiaaie
i?acaieyiie ii a?eueoino? /ioe?eeooii? oi?ie. *anoi o?aieythoueny
i?aeaaeuei? yie oa aenooie-i?eeaaee; e??i iacaiieo aiaieu, aoaathoue
i?aeeiaiiiae?ai? ia/? c aeeiyieo aaeuee?a; a *a?aiei? a?aee?eoi aea?
ia/?-eai’yiee. AEeoea iinaeaiue oeio Oa?aioe? a?eueo iaeii??aei? e
i?aaenoaaeai? a iniiaiiio i?aeeaaae?aoieie i?acaieyieaie c
i?//th-eai’yieith. E??i oiai, aeey aaaaoueio iinaeaiue iacaaieo oei?a
oa?aeoa?ia aaeeea e?euee?noue ainiiaea?/eo yi. Iioiaaeueiee ia?yae
ianaeaiiy iai’yoie oeio *a?aiei-Oa?aioe? ia anoaiiaeaiee. Iaaooue,
iioiaaiiy aeaii? a?oie neia’yi ia caeeoaee iii?oieo ne?ae?a (iai?eeeaae,
niaeaiiy aac aeei?enoaiiy ea?ai?ee). Oey iniaeea?noue oa?aeoa?ia e aeey
neia’yinueeeo eoeueoo? ?aiiueiai na?aaeiueia?//y. Ea?ai?/iee eiiieaen
iai’yoie oeio *a?aiei-Oa?aioe? i?noeoue aaaaoi e?iiiai iinoaeo — 34-60%.
Na?aae iueiai a?eueo?noue oei?a ai?uee?a ia? a?aeiia?aeieee o i?acuee?e
eoeueoo??. Ie?ai? oeie iinoaeo — ienee ia i?aeoe?, “aeae?enueea /aoa”,
oaeiae oei i?yneeoeue eii?/ii? oi?ie — iiaeia iiynieoe i?noeaaei
noano?aoii eeieoeueei? eoeueoo?e. Nai???aei?noth aii/a?iiai eiiieaeno ?
iaoa?aeoa?i?noue o?e?o/ieo aac oa ?ioiai aaaaoi i?ee?aoaiiai noieiaiai
iinoaeo.

Aeayea ??cieoey a eoeueoo?iiio iaee//? iinaeaiue oei?a *a?aiei oa
Oa?aioe? caiaeeoueny a iniiaiiio aei eiino?oeoe?? caaeeaeaieo aeeoae, ui
iiaeia iiynieoe ?o ??cieie o?iiieia?/ieie iiceoe?yie. Ia caaa?oaeueieo
oacao ?icaeoeo /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e aeey iinaeaiue ?aa?iio noathoue
oa?aeoa?ieie i?acaieyiee eaaae?aoii? oi?ie, c’yaeythoueny ia/?-eai’yiee
oa aeeiyi? ia/?, i?aeaeuo?oueny i?ioeaio e?iii? ea?ai?ee oa aeieeathoue
iia? ?? oeie [Aa?ai, 1981]. Iaaooue, a oeae /an /anoeia neia’yinueeiai
ianaeaiiy i?inoaa?oueny c Aa?oiueiai ia Na?aaei?e Aei?noa?.

Iai’yoee oeio *a?aiei-Oa?aioe? ? aaiaoe/iei i?iaeiaaeaiiyi coa?eoeueei?
(aieeii-iiae?euenueei?) eoeueoo?ii? a?oie Cao?aeii? Aieei?, Aa?oiueiai
oa Na?aaeiueiai Iiaei?no?ia’y [Eicae, 1992]. ?o eoeueoo?iith iniiaith
aoee ioaai?nueei-ca?oaeiaoeuee? noa?iaeeoiino?, ia Aei?no?? a i?ioean
?ioaa?aoe?? aeeth/eeeny oaeiae o?ae?enuee? ieaiaia eeieoeueei?
eoeueoo?e. A??ia?aeii, oea ianaeaiiy a?aeiia?aea? aaiaaeai Ie?i?y oa
Oaoeeoa, a oaeiae niaeai Ei?aeaia, c yeeie ia ii/aoeo 3 no. noeeioeeny
aioe. I?ae oeneii inoaii?o ianaeaiiy coa?eoeueei? a?oie eiioeaio?o?oueny
ia Aa?oiueiio Aei?no??. I?ioyaii 3 no. eiai eoeueoo?a i?ae
/a?iyo?anueeei aieeaii ni?eeia? iia? ?ene (aii/a?ia ea?ai?ea oa ?io?
i?aaeiaoe ?ai?nie/iai ae?iaieoeoaa). Oaeei /eiii aeieeathoue iai’yoee
oeio *a?aiei-Oa?aioe?, ui ia?a?inoathoue caiaeii o i?acueeo eoeueoo?o.
C?icoi?ei, a oiae? oeeo a?eiaeo ia?aoai?aiue aeaui ci?iththoueny e o?
a?ai? eoeueoo?e, ye? iaio i?aeaeai? ciai?oi?i aieeaai — e?iia ea?ai?ea,
oei aeeoea. Iioiaaeueiee ia?yae caa??aaa nai? iniaeeaino?, eeoath/enue
iaaeiaeiei aeey a?oaieia??. Iai ia a?aeii? iiaeeueieee coa?eoeueei?
a?oie, iai’yoie oeio *a?aiei-Oa?aioe?, a oaeiae, a cia/i?e i???,
i?acueei? eoeueoo?e.

Ia noiae? Oe?a?ie oa a non?aei?o iaeanoyo ?in?? neia’yinueea ianaeaiiy
i?ciuei?einueeiai /ano i?aaenoaaeaii noa?iaeeoiinoyie ee?anueei?
eoeueoo?e. ?? aeaiaioe (e?iio ea?ai?eo oa oei aeeoae) aeyaeaii ia
aeayeeo /a?iyo?anueeeo iai’yoeao. Oaeo ea?ai?eo i?noyoue ie?ai? ia’?eoe
iinaeaiue AEo?aaea, Oeiie?a oa Ai?iiey; iaaaeeeo ?? e?euee?noue
ciaeaeaii ua ia e?eueeio iai’yoeao Na?aaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y, a oaeiae a
Eaian?aoe? ia Aieei?.

Iai’yoee oeio *a?aiei-Oa?aioe? oa ee?anueei? eoeueoo?e ?icae?eai?
i?inoi?iai, ?o iaoa??aee iathoue iiae?ai?noue oa ?ica?aeiino?.
Caneoaiao? ia oaaao i?eiouaiiy i?i iiyao aeayeeo caaaeueieo iciae a
?acoeueoao? ia?anaeaiiy o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 3 no. ia e?aiaa?aaeaey
Aei?i?a a?oie ianaeaiiy c Iiaei?no?ia’y [Iae?aniaa, 1990]. A?eueo
aaaeeeaith ? iiae?ai?noue aecia/aeueieo ?en iaio eoeueoo?ieo a?oi, ui
ei??ieoueny o aeecuee?e aoi?/i?e nii??aeiaiino? ia?iae?a, ye? noiyoue ca
ieie [Eicae, Oa?ieeianueeee, 1986]. Aei oaeeo caaaeueieo ?en (e??i
iaoiiaeaieo /a?iyo?anueeei aieeaii) ne?ae a?aeianoe: iayai?noue
eaaae?aoieo i?acaieyiie; iniaeeaee aeae iioiaaeueieo cae/a?a; ia?aaaaa
na?aae e?iiiai iinoaeo ie?oaeiaieeo ai?uee?a. ??cieoey caiaeeoueny a
iniiaiiio aei oeiieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae ea?ai?ee.

O?ae?eoe?. I?aaeaiiee Cao?ae /a?iyo?anueeiai a?aaeo caeiaa oa?eoi???,
aea ?ai?oa ?ici?uoaaeenue eoeueoo?e aaoi-aeae?enueeiai (o?ae?enueeiai)
eiea. Aeayea /anoeia ?o iin??a, ye aeacaii aeua, oa?eoea aei ianaeaiiy
/a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e a neeaae? eeieoeueeiai noano?aoo iai’yoie oeio
*a?aiei.

Ia ii/aoeo i?ciuei?einueeiai /ano iaea?eueoeie i?ai?/iio?ae?enueeeie
ia?iaeaie eeoaeenue aeaee oa ea?ie. Ia?o?, neeueii ?iiai?ciaai?,
/anoeiai aeeee ia oa?eoi??? i?ia?ioe?? Aeae?y, /anoeiai — a oiiaii
a?euei?e Ioioai?? (iai’yoee oeio I?e?oa?ue-E?e?y). Ea?ie caeiaee caie?
i?ae no?aeiei noeeii Ea?iao oa I?ooii. Iae?iiie? caeeoaii? ieie
eoeueoo?e Ii?iaoo?-Aa?oeoeueie caiaiaaeathoue i?ioyaii ae?oai? iieiaeie
3 no.; oiae? ae ooo c’yaeythoueny /a?iyo?anuee? iai’yoee. A /ane
Ne?onueeeo ai?i ea?ie aenooiaee nithcieeaie aio?a, ye?, oei ia iaio,
aeoeneaee ieai’y c eiai oa?eoi???. ?einuee? aeaea?aea na?ae/aoue i?i
ia?anaeaiiy aaeeeeo a?oi ea?i?a ia caie? ?iia??? aeecueei ?oaaaeo 3-4
no.

sseanue iaaaeeea /anoeia ea?ii-aeae?enueeiai ianaeaiiy oa?eoea a
/a?iyo?anueeo eoeueoo?o (eoeueoo?a Neioaia aea Io?ao). Ia iaoa??aeao
iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo ?oi? noa?iaeeoiino? aiaaiaii i?ine?aeeoaaoe ia
aaea?oueny. A?eueo iieaciaeie ? aeineoue ??aee?ni? ciao?aeee oa?aeoa?ii?
e?iii? ea?ai?ee a iioiaaiiyo ??cieo oei?a (aeeth/ath/e ?iaoiaoe??) oa ia
iinaeaiiyo [Diaconu, 1976]. A Aei?no?i-I?oonueeiio i?ae??//? iaae?ei?
ciao?aeee ea?ii-aeae?enueei? ea?ai?ee o?aieythoueny ua ??aeoa. Oaeei
/eiii, ?ieue o?ae?enueeiai eiiiiiaioo a /a?iyo?anueeeo ?aa?iiao
Iieaeiaa, Ioioai?y oa O?ain?eueaai?y ia aoea cia/iith. Eiai a?oaieia?/i?
iciaee ia aeathoue oaa?aei? iniiae aeey aeae?eaiiy iniaeeai?
oa?eoi??aeueii-aoiia?ao?/ii? a?oie iai’yoie.

A?aei-?eieyie. I?ae oeei iiiyooyi cae/aeii e?e?oueny aoi?/ii
iaiaeii??aeia ianaeaiiy ?einueeeo i?ia?ioe?e. Na?aae “/a?iyo?aoe?a”
iieieeeny iaoeaioe? caoiieaieo i?ai?/ii-i?e/i?iiii?nueeeo i?no, ?aooee
ianaeaiiy aaaeoeiaaii? aeecueei 271 ?. Aeae??, aaeeea e?euee?noue
iieiiaieo ?c no?aeieo i?ia?ioe?e, ui aoee caa?ai? o ?aanoai a /ane
Ne?onueeeo a?ei, a oaeiae ia/enaeuei? ni?a?ia?oieee
oi?a?aaeueii-?ai?nie/eo oaeoi??e. I?enooi?noue i?aaenoaaiee?a aioe/ii?
oeea?e?caoe?? ia /a?iyo?anueeeo iai’yoeao iiaeooue aeaeaaaoe c?acee
a?aoeueei? oa eaoeinueei? ienaiiino? (Eaian?aea, Aoaeaooe, Niaa?ue,
Eo?eaiue, Eai’yiea-Ai/ae?ae, Ieaenaiae??aea), aei aeayei? i??e —
ciao?aeee ?einueeeo ie?eieo eaii aai ?oi?o iane?aeoaaiue, a oaeiae
iniaeeaino? iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo (ieeoia? iiaeee — Oe?ao-Io?ao,
Eai’yiea-Ai/ae?ae). Ethaee a?aei-?einueei? eoeueoo?e neeaaeaee iacia/io
/anoeio /a?iyo?anueeiai ianaeaiiy, aoee ?icn?yi? iii?ae aa?aa?aie, aea
?oiy oeea?e?caoi?nueea ?ieue aoea aeoaea iii?oiith.

I?i i?enooi?noue iii?oieo a?oi i?aaenoaaiee?a aaeonueeeo oa, oei
a?eueoa, o?iinueeeo ia?iae?a na?aae /a?iyo?anueeeo ieaiai i?yieo
na?ae/aiue iaia?. A?iicia? ?a/? aaeonueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy iiiaeeiie?.
Ciao?aeee /a?iyo?anueeeo ?a/ae ia caieyo oeeo ieaiai na?ae/aoue i?i
oi?a?aaeuei? a?aeiineie.

?icae?e 8. Ia?en ?noi??? ianaeaiiy /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e

Iaia?aaeiaei? aeieeiaiiy /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e o I?aaeaiii-No?aei?e
?a?ii? neeaaea?oueny aeineoue ianoaa?eueia eoeueoo?ii-iie?oe/ia
noaiiaeua. A ioi/aii? i?e/i?iiii?nueeeo i?no iaoeaei aoi?/ii
iaiaeii??aeia ae?i?ciaaia ianaeaiiy. Ei/iaeee aoee ia/eneaii?. A
e?ninoaio Oeaio?aeueii? oa No?aeii? Oe?a?ie iiaeaeoaee ?ici?uoaaeenue
iinoca?oaeiaoeuee? iinaeaiiy, cao?aei?oa, ia Aieei? oa Aa?oiueiio
Aei?no??, naeeua coa?eoeueei? eoeueoo?ii? a?oie. Oaiaeaioe?y aei
oi?o?eaoe?? iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e oeueiai ianaeaiiy aiai?eoue i?i
i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ?aeeiiai aoiino — iaeaooi?o neia’yi [Eicae,
Oa?ieeianueeee, 1986]. A aanaei? Ieaeiueiai Aeoiath iaoeaee o?ae?enuee?
ia?iaee — ea?ie oa aeaee. Aeecueei ?oaaaeo 2-3 no. i?noeaaa ianaeaiiy
i?ai?/iiai caoiaeo Oe?a?ie aoei a?aeoeniooa aaeueaa?nueeeie ieaiaiaie,
ui iiaeia ni?anoaaeoe c ?iciia?aeaeth Ei?aeaia i?i iio?ae aio?a aei
Iiio?enueeiai ii?y /a?ac iaeanoue Ieoi oa ia?aiiao iaae ia?iaeii niae?a.
?aii? aaeueaa?nuee? iai’yoee Aieei? oa aa?o?a’?a I?aaeaiiiai Aoao ua ia
iathoue iciae /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e.

Oi?ioaaiiy /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e a?aeaoaaeiny a ia??iae Ne?onueeeo
ai?i (238-270 ??.), aea i?ia?aeia ?ieue iaeaaeaea aionueeei ieaiaiai. A
iioiaeao 238, 248, 250-251 ??. aiie a nithc? c ?ioeie ieaiaiaie
a?aaoaaee i?ia?ioe?? Iac?th, O?ae?th, Aeae?th oa ua e iaea?aeoaaee
aaeee? a?ioia? noaneae??. A?enueeia? ae?? /a?aoaaeeny c ie?ieie
oaiaeaie, eiee caaiie aio?a ianee neoaeao a ?einuee?e a?i??. Iiaeaeueoee
ia?aa?a iiae?e iia’ycaiee c ii?nueeeie aeniaaeeoe?yie “ne?o?a”. I?ioyaii
256-268 ??. iaeaea o ui??/ieo iaa?aao c ii?o?a Ainii?o oa O??e, aioe,
/anii noi?nii c ai?aiaie oa aa?oeaie, nionoiooaaee Iaeo Ac?th oa
A?aoe?th; aoee iia?aaiaai? i?noa O?aiacoio, Aoan, I?eao, O?iy, Ao?ie,
Ei?eio, Nia?oa. Ianiaa eaiiai?y ia Aaeeaiao 269-270 ??. aoea ni?iaith
ia?anaeaiiy cia/ii? a?oie aa?aa??a ia aaaaoee I?aaeaiue, aea cae?i/eeany
iiaiith ii?aceith. Iaeiae ia?aiiaa ?eio aoea a?aeiiniith. ?iia??y
ao?aoeea I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeia I?e/i?iiii?’y (Ieuea?y e O??a) oa i?ia?ioe?th
Aeae?y. Aeaa iieie?iiy aa?aa??a a aeiaaio?eaaeeo iioiaeao oa ia
?einuee?e neoaea? ciaeiieeeny c aioe/iei niiniaii aeeooy. Aaeeeo
e?euee?noue iieiiaieo, niaoe?ae?no?a a ??cieo ae?iaieoeoaao, aoei
aeeth/aii aei aa?aa?nueeiai noni?euenoaa, aea ?oi? ciaiiy ni?eyee
iiaiaaaaeaiiyi a ?aianeao oa ainiiaea?noa?.

Ia /a?iyo?anueeeo iai’yoeao a?oaieia?/ieie na?aeioeoaaie Ne?onueeeo a?ei
aenooiathoue ??ciiiai?oi? ?a/? ?einueeiai iiaooo, caoiieai? ye caeiae/,
oa iiiaoe oeueiai ia??iaeo. A?aae eoeueoo?e a ia?o?e oac? ?? ?nioaaiiy
ioiieth? /anoeiai I?aaiaa?aaeio Oe?a?io oa Iieaeiao. A ?aa?ii? Iieaeiaa
aeieeathoue iiaeeueieee Ai?iaeieoey, ?iiaie?aoe?, Aeai/aie, Aoaeaooe,
Oainea-Eooa??y; oa?a?iae-aacaaioe canaeythoue oa?eoi??th nithcieo ea?i?a
ia i?aaiio aa?ac? I?ooa (Oiae??aiue, Eic?y-ssne, Ae?eaae-Aaey Ny/a),
ii/eiathoue i?iieeaoe a Ioioai?th (Oe?aoi?). Ia caieyo
a?aeooia?a-ino?iaio?a ?aii? /a?iyo?anuee? iai’yoee c’yaeythoueny a
Cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii? (?oaee/aiea, *a?iae?a-?onueeee, Oiee,
Iao?ee?aoe?) oa o I?aaeaiiiio Iiaoaeae? (Einai?a, E?eie/ee), caiaeii a
Iaaeii??aeae? (I?ea?eueia, Iiaiieaenaiae??aea). A Na?aaeiueiio
Iiaei?i?ia’? “/a?iyo?aoe?” c’yaeythoueny a?ey ?oaaae?a ee?anueei?
eoeueoo?e (Caaaae?aea, AEo?aaea). *a?iyo?anuee? aieeae iioe?ththoueny
aei neia’yinueeiai oa?oioaaiiy a aa?o?a’yo Aei?no?a (iai’yoee oeio
*a?aiei).

Noaa?e?caoe?y /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e (270-330 ??.). I?ney e?eueeio
aeanyoe??/ a?ei ii/aany aoai a?aeiinii ie?iiai aeeooy /a?iyo?anueeeo
ieaiai. Iacaaaeath/e ia eiioe?eoe c ie?aieie aiaeaeyie, ?eieyie
ia??iaee/ii caeo/aee aionueeeo ai?i?a ia neoaeao. Iaeiie/ai?
iaoa??aeuei? oe?iiino?, i?aoey eaae?o?eiaaieo ?aa?a, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
i?ia?aneaieo oaoiieia?e a ainiiaea?noa? ni?eyee aeiiii?/iiio
i?aeianaiith noni?euenoaa. C?inoaiiy e?eueeino? ianaeaiiy
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny caaa?aaiiyi iiaeo oa?eoi??e. Oa?a?iae-aacaaioe 303 ?.
inoaoi/ii aeoeneathoue ea?i?a c i?ae??//y I?ooo-N??aoo oa
i?iaeiaaeothoue inaithaaoe Ioioai?th. Iioe?ththoueny aieiae?iiy
ino?iaio?a-a?aeooia?a. Aiie ii/eiathoue eieii?caoe?th i?eii?nueeeo
caiaeue (Eaai?aa), aea a ?acoeueoao? eoeueoo?iiai neia?ico c i?ci?ie
ne?oaie oa na?iaoaie oi?iothoueny /a?iyo?anuee? iai’yoee
i?e/i?iiii?nueeiai oeio; a Aoaeaeaoeueeiio noaio aei na?aaeeie 4 no.
iaoeathoue ei/?aieee. Iineeth?oueny oene ia ieaiaia ee?anueei?
eoeueoo?e. Aeecueei ?oaaaeo 3-4 no. /a?iyo?anueea ianaeaiiy caeia? ?oi?
caie? o Ee?anueeiio Iiaei?i?ia’?, aeeth/ath/e nioao acaeiaae e?aiai
aa?aaa Aei?i?a. Aeieeathoue iai’yoee: Aeaaaoa oa Iaoo?a 1 (ia i?noeyo
ee?anueeeo iinaeaiue), Aaeeea Ni?oeiea, Niniiaa, Ia?ayneaa,
A?aae?aenuee, Eiiiai?eoe?.

“A?a Aa?iaia??oa” (330-375 ??.). Ia oeae ia??iae i?eiaaea? aeuee
aeiiii?/iee ?icea?o /a?iyo?anueeiai noni?euenoaa, iieacieeii /iai ?
a?eueoa, i?ae a ?io? /ane, e?euee?noue a?oaieia?/ieo eiiieaen?a oa
ianiaa iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ?einueeeo ?iii?o?a. Ianoa? o?eaaeee ie? c
?iia???th. O 332 ?. aoei oeeaaeaii aeiaia??, ca yeei aioe ye oaaea?aoe
ciaia’ycoaaeenue ca aeiaai?iaeo iaaeaaaoe o ?einueeo a?i?th ai?i?a; ?i
aeicaieyeiny aanoe a?eueio oi?a?aeth ia Aeoia?. Ciai?oiy oi?a?aey noa?
aaaeeeaei /eiieeii iie?oeee aionueeeo aiaeae?a.

Aecia/aiee ia??iae a ?noi??? no?aeieo aio?a — a?aeooia?a ?iiae? caooue
“a?ith Aa?iaia??oa” ca ?iaiai ?o ei?iey, aeaeaoiiai iie?oeea. Na?aae
i?aeei?aieo iei ia?iae?a Ei?aeai iaceaa? aa?oe?a oa aaiao?a, a oaeiae
i?ai?/i? ieaiaia aaeonueeiai oa o?iinueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Iiaia
i?aeei?aiiy aioaie ia?iae?a, ui aeeee ia aa?aaao Aaeoeee aai a aanaei?
Aieae oa Iee caea?oueny i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeaei. Nei??oa, i?e/eiith
aeaeaeeo a?enueeiaeo iioiae?a aoee oi?aia? ?ioa?ane aionueei? aa?o?aee,
a ?o iaoith aoei anoaiiaeaiiy eiio?ieth iaae aeiiii?/ii aaaeeeaeie
eiioi?eaoe?yie No?aeii? ?a?iie [Kazanski, 1992]. ?iciia?aeue i?i a?eio c
aaiaoaie aeioe?eueii ni?anoaaeoe c ianiaei iioe?aiiyi o ae?oa?e /aa?o? 4
no. /a?iyo?anueeeo iai’yoie o e?ninoaiia?e cii? No?aeii? Oe?a?ie, yea
aoiaeeea ?ai?oa a a?aae ee?anueei? eoeueoo?e. Ooo c’yaeythoueny
iiaeeueieee Eioaeoey, Oniaiea, Noie-Naae, ??aeiee E?ae oiui. Iaeii/anii
iia? iai’yoee aeieeathoue o I?e/i?iiii?’?: A?eaiueea, Oieinueea,
Oo?iai?aea, A?eoi??aea, Eai’yiea-Ai/ae?ae, Ai?iaeie, Aaa?ee?aea.
I?iaeiaaeo?oueny canaeaiiy oa?a?iaaie Ioioai?? (Niaioeia,
Eiaeaiaiaeaioea, Aeaenaiae? Iaeiaaneo), iiaeeeai, aiie i?iieeathoue o
O?ain?eueaai?th.

Na?aae cao?aeieo aio?a ii/eia? iioe?thaaoenue o?enoeyinoai. Oea
iia’ycaii c ae?yeuei?noth ?ieneiia Aoeueo?ee, yeee ia?aeeaa A?ae?th
aionueeith iiaith. O?enoeyie caciaee ia?ane?aeoaaiue c aieo i?noeaaeo
aiaeae?a ? 348 ?. ciaeoee i?eooeie ia ?einueeiio aa?ac? Aeoiath.
A?oaieia?/ieo ne?ae?a o?enoeyinueeiai eoeueoo ia /a?iyo?anueeeo
iai’yoeao i?aeoe/ii iaia?.

Aoi?aiaiiy aoii?a oa o?iae /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e. Ia?oei iiooiaoii
aei ia?ai?uaiiy aaee/acieo ian ianaeaiiy ?a?ac?? aoiinueei? aeiae aoee
i?e?iaei? oaeoi?e. A ?acoeueoao? ianoaiiy a?eueo oieiaeiiai ee?iaoe/iiai
ia??iaeo a e?ninoaio oa noaio aiaea i?iaeoeoeai?noue caiea?ianoaa e
iia??oeeanue aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y [Oeoe?i, 1996]. Aaaeei neacaoe,
iane?eueee aa?a?ia e?eca naia ii nia? iiaea ae ci?ieoe ciai?oi?e aeaeyae
/a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e, aea a?aeo?ae ?? iniiaieo iin??a c i?noeue
naiai i?iaeeaaiiy iia’ycaiee ia?o ca ana c aoi?aiaiiyi aoii?a aei
I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? ?a?iie o 375 ?.

Aoiie ia cono??ee c aieo ino?iaio?a na?eiciiai iii?o. Aa?iaia??o aia?
iaaaeiac? i?ney iiyae ai?iaa ? eiai “aea?aeaaa” ?iciaeany, uiiaeiaioa,
ia o?e /anoeie, i/ieai? nai?ie aiaeaeyie. Aeaio c ieo, ui i?aeei?eeeny
caaieiaieeai, iaceaa? Ei?aeai. Ianooiiee ei?iey A?i?oa??e /a?ac aeayeee
/an ni?iaoaaa iiaanoe naiino?eio iie?oeeo — a?aeiiaeoe caa?oi?noue iaae
neia’yiaie-aioaie. Aoiie ia iioa?i?ee oaei? naaaie? e iiaa?ioee aio?a
A?i?oa??y aei iiei?e ca aeiiiiiaith ?ioiai aionueeiai aiaeaey
Aac?ioiaea. No/aniee iiae?e Aii?ai Ia?oeaee?i caaaeo? oaeiae aiaeaey
A?o?i??a. I? iaeei c o?ueio aiaeae?a ia aoa i?yiei niaaeei?ioeai
Aa?iaia??oa, ?iaee/ai aoa eeoa A?i?oa??e. Iaaooue, ?io? aoee aiaeaeyie
?aa?iiaeueieo ieai?iieo a?oi.

A?oio A?o?i??a ? i?aenoaae eieae?coaaoe a ?aa?ii? No?aeia Oe?a?ia, ui
aeyaeany a i?e?iaeiiio oa a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iiio a?aeiioaii?
iaea?aceea?oith /anoeiith aionueei? oa?eoi??? [Iaaiiaaeia, 1997].
Iane?aeee aeiaaeueii? ci?ie ee?iaoo a oe?e iaea?eueo eiioeiaioaeuei?e
/anoei? /a?iyo?anueeiai a?aaeo iiaeii? aoee i?iyaeoeny a ??ce?e oi?i?
(iaa?iaea?). A 375 ?. ianaeaiiy ?aa?iio ia?oei i?eeiyei oaea? aoii?a; ye
o?eueee iineaaea a?enueeiaa i?oeue aio?a, iaa?ae aeai-oaia?o?a c
I?eacianueeiai noaio ia i?eieiyeenue. I?ney caaeaae? A?o?i??a oi?aae?iiy
i?eeiyee aiaeae? Aeaoae oa Nao?aen. C iiaeyaeo ia aacia?niaeoeai?noue
aeaeueoi? ai?ioueae, o 376 ?. aiie a?aeaiaeyoue nai?o ethaeae (aio?a oa
nithcieo aeai?a) ia Aei?noa? oa Ieaei?e Aeoiae. Iaoa i?eiouaiiy, ui
a?oia Aeaoay-Nao?aena iioiaeeoue c E?aiaa?aaeaey Aei?i?a, aaco?oueny ia
oaeeo i??eoaaiiyo: 1)I?ney 375 ?. /a?iyo?anueea ianaeaiiy a ?aa?ii?
No?aeia Oe?a?ia neeueii nei?ioeeiny; ooo a?aenooi? aai o?aieythoueny
cia/ii ??aeoa, i?ae a ?ioeo ?aa?iiao, ?a/?, ui iaae?eii ae?aaiinoothoue
nooi?iue D1 — neeyi? /ao? c nei?ie e?aieyie, eii?/i? eaeeoe, ieao?a/ao?
o?aoee i?ci?o aa??aio?a oiui. 2)Oa?aeoa?i? aeey E?aiaa?aaeaey Aei?i?a
oeie iinoaeo (aeaee oei?a 1 oa 6, aace “e?aiaa?aaeiiai” oeio)
c’yaeythoueny a Ioioai?? oa a Iieaeia? a eiiieaenao, aeaoiaaieo ia
?ai?oa nooiaiy D1. Aeae oeio 1, ciaeaeaii oaeiae a Oai?uei?, a iioiaaii?
aoiinueeiai /ano; oea ocaiaeaeo?oueny ?c ca?noeith i?i oa, ui aeecueei
380 ?. a?enueeiaa oa?oioaaiiy Aeaoay-Nao?aena i?eeiyei noai oaaea?ao?a o
Iaiiii??. ?ethno?aoe??th ci?ie aoii-iie?oe/ieo i??i?eoao?a o
No?aeii-Oe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii? ? iaei?ci?o? eiiieaene c /a?iyo?anueeeie
?a/aie: oea ei/?aieoeuee? iioiaaiiy a eaia?ieo iiaeeao i?ae eo?aaiaie c
Aeiooaee?aee oa c Eaioaie??aee. Nei?i a niono?e? caie? iiaa?oa?oueny
neia’yinueea ianaeaiiy: ia Ine? oa Noe? aeieeathoue iinoee?anuee?
iinaeaiiy (Nai/a, Eo?aai-Acae).

?ici?uaiiy oa?oioaaiue A?i?oa??y oa Aac?ioiaea iiaeeeai oyaeoe ca
a?eueo caaaeueieie i??eoaaiiyie. A?i?oa??e aoa ?iaee/ai Aa?iaia??oa,
i?ney iueiai ei?ie?anueeee oeooe iane?aeoaaee i?yi? iauaaeee inoaiiueiai
— nei Aoi?ioiae oa iioe Oi??nioiae. Eia?/ii i?eionoeoe, ui ?i i?aeeyaaee
caie?, ye? neeaaeaee yae?i Aa?iaia??oiai? aea?aeaae; yeui ?? oeaio?ii
aoa eaaaiaea?iee Aeaiia?noaae?? (ca “Naaith i?i Oa?auei?” ooo a?aeaoeany
o?ecia, eiia??ii, ca Aa?iaia??oii), oiae? a?oia A?i?oa??y ?ici?uoaaeanue
aeanue o Iaaeaei?i?yiuei?. Ia Aei?i?? ae, aaaaeathoue, aoa oaeoee ? a?i
nai. C oeueiai iiaeeeai i?eionoeoe, ui i?e/eiith aioi-aionueei? a?eie
aoei iiaa?iaiiy neia’yi ee?anueei? eoeueoo?e ia caie?, caeeoai? 376 ?.
a?oiith A?o?i??a; A?i?oa??e, ye niaaeei?iaoeue Aa?iaia??oa, aaaaeaa ?o
ca nai?. Aei oeueiai oa?oioaaiiy ne?ae a?aeianoe /a?iyo?anuee? iai’yoee
Oeaio?aeueii? Oe?a?ie aoiinueei? aeiae: AEo?aaea, Ee?a 1937 ?., Eai?a,
A?eueoaiea, Niniiaa, Ianeiai, Einai?a, Eo?ieee, Aeaieeiaa Aaeea.

A?oio ino?iaio?a Aac?ioiaea ne?ae ooeaoe a ?aa?ii?, oaeiae
i?aaenoaaeaiiio iaei?ci?oeie eiiieaenaie. Oea iiaeooue aooe iai’yoee
I?e/i?iiii?nueeiai oeio, aea aioe aeeee a o?niiio eiioaeo? c aeaiaie —
nithcieeaie aoii?a. Oeaio?ii oe??? a?oie iiaee aooe ai?iaeeua Ai?iaeie
aai Ieaenaiae??aea. Iaoa??aee aoiinueeiai /ano ia? a?eueo?noue iai’yoie
?aa?iio: Aaa?ee?aea, ?aiaeaaa, Eai’yiea-Ai/ae?ae, O?e?aoei-Aa?acaiea,
Eoaiaa, Oieinueea, Oo?iai?aea, A?eaiueea.

I?ieoiaoe noaiaie Oe?a?ie, aoiie oaeaeei i?ae?eoee aei caiaeue cao?aeieo
aio?a. Ia iath/e ciiae ia ii??, aiaeaeue Aoaia??o iia?a /anoeio ia?iaeo
a a??nueeo “iaeanoue Eaaeaeaiaeo”. Oea iia?aeiieaiiy Aii?aia
ocaiaeaeo?oueny c o?iiieia??th o?ain?eueaainueeeo iai’yoie oeio Neioaia
aea Io?ao, a?eueo?noue yeeo aeieea? iaa?yae /e ?ai?oa aoiinueeiai /ano.
?ioa /anoeia aionueeiai ianaeaiiy iaea?aeaea aeica?e ia?aeoe ia
?einueeee aa?aa Aeoiath. Iaoa??aeueieie ne?aeaie ia?anaeaiiy ?
/a?iyo?anuee? ?a/? oeueiai ia??iaeo ia ?einueeeo iai’yoeao Iaei? Ne?o??
oa O?ae??, cie?aia ia iae?iiie? Aa?ia (Iyo?a O?aeaoeae). I?ioa cia/ia
e?euee?noue ianaeaiiy eeoa?oueny ia noa?eo i?noeyo, i?i ui na?ae/aoue
eiiieaene aoiinueeiai /ano ia /a?iyo?anueeeo iai’yoeao. A ?aa?ii?
Iieaeiaa oea Eaci, Iaea?ooe, Aoaeaooe, Oo/a, Iaai?ia 2, Ae?eaae-Aaey
Ny/a, ?caia?a, Aa?/a, ?aaooue, ia i?aii/? ?aa?iio — Iaeay oa Ai?io?aoe?.
A Ioioai??: Oe?aoi?, Eiaeaiaiaeaioea, Aeaenaiae?o Iaeiaaneo, ?cai?oe,
Niaioeia, Iao?ianaea

*a?iyo?anueea eoeueoo?a i?eieiy? ?nioaaiiy a ia?o?e iieiaei? 5 no.
Iaaooue, inoaii? a?oie aio?a, iniiaieo iin??a oe??? eoeueoo?e, caeeoeee
caie? No?aeii? ?a?iie o 432 ?. ?acii c aoiiaie, eiee ?oi?e aiaeaeue ?oa
ii/aa a?eio ia Aeoia?, aai nei?i i?ney 433 ?., eiee Aoo?ea ia?ai?n
noaaeo c I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y o Iaiiii?th. Noaey/e ca aeaooaaiiyi
iai’yoie i?e/i?iiii?nueeiai oeio, ?acii c aioaie ?aeooue nithci? ?i
aeaie oa “i?ci? ne?oe”. *a?iyo?anuee? eiiieaene aoiinueeiai /ano
(nooi?iue D1) aeeth/athoue e?oii? aa??aioe ieao?a/aoeo o?aoe, i?yaeee c
eethaiiiae?aieie aai neeueii aenooiath/eie yce/eaie, neeyi? eaeeoe
eii?/ii? oi?ie, a oaeiae c nei?ie e?aieeiaie, a?aaai? oeio Oiian III,
aioi?e oei?a A, “Oa?aen”, Caano 100 oa aeaye? ?io? oeie ?a/ae. *anoeia c
ieo, iaeiae, c’yaey?oueny ua a iiia?aaei?e ia??iae (i?yaeee, a?aaai?,
iaaooue, aioi?e Caano 100, oiieino?ii? eii?/i? eaeeoe).

Ia iai’yoeao oeio *a?aiei-Oa?aioe? ia Aa?oiueiio oa Na?aaeiueiio
Aei?no?? aeae?eaiiy iaei?ci?oeo iaoa??ae?a oo?oaeith?oueny a?aenooi?noth
iiaeeueiee?a. O Aa?oiueiaei?no?ianueeiio ?aa?ii? aei aoiinueeiai /ano
iaeaaeaoue eiiieaene c *a?aieia, aeaye? ?a/? c ??ii?aa, iiaeeeai c
?aeiaoo. Ca niinoa?aaeaiiyie A.Ae. Aa?aia [1981], i?ioyaii 4 no. a
eoeueoo?iiio iaee//? iinaeaiue oeueiai ?aa?iio a?aeaoaathoueny aeaye?
ci?ie. C’yaeythoueny i?acaieyiee i?aeeaaae?aoieo ia?en?a, ii/eiathoue
aaeeaaoeny ia/?-eai’yiee (*a?aiei) aai aeeiyi? ia/? (Aeai’yi?a, ??ii?a).
C /anii ca?eueoo?oueny i?ioeaio e?iiiai iinoaeo, ae?iaeythoueny oi?ie,
aeecuee? ?aiiueina?aaeiueia?/iei ai?ueeai i?acueeiai oeio. A e?ioe?
?nioaaiiy /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e iniaeeaeo aoi?/ieo ci?i ia Aa?oiueiio
Aei?no?? ia niinoa??aa?oueny. A?eueo neeaaeio ea?oeio aa/eii ia
Na?aaeiueiio Aei?no??, aea ni?a?niothoue aeaa oeie /a?iyo?anueeeo
iai’yoie. Iinaeaiiy oeio Oa?aioe? (oaeiae Nie?e, Aaeioa, Aa?iao?aea)
?icaeaathoue o?aaeeoe?? iai’yoie oeio *a?aiei. ?o ioi/othoue “eeane/i?”
/a?iyo?anuee? iiaeeueieee oa iinaeaiiy (oei Einai?a), a oiio /ene? c
aaeueaa?nueeeie eiiieaenaie oa “aeiaaeie aoaeeieaie”. Aeaye? c ieo
aeiaeeaathoue aei aoiinueei? aeiae (nooi?iue D1), aea iacaaa?ii
cieeathoue, ui iiynith?oueny a?aeoiaeii aa?iaioe?a ia cao?ae, a
neia’yinuee? iinaeaiiy iinooiiai aoaeyoue /a?iyo?anuee? ?ene
(ia?aaeon?i, aii/a?io ea?ai?eo).

Niaaeueia /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e. I?ney a?aeoiaeo ia cao?ae iniiaii?
iane /a?iyo?anueeiai ianaeaiiy cieea? e naia oey eoeueoo?a. C ?? iin??a
ia nai?o i?noeyo caeeoa?oueny neia’yinueea ethaei?noue iai’yoie oeio
*a?aiei-Oa?aioe?. Ianaeaiiy Na?aaeiueiai Aei?no?a ca?eueoo?oueny
(iaaooue, ca ?aooiie i?eoieo c Aa?oiueiai Iiaei?no?ia’y) e iioe?th?oueny
ia i?aaeaiue, anei?ethth/e ieaiaia eoeueoo?e ea?iaonueeeo eo?aai?a
[Oeiiuoe, 1984]. I?acuee? eiiieaene iino/a?iyo?anueeiai ia??iaeo, oiaoi
na?aaeeie — ae?oai? iieiaeie 5 no., ua ai?uothoue ie?ai? ciao?aeee
aii/a?ii? ea?ai?ee (?aoe?a 2 oa 3, Caeaiee Aae, Eoea-Eaaao/einueea,
Onoy, Eiaeei, Ai?a/a). Iiae?ai? iinaeaiiy ? oaeiae o ?oioinuee?e
Iieaeia? (Aioioaiue, Oiae??aooue, ssne-I?eie?ia), aea ?o ca?aoiaothoue
aei oeio Eino?oa-Aioioaia. Oaeei /eiii, ieaiaia i?acueei? eoeueoo?e
oniaaeeoaaee eeoa iaaaeeeo /anoeio o?aaeeoe?e /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e,
a naia oo /anoeio, yea aoea i?eoaiaiia ianaeaiith iai’yoie oeio
*a?aiei-Oa?aioe?. Aei ei?enieo iaaeaaiue, ui caa?aaeeny o
?aiiueina?aaeiueia?/ieo neia’yi a?ae i?ciuei?einueeiai ia??iaeo, o?aaa
a?aeianoe aeei?enoaiiy cae?ciiai ia?aeueieea oa ?o/iiai ieeia. Ne?aee
?aii?o eiioaeo?a c aa?iaioeyie caa?aaeeny o neia’yinueeeo iiaao. Ca
iaaeaie /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e ?? ne?aee i?inoaaeothoueny a oeo
?aa?iiao ?a?iie, ye? aoee ?noi?e/ii iia’ycai? c i?ci?oei ?icnaeaiiyi
ino- oa aanoaio?a. Ia Na?aaei?e Aeoiae (ino?i)aioe i?eiinyoue aeaye?
/a?iyo?anuee? o?aaeeoe??, iii?oi? o aii/a?i?e ea?ai?oe? [Tejral, 1972].
Ia Aeoiae oa aeae? ia cao?ae, aei naii? Aaee??, c aioaie oa aeaiaie
i?iieeathoue e ?io? oeie ?a/ae /a?iyo?anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, cie?aia
a?aaai? oeio Oiian III. A /a?iyo?anueeee /an neeaaeathoueny aeaiaioe
aionueeiai ae?ii/iai oai?o 5-6 no., ui aeeth/aa aaeeeo i?yaeeo oa ia?o
o?aoe. Oae? ?a/? oa?aeoa?i? aeey iiaeeueiee?a iaeano? e?einueeeo aio?a
(I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiee E?ei), a oaeiae aeey iaeanoae eieae?caoe??
Inoaionueeiai ei?ie?anoaa a ?oae?? oa Aanoaionueeiai a ?niai??
[Bierbrauer, 1994].

A oe?eiio o?aaeeoe?? /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e o ?oiueiio iaoa??aeueiiio
ae?ac? neaai a?aeia?aceeeny a ?aiiueina?aaeiueia?/ieo eoeueoo?ao.
Aaaeeea?oee oie aeooiaiee aianie, ui iaaeaee eieeoi? iaoeaioe? Oe?a?ie
oa Ieaeiueiai Iiaeoiaa’y a caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeo eoeueoo?o, a eoeueoo?e
aa?iainueeeo oa ?ioeo (a oiio /ene? neia’yinueeeo) ia?iae?a. Ia ?oaaae?
aioe/iino? oa na?aaeiueia?//y, a ia??iae neeaaeaiiy aoi?/ii? ea?oe
no/anii? ?a?iie oeae aianie iia’ycaiee ?c noaiiaeaiiyi ia?oeo
“aa?aa?nueeeo” aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo?, oaiaeaeueieo th?eaee/ieo eiaeaen?a
oa iaoe?iiaeueieo nenoai ienaiiino?. ?noi??y ieaiai /a?iyo?anueei?
eoeueoo?e ua ?ac aeaiiino?o?, iane?eueee ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaia caiey
Oe?a?ie oa ?? ia?iae c ?a?iiaenueeith oeea?e?caoe??th, c anana?oi?i
?noi?e/iei i?ioeanii.

Aeniiaee

1. *a?iyo?anueea eoeueoo?a aeieeea ia iniia? noa?iaeeoiinoae
aaeueaa?nueei? eoeueoo?e i?e neeueiiio i?ia?ioe?eii-?einueeiio aieea?. A
?? iaaeao ca iciaeaie aeiiiaoaeoaaiiy, iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo oa
iniaeeainoyie ea?ai?/iiai eiiieaeno aeae?eaii o?e oeie iai’yoie: oei
Einai?a, oei *a?aiei-Oa?aioe?, i?e/i?iiii?nueeee oei. Ia iniia? aeaio
inoaii?o ie aeae?ey?ii aea? eieaeuei? eoeueoo?i? a?oie —
Aa?oiueiaei?no?ianueeo oa I?e/i?iiii?nueeo.

2. I?ia?aeio a?oio ianaeaiiy /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e neeaaeaee
aa?iaioe?-aioe. Ieie caeeoaii ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue iai’yoie, ia yeeo a
a?eueo?e /e iaio?e i??? i?inoaaeothoueny aeaiaioe aaeueaa?nueei?
eoeueoo?e e ye? oiiaii iiaeia iacaaoe “oei Einai?a”. ?acii c aioaie o
No?aeio ?a?iio i?eoiaeyoue iaaaeee? a?oie i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioeo
aa?iainueeeo ieaiai — aaiaeae?a, aa?oe?a, oaeoae?a; c ieie iia’ycai?
ciao?aeee aeayeeo ?a/ae, ui iathoue a?aeiia?aeiino? o ioaai?nuee?e
eoeueoo??, ia oa?eoi??? Aa?iai?? oa Aeai??. C aai?aeaie, iiaeeeai,
iia’ycai? neio?iii? aaeueaa?nuee? noa?iaeeoiino? Aieei?. A aa?iainuee?
a?iiaaee nii?aaee/ii aeeth/aeeny i?aaenoaaieee ?ioeo aoiin?a c
aeaiaioaie nai?o eoeueoo? (i?ci? ne?oe, na?iaoe, neia’yie, o?ae?eoe?).
Ia iinaeaiiyo oeueiai oeio a?aeii? iacaii? ea?eani? aeeoea oa
i?acaieyiee. A iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae? oa?aeoa?i? a??eooaeuei? iiaeeueieee
c ?iaoiaoe?yie a i?inoeo yiao c i?ai?/iei i???iooaaiiyi. E?iia ea?ai?ea
i?aaenoaaeaia a iniiaiiio aaeueaa?nueeeie oeiaie; aieea aaeueaa?nueei?
oa ?ioeo aa?iainueeeo eoeueoo? iii?oiee oaeiae o aeayeeo oi?iao
aii/a?iiai noieiaiai iinoaeo.

3. Iai’yoee ?ioeo aeaio oei?a neiioeaio?iaai? a iaaieo ?aa?iiao, ui
a?aeiia?aeathoue iaeanoyi eiiiaeoiiai iaoeaiiy iaaa?iainueeeo ia?iae?a.
A iaaeao /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e aiie noai?ththoue iniaeea?
eoeueoo?ii-aoi?/i? a?oie — Aa?oiueiaei?no?ianueeo (oei *a?aiei) oa
I?e/i?iiii?nueeo (i?e/i?iiii?nueeee oei).

Aa?oiueiaei?no?ianueea a?oia iai’yoie caeeoaia ?aii?ie
neia’yiaie-aaiaaeaie, niaaeei?ioeyie coa?eoeueei? eoeueoo?e oa oai?oeyie
i?acueei? eoeueoo?e ?aiiueiai na?aaeiueia?//y. ?o aeeoea i?aaenoaaeai?
??cieie oi?iaie aeeaieeo caieyiie oa i?acaieyiie, a oiio /ene?
eaaae?aoieie a ieai? c i?//th a eoo?. Iioiaaeueiee ia?yae eeoa?oueny
iaa?aeiiei. E?iia ea?ai?ea i?aaenoaaeaia a iniiaiiio ai?ueeaie, na?aae
yeeo ? aeecuee? aei iinoaeei “i?acueeiai” oeio. *anoeia e?iiiai iinoaeo
aeaco?, ui o oi?ioaaii? oe??? a?oie ianaeaiiy i?eeiya o/anoue oaeiae
o?ae?enueeee (eeieoeueeee) noano?ao. *a?iyo?anueeee aii/a?iee iinoae
neeaaea? cae/aeii ia a?eueoa 2/3 ea?ai?/iiai eiiieaeno. A?i
aeaioiaeyeany ia i?noe?, iiaeeeai, i?eeoeeie iaeno?aie. Aei
Aa?oiueiaei?no?ianueei? a?oie oeiieia?/ii aeecuee? iai’yoee oeio
Oa?aioe? ia Na?aaeiueiio Aei?no??, aea aiie /a?aothoueny c iai’yoeaie
oeio Einai?a.

I?e/i?iiii?nueea a?oia iai’yoie iaea ci?oaia ianaeaiiy. *anoeio eiai
neeaaeaee aa?iaioe?-aioe, aea eoeueoo?i? iniaeeaino? a?oie aecia/athoue
i?ci? ne?oe oa aeaie. I?noeaaee i?ciueine?onueeee aoiin noi?ioaaany ia
iniia? aee?i?ciaaiiai ianaeaiiy ai?iaeeu Ieaeiueiai Aei?i?a, iiaeeeai, e
E?eio, a yea aeeth/aeeny i?aaenoaaieee na?iao?a oa aee?i?a. Aeey oeueiai
ianaeaiiy oa?aeoa?ia eai’yia aoae?aieoeoai, a iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae? —
cao?aeia i???iooaaiiy iiia?eeo oa yie c ia?ae?eooyi (caie?/ea), a e?ii?e
ea?ai?oe? — “i?ciueine?onuee?” ai?ueee. *anoeia i?ci?o ne?o?a
ia?anaey?oueny a ?aa?iie, canaeai? ia oie /an ia?aaaaeii aioaie: a
Oeaio?aeueio Oe?a?io oa a iaioee e?eueeino? o No?aeio Oe?a?io oa
Iieaeiao. Ia ?ai?oa na?aaeeie 4 no. o I?e/i?iiii?’? in?aeathoue a?oie
aeai, aeey yeeo oeiia? “eaia?i?” iiaeee — iioiaaiiy a eaoaeiiaao e
i?aeaiyo. O?e /anoeie ianaeaiiy ia??aeei neeaaeaee ci?oai? a?iiaaee.

4. Aiane?aeie i?a?aoe?e aoiinueeiai ia??iaeo aa?iainueea oa
ne?oi-na?iaonueea ianaeaiiy caeeoa? /a?iyo?anueeee a?aae. Ae??oaeueiith
neeith a e?ninoaiia?e cii? noathoue neia’yinuee? ieaiaia — niaaeei?ioe?
noa?iaeeoiinoae oeio *a?aiei-Oa?aioe? oa ee?anueei? eoeueoo?e, ye? a
iiaeo ?noi?e/ieo oiiaao noai?ththoue i?acueeo oa iaiuee?anueeo
eoeueoo?e.

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? aeaeaii 90 ?ia?o, iniiai? c ieo oae?:

1. *a?iyoianeay eoeueoo?a Naaa?i-Caiaaeiiai I?e/a?iiii?uey. — Eeaa:
Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1987. — 111 n. (iiiia?ao?y)

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Iaaiiaaeia A.A. *a?iyo?anueea eoeueoo?a. I?iaeaia aoiino. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.04 — a?oaieia?y. ?inoeooo a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie.
Ee?a, 1999.

Aiae?c o?aaeeoe?e /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e aeaco?, ui aiia aeieea? ia
iniia? aaeueaa?nueei? eoeueoo?e i?e neeueiiio i?ia?ioe?eii-?einueeiio
aieea?. Aeii?ioth/ei aoiinii o neeaae? ?? ianaeaiiy aoee aioe (iai’yoee
oeio Einai?a). ?aa?ii Aa?oiueiai Aei?no?a caeiaea cao?aeia a?oia neia’yi
(oei *a?aiei), I?eii?nueeee noai — i?ci? ne?oe oa aeaie
(i?e/i?iiii?nueeee oei); oe? iai’yoee ooai?ththoue eieaeuei? eoeueoo?i?
a?oie — Aa?oiueiaei?no?ianueeo oa I?e/i?iiii?-nueeo. Oeio *a?aiei
nii??aeiai? iai’yoee oeio Oa?aioe? ia Na?aaeiueiio Aei?no??. Ia aeayeeo
ioieoao No?aeii? Oe?a?ie i?enooi? aeaiaioe non?aeiuei? ee?anueei?
eoeueoo?e (no?aeia a?oia neia’yi), a Iieaeia? oa Ioioai?? o?aieythoueny
aeaiaioe eoeueoo?e o?ae?eoe?a-ea?i?a, aea aiie ia noai?ththoue
naiino?ei? oeie iai’yoie. Iaae? eoeueoo?e ci?ithaaeenue. Aiane?aeie
ia?anaeaiue aoiinueei? aeiae aa?iainueea oa ne?oi-na?iaonueea ianaeaiiy
caeeoa? /a?iyo?anueeee a?aae. Ae??oaeueiith neeith a e?ninoaiia?e cii?
noathoue neia’yinuee? ieaiaia — iin?? noa?iaeeoiinoae oeio
*a?aiei-Oa?aioe? oa ee?anueei? eoeueoo?e, ye? noai?ththoue i?acueeo oa
iaiuee?anueeo eoeueoo?e.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: /a?iyo?anueea eoeueoo?a, aaeueaa?nueea eoeueoo?a,
neia’yie, aioe, na?iaoe, aeaie, i?ci? ne?oe.

Iaaiiaaeia A.A. *a?iyoianeay eoeueoo?a. I?iaeaia yoiina.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.04 — a?oaieiaey. Einoeooo a?oaieiaee IAI Oe?aeiu.
Eeaa, 1999.

Aiaeec o?aaeeoeee /a?iyoianeie eoeueoo?u iieacuaaao, /oi iia aicieeaao
ia iniiaa aaeueaa?neie eoeueoo?u i?e neeueiii i?iaeioeeaeueii-?eineii
aeeyiee. Aeiieie?othuei yoiinii a ninoaaa aa ianaeaiey auee aiou
(iaiyoieee oeia Einaiia). ?aaeii Aa?oiaai Aeiano?a caieiaea caiaaeiay
a?oiia neaayi (oei *a?aiei), I?eii?neoth noaiue — iicaeiea neeou e aeaiu
(i?e/a?iiii?neee oei). Yoe iaiyoieee ia?acotho eieaeueiua eoeueoo?iua
a?oiiu — Aa?oiaaeiano?ianeoth e I?e/a?iiii?neoth. Oeio *a?aiei
?iaenoaaiiu iaiyoieee oeia Oa?aioeu ia N?aaeiai Aeiano?a. Ia iaeioi?uo
ioieoao Ainoi/iie Oe?aeiu anoue yeaiaiou ninaaeiae eeaaneie eoeueoo?u
(ainoi/iay a?oiia neaayi), a Iieaeiaa e Ioioaiee ano?a/athony yeaiaiou
eoeueoo?u o?aeeeoeaa-ea?iia, ii iie ia ia?acotho naiinoiyoaeueiua oeiu
iaiyoieeia. A?aieoeu eoeueoo?u iaiyeenue. Aneaaenoaea ia?anaeaiee
aoiineiai ia?eiaea aa?iaineia e neeoi-na?iaoneia ianaeaiey iieeaeaao
/a?iyoianeee a?aae. ?aoathuae neeie a eaninoaiiie ciia noaiiayony
neaayineea ieaiaia — iineoaee ae?aaiinoae oeia *a?aiei-Oa?aioeu e
eeaaneie eoeueoo?u, eioi?ua nicaeatho i?aaeneoth e iaiueeianeoth
eoeueoo?u.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: /a?iyoianeay eoeueoo?a, aaeueaa?neay eoeueoo?a,
neaayia, aiou, na?iaou, aeaiu, iicaeiea neeou.

Magomedov B.V. Chernyakhov Culture. The problem of ethnos. — Manuscript.

Thesis for the Doctor degree in speciality 07.00.04 — archaeology. The
Institute of Archaeology of the National Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
Kyiv, 1999.

Most of contemporary scholars support the polyethnic conception of the
Chernyakhov-Sintana Culture, although they put different meanings into
it. They traditionally name the Slaves, the Germanic, the Sarmatians,
the Gets-Dacs among the culture bearers.

This work provides a complete summary of places and artefacts of the
Chernyakhov Culture discovered over the entire territory of its
existence in Ukraine, Moldova, Romania and Russia. The analysis of
materials showed that the type of building, the burial customs, the type
of hand-made ceramic, the ornaments of outfit, the decorations and the
domestic items were strongly influenced by the traditions of the
Wielbark and other Germanic cultures in Central Europe. The style of the
wheel ceramic was a mixture of the provincial Roman handicraft school
and the tradition of the Wielbark hand-made pottery. The Goths — the
main bearers of the Wielbark Culture — were the dominant ethnos in the
Chernyakhov population. They left the “classical” Chernyakhov
antiquities that can be conditionally named the “Kosanov type”
monuments. This type of settlements is known by its surface frame
dwellings (including those close to the North-Germanic type of
“Stallhaus”) and deepened dwellings. The necropolis were the biritual
with different types of cremation. The inhumations in simple holes with
North orientation were typical. Among hand-made ceramics that
traditionally defines the culture the Wielbark type prevails.

There are elements of non-Germanic cultures in the Chernyakhov Culture,
but they appear to be very rare and scattered in different regions. In
the Upper Dnestr region there was a Western group of Slaves represented
by the sites of the Cherepin type. In the Middle Dnestr there were close
to them sites of the Theremtsy type that alternated with the sites of
the Kosanov type. The buildings in the settlements of the
Cherepin-Theremtsy type were almost always deepened. They often had a
rectangular plan and hole-cellars. The houses in settlements of the
Theremtsy type are more uniform in appearance; they are mostly
presented by square dug-out dwellings with stone stoves. The burial
customs of the Cherepin-Theremtsy population are unknown. Obviously, the
burials of this particular group of Slaves did not leave any tracks. The
same is true for the Slav cultures back from the Middle Ages. The
complex of ceramics of the Cherepin-Theremtsy type includes abundant
hand-made pottery comprising from 34% to 60% of all findings. Most parts
of the hand-made pots have their analogues in the Prague Culture. The
presence of the Thracian type in the pottery might be explained by the
use of local substrate for the Lipica Culture. Characteristically, the
wheel ceramic vases with three handles and other luxuriously decorated
dishes are almost absent. In the steppe near the Black Sea coast there
were the Late Scythians and the Sarmatian-Alans; sometimes they lived in
communities mixed with the Germanics. This population left the sites of
North Pontic type. In the settlements the stone houses with the elements
of Greek tradition are characteristic, sometimes there are tracks of
yurtas (nomadic round dwellings). In the ground cemeteries the majority
of inhumations are in the complex-shaped graves. The Late Scythians had
their burials West orientated, in the pits with ledges and ceilings,
whereas the Alans had their burials North orientated, in the pits with
niches or in catacombs. The hand-made ceramic are represented by the
“late-Scythian” pots. It is unlikely that the Sarmatian tribes of
Jazyges, Roxolanes and Aorses made a considerable contribution to the
Chernyakhov Culture, because the latter groups moved from the Lower
Danube to the Middle Danube not later than in the 3rd century. The sites
of the Cherepin and North Pontic types formed the local groups of
culture: the Upper-Dnestr group and the North-Pontic group. In some
Chernyakhov sites in the Eastern Ukraine there are elements of the
neighbouring Kiev Culture (Eastern group of Slavs) and in Moldova and
Muntenia there are elements of the Thracian-Carps culture, although they
do not form separate types of site.

The anthropological data are generally in agreement with these
conclusions. Most of analysed skulls from the Chernyakhov necropolis
belonged to the narrow-face dolichocranial type that is close to a
series of Cord Culture in Central Europe. Some of them are larger in
size, which is typical for the North Germanic groups. This type most
probably belonged to the Germanic part of Chernyakhov population which
includes North- and East-Germanic elements. Some necropolises of
Southern and Central Ukraine and also Moldova have series of the
late-Scythian type which correlate with the graves where the head was
West orientated. The skulls of characteristic for Sarmatian
brachycranial type were found in isolated cases. The Mediterranean type,
known from the necropolises of Moldova and Romania, reflects the
connection with the Thracian and Greek population.

The Chernyakhov Culture was formed during the course of Scythian Wars
(238-270) in the territories of Western and Central Ukraine and Moldova.
Its borders were altered later. The Goths-Thervings finally pushed the
Carp tribes out of Romanian Moldova and began settling in Muntenia. Near
the turn of 3-4th century the Chernyakhov Culture extended to the
north-west coast of the Black Sea. A part of the Late Scythians moved
from the South to the forest-steppe. As a result the burials can be
found in the Kosanov type ground cemeteries that are West orientated and
are in the pits with ledges and ceilings. During the same period the
Goths-Greutungs forced the Slav population of the Kiev Culture out of
the Middle Dnepr area and later, in the second quarter of 4th century,
out of the Eastern Ukraine. After the arrival of Hunns the King
Ermanarich died, and his “Kingdom” broke up. In 376 the Alatheus-Safrax
Group migrated from the Eastern Ukraine to the Lower Danube. At the
beginning of the 5th century the rest of Germanic and Scythian-Sarmatian
population left the Chernyakhov area. The Slav tribes
(Cherepin-Theremtsy type and the Kiev Culture) became the dominant
forces in forest-steppe zone. Later they formed the Prague Culture and
the Penkovka Culture.

Key words: Chernyakhov Culture, Wielbark Culture, Slavs, Goths,
Sarmatians, Alans, Late Scythians.

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