IAeANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA TH?EAeE*IA AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE

OAeE 351:354

NE?EIITHE AAEAIOEIA IEEIEA?AIA

Ath?ie?aoeci a nenoai? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy oa i?aaiaee iaoai?ci eiai
iiaeieaiiy

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 23.00.02 — iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe oa i?ioeane

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

IAeANA — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanuee?e aea?aeaai?e th?eaee/i?e aeaaeai??

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, canooiiee Aieiae
Aa?oiaii?

?aaee Oe?a?ie Iaaeaaae/oe A?eoi? Aieiaeeie?iae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaoiiia ?aai Ieeeoiae/, Iaeanueeee
aea?aeaaiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?aaiciaanoaa

aeieoi? iie?oe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaoie?ia Na?oeaia Ieoaee?aia,
I?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?i.E.Ae.Ooeinueeiai, i?ioani? eaoaae?e iie?oe/ieo iaoe

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 26 na?iiy 1999 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 41.086.02 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe i?e Iaeanuee?e
aea?aeaai?e th?eaee/i?e aeaaeai?? ca aae?anith: 270 009, i.Iaeana,
aoe.I?iia?nueea,2

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueei?
aea?aeaaii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ca aae?anith: 270 009, i.Iaeana,
aoe.I?iia?nueea,2

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 26 /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aeoae/aiei A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii? i?iaeaiaoeee aeooaeueia c
e?eueeio i?e/ei. Ii-ia?oa, ua e aein? oi/aoueny aeeneon?? iaaeiei
ieoaiiy aecia/aiiy nooiino? ath?ie?ao??, niaoeeo?ee ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
oa oeyo?a ? iaoai?cio iiaeieaiiy ath?ie?aoecio a eiioaeno? i?aaiai? oa
iie?oe/ii? iaoee ? i?aeoeee, ioae?/iiai aaei?i?no?oaaiiy, iie?oe/iiai
iaiaaeaeiaioo. Ie?ai? aeine?aeieee ioioiaeiththoue caaaeuei?
aaei?i?no?aoeai? i?eioeeie i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy c ath?ie?aoeciii,
aaaaeath/e naia aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy ia?aoeiaeith ia oeyoo aei
iiaeaeueoiai ?icoe?aiiy e iiaeeaeaiiy aeaiie?ao??. Iac??ea iio?aaa o
oai?/iio ?icaeoeo eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae, oa?i?iieia?/i?e
oii?yaeeiaaiino?, aeao?i?oe?ei?e eiie?aoeoe? oa aeene?eioeai?e /?oeino?
a oeoia/aii? iiiyoue ath?ie?ao?y oa ath?ie?aoeci. Ii-ae?oaa, ne?ae
cacia/eoe, ui iaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiiiaio ath?ie?ao?? ? iaeiei ?c
oeaio?aeueieo ia’?eo?a o no/ani?e na?oia?e th?eaee/i?e ? iie?oe/i?e
iaooe?. C oe?eiai ?yaeo ia`?eoeaieo ?noi?e/ieo ianoaaei aea/aiiy
i?iaeai ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio iaeaaeaei aoei iaeiei c /eneaiieo
oaao aeey a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeiee?a. Iei? ia?aae iaie iinoaei caaaeaiiy
ci?noiaiiai iaiiaiaiiy oai?aoe/ieo oa iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?iaaeei o aaeoc?
iaoeiaeo i?aaiaeo ? iie?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ii/eiath/e c 90-o ?ie?a, ? iniaeeai a inoaii? ?iee, ath?ie?ao?y noaea
ia`?eoii anaa?/ii? e?eoeee. I?ioa oey e?eoeea caeaa?eueoiai aoea
ni?yiiaaia ia ciai?oi? i?iyae ath?ie?aoecio, a ia ia aea/aiiy aeaea?ae,
nooiino?, i?aaiaeo, iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?aeaaeei eiai
aeieeiaiiy oa niaoeeo?ee ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?iya?a. *enaeuei? oaeoe
ceiaaeeaaiiy neoaeaiaei noaiiaeuai, oaaa?ieoeoai, ei?oioe?y, ia?aaeuaiiy
iinaaeiaeo iiaiiaaaeaiue, /eiiaieoeueeee aiethioa?eci, ui aeyaeythoueny
ia ??cieo ??aiyo ath?ie?aoe/ii? ???a?o??, iathoue cia/iee aieea ia
oi?ioaaiiy noni?eueii? aeoiee ? caaaeueiiai iaaaoeaiiai noaaeaiiy
noni?euenoaa aei ath?ie?aoecio. Ia aeaeue, aiie oae ? ia io?eiaee
iiaiiai iaoeiaiai iiyniaiiy oa iaa?oiooaaiiy.

Aiae?c oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo i?iaeai ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio
ia?aeiio? a oiio, ui iei?oi?e aeo?ae oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa c
e?eciaiai noaiiaeua, ?aae?caoe?y aeiia /eiii? Eiinoeoooe?? iio?aaothoue
oaei? ?icaoaeiae e i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, yea a, c iaeiiai
aieo, caaacia/oaaea ?noioia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? nenoaie
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, a, c ?ioiai aieo, — ?acoeueoaoeaii i?ioeae?yea
i?iyaai ath?ie?aoecio a i?aaia?e, iie?oe/i?e, aeiiii?/i?e ? nioe?aeuei?e
noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Ia aeaeue o i?ioean?
?aoi?ioaaiiy Oe?a?i? ua ia aaeaeiny aeinyaoe noai?aiiy iiae?aii?
i?ioan?eii? oa aoaeoeaii? i?aai?caoe??, ?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy
aea?aeaaiith aeaaeith. Ii?o/ ?c oeie oaeoi?aie, ui coiiaeee iiae?aiee
noai a Oe?a?i?, ia? aooe iacaaia ? iaaeinoaoiy oaaaa aei i?iaeai,
aaciina?aaeiuei iia`ycaieo ?c i?aeoeeith aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy,
i?iaeai ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio. Aeo?ae ?c cacia/aiiai noaiiaeua
iaiiaeeeaee iica ia?aeaeueiith ?ic?iaeith iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei
?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie oa iniiaieo ?inoeooo?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy,
i?aeoe/iiai cai?iaaaeaeaiiy caeiaooeo ?acoeueoao?a oeyoii caeiiiaeaa/i?
oa i?aaioai?/i? ae?yeueiino?. A oiiaao i?iaaaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?
oe?ieiianooaaii? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie iniiaiiieiaeiiai cia/aiiy
iaaoaa? iiaeeaeaiiy oai?aoeei-i?aeoe/ieo oa ?noi?eei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oaiiiaio aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, nenoaiiiai iiiaeaiiy anueiai
ci?noo ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aeaaee, iiaeieaiiy ath?ie?ao?? oa
ath?ie?aoecio. A oeeo oiiaao oaeiae iaaoaathoue cia/aiiy iaoeia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a yeeo c’yniaothoueny i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy, ?noi?e/i?
aeoiee oa aaiethoe?y, ooieoe?? oa no?oeoo?a, niaoeeo?ea ?nioaaiiy, a
oaeiae oeyoe iiaeieaiiy oa aoaeoeaii? i?ioeae?? ath?ie?aoecio, ye iaei?e
c noni?eueii iaeiaaacia/i?oeo oi?i niioai?aiiy ci?noo oi?aae?iiy.

Oe? i?iaeaie, ie??i nai?? oai?aoe/ii? aeooaeueiino?, iathoue ua e
iaaaeyea i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, ine?eueee oaeoe/ii eaeaoueny ia i?i
aano?aeoi? oaie /e ocaaaeueiai? iiiyooy (oe?eaa? eeoa aeey aocueeiai
eiea ?ioaeaeooae?a-iaoeiaoe?a), a i?i i?aeoe/ia ?aoi?ioaaiiy
i?aai?caoe?? oa ae?yeueiino? nenoaie i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee,
?aaeueia caaacia/aiiy i?aa ? naiaiae a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
i?aaiaeo iaoai?ci?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai aeaiie?aoe/iiai
noni?euenoaa.

Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ia caaacia/aiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie, a oaeiae
aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy anueiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa,
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai ath?ie?ao?? ? ath?ie?aoecio i?iaiaeyoue
oe?a?inuee? th?enoe oa iie?oieiae A.Aaa?`yiia, I.Aiae??eei, A.Aaae?i,
?.Aeiae?i, N.Aeoaaiei, ?.Eaethaeiee, I.Ee?e/aiei, A.Eii?e/eeia, ?.Eoaei,
A.Iaa?aaaeueiee, I.Ieaeiee, A.Nai/ee, A.Nae?aaiia, A.N??aiei, ?.Iaoiiia,
A.?aaeaei, A.Oea?oeia, A.Oaiiaae, I.Oeyoooi.

Nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino? oaie aeena?oaoe??

Aino?ioa ii?ooaiiai a aeena?oaoe?? ieoaiiy aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aei
iaaeaaiueiai /ano (aei na?aaeeie 80-o ?ie?a) i?iaeaia ath?ie?ao??
?icaeyaeaeany o ?aaeyinuee?e e?oa?aoo?? aeiaie? iaeiia?/ii. Oae, ca
i?ae?aooieaie A.Einoyeiaa oa N.I?o?ioaieiaa, ca ia??iae c 1972 ii 1981
?iee aeeoei eeoa 9 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ii oai? iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Ieoaiiy ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio aoee a?aeaeai? ia a?aeeoi ioae?/iei
iaaiai?aiiyi o caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??. I?i oea na?ae/aoue, cie?aia,
aeai?, ye? iaaiaeeoue A.Iaea?aiei: eeoa a iaei?e aacao? “I?aaaea” aoei
iaae?oeiaaii iiiaae 6000 ioae?eaoe?e ia oaio ath?ie?ao?? oa
ath?ie?aoecio.

?icii/aoa iai?ee?ioe? 80-o ?ie?a aea/aiiy oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee, ia aeaeue,
/anoi aoei iaaeoi iiaa?oiaaei ? oaeoe/ii ia a?aenooiaei a?ae
?aaeyinueeeo eaiii?a iieniaino? ciai?oi?o i?iya?a ath?ie?aoecio. Oae,
cie?aia, I.Eaaaae?a o nai?e iiiia?ao?? “Nioe?aeueia oi?aae?iiy” aecia/a?
ath?ie?aoeci ye a?aenooi?noue aaciina?aaei?o eiioaeo?a oi?aae?ioe?a c
oeie, eei aiie oi?aaeythoue, ? aeae? oeueiai ia eaea, aaaaeath/e
iaaaaeaia aecia/aiiy ae/a?iiei ? oe?eeii aeinoaoi?i. Iiae?aieo
i?eeeaae?a /eiaei. Aiaeii/an aaaaea?ii ca iio??aia eiinoaooaaoe
iayai?noue aeeaieeo ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeaie
ath?ie?ao??. Oea, cie?aia, i?aoe? N.Aiae???aa, ?.Ai?n?iiaa, A.Aocaae?ia,
E.Aoaeeiaa, TH.Aeaaeaeiaa, TH.Caiioe?ia, A.Iaea?aiea, A.Iiiiaa, a oaeiae
ie?ai? i?aoe?, a yeeo aena?oethaaeenue ieoaiiy ca`yceo ath?ie?ao?? oa
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaith (ioae?eaoe?? A.Aoeaoiaa, A.Ca???aa,
A.Eo?aoa?e?, A.Iia?iaa, ?.Noa?iaeoa?ianueei?), ath?ie?aoecaoe??
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? (?iaioe A.Aoaianue?aa, I.Aeaeiaea,
A.Eaca??aa, A.Eacianueeiai, TH.Ieuenaae/a, ?.Oacaoeaoiaa,
A.Ooaeiei?iiaa), aca?iica`yceo ath?ie?ao?? ? iie?oeee (noaoo? A.A?ee?ia,
A.A?iieianueeiai, N.Eacaioeaaa oa A.Iaieiinueeiai).

Ia?aeaeueii c oeeie iaoeiaeie ?ic?iaeaie i?iaeaie ath?ie?ao?? oa
ath?ie?aoecio o oaoia?e e?oa?aoo?? a?aeaoany ? i?ioean ia?ai???ioaoe??
aeine?aeaeaiue ia aea/aiiy ??ciiiai?oieo aniaeo?a ath?ie?aoecio. Oae,
i?aaeiaoii aiae?co noaee ieoaiiy ai?ioueae c ath?ie?aoeciii o ca`yceo c
?icaeoeii naiia?yaeoaaiiy (A.Aocai, ?.?eue?inueeee, A.??iiea?a,
A.Eiaaeaiei, A.Ieueoianueeee, ?.Oi?eaiianueeee, I.*oia/aiei), i?iaeaie
ca`yceo ath?ie?ao?? c iiiaieeaoo?ith, iao??th oa “o?iueiaei naeoi?ii
aeiiii?ee” (I.Ainneainueeee, A.Ia/einueeee), i?aaia? ieoaiiy
ath?ie?aoecio (?.?eue?i, I.Eanaoe?i, A.Iaeueoeaa, A.Iaiio?i, A.N??aiei),
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoa??aeueieo aeaea?ae ath?ie?aoecio oa eiai aeiiii?/ieo
ooieoe?e (A.Aeuea?i, A.??iieaiei, A.Eacianueeee, I.Ooaieueoeaa), ieoaiiy
ca`yceo ath?ie?ao?? c iie?oe/iith aeaaeith oa aea?aeaaiith neoaeaith
(A.Aaae?i, TH.Aiaoeaae/, TH.Eiceia, A.Ei?ieueia, A.Eaaee/aiei,
?.Oa?aiia, E.THcueeia).

Aiae?c ?nioth/i? e?oa?aoo?e aea? i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aaea
noai?ai? aeaye? ia?aaeoiiae aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo no/anieo
eiioeaioe?e ath?ie?aoecio oa ?ic?iaee oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? eiai
iiaeieaiiy. Aiaeii/an iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui noai ii?aoethaaiiy
aeacaieo ieoaiue ? ia??aiii??iei ca nai?th aeeaeiith ? eiiieaeni?noth
ioiieaiiy. Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui ? aeioaia? a Oe?a?i? ua iaaeinoaoiuei
a?oioiaieo iaoeiaeo ?ica?aeie, oaiith yeeo aoei a anaa?/ia aena?oeaiiy
i?iaeaie ath?ie?aoecio, eiai aaiace a no?oeoo?ao aeaaee, aecia/aiiy
niaoeeo?ee eiai ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ca`yceo oe??? i?iaeaie c
ieoaiiyie oai??? oa i?aeoeee aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. Iio?aaothoue
nooo?ai? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee ieoaiiy aecia/aiiy eiie?aoieo oeyo?a
iiaeieaiiy aeaoaeo?a ath?ie?aoecaoe?? nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a
oiiaao aeiei??iiiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.

O i?aoeyo c oaie ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio aein?, ia aeaeue, a?aeo?
iaiao?aeii? nenoaiiino?, a?aenooiy /?oei aecia/aia iaoiaeeea aea/aiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, ui ni?e/eieei iayai?noue aaaaoueio
iaaena?oeaieo aniaeo?a caaaeaiiai oaiiiaio, aeayeo iiaa?oiaa?noue
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, noa?aioeii?noue ? aeiaiaoeci o i?aeoiae? aei
?ica’ycaiiy aiae?ciaaieo ieoaiue.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooiathoue oai?aoe/i?
iiaeae? nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaiai oa iie?oieia?/iiai oeoia/aiiy ath?ie?ao??
oa ath?ie?aoecio, ?ai?acaioiaai? ye i?aaenoaaieeaie a?o/eciyii? oeiee,
oae ? aeine?aeaeaiiyie ca?oa?aeieo iaoeiaoe?a. Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy —
i?iaeaiaoeea ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio, acyoa eiiieaenii ?
aeine?aeaeoaaia a on?e ??ciiiai?oiino? ? ae?aeaeoe/iiio aca?iica’yceo
nai?o i?iya?a o i?aaia?e, iie?oe/i?e, aeiiii?/i?e oa nioe?aeuei?e
ieiuei? c aeoeaioii ia i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiiyo o noa?? noni?eueiiai, ?
cie?aia, aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Oai?aoe/ii-i?aaiaa ? iie?oieia?/ia aena?oeaiiy i?iaeaie ath?ie?ao?? oa
ath?ie?aoecio, a oaeiae aiae?c ?? nooiino?, ci?noo, aeaea?ae aeieeiaiiy,
niaoeeo?ee oa iaoai?ci?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy a no/ani?e aea?aeaaii-i?aaia?e
noa?? noni?eueiiai aeeooy Oe?a?ie noaiiaeoue neeaaeiao /anoeio i?ia?aie
i?aaiciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue, aiae?co ?icaeoeo iie?oe/ieo oa i?aaiaeo
?inoeooo?a ? i?ioean?a ia no/aniiio aoai? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy acaaae?. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa, cie?aia, ? neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith caaaeueii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? i?ia?aie Iaeanueei? aea?aeaaii?
th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai??. ?icaeaath/enue o iaaeao i?aaiaiai oa
iie?oieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iiiiiaaia aeena?oaoe?y aea?
iiaeeea?noue ?ice?eoe oa, yeei /eiii iia’ycai? c i?iaeaiith ath?ie?ao??
oa ath?ie?aoecio i?aaia?, aeiiii?/i?, ainiiaea?nuee?,
oaoiieia?/ii-i?aai?caoe?ei?, aaei?i?no?aoeai?, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?
ieoaiiy a eiioaeno? ?ic?iaee aeooaeueieo i?iaeai i?aaiciaanoaa ?
iie?oieia??.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
? eiiieaenia aea/aiiy, inieneaiiy oa nenoaiiee ?icaeyae i?iaeaie
ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio o a?o/eciyi?e ? ca?oa?aei?e
iie?oeei-i?aaia?e iaooe?, aecia/aiiy nooiino? e canaae ath?ie?aoecio ye
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai yaeua, a oaeiae aiae?c i?aaiaiai iaoai?cio
iiaeieaiiy ath?ie?ao?? a nenoai? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy o eiioaeno?
no/anieo oiia noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy Oe?a?ie.

Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe noa? iiaeeeaei caaaeyee ?ica`ycaiith
aeae?eueeio eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue:

1. Ii-ia?oa, iaiao?aeii ie?aneeoe iaoiaeieia?/ia eiei ?nioth/eo o
no/ani?e i?aaia?e ? iie?oe/i?e iaooe? i?aeoiae?a uiaei aea/aiiy ?
?ica`ycaiiy i?iaeaie ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio, ?noi?e/ieo oeyo?a ??
?icaeoeo a ?aaeyinueeiio noni?euenoa? ? niaoeeo?ee oi?ioaaiiy iiai?
oe?a?inueei? ath?ie?ao?? a 90-o ?ieao, ?ice?eooy ?? ?aoe?iiaeueieo oa
???aoe?iiaeueieo aniaeo?a.

Ii-ae?oaa, ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe oaiiiai ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio, eiai
?ieue ? ooieoe?? a aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeo ?inoeoooao, iie?oe/i?e oa
i?aaia?e nenoai?, noni?eueiiio aooo? ethaeeie.

3. Ii-o?ao?, i?iaanoe anaa?/iee aiae?c ?nioth/eo oeyo?a oa i?aaiaiai
iaoai?cio iiaeieaiiy ath?ie?aoecio, iniaeeai oeo, ye? ? iaea?eueo
aeooaeueieie aeey ?aae?e oe?a?inueeiai nueiaiaeaiiy; ie?aneeoe
iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? i?aaiaiai ? iie?oe/iiai no?eioaaiiy ?icaeoeo
ath?ie?aoecio a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? oa iaeo?ae?caoe?? noni?eueii
iaaacia/ieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e a nenoai? oi?aae?iiy, ye? aeene?aaeeoothoue
ye aaoi?eoao aea?aeaae, oae ? nai? ?aea? aea?aeaaiino?, aeaiie?ao??,
iacaeaaeiino?.

Aeaea?aeiciaa/a, oai?aoe/ia oa iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeena?oaoe??.
Iniiao aeaea?aeiciaa/i? aace noaiiaeyoue ia?aaeon?i iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i?
oa iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo, i?aaiciaaoe?a
oa iie?oieia?a, ye? aeine?aeaeoaaee i?iaeaie ath?ie?ao?? oa
ath?ie?aoecio o ca`yceo c ieoaiiyie ai?ioueae c iaaaoeaieie ?
aioeaeaiie?aoe/ieie yaeuaie, ui i?e iaaieo oiiaao ii?iaeaeothoueny
nenoaiith oi?aae?iiy noni?euenoaii ? oi?iothoue niaoeeo?/iee oei
ath?ie?aoeciaaiiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.

A eiei ii?aoeueiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa?eoee ioae?eaoe??
caaaeueiinoni?euenoaiciaa/iai ? i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?o: i?aoe?, i?enay/ai?
i?iaeaiai i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo a?aeiinei,
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie, noaoono i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy,
niaoeeo?ee a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a, oaoiieia?/iiai
caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? ea??aieoeoaa a ainiiaea?nuee?e ? iie?oe/i?e
noa?ao, aeine?aeaeaiith ath?ie?aoe/ii? ?aeaieia?? oa ?noi?e/ii?
iaoiiaeaiino? o aeieeiaii? oeo /e ?ioeo oi?i ath?ie?aoe/iiai oi?aae?iiy
? o.ae. Ie??i oeueiai, i?e iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny
iaoa??aee iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e, i?aeia?iaeieo neiiic?oi?a, e?oaeeo
noie?a, c`?cae?a, iaoiaeieia?/ieo nai?ia??a i?enay/aieo i?iaeaiai
ai?ioueae c ath?ie?ao??th oa ath?ie?aoeciii, ieoaiiyi ?icaoaeiae a
Oe?a?i? aeaiie?aoe/iiai i?aaiaiai noni?euenoaa, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo
iaoai?ci?a aeiiii?/ii? noeioeyoe?? oa ?eieiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy, iie?ioaiiy
nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, i?iaaaeaiiy
a Oe?a?i? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie, aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai caoenoo
a?iiaaeyi a?ae iaeiiiaoaioieo ae?e i?aaenoaaiee?a aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo.
A aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai? oaeiae ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeaea?aea, i?aeoeea
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia aeei?enoaii? o?einionueeeo,
caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo iaoiae?a o ?o niaoeeo?/iiio, i?aaiaiio oa
iie?oieia?/iiio c??c?, a naia: aiae?co e neioaco,
e?eoe/ii-eiino?oeoeaiee iaoiae, iaoiae ii??aiyeueii-?ao?iniaeoeaiee,
?noi?e/ii-i?aaiaee oa iie?oeei-aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co. O aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio? aeei?enoaii caaaeuei? i?eioeeie aea/aiiy oa aiae?co noni?eueieo
yaeu, ui a?oioothoueny ia canaaeao oe?e?niino?, ?noi?ecio,
ia`?eoeaiino?, eiie?aoiino?, nenoaiiino?. A iniiao aeena?oaoe?? aoa
iieeaaeaiee i?eioeei no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aiae?co
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo ? aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeo yaeu oa aeyaeaiiy ?o
nooo?aiai aaiaoe/iiai oa ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai ca`yceo c ??ciiiai?oieie
noa?aie noni?eueiiai aeeooy. I?ioa niaoeeo?ea ?icaeyaeo i?iaeaie
ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio iaoiiaeea e iaiao?aei?noue iaaii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? iaoiaeieia?/ii? aace, ine?eueee caaaeaiiy aiae?co
iieyaaei a oiio, uia ?icaeiooe cacia/ai? caaaeueiiiaoeia? i?eioeeie aei
o??? oi?ie, aea aiie aaciina?aaeiuei noinothoueny i?aaiai? ? iie?oe/ii?
iaoee ? i?aeoeee, a?aoiaothoue iniaeeaino? i?aaeiaoo oa oa?aeoa?o
a?aoiaioaoe??. Io?eiaia oaeei /eiii nenoaia iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?eioeei?a,
o yeeo aeae?eai? caaaeueiiiaoeia? ia?aiao?e, ciaeoea nai? eiie?aoia
ao?eaiiy, ui e noaiiaeoue oai?aoe/io iniiao aeaii? ?iaioe.

Ia?ae?e icia/aieo i?eioeei?a aeicaiey? cao?enoaaoe ianooiia:

1. I?eioeei ?noi?ecio ao?eeany o ?icaeyae? oaiiiai?a ath?ie?ao?? oa
ath?ie?aoecaoe?? noa?e noni?eueiiai oi?aae?iiy, ? cie?aia oaei? ??
aaeoc?, yeith aenooia? aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy. Oe? oaiiiaie iathoue ia
eeoa iaaio onoaeaio ? noaoe?iia?ii iaci?ithaaio ?noi?eei-ae?ao?ii?/io
ia?niaeoeao, aea e aeeiai?/i? i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny o ??cieo
oeiao noni?euenoa ? aeaeici?iththoueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?aeoa?o
iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa i?aaiaeo a?aeiinei o??? /e ?ioi?
aea?aeaae.

2. I?eioeei eiie?aoiino? ciaeoia nai? ae?aaeaiiy o iino?ei?e
ni?yiiaaiino? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ii?aeiaiiy eiie?aoii? aaaaoiiai?oiino?
oaeo?a, yaeu c iaiao?aeieie ocaaaeueiaiiyie, ?icoi?iiyi ?o nooiino?, ui
aenooia? ye ?aei?noue ??ciiiai?oiiai.

Caaaeath/e, ui ?noeia caaaeaee eiie?aoia, aaoi? ?icaeyaea? eiaeia
iieiaeaiiy iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy a eiie?aoieo oiiaao i?noey oa /ano, a oeo
ca’yceao ? a?aeiioaiiyo, o yeeo aiii aeieeei, ?nio? oa ?icaeaa?oueny.
Oea aeaei iiaeeea?noue aaoi?o eia?/ii iine?aeiaii aeeeanoe iaoa??ae, ia
iniia? ae?aeaeoe/iiai ?ooo a?ae aecia/aiiy aeo?aeiiai iiiyooy
ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio (ia?oee ?icae?e), /a?ac eiai
ci?noiaii-oai?aoe/ia iaiiaiaiiy ? ?ice?eooy nooo?aeo iciae (ae?oaee
?icae?e), aei i?aeoe/iiai ?icaeyaeo io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a noiniaii
i?aeoeee aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy (o?ao?e ?icae?e).

3. I?eioeei oe?e?niino? ciaeoia na?e aeya o aecia/aii? iiiyoue
ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio, ui aianei nenoaiiooai?thth/o ?aei?noue ?
eia?/iee ca`ycie o i?ioean? iienaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo aoaeo?a
ath?ie?aoecaoe??, oi?i ath?ie?ao?? oa i?iya?a ath?ie?aoecio a i?aaia?e,
iie?oe/i?e oa aeiiii?/i?e noa??, a oaeiae aeicaieeei aaeaeaaoii
aeae?eeoe niaoeeo?eo aaoi?nueei? iiceoe?? uiaei ?icaeyaeoaaieo i?iaeai.

4. I?eioeei ia`?eoeaiino? ciaeoia nai? cae??ieaiiy o iino?eii
cae?enithaaiiio a aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? ni?anoaaeaii?
aano?aeoii-oai?aoe/ieo i??eoaaiue oa ocaaaeueithth/eo noaeaeaiue c
eiie?aoii o?eniaaieie, i?aeoe/ii iienaieie oa ?aaeueii ?nioth/eie
oaeoaie ?nioaaiiy ath?ie?aoecio a aaeoc? oi?aae?iiy
noni?eueii-i?aaiaeie, noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieie oa noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieie
i?ioeanaie. Oiio canoinoaaiiy oeueiai i?eioeeio caaacia/o? ae?th aeiia
iaoeiai? ia`?eoeaiino? ? oai?aoe/ii? iaoia?aaeaeaiino? i?e ?icaeyae?
i?iaeaie ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio, ui aenooia? iaoiaeieia?/iith
caii?oeith aoaeoeaiino? i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

5. I?eioeei nenoaiiino? ao?eaii o aecia/aeuei?e ianoaiia? ia ?icaeyae
i?iaeaiaoeee ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio ia ?cieueiaaii ? a?aeie?aieaii
a?ae ?aooe i?iaeaiiiai iiey iaoeiaeo i?aaiaeo oa iie?oieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, a a oai?aoe/iiio ? i?aeoe/iiio eiioaeno? caaaeueieo
i?iaeai no/anieo iie?oe/ieo oa i?aaiaeo ?inoeooo?a ? i?ioean?a, oai???
oa ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa, ?ioeo noi?aeieo aeenoeeie?i, c o?aooaaiiyi
niaoeeo?ee ?o ?icaeoeo ia no/aniiio aoai?, a oaeiae inoaii?o
?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo oe?a?inueeeie oa ca?oa?aeieie a/aieie o oe?e
aaeoc?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia ye noeoii?noth iinoaaeaieo
caaaeaiue, oae ? caniaaie ?o ?ica’ycaiiy. Iaei??th c
oai?aoe/ii-iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeaaeei aeena?oaoe?? noaea ni?iaa aeaoe
nenoaiiee aiae?c i?iaeaie ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio a eiioaeno?
aeooaeueieo i?iaeai, ui iinoaee ia?aae Oe?a?iith ia no/aniiio aoai? ??
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, iieacaoe aaaeeea?noue ae??oaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaiaoeee aeey iiaeaeueoi? ?aae?caoe?? ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?aoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a o noni?euenoa?. Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe
aecia/a?oueny, ii-ia?oa, ni?iaith eiiieaeniiai ?icaeyaeo i?iaeaie
ath?ie?ao?? ? ieoaiue ath?ie?aoecio c ia?aeaeueiei caa?iaiiyi aei
caaaeueieo oai?aoe/ieo eiioeaioe?e i?aaa, aea?aeaae, aeaaee ?
oi?aae?iiy, a, ii-ae?oaa, iaa?oiooaaiiyi aenoiaieo oa cai?iiiiiaaieo
iieiaeaiue ia iniia? eiie?aoiiai aii??e/iiai, oaeoieia?/iiai oa
noaoenoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ?c aeei?enoaiiyi ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo
ai?ioueae c ath?ie?aoeciii.

O aeena?oaoe??, cie?aia, cina?aaeaeaia oaaaa ia aena?oeaii? oaeeo iiaeo
iieiaeaiue:

— i?iaeaia ath?ie?ao?? ? neeaaeiei ? eiiieaeniei nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iei
ieoaiiyi, oiio iaoiaeieia?/ii aei?a/iei ? aeae?eaiiy aeaio ?? aniaeo?a:
aeania ath?ie?ao??, ye ?aoe?iiaeueii? ? no?oeoo?ii iaiao?aeii? nenoaie
ii ?aae?caoe?? ae?yeueiino?, iia`ycaii? c oi?aae?iiyi o iaeoe?oiio
?icoi?ii? oeueiai oa?i?io, oa ath?ie?aoecio ye aeano?oeoeaiiai ?
noni?eueii iaaacia/iiai aoaeoo, ui ii?iaeaeo?oueny a i?ioean?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ae?yeueiino? ath?ie?aoe/iiai aia?aoo;

— icia/aia oeoia/aiiy ath?ie?aoecio aeeth/a? a naaa /ioe?e iniiaieo
eiiiiiaioe: nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaee, ui aeyaey? a?ae?ea aeaaee a?ae
ia?iaeo, eiee aiia iin?aea? i?ea?eaeiaaia i?noea iaae caeiiii ? ii?iaie
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa; iie?oe/iee, oiaoi iaaei?aaaeaia c?inoaiiy
iiaiiaaaeaiue aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, ciaioaiiy ?? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ?
iiiiiie?caoe?y iath i?aaa uiaei i?eeiyooy no?aoaa?/ieo ??oaiue
oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaith; aeiiii?/iee, oiaoi oaiaeaioe?y aei iaeii/aniiai
oioaeueiiai iaea?aeaaeaiiy anueiai niaeo?o a?aeiinei aeaniino? oa
ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy; oa ii?aeueii-aoe/iee, oiaoi ia?aa?n?y oe?ii?nieo
i???ioaoe?e oa aeaoi?iaoe?y o?aeooaaiiy noni?eueiiai ?ioa?ano o iin??a
ei?ii?aoeaii? ath?ie?aoe/ii? na?aeiiino?.

— aena?oeaiiy oa eeaneo?eaoe?y i?e/ei oa oiia aeieeiaiiy ath?ie?aoecio,
a oaeiae iienaiiy aecia/aeueieo ?en ath?ie?aoe/ii? ?aeaieia?? ia iiaea
aaaaeaoeny iiaiith a?aeiia?aeaeth ia ieoaiiy uiaei nooiino?
ath?ie?aoecio iica caa?iaiiyi aei iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iciae
ath?ie?aoecio ye noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai yaeua. Na?aae oeeo iciae ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe ianaiia?aae ei?ii?aoea?ci, aaca?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue,
eiina?aaoeci ? oi?iae?ci, ea?’??eci, naaa?eey, ei?enoiethanoai,
i?ioaeoe?ii?ci.

— aeine?aeaeaiiy ath?ie?aoecio ye neeaaeiai? /anoeie caaaeueiiai
i?ioeano ath?ie?aoecaoe?? aeaaee iaaoaa? eeth/iaiai cia/aiiy o ca`yceo c
iaiao?aei?noth ia?aiiy no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy, i?iaaaeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie, aecia/aiiy eiie?aoieo
oeyo?a ? cania?a iiaeieaiiy ath?ie?aoecio c iaoith noai?aiiy
i?ioan?eiiai iaoai?cio aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, ui iio?aao? iiaeaeueoi?
?ic?iaee iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ii? aace ii ?aoi?ioaaiith ?inoeooo?a
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, aeaiie?aoecaoe?? iie?oe/ii? oa i?aaiai?
nenoaie, oi?ioaaiiy aeniei? iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e oa aeooiaiino?.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o i?iaaaeaii?
nenoaiiiai iaoeiaiai aiae?co i?iaeaie ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio,
yeee ni?ey? iiaeeaeaiiio ?icoi?iith oeueiai ieoaiiy. I?iaaaeaia o
aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia`?eoeaiaaieo o i?ioeanao oi?aae?iiy oi?i
ath?ie?aoecio ni?yiiaaia ia a?oioiaia ? nenoaiia inieneaiiy oaiiiaio
ath?ie?ao??, aee?eooy iaoiaeieia?/ieo iioeaie, ?aeaieia?/ieo ooaii?a, ui
?nioaaee e ?niothoue o no/ani?e i?aaia?e ? iie?oieia?/i?e iaooe? uiaei
?icaeyaeoaaieo ieoaiue. Aeey oeueiai ie?aneaii iaoiaeieia?/ia eiei
?nioth/eo i?aeoiae?a uiaei ?icoi?iiy oaeiai aaaaoianiaeoiiai oaiiiaio ye
ath?ie?ao?y, aea/aiiy ? ?ica`ycaiiy i?iaeaie ath?ie?aoecaoe??
oi?aae?iiy, a oaeiae aena?oeaiiy ?? ca’yceo c ieoaiiyie oai??? e
i?aeoeee i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy oa ?o i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy
a oiiaao caaaeueiiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa ?
aaciina?aaeiueiai i?iaaaeaiiy i?aaiai? oa aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie a
Oe?a?i? ia no/aniiio aoai?.

Iaaaaeaiee o aeena?oaoe?? oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, iniiai? oai?aoe/i?
ocaaaeueiaiiy e aeniiaee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o oaeeo aaeocyo:
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeuee?e /i?e ?ic?iaoe? ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?aoeue o
aaeoc? iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo ?inoeooo?a oa i?ioean?a, oai??? oa ?noi???
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa, ?noi??? iie?oe/ii? oa i?aaiai? aeoiee, iie?oe/ii?
oai???, oai??? oi?aae?iiy, aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo oa
caaacia/aiiy iaoeiai-iaoiaeieia?/ii? aace i?ioeano iie?oeei-i?aaiaiai
?aoi?ioaaiiy Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae/; i?aaioai?/?e /o th?eaee/iiio
caaacia/aii? iiaeaeueoiai i?ioeano aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, o ?icaeoeo
iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo ?inoeooo?a oa aea?aeaaioai?/eo i?ioean?a o
eiioaeno? oi?ioaaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ii? i?aaiai? nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae oa
iiaoaeiae a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a Oe?a?i?/; i?aaicanoinia/?e /o
ae?yeueiino? a?aeiia?aeieo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, iie?oe/ieo ?
i?aaiaeo ?inoeooo?a noni?euenoaa/; iaa/aeuei?e /o i?ioean? ?ic?iaee,
iiaoaeiae oa aeeeaaeaiiy ii?iaoeaieo oa niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a o aocao, o
i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee ? iaa/aiiy eaae??a aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a,
i?aaiciaaoe?a, iie?oieia?a, aeey iaienaiiy i?ae?o/iee?a ? iin?aiee?a c
i?iaeai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, oai??? oa ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa,
?noi??? iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue, iie?oieia??/;
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/i?e / o ?iaio? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee,
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e/ ? o.ae.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia?oith a th?eaee/i?e ? iie?oe/i?e a?o/eciyi?e
e?oa?aoo?? aeena?oaoe?eiith ?iaioith, a ye?e eiiieaenii aena?oeththoueny
i?iaeaie ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio a aea?aeaaiiio aeeoo? oa
i?iiiio?oueny i?aaiaee iaoai?ci ? oeyoe ?o iiaeieaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Eiioeaioe?y, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, i?ii?aei? ?acoeueoaoe oa aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ciaeoee nai? ii?eethaeiaiiy a iaoa??aeao
eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie aea?aeaaioai?aiiy oa ?ioaa?aoe?y Oe?a?ie o
na?oiainiiaea?nueeo nenoaio» (Iaeana, 1995), o aenooi? ia i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? Iaeanueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
?.?.Ia/ieeiaa «Eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/i?, nioe?aeuei? oa i?aaia? aniaeoe
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a Oe?a?i?» (Iaeana, 1996), a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?ae /an aeeeaaeaiiy ii?iaoeaieo eo?n?a
«Iie?oieia?y», «Oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa», «?noi??y
iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue», «Oai??y oi?aae?iiy». Aeena?oaoe?y aoea
iaaiai?aia ia eaoaae?? nioe?aeueieo oai??e Iaeanueei? aea?aeaaii?
th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai??.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe??
ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a i’yoe iaoeiaeo noaooyo, a iaei?e a?ioo?? ?
iaoa??aeao iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeee niaith
iaoeiao iiaoaeiao ? eia?/io no?oeoo?o aeena?oaoe??, yea neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE.

O anooi? c`yniao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaiaoeee aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioeth?oueny iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, aecia/a?oueny
nooi?iue iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy oaie, ie?aneth?oueny aeaea?aeiciaa/a,
oai?aoe/ia e iaoiaeieia?/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. O anooi? oaeiae
aecia/athoueny iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai i?aeoe/ia oa
oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue, iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie ? no?oeoo?ia iiaoaeiaa
?iaioe.

Aioo??oiy eia?ea aeine?aeaeoaaii? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? i?iaeaie
aeiaaaea ianaiia?aae aecia/aiiy ? iaoeiaiai ?icaeyaeo iai?aieo
oai?aoe/ii-iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a i?e aiae?c? i?iaeaie ath?ie?ao??
oa ath?ie?aoecio, ye? aoee aecia/ai? a i?ioean? i?aaiaeo,
iie?oieia?/ieo, ?noi?e/ieo oa noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
?icaeyaeoaaii? i?iaeaiaoeee. Oea caaaeaiiy aoei aeeiiaia o ia?oiio
?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe — “I?iaeaia ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio
a ca?oa?aei?e oa a?o/eciyi?e i?aaia?e ? iie?oe/i?e iaooe?”. I?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aoa?iaaiiai ?icae?eo noaa ?icaeyae iniiaieo oai??e oa
iiaeaeae o oeoia/aii? ath?ie?ao??, cai?iiiiiaaieo ye i?ia?aeieie
ca?oa?aeieie a/aieie, oae ? a?o/eciyieie iaoeiaoeyie.

Na?aae iniiaieo oai??e, ui aoee aenoioo? cao?aeieie a/aieie a i?ioean?
aea/aiiy ? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio,
aeioe?eueii aeae?eeoe ianooii? iai?yiee. Ii-ia?oa, oea aaaa??ainuee?
eiioeaioe?? ?aoe?iiaeueii? ath?ie?ao??, ye? aeoiaeyoue c ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
ath?ie?ao?? ye i?ioan?eiiai aia?aoo neoaeaiaoe?a, i?aai?ciaaieo ca
i?eioeeiii i??ai?aeaeueii? ???a?o?? ? ooieoe?iioth/eo ca?aeii
?iia?niiaeueieo, oi?o?eiaaieo oa oi?iae?ciaaieo i?aaee. Caniiaieeii
oeueiai iai?yieo o aeine?aeaeaii? ath?ie?ao?? ? I.Aaaa? (1864-1920),
yeee oaeoe/ii ? noi?ioethaaa iniiai? /ioe?e iiceoe??, ui aiae?cothoueny
i?e aea/aii? ath?ie?ao??. Oea, cie?aia, oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo i?aoe? a
i?aai?caoe?yo, ?ice?eooy no?oeoo?e i?aai?caoe?e, aecia/aiiy iiceoe?? ?
?ie? ?iaeea?ae?a o cacia/aieo no?oeoo?ao oa aenie?eaoe?y i?aaee, ui
?aaoeththoue a?aeiineie ana?aaeei? i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?. I.Aaaa?
?icaeyaeaa ath?ie?ao?th ye nenoaio aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy, ui
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oaeeie iciaeaie: ???a?o?y ni?ai?aeii?yaeeiaaiino? oa
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?; aaciniaeno?noue, oiaoi aeeiiaiiy ooieoe?e
a?aeiia?aeii aei /?oei o?eniaaieo i?aaee; noaa?euei?noue, o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c yeith ?iaioa aeeiio?oueny i?ioyaii iiaiiai ?iai/iai
aeiy ia iino?ei?e iniia? i?e aa?aio?? iinaaeiaiai i?noey ? i?inoaaiiy ii
neoaea?; i?ioan?iiae?ci. Aeineoue /anoi, caeaa?eueoiai a
aiaeinaeniinuee?e o?aaeeoe??, oeae i?aeo?ae aei oeoia/aiiy ath?ie?ao??
aecia/athoue ye “oai??th ?aoe?iiaeueii? ath?ie?ao??”. E?eoeeoth/e o? /e
?io? iiceoe?? oa aeniiaee eeane/ii? oai??? I.Aaaa?a, oae? cao?aei?
aeine?aeieee ye ?.Aaiaeeen, Ae.Ia?/ai, A.I?oa?n, ?.I?aai, Ae.?aeon,
A.?io, A.Naeiii A.Oa?ia?, A.Oethooa?, ia eeoa i?iaeiaaeeee oeae iaoeiaee
iai?yiie, a e ci?noiaii aeiiiaieee eiai oa aaeaiooaaee aei no/anieo oiia
noaiiaeaiiy iino?iaeono??aeueiiai oeio noni?euenoa.

Ii-ae?oaa, oea “ie?aa?o?/i? oai???”. sseui aeey I.Aaaa?a ath?ie?ao?y
aoea aoaeoeaiei caniaii o ?oeao oeo, ooi cia? ye ?? eiio?iethaaoe, oi
aeaye? ianooii? a/ai? i?ae aieeaii c?inoath/i? ath?ie?aoecaoe??
noni?euenoaa oa aeieeiaiiy oioae?oa?ieo ?aaeei?a ia Noiae? ? Caoiae?,
ia?ai???iooaaee nai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ?icaeyae ath?ie?ao?? ye
ie?aa?o?/ii? nenoaie iie?oe/iiai aeii?iaioo. Aaeaea ia i?aeoeoe?
ath?ie?ao?y cai?noue oiai, uia aooe caniaii ?aae?caoe?? noni?eueieo
?ioa?an?a ia?aoai?eeany ia aieiaea?y, ia iie?oe/ii aeii?ioth/o a?oio a
oaeiio noni?euenoa?, yea aaea ia i?aeiaaea? i?ae eeane/i? iciaee
eai?oae?noe/iiai /e nioe?ae?noe/iiai oeio. Oiio, iinoaaeaia i?ae noii?a
I.Aaaa?ii iie?oe/ia aiaaaeiaai?noue ath?ie?ao??, ?icaeyaea?oueny
?.I?oaenii (1876-1936) aaea ye iaa?ae’?iiee iane?aeie aioo??oiuei?
aeeiai?ee ath?ie?ao??. Oaeoe/ii ?.I?oaen aoa ia?oei, ooi ni?ii?any
iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe ?icaeoie ath?ie?aoecaoe?? c ie?aa?o?/ieie
oaiaeaioe?yie no/anieo noni?euenoa, ui aeicaieeei eiio noi?ioethaaoe
“cae?ciee caeii ie?aa?o??”, yeee iinooeth? i?iii?oe?ei?noue o c?inoaii?
ath?ie?aoecaoe?? no/anieo noni?euenoa oa eiioeaio?aoe?? an??? aeaaee a
?oeao oi?aae?inueei? ae?oe, yea ii/eia? iaioaaoe ia aeeeoaoi?nueeee
iaia?. Oeueiio ni?eythoue oae caai? eiaeaene ath?ie?ao??, ca?aeii c
yeeie iaeaaaeeea?o? noa?e ?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? aeeo/ai? c-i?ae eiio?ieth
a?iiaaenueeino?. Oi?iaeueii ia?an?/i? a?iiaaeyie iiaeooue inea?aeoaaoe
ae?? ath?ie?ao??. Iaaiei /eiii aieea ? cia/ou?noue ath?ie?ao?? iiaeia
iaiaaeeoe ca aeiiiiiaith aeai?ieo i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?aai?a. Aea i?ae
i?ee?eooyi eiio?aeaioe?eiino? oa nae?aoiino? ath?ie?ao?y caeaoia
i?ioeae?yoe ni?iaai aeai?ieo i?aai?a io?eiaoe iio??aio ?ioi?iaoe?th. A
?acoeueoao? ath?ie?aoeci i?iieea? a on? aeai?i? aeaiie?aoe/i? ?inoeoooe.

O?ao?i iai?yieii o aea/aii? i?iaeaie ath?ie?ao?? ? “eieaeoea?nonuee?
oai???” Ae.Aa?ioaia, I.Aeaeeeana, A.??oeoee. Oe? iaoeiaoe? i?aeoiaeyoue
aei oeoia/aiiy ath?ie?ao?? ye niaoeeo?/iiai eeano, ui aeieea? ia iaaiiio
aoai? ?icaeoeo an?o no/anieo noni?euenoa iacaeaaeii a?ae
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo ianoaaei, iia`ycaieo c iniaeeainoyie aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei, ae?iaie/eo ca`yce?a, iie?oe/ieo ?aaeei?a, oi?ie aea?aeaaiiai
ono?ith oa oi?ie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. ?, ianaie?iaoeue,
oa?aeoa?ecoth/e /aoaa?oee iai?yiie o aea/aii? i?iaeaie ath?ie?ao?? oa
ath?ie?aoecio, ui iia`ycaii ianaiia?aae c ?iaiaie A.Ino?iia oa
Ae.Aaeaei, iiaeia aeei?enoaoe oa?i?i, yeee cai?iiiioaaa aia?eeainueeee
aeine?aeiee Ae.O?aaea??e, a naia: “aeenooieoe?iiaeuei? oai???”. Oe?
a/ai? i?aeaeaee a?oioiai?e e?eoeoe? i?aoaic?? oai???, ui ?ai?acaiooaaea
ath?ie?ao?th ye ?aeeio oi?io ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai no/anii? oeea?e?caoe??,
? aenoioee nai? eiioeaioe?? ?aniiineaiiai aaei?i?no?oaaiiy,
ai?eciioaeueieo naiiaii?yaeeiaaieo no?oeoo?, iie?oeaio?ecio,
aaciina?aaeiuei? o/ano? a?iiaaeyi o i?ioean? oi?aae?iiy, i?ici?ino?
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? aeaaee ? o.ae.

Iniaeeaa i?noea o aea/aii? i?iaeaie ath?ie?ao?? caeia? ia?eneci. E.Ia?en
?icoi?a ath?ie?ao?th ye iane?aeie ae?? i?eioeeio ioioiaeiaiiy aea?aeaae
? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy c noni?euenoaii a oe?eiio, ui
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny c?inoaiiyi ei?ii?aoeaiiai aeooo, aea?aeaaiiai
oi?iae?cio oa ni???ooae?caoe??th eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo oi?i nioe?aeueiiai
? i?ioan?iiaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo i?aoe?. Iaeiae a?i i?iiiio? ? aea/aiiy
eiie?aoieo oi?i ?nioaaiiy oeueiai caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai oaiiiaio
ath?ie?ao??. Aiii aeoiaeeoue ?c ?icoi?iiy ath?ie?ao?? ye noeoiiino?
«aea?aeaaieo neoa», ui i?aeianee naith iniaenoo na?aeii?noue aei ??aiy
aea?aeaaii?, ye ia?aoeio aacaeooiaiino? ? i?aeoe/ieo ?ethc?e, ye?
noi?ioaaee ???a?o?ciaaio nenoaio aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. I?e nai?io
caaaeueiiio iaaaoeaiiio noaaeaii? aei ath?ie?ao?? E.Ia?en ana ae oaee
iinooeth? iaiao?aei?noue oai?aoe/iiai ?iciaaeoaaiiy i?ae iiiyooyie
nioe?aeueii? oa ath?ie?aoe/ii? i?aai?caoe??. I?ae nioe?aeueiith
i?aai?caoe??th E.Ia?en ?icoi?? oaeee niin?a aea?aeaaii? i?aai?caoe??
noni?euenoaa, eiee ie?ai? ?iaeea?aee oa a?iiaaeyie aaa/athoue o
aea?aeaa? eeoa oi?io o?enaoe?? ona?aeiieaiiy ieie naiai i?ioenoiyiiy ?e.
I?ae ath?ie?aoe/iith ?icoi?? oaeo i?aai?caoe?th, i?e ye?e eiaeai
a?iiaaeyiei ia?aoai?th?oueny ia /enoo ? ianeaio nioe?aeueii a?ae/oaeaio
iaoa??th.

Caaaeii aea, ath?ie?ao?y a ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? E.Ia?ena ? oe?aeeeaei
ceiye?niei ooai?aiiyi, aiia ia caeaoia ?ica’ycoaaoe noni?euei? i?iaeaie
? oiio ciooaia ia?aceooaaoe ia oe? aea?aeaae, ia?aoai?thth/e inoaiith ia
iaeaeiee iaoai?ci a?ae/oaeaiiy. Oiio a yeino? i?eioeeiiai? ?ene
ia?en?anueeiai oeoia/aiiy ath?ie?ao?? ? eiai aecia/aeueia aioeaea?aeaaia
iiceoe?y, ? a ca’yceo c /ei no/ania eiio oi?ia aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
?icoe?ithaaeany E.Ia?enii ye iacaia?a/ia cei.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae ocaaaeueithth/iai oai?aoe/ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
o?aeooaaiiy ath?ie?ao??, oa?aeoa?iiai aeey aaaaoueio cao?aeieo
iaoeiaoe?a o e?oa?aoo?? a/aieo e?a?i NIAe caeaa?eueoiai aeei?enoiaoaaany
oeiieia?/iee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy i?iaeaie ath?ie?ao?? oa
ath?ie?aoecio, yeee canoiniaoaaa iaoiaeieia?th aeae?eaiiy iniiaieo oei?a
oeoia/aiiy oaiiiaio ath?ie?ao??. Oae, cie?aia, oae? a/ai? ye
A.Aaa?’yiia, A.Aaae?i, A.Ai?enia, A.Ao?ea/oe, A.Caoeai?e?i,
A.Iaieiinueeee, A.Nae?aaiia, ?.Oa?aiia, A. Oea?oeia ia?aeiieeai
iaa?oioiaothoue iaoiaeieia?/io aeioe?euei?noue iaeii/aniiai aeei?enoaiiy
??cieo no?oeoo?ieo iiaeaeae iienaiiy ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio aeey
a?eueo iiaiiai, aaeaeaaoiiai oa ia`?eoeaiiai ?icoi?iiy oeueiai
neeaaeiiai yaeua a aeeoo? noni?eueiiai ? aea?aeaaiiai i?aai?ci?a. I?e
oeueiio aeae?eythoueny /ioe?e iniiaieo iiaeae? nenoaiii? i?aai?caoe??
ath?ie?aoe/ii? aeaaee, ?? i?aaiaiai oa iie?oieia?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy:
?aoe?iiaeueia, aioaaii?noe/ia (ia?enenonueea), ?iia?nueea oa
?aae?noe/ia.

Oeae no?oeoo?ii oeiieia?/iee i?aeo?ae aei aiae?co i?iaeaie ath?ie?ao?? a
inoaii? ?iee aeoaea /anoi ie?aneththoue oa?i?iii “?aae?noe/iee” /e
“?aoe?iiaeueii e?eoe/iee” i?aeo?ae, ine?eueee aeine?aeaeaiiy
ath?ie?aoecio aaaeaoueny caaaeaieie iaoeiaoeyie o aeaio iniiaieo
iai?yieao – iaoeiaiio, eiee ia i?aenoaa? neioaco nioe?ieia?/ieo,
ineoieia?/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oieia?/ieo aeaieo aeaiiino?o?oueny
iaaoaeoeai?noue nenoai oioaeueii? oi?iae?caoe?? aaei?i?no?aoeaii
oi?aae?inueeeo a?aeiinei, oa na?oiaeyaeiiio, eiee i?aaeiaoii e?eoeee
noathoue aioeaoiaii?, noni?eueii iaaacia/i?, aioeaeaiie?aoe/i? ?, /anoi,
i?ioei?aai? i?iyae ath?ie?aoe/ieo aaoi?eoa?ieo oi?i i?aai?caoe??
aeaaeieo a?aeiinei.

I?ii?aei? aeniiaee, c?iaeai? o ?aoa?iaaiiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe, aecia/eee, ii-ia?oa, iaoeiao aeooaeuei?noue aeae?eaiiy
aaciina?aaeiueiai aniaeoo ath?ie?aoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? a noa?? oi?aae?iiy
ye ie?aiiai ? niaoeeo?/iiai ia`?eoo iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, a
ii-ae?oaa, iaiao?aei?noue ii?aeiaiiy caaaeueii-oai?aoe/iiai oa
eiie?aoii-i?aeoe/iiai i?aeoiae?a o aea/aii? i?iaeaie ath?ie?ao?? oa
ath?ie?aoecio ? oei naiei aenooieee eia?/iith iniiaith i?iaeiaaeaiiy
iaoeiai aeine?aeieoeueei? ?ica?aeee o ianooiiiio ?icae?e?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Nooi?noue ? iniiae ath?ie?aoecio ye
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaiai yaeua” — aaoi? noaaea ia iao? aeaoe /?oea
aecia/aiiy iiiyooy ath?ie?aoecio /a?ac aenie?eaoe?th eiai oai?aoe/iiai
ca`yceo c iiiyooyie aeaaee, aea?aeaae ? oi?aae?iiy, ?ice?eoe oa
i?iaiae?coaaoe i?aaia?, iie?oe/i?, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa
nioe?ieoeueoo?i? oiiae eiai aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo, iaaeaoe th?eaee/io,
iie?oieia?/io e ?aeaieia?/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo nooiino? oeueiai yaeua, a
oaeiae aecia/eoe iaoai?cie eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? naiia?aeoai?aiiy.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy aaea ?nioth/iai iaoa??aeo ? oeo ?ic?iaie, ye? aoee
i?iaaaeai? oe?a?inueeeie oa ca?oa?aeieie a/aieie a caaaeueiiio ianea?
aeine?aeaeaiue noiniaii ?icaeyaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, aeicaiey? c?iaeoe
aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a a?eueoino? c ieo iiiyooy ath?ie?aoecio
ni?anoaaey?oueny c oaeeie eaoaai??yie ye “aea?aeaaa”, “aeaaea” oa
“oi?aae?iiy”. Ae?enii, oae /e ?iaeoa, ath?ie?aoeci iia`ycaiee ?c eiaeiei
c oeeo o?ueio iiiyoue, i?ioa iaoeiaa ei?aeoi?noue ana ae oaee aeiaaa?
a?eueo /?oei? a?aeiia?ae? noiniaii oiai, /ei aea ne?ae aaaaeaoe
ath?ie?aoeci: oaiiiaiii aeaaee, aea?aeaaiei oaiiiaiii i?aai?caoe??
noni?eueiiai aeeooy? *e oea aoaea eeoa iaaia o?ainoi?iaoe?y ?aea?
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy?

Caa?oath/enue aei iiiyooy aea?aeaae, iiaeaii cacia/eoe, ui aiia oeyoii
?ic?iaee iaaieo ?aeaieia?/ieo i?ia?ai, canoinoaaiiy oe?eiai niaeo?o
iiaeeeainoae iie?oe/ieo iaoai?ci?a, aecia/aiiy oeo /e ?ioeo aeiiii?/ieo
canaae noni?eueiiai aeeooy, a oaeiae noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeii? i?aaiai? oa
ii?iaoeaii? aace, iiaea noai?thaaoe ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ?ic?inoaiiy
ath?ie?aoecio, a ?ieiee ? naia iiaea ia?aoai?thaaoeny, i?i?e?oaaoe ia
eooaeo ath?ie?aoe/ii? nenoaie. Aea, ?acii c oei, ia iiaeia ia
cacia/eoe, ui aea?aeaaa naia ii nia? ia ? aaciina?aaei?i aeaea?aeii
ath?ie?aoe/ii? iaaaciaee, ine?eueee inoaiiy ?nio? ia eeoa ia
aea?aeaaiiio ??ai?, a oaeoe/ii i?iieco? niaith an? ??ai? noni?eueiiai
aeeooy iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?i ?o aeyao. Aeaaea — iaiao?aeiee aeaiaio
a?iiaaenueei? i?aai?caoe??, aac yeiai iaiiaeeea? aeeoo?caeaoi?noue oa
ooieoe?iioaaiiy noni?euenoaa, aiia iieeeeaia ?aaoethaaoe
aca?iia?aeiineie i?ae ethaeueie, i?ae ieie, noni?euenoaii oa
aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/ieie ?inoeoooaie. Iaeia c iaeaaaeeea?oeo caaaeaiue
aea?aeaae — iiaeieaiiy noia?a/iinoae i?ae iaiao?aei?noth ii?yaeeo oa
??ciiiai?oi?noth ?ioa?an?a o noni?euenoa?, iia’ycaieo c eiioe?eoaie.
Oiaoi aea?aeaaa ? aeaaea, iie?oe/ia ooai?aiiy a oe?eiio, iieeeeai?
aianoe ii?yaeie ? i?aai?ciaai?noue a nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iee i?ioean,
i?eai?eaoe noeo?th ethaenueeeo i?eno?anoae. Ioaea, iiiyooy aeaaee oaeiae
iaa?yae /e iiaea aenooiaoe aeno?aeiei aeey aiae?co ath?ie?aoecio, aaeaea
ia anyea aeaaea ? aeaea?aeii ath?ie?aoecio.

Iaea?eueo aei?aaaeaiei ? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiei aoaea ?icaeyae
ath?ie?aoecio ? eiai nooiino? o ca`yceo c o?aoueith cai?iiiiiaaiith
eaoaai???th, a naia — eaoaai???th oi?aae?iiy. Ioaea, i?ae ath?ie?aoeciii
ne?ae ?icoi?oe niaoeeo?/io oi?io oi?aae?iiy, yea ? iane?aeeii ?iciiae?eo
? i?ioenoaaeaiiy ?ioa?an?a noa`?eo?a oi?aae?iiy ? eiai ia`?eo?a c
oaiaeaioe??th aei iinooiiaiai ? iaeiiai?oiai i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy ?ioa?an?a
inoaii?o oe?eyi oa ?ioa?anai oi?aae?inueei? aa?noae. Aenooiath/e iaeiei
c oei?a oi?aae?iiy, ath?ie?aoeci iaeii/anii ? ? iaei??th c oi?i
aeeaeiiiai niioai?aiiy ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy, ine?eueee aoaeue-yea
oi?aae?iiy ca eia?eith naiai aecia/aiiy ? ooieoe??th, ui iieeeeaia
caaacia/eoe ?aae?caoe?th i?ia?ai ? oe?eae o??? nenoaie, neoaeaiaei
aeaiaioii yei? aiia aenooia?. I?ioe oeueiai aeano?oeoeaiee ath?ie?aoeci
oaeoe/ii ci?ith? anth nenoaio oi?aae?iiy ae?aiao?aeueii i?ioeeaaeiei
/eiii: i?e iueiio ia oi?aae?iiy neoaeeoue ?ioa?anai nenoaie, a naia
nenoaia aeaoi?io?oueny ? an?eyei iaeaooiao?oueny ia ae?th ye caniao c
?aae?caoe?? ?ioa?an?a oi?aae?iiy oa eiai aia?aoo. Oiaoi ath?ie?aoeci ia
?nio? a /enoiio aeae?, aoaeue-yea «oi?aae?iiy» ii?aeio? a nia? a ??cieo
i?iii?oe?yo aea? ooieoe??: ?aoe?iiaeueio ooieoe?th oi?aae?iiy oa
ath?ie?aoe/io ooieoe?th aioeoi?aae?iiy (I. Ia?aio?).

Ath?ie?ao?y — oea niaoeeo?/ia ia’?aeiaiiy, ui i?eoaiaiia noa??
oi?aae?iiy ? yea aeieea? i?ae oi?aae?inueeeie no?oeoo?aie ? ianaie
ianaeaiiy. Aea/aiiy ath?ie?aoecio ia?aaeaa/a? aiae?c: a) noia?a/iinoae,
ui aeieeathoue i?e ?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy; a) oi?aae?iiy ye
i?ioeanaie i?aoe?; a) ?ioa?an?a nioe?aeueieo a?oi, ui aa?ooue o/anoue o
ath?ie?aoe/ieo a?aeiineiao.

Iiiyooy «ath?ie?ao?y» iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny c o?ueio iiceoe?e:

a) ye eiioeaio?aoe?y c ei?eneeaith iaoith ?aaeueieo aaaeae?a aeaaee a
?oeao ?ia?oiee?a niaoe?ae?ciaaiiai aia?aoo;

a) ye ath?ie?aoe/ia nenoaia aia?aoiiai aieiaea?thaaiiy ? oi?aae?iiy;

a) ye noeeue oi?aae?iiy.

Ci?noiaia iienaiiy ? oeiieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaea?ae aeieeiaiiy
ath?ie?aoecio aeyaeei iaiao?aei?noue aiae?co oaiiiaio ath?ie?aoe/ii?
?aeaieia??, ui a?oioo?oueny ia canaaeao iaoai?oeecio, e?euee?niino?,
oi?iaeueiiai aeaoa?i?i?cio, aeeoioii?/iino? oa ni?iuaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy, io?eiai? o ae?oaiio ?icae?e?, aeicaieeee iaa?oiooaaoe
iieiaeaiiy, ca?aeii c yeei ai?ioueaa c ath?ie?aoeciii ia? i?iaiaeeoenue
oeyoii aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?ai?aai?caoe?? an?o noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, ? /e ia
ae??oaeueio ?ieue o oeueiio i?ioean? ia? a?ae?a?aoe noai?aiiy
a?aeiia?aeii? i?aaiai? aace a oe?a?inueeiio caeiiiaeaanoa?, ine?eueee
eeoa noai?aiiy ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ae??aino? a?aeiia?aeieo th?eaee/ieo
ii?i aeicaieeoue ?aae?coaaoe eiiieaenio ? aoaeoeaio i?ia?aio iiaeieaiiy
ath?ie?aoecio a i?aaia?e, iie?oe/i?e oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e noa?ao.

I?aaeiaoii iaoeiaiai aiae?co o o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “Aea?aeaaia
oi?aae?iiy ? i?iaeaia iiaeieaiiy ath?ie?ao?? a eiioaeno? no/anieo oiia
?aoi?ioaaiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy Oe?a?ie” — noaei aea/aiiy
eiie?aoieo oi?i aeyao ath?ie?aoecio ? no/anieo iaoiae?a ai?ioueae c iei
o oae?e aaaeeea?e ? aeieaiini?e noa?? noni?eueiiai oi?aae?iiy, yeith
caaaeaee aenooiaei aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy.

Iinoaaeaia iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? i?iaeaie
ath?ie?ao?? a eiioaeno? no/anieo oiia ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa aeiaaa?, ie??i caaaeueiiai oai?aoe/iiai ?icoi?iiy nooiino?
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, ua e ?ao?iniaeoeaii-aiae?oe/ia caa?iaiiy aei
i?ioean?a ?noi?e/iiai oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a
Oe?a?i?. O naith /a?ao, oea iaoiiaeth? iaoeiao iaiao?aei?noue ?icaeyaeo
niaoeeo?ee oi?ioaaiiy iino?aaeyinueei? ath?ie?ao?? oa nenoaie
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, yea ia?aaeaa/a? aecia/aiiy iniiaieo ?en
ath?ie?aoe/ii? nenoaie, ui neeaeany a ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc?, ? yea iaaiei
/eiii ia?aeoea o aeaeyae? niaaeueie aei iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie.

Aiae?coth/e i?iaeaio ni?aa?aeiioaiiy nenoaie eiiaiaeii-ath?ie?aoe/ii?
?aaeaiaioaoe?? c aeaiie?aoe/ieie i?eioeeiaie iiaoaeiae aeaiie?aoe/ii?
i?aaiai? nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae ? ?icaeoeo a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa, ne?ae i?aeoiaeeoe aei oeueiai ieoaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi
niaoeeo?ee oe?a?inueei? neooaoe??. Ni?aaa a oiio, ui acyo? a nai?o
?aeaaeueieo oi?iao eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaia oa aeaiie?aoe/ii
naiia?yaeiaoaaia nenoaie, aac noii?ao, aenooiathoue iiaieie
i?ioeeaaeiinoyie — ye iiceoea ? iaaaoea. Aea a ?aaeueiiio aeeoo?, o
i?aeoeoe? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, ie cono??/a?ii aeaui ?io? ?aae??,
ci?oai? iie?oe/i? oa aea?aeaai? ?aaeeie. Oae, iaa?yae /e ooinue ?c
no/anieo oe?a?inueeeo iie?oee?a noaia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?eoaiaiia
eiiaiaeiiio aaei?i?no?oaaiith aeenoeeie?ia, aeeiiaanoai, iaeiicia/ia
/?oe?noue iniiaieo ?icii?yaeaeaiue — oea iaaaoeai? yeino? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy. C ?ioiai aieo, “aa?y/ea aeaiie?aoe/iiai naiioi?aae?iiy”, /e
“iie?oeei-aea?aeaaia aeoi??y ia oii? aeaiie?aoe/ii? o?acaieia??”, ye ??
aecia/ea A.Oea?oeia, eiee aeaiie?aoe/i? i?eioeeie ?icoi?thoueny
oi?iaeueii, aaaea aei ?oeioaaiiy oe?eeo naeoi??a aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy, aeieeiaiiy niaeao?a aia?o??, ??ceiai iaae?iiy aeenoeeie?ie,
oaaa?ieoeoaa, ei?oioe??, coaiae?iiy i?eueeii?a ethaeae, i?aaiaiai
i?a?e?cio. Oaeee noai no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa ii?iaeaeo?
iaaacia/ia a?ae/oooy iinoaeuea?? ca noa?eie /anaie.

Oiio, iaaieiooth/e ia ?icaoaeia? aeaiie?aoe/iiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa ye iaeiiai c iaeiiooaei?oeo oaeoi??a ai?ioueae c
ath?ie?aoeciii, ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe ?nioaaiiy aeeaeiii? noia?a/iino? i?ae
ath?ie?ao??th oa a?iiaaeyinueeei noni?euenoaii. Ni?aaa a oiio, ui
a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai i?aaia caaacia/eoe i?aaiaee, iie?oe/iee oa
?aeaieia?/iee eiio?ieue iaae aea?aeaaieie ?inoeoooaie aeaaee, ai ?nio?
iaaaciaea aeoeaii? i?ioeae?? aea?aeaa? oa ?? ath?ie?aoe/iiai aia?aoo,
?icaeoeo canaae a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa. ? eiee aea?aeaa?
aaea?oueny aaeueioaaoe oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo? a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa, oi oiae? aea?aeaaia ath?ie?ao?y noa? aaeueioth/ei oaeoi?ii
o aeeoo? anueiai noni?euenoaa, a ?? iaeiio?ieueiaai?noue caeaoia
i?ecaanoe aea?aeaao aei aeeaeiii? oa nenoaiii? aeiiii?/ii? ? iie?oe/ii?
noaaiaoe??. O i?ioean? aca?iiae?? a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ?
ath?ie?ao?? iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe iayai?noue oaeiai i?eioeeio
aeaiie?aoe/ii? i?aaiai? nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae ye i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy
aeaaee i?aao, ine?eueee eeoa oaea aea?aeaaa, ui naia naaa iaiaaeo? ?
caoeua? ia eeoa ?ioa?ane aea?aeaaii? ath?ie?ao??, a aeiionea? ?nioaaiiy
iacaeaaeii? noni?eueii? aeoiee ? aeaiie?aoe/ieo a?iiaaeyinueeeo naiaiae,
caeaoia ni?a?nioaaoe c a?iiaaeyinueeei noni?euenoaii.

?acii c oei, aecia/aiee o aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? i?aaiaee
iaoai?ci ? caoiaee iiaeieaiiy ath?ie?aoecio, iia`ycai? c a?eueo
caaaeueiei caaaeaiiyi, yea iinoa? ca?ac ia?aae oe?a?inueeeie th?enoaie
oa iie?oieiaaie ii i?iaaaeaiith ?aoi?i ? aaeineiiaeaiiyi
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie. I?e oeueiio, ia?o ca ana
iathoue aooe ?ica’ycaii? o?e iniiai? a?oie ieoaiue: 1. anoaiiaeaiiy
/?oei aecia/aii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? a noa?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, a
oaeiae i?aai?caoe?y eiio?ieth ? iaaeyaeo a cacia/ai?e aaeoc? oi?aae?iiy;
2. ?ic?iaea ci?noiaii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aea?aeaaii? aeeiiaa/i?
ae?yeueiino?, /?oea aecia/aiiy ?? caaaeaiue, iai?yie?a ae?yeueiino?,
i?aaiaeo i?aenoaa, aeae?a oa canaaeieoeueeeo i?eioeei?a; 3.
a?aaoethaaiiy nenoaie noa`?eo?a aea?aeaaii? aeeiiaa/i? ae?yeueiino?, a
oaeiae iaoiae?a, i?ioeaaeo? oa oi?i ?o ?iaioe.

Aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy a i?ioean? aeaath?ie?aoecaoe?? iaaoaa? Eiioeaioe?y
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?. Iei?oiy aaei?i?no?aoeaia ?aoi?ia
iiaeiia ?icaeyaeaoeny ia ye iiaee ia?a?iciiae?e aeaaeieo iiaiiaaaeaiue
/e /a?aiaa eaae?iaa-no?oeoo?ia ia?anoaiiaea, a ye eiioeaiooaeueii
inieneaiee ia?ao?ae aei iiai? «o?einio??» oi?aae?iiy, ui iio?aao?
i?iaaaeaiiy ia /anoeiaeo ci?i, a nenoaiiiai iiiaeaiiy anueiai ci?noo
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee.

Aeey oni?oiiai ii/aoeo aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie iaiao?aeii iaoe /?oeo
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/io iiaeaeue ?aaeeeaeueiiai iiiaeaiiy on?o iniiaieo
aeaiaio?a, ?inoeooo?a ? aniaeo?a nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.

I?iiiiiaaia Eiioeaioe?y aea? oe?e?nia aa/aiiy iaoe ? iniiaieo iai?yie?a,
iaoiae?a ? cania?a cae?eniaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie, ?icaeyaeath/e
?? ci?no ye eiiieaen ocaiaeaeaieo i?ae niaith caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia
nooo?aa i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ea?iaaiino? noni?eueii aaaeeeaeo i?ioean?a
oeyoii iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?ii? iiaoaeiae oa ae?yeueiino? nenoaie
i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, ia?aoai?aiiy ?o c ianeaieo aeeiiaaoe?a
caeiiiaeaa/eo oa ?ioeo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a o ceaaiaeaeaiee oa
aoaeoeaiee iie?oe/iee iaoai?ci ae?iaeaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii?
iie?oeee, i?enei?aiiy aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo ?aoi?i. Aieiaiei o
Eiioeaioe?? ? aecia/aiiy i??i?eoao?a o i?iaaaeaii? no?oeoo?ieo,
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ? aea?aeaaii-neoaeaiaeo ia?aoai?aiue o noa?? aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee ? ii?yae c oeei — o noai?aii? oiia, ye? iiaeii? oeueiio ni?eyoe.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaeaathoueny ocaaaeueithth/? i?aenoiee ?iaioe,
aeeeaaeathoueny iaea?eueo aaaii? ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaiai iiooeo, a oaeiae
aecia/athoueny ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe
aeeeaaeai? o aeaeyae? ianooiieo oac:

— ?icoi?iiy ? ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie ath?ie?ao?? iaiiaeeeaa oeyoii
iaeiia?/ii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oeueiai yaeua c iiceoe?e o??? /e ?ioi?
aaeocaai-i?eeeaaeii? aeenoeeie?ie, ine?eueee eiai niaoeeo?ea aeeeoo?
iaiao?aei?noue anaa?/ii? nenoaiii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ath?ie?ao?? c?
caa?iaiiyi aei ?? i?aaiaiai, iie?oieia?/iiai, nioe?ieia?/iiai,
?noi?e/iiai oa eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai aniaeo?a;

— ?aae?caoe?y nenoaiiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy
ath?ie?aoecio, eiai iciae oa oi?i, no?oeoo?e ath?ie?aoe/ii? ???a?o??,
iniiaieo ooieoe?e oa iaoai?ci?a ath?ie?aoe/iiai oi?aae?iiy aeicaiey?
aecia/eoe ath?ie?aoeci ye ia?aa?neaio oi?io i?ioan?eiiai oi?aae?iiy,
caniiaaio ia cae??ieaii? ooieoe?e oe?eaaecia/aiiy oa i?eeiyooy ??oaiue
ca ei?ii?aoeaiei oi?aae?inueeei i?ioa?eii, yeee cai?ua? noni?eueiee ?
aea?aeaaiee ?ioa?an nai?i iniaenoei;

— iie?oe/iith iniiaith ath?ie?aoecio aenooia? a?ia?oeaio?ae?caoe?y ?
iino?eia ?icoe?aiiy noa?e aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia an? aaeoc? noni?eueiiai
aeeooy, ii?aeiaia c ia?aoiaeii aei eiiaiaeii-aee?aeoeaii? iiaeae?
aaei?i?no?oaaiiy; aeiiii?/iith iniiaith ath?ie?aoecio neoaeeoue
iiiiiie?caoe?y ooieoe?e ?icii?yaeaeaiiy ae?iaie/eie ?ano?naie oa
a?ae/oaeaiiy a?ae i?ioeano oi?aae?iiy ?aaeueieo aeaniee?a cania?a
ae?iaieoeoaa /e aeaniee?a, a eiai nioe?aeueiith aacith ? /eneaii? a?oie
iaeaae?o?eiaaii? i?aoe? a on?o noa?ao oi?aae?iiy, oae naii ye ?
noai?thaai? ath?ie?ao??th ??ciiiai?oi? i?ea?eaeiaai? a?oie oa
???a?o?ciaai? i?aenenoaie a i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy; i?aaiaith aacith
ath?ie?aoecio ? aioeaeaiie?aoe/ia i?aaiaa nenoaia;

— a?ae?a?ath/e aeano?oeoeaio ?ieue uiaei ?oeiaoe?? aeaiie?aoe/ii?
i?aaiai? nenoaie, ath?ie?ao?y oi?io? oaeo niaoeeo?/io oi?io i?aai?caoe??
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, ye ath?ie?aoe/iee aaoi?eoa?eci, ui noaea
iianyeaeaiiith ?aaeuei?noth aeey aaaaoueio iino?aaeyinueeeo oa
iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?i;

— aeae?eaiiy a oi?aae?ii? yaeu ? oaiaeaioe?e, ui o?enothoueny a oaiiiai?
ath?ie?aoecio, i?eaiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo i?i iaiao?aei?noue iiaeieaiiy
iaaaoeaieo aoaeo?a a oi?aae?ii?, oiio, aeine?aeaeoth/e aeaea?aea
no/anii? e?ece a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?, ii?o/ c
ia`?eoeaii-iaoa??aeueieie /eiieeaie, ne?ae aeae?eeoe ? noa`?eoeaiee
oaeoi?, i?ae yeei ?icoi??oueny ianaiia?aae e?eca oi?aae?iiy ?, cie?aia,
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy;

— iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei caniaii ai?ioueae c ath?ie?aoeciii o an?o eiai
oi?iao oa i?iyaao ? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia iinooiiai-ieaiii??ia ?icaoaeiaa
nioe?aeueii?, i?aaiai? aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae, a oaeiae noai?aiiy
ia`?eoeaieo oiia aeey ao?eaiiy iniiaieo ii?i, ?aeaae?a oa iaoai?ci?a
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, ine?eueee ca a?aenooiino?
no?eioth/eo oaeoi??a o aeaeyae? ?inoeooo?a a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa
ath?ie?ao?y, ye i?i oea ia?aeiieeai na?ae/eoue ?aaeyinueea ? no/ania
?noi??y, iiaeeeaa i?aaethaaiy iaa?oue cae??ieaieo a eiinoeoooe?eiiio
ii?yaeeo i?aa ? naiaiae ethaeeie a noa?ao iie?oeee, aeiiii?ee,
eoeueoo?e, a?aenooi aei oae caaiiai «oyaiiai eiinoeoooe?iiae?cio» (I.
Aaaa?).

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Ne?eiithe A.I. Iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneea i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey
ath?ie?aoecia eae nioeeaeueiiai yaeaiey // Iaoa?eaeu iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie
eiioa?aioeee. — Iaeanna, 1995, N.155-157.

2. Ne?eiithe A.I.Ath?ie?aoeci ? aeaaea a oioae?oa?iiio noni?euenoa?. —
Iaeana: Aeae-ai IAeO, 1996. — N.20-24.

3.Ne?eiithe A.I. Ath?ie?ao?y, ath?ie?aoeci oa aea?aeaaa // Iaoeiaee
a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. — 1998. — ? 24. — N.37-52.

4. Ne?eiithe A.I. Ie?ai? aniaeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie ai?ioueae
ath?ie?aoecio oa ath?ie?ao?? a i?aoeyo a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo
a/aieo// A?niee Iaeanueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa. — 1999. — ?
3. — N.124-132.

Ne?eiithe A.I. Oaiiiai ath?ie?ao?? oa ath?ie?aoecio a aea?aeaaiiio oa
iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? //A?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. I?aaiciaanoai.
— 1999. — ?48. — N.13-20;

Ne?eiithe A.I. Oaiiiai ath?ie?aoe/ii? ?aeaieia??: aiae?c
eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae// Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iie?oeee. Ca.iaoe.i?aoeue.
Iaeanueei? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai??. — Iaeana: Ano?ii?eio, 1999. — ?5. —
N.18-27;

Ne?eiithe A.I. I?iaeaia aecia/aiiy iie?oe/ieo aeaea?ae ath?ie?aoecaoe??
nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy // I?aai Oe?a?ie. — 1999. — ?6. —
N.23-26.

AIIOAOe??:

Ne?eiithe A.I. Ath?ie?aoeci a nenoai? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy oa
i?aaiaee iaoai?ci eiai iiaeieaiiy. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca oaoii 23.00.02 — iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe oa i?ioeane. — Iaeanueea
aea?aeaaia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y, Iaeana, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia eiiieaeniiio ?icaeyaeo i?iaeaie ath?ie?ao?? oa
ath?ie?aoecio. Aecia/athoueny iniiai? iaoeiai-iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee
aei aea/aiiy oeueiai noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai yaeua, aiae?cothoueny
i?aaia?, iie?oe/i?, aeiiii?/i?, nioe?aeuei? oa i?aai?caoe?ei? i?e/eie
eiai aeieeiaiiy, iaoai?cie ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ?aeaieia?/i? canaaee. Aaoi?
aeena?oaoe?? aeoeaioo? oaaao ia ca`yceo i?iaeaie ath?ie?aoecio c
ieoaiiyie iie?oeee, i?aaa, oai??? ? i?aeoeee aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy,
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oa i?ioan?eiino? i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaaii?
neoaeae, ?? eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy, a oaeiae aena?oeth? ieoaiiy
i?aaiaiai oa iie?oe/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy aea?aeaaith aaei?i?no?aoeaii?
ae?yeueiino? a i?ioean? ?icaoaeiae a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa oa
i?iaaaeaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?aoi?i.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ath?ie?ao?y, ath?ie?aoeci, iie?oeea, i?aai, ?aeaieia?y,
aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy, aaei?i?no?aoeaia ?aoi?ia, aaei?i?no?aoeaia
ae?yeuei?noue, a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai, aeaiie?ao?y, i?aaiaa
eoeueoo?a.

Ne?eiithe A.I. Ath?ie?aoeci a nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e
i?aaiaie iaoaieci aai i?aiaeieaiey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 23.00.02 — iieeoe/aneea einoeooou e i?ioeannu.
Iaeanneay ainoaea?noaaiiay th?eaee/aneay aeaaeaiey, Iaeanna, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eiiieaeniiio ?anniio?aieth i?iaeaiu ath?ie?aoee
e ath?ie?aoecia. Ii?aaeaeythony iniiaiua iao/ii-iaoiaeieiae/aneea
iiaeoiaeu a eco/aiee yoiai iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai yaeaiey,
aiaeece?othony i?aaiaua, iieeoe/aneea, yeiiiie/aneea, nioeeaeueiua e
i?aaiecaoeeiiiua i?e/eiu aai aicieeiiaaiey, iaoaieciu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey,
eaeaieiae/aneea iniiau.

Naeaeai auaiae i iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?aiaeieaiey iaaaoeaiuo yaeaiee a
oi?aaeaiee, iiyoiio, enneaaeoy enoi/ieee nia?aiaiiiai e?ecena a
oe?aeineii iauanoaa, ia?yaeo n iauaeoeaii-iaoa?eaeueiuie oaeoi?aie
auaeaeai e noauaeoeaiue oaeoi?, iiae eioi?ui iiae?acoiaaaaony i?aaeaea
anaai e?ecen oi?aaeaiey e, a /anoiinoe, ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey.
Iiae/??eeaaaony, /oi iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui n?aaenoaii ai?ueau n
ath?ie?aoeciii ai anao aai oi?iao e i?iyaeaieyo yaeyaony iao/ii
iainiiaaiiia ieaiiia?iia ?acaeoea nioeeaeueiiai, i?aaiaiai
aeaiie?aoe/aneiai ainoaea?noaa, a oaeaea nicaeaiea iauaeoeaiuo oneiaee
aeey aiaae?aiey iniiaiuo ii?i, eaeaaeia e iaoaieciia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa, iineieueeo i?e ionoonoaee naea?aeeaathueo
oaeoi?ia a aeaea einoeoooia a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa ath?ie?aoey iiaeao
ieaaee?iaaoue aeaaea cae?aie?iiua a eiinoeoooeeiiiii ii?yaeea i?aaa e
naiaiaeu /aeiaaea a noa?ao iieeoeee, yeiiiieee, eoeueoo?u, iaoee, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e oae iacuaaaiiio «iieiiio eiinoeoooeeiiaeecio» (I.Aaaa?).

Aaoi? aeenna?oaoeee aeoeaioe?oao aieiaiea ia nayce i?iaeaiu
ath?ie?aoecia n aii?inaie iieeoeee, oai?ee e i?aeoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey, iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe e i?ioanneiiaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau, aa eaae?iaiai iaania/aiey, a oaeaea inaauaao
aii?inu i?aaiaiai e iieeoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ainoaea?noaii
aaeieieno?aoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe a i?ioeanna iino?iaiey a?aaeaeaineiai
iauanoaa e i?iaaaeaiey aeaiie?aoe/aneeo ?aoi?i.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ath?ie?aoey, ath?ie?aoeci, iieeoeea, i?aai, eaeaieiaey,
ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea, aaeieieno?aoeaiay ?aoi?ia,
aaeieieno?aoeaiay aeayoaeueiinoue, a?aaeaeaineia iauanoai, aeaiie?aoey,
i?aaiaay eoeueoo?a.

Skrypniuk Valentyna Mykolaivna. Bureaucratism in state management system
and legal machinery in getting it over. — Manuscript.

Dissertation for conferring a Candidate Science (Law) Degrec,
speciality 23.00.02 — political institutions and processes. Odesa state
academy of law, Odesa ,1999.

A defense is made of a dissertation manuscript dedicated to the complex
review of the problem of bureaucracy and bureaucratism. The basic
scientific and methodological approaches in study of this political
phenomenon, the political, economic, social and organizational reasons
of its occurrence, mechanisms of functioning, ideological bases are
defined and analyzed in this work. The author of the dissertation pays
special attention to the problem of bureaucratism in its connection with
questions of politics, theory and practice of state management, increase
of efficiency of organization of a state service, its personnel
maintenance, and also covers questions of political and legal regulation
by the state of administrative activity during construction of a civil
community and realization of democratic reforms.

Key words: bureaucracy, bureaucratism, politics, ideology, state
management, legal regulation, administrative activity, civil community,
democracy, an administrative reform.

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