Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Aon?a A?eoi? ?aaiiae/

OAeE 329.7 (477)

Aoiae a noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie

/e?iaoeue O?O no. — 1921 ?./

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? aeey aoiai?oa?ieo oaeoeueoao?a
?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie

Eo?an ?aai Oaaei?iae/,

aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Aa?aiooaei Eaii?ae THoeiiae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo;

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Aieeiaeinueeee Aaea??e Ieeieaeiae/,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

a?aeae?eo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.

?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie;

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Nieaeaoaiei Aaea??e Oaaei?iae/,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo aoii?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue

?inoeoooo iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa
aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?iai? I.A?ooaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e aeaea?ae
iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_6__”___aa?aniy_____1999 ?. i __10__ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.20 a Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252033, i. Ee?a,
aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60, aoae. 349

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (i. Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_31___”_______eeiiy___________1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aiaeei I.?.

caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeena?oaoe??

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy.
?? ianya noaiiaeoue 378 noi??iie. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, aeanyoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e
(18 noi??iie, 214 iaca).

Anooi. Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy oa eiai iaoeiaa cia/ou?noue
aecia/a?oueny oei, ui ia no/aniiio aoai? oai?aiiy Oe?a?inueei?
noaa?aiii? aea?aeaae aaaeeeai? ?ie? iaaoaa? ?aei?noue, a?iiaaeyinueea
ceaaiaea, ni?aoai?/?noue ethaeae ??cieo aa?noa, iaoe?iiaeueiinoae,
a??iniia?aeaiiy. Iei? iaiao?aeia eiino?oeoeaia, iaa?oioiaaia, caaaeaia
iie?oeea c oei, uia iaea?eueo iioeiaeueii a?aoiaoaaoe ?ioa?ane on?o
oa??a noni?euenoaa oa aoi?/ieo ni?eueiio. Oe?eeii c?icoi?ei, ui no/ani?
i?iaeaie aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa oa iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai
?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie aeiaaathoue a?oioiaiiai aea/aiiy ? aeeaieiai inieneaiiy
ei??iieo aoai?a a?o/eciyii? ?noi???, cie?aia noai?aiiy oe?e?nii?
?noi?e/ii? ea?oeie nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo oa aoii-iaoe?iiaeueieo eie?c?e
ia ceai? O?O-OO noie?oue oa aeiae Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??.

I?e?iaeii, ui oaea ?noi?e/ia iieioii aoaea iaiiaiei aac aena?oeaiiy
?aeaeii-oai?aoe/ieo iiaeyae?a ? i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? Caaaeueiiai
?a?aenueeiai ?ia?oie/iai Nithco a Eeoa?, Iieueu? ? ?in?? (Aoiaeo), yeee
ai?iaeiaae /aa?o? noie?ooy iin?aeaa iii?oia i?noea a i?ioean?
?aaiethoe?eieo ia?aoai?aiue ia oa?aiao Oe?a?ie. O?eueee o iao /an
neeaaeathoueny iaiao?aei? oiiae aeey iiaeieaiiy iaeiia?/iiai, caeaa?eueo
iaaaoeaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy oaiiiaio oe??? ia?o?? c oei, uia, ia
iaeyaeath/enue ia ?aeaieia?/i? noa?aioeie oa iie?oe/i? ooaiie
iiia?aaeiuei? aeiae, aeeaiei aeine?aeeoe, i?iaiae?coaaoe ?
iaoia?aaeaeaii c’ynoaaoe i?noea ? ?ieue Aoiaeo o noni?eueiiio iinooi?.

Ca iiiaae noie?oi? ?nioaaiiy oe??? ia?o?? ye o a?o/eciyi?e, oae ?
ca?oa?aei?e ?noi??ia?ao??, neeaeiny iaiaeiicia/ia, /anii iiey?ii
i?ioeeaaeia noaaeaiiy aei aecia/aiiy ?? ?ie? ? i?noey a
caaaeueiiaeaiie?aoe/iiio ?on?, noi?ioaaeiny ?icia?ooy ioe?iie ??cieo
aoai?a ?? ae?yeueiino?. Aea iacaia?a/iei caeeoa?oueny oaeo
aeiaaio?eaaeiai ?nioaaiiy Aoiaeo ye neeaaeiai? /anoeie i?aeia?iaeii?
nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?? ? aeineoue aieeaiai? iie?oe/ii? i?aai?caoe??. Oiio
iaoeiaa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?noi??? aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e a Oe?a?i?, ia
iao iiaeyae, ia o?eueee ni?eyoeia noai?aiith a?eueo iiaiiai ?noi?e/iiai
ii?o?aoo Aoiaeo, aea e cia/iith i??ith aeicaieeoue aeyaeoe
?aeaeii-iie?oe/io nii??aeiai?noue, aai, iaaiaee, iai?eeiyoi?noue eiai
?aeaieia?? oa i?aeoeee aeey no/aniiai iie?oe/iiai aeeooy ?a?aenueei?
a?iiaaee a Oe?a?i? oa iica ?? iaaeaie.

Oaeei /eiii, ?ic?iaea icia/aii? oaie noaiiaeoue aacoiiaiee iaoeiaee
?ioa?an ? ia? aaaeeeaa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy c iaeyaeo ia ?? iaaeinoaoi?
aena?oeaiiy, iaiao?aei?noue aeaaaeaiiai inieneaiiy ?aeaeii? oa
i?aai?caoe?eii? aaiethoe?? Aoiaeo, aeina?ae yeiai ? aeineoue iia/aeueiei
aeey nueiaiaeaiiy ca oiia i?aeianaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?,
noaiiaeaiiy aaaaoiia?o?eii? nenoaie a Oe?a?i?.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeeooy a Oe?a?i? a
ia??iae ai?ioueae aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee ca iiaaeaiiy ?in?enueeiai
naiiaea?aeaanoaa, ?icai?oaiiy aecaieueieo oa aea?aeaaioai?/eo i?ioean?a
a aeiao Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??, iniiai? iai?yiee ae?yeueiino?
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa oa?oioaaiue o cae?eniaii? ei??iieo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue ia ?? oa?aiao.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noaiiaeaiiy oa ae?yeuei?noue aoiae?anueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e a Oe?a?i?, ?o i?noea ? ?ieue o ?aaiethoe?eiiio ?on? c /ano
eiai ?icai?oaiiy iai?ee?ioe? O?O no. aei e?ea?aeaoe?? iiia?o??, o/anoue
aoiae?aoe?a o noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? a ia??iae Oe?a?inueei?
?aaiethoe??, i?e/eie ?o ia?aoiaeo ia a?e ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aneththoue oe?a?inuee? caie?, ui
aoiaeeee aei ethoiai 1917 ?. aei neeaaeo ?in?enueei? ?iia???, a a
iiaeaeueoiio o? ?aa?iie, ia ye? iioe?thaaeany aeaaea OI? oa O?N?.

O?iiieia?/ii aeena?oaoe?y ioiieth? aeeeaae ?noi??? Aoiaeo c /ano
aeieeiaiiy iai?ee?ioe? XIX no. aei a?oaeiy 1921 ?. Ii/aoeiaa aeaoa
iia’ycaia c noai?aiiyi ia?oeo aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e a Oe?a?i?.
E?ioeaaa iaaea iaoiiaeaia oei, ui a aa?aci? 1921 ?. Aoiae i?eeiya
??oaiiy i?i naii?icione ? ceeooy c ?EI(a), a o a?oaei? oeueiai ?ieo
a?aeaoeany VI Anaoe?a?inueea eiioa?aioe?y EI(a)O, yea eiie?aoii
aecia/eea iniiai? iai?yiee ae?yeueiino? iaoe?iiaeueieo, o oiio /ene?
?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo naeoe?e, ye? i?iaeiaaeoaaee ae?yoe o neeaae?
ia?oeii?a ?anioae?ee o ianooii? ?iee.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, uia ia iniia? iaoeiaiai aiae?co
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iiai iaoa??aeo ?ice?eoe ci?no, iai?yiee oa iaoiaee
i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?noeaaeo aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e,
?a?aenueeiai Eiioi?noe/iiai ?ia?oie/iai Nithco (Eiioa?aaiaeo),
?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo naeoe?e o neeaae? eii?oao?a EI(a)O, aecia/eoe
?o i?noea oa ?ieue o noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie a cacia/aiee
ia??iae. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c oeei aeena?oaio noaaeoue ia?aae niaith oae?
caaaeaiiy:

— aeine?aeeoe ieoaiiy uiaei iayaiino? iaiao?aeii? nioe?aeueii? aace
aeey noai?aiiy aoiae?anueeeo ina?aaee?a na?aae ?a?aenueei? ni?eueiioe
Oe?a?ie iai?ee?ioe? XIX-ia ii/aoeo XX no., iieacaoe ?o o/anoue o iiae?yo
1905-1907 ??., a ia??iae iiaeaeueoiai ?aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo, a oaeiae
i?ae /an ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie;

— aena?oeeoe noai ni?aa o aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?yo a Oe?a?i? i?ney
iiaaeaiiy oea?nueeiai naiiaea?aeaanoaa a ?in??, ?ice?eoe ?o noaaeaiiy
aei Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo oa eiai ae?yeueiino?, c’ynoaaoe oa?aeoa?
aca?iia?aeiinei Aoiaeo c Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith, aaoueiainueeei
?aaeeiii, Aee?aeoi???th, aecia/eoe iiceoe?th aoiae?anueeiai ea??aieoeoaa
aei ?o aioo??oiuei? ? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe i?ioean iinooiiai? aaiethoe?? iiaeyae?a e?aea??a
Aoiaeo uiaei ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee a Oe?a?i?, i?e/eie iinooiiaiai
ia?aoiaeo a?eueoino? aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e ia eiioi?noe/io
ieaooi?io, ooai?aiiy Eiioa?aaiaeo, iieacaoe o?ae eiai ia?aaiai??a c
ea??aieoeoaii EI(a)O i?i naiie?ea?aeaoe?th oa ceeooy c i?aaey/ith
ia?o??th;

— ?ice?eoe oe?e? ? caaaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo
naeoe?e, ooai?aieo o neeaae? eii?oao?a a?eueoiaeoeueei? ia?o??, ?o
a?aeiia?aei?noue ?ioa?anai ?a?aenueeiai ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie,
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe caoiaee OeE EI(a)O, i?noeaaeo ia?o?eieo eii?oao?a uiaei
eaae?iaiai, iaoa??aeueiiai, o?iainiaiai caaacia/aiiy ?o ?iaioe,
i?aeaanoe i?aenoiee ae?yeueiino? aeaieo i?ae?icae?e?a;

— noi?ioethaaoe aeniiaee, ui aeieeaathoue c aea/aiiy iacaaii? oaie,
aecia/eoe iai?yiee iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?? aniaeo?a, aeoeaiooaaoe
oaaao ia iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiaiai iiooeo a
i?aeoeoe? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy Oe?a?ie ia no/aniiio aoai?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny oei, ui ii?ooai? a
i?e ieoaiiy aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ?icaeyaeathoueny o
eiiieaeniiio ieai?. Ae?yeuei?noue Aoiaeo ?ice?eaa?oueny ye i?aai?/ia,
iaa?ae’?iia neeaaeiaa /anoeia ?icaeoeo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a a
Oe?a?i? iai?ee?ioe? XIX — ia ii/aoeo XX no. I?e oeueiio aeaia ia?o?y
?icaeyaea?oueny ye iine?aeiaieoey oiai/anii? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei?
nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao??, ui noaaeea nia? ca iaoo iiaoaeiao nioe?aeueii
ni?aaaaeeeaiai noni?euenoaa oeyoii ?aoi?i. C iaeyaeo ia iniaeeaino?
aeiiii?/iiai oa iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae
Aoiae iaiaaaany caaacia/eoe naith aeii?ioth/o ?ieue a cao?ooaaii? oa
i?aaenoaaieoeoa? ?ioa?an?a ?a?aenueeeo o?oaeyueo.

Aia?oa a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? aecia/athoueny oa ocaaaeueiththoueny
caeiiii??iino? noai?aiiy aoiae?anueeeo ina?aaee?a a Oe?a?i?,
iaa?oioiao?oueny iayai?noue iaiao?aeii? nioe?aeueii? aace aeey
iiiiaiaiiy ?o eaa oa aeoeaii? ae?yeueiino? a aei?aaiethoe?eiee /an o
oeueiio ?aa?ii? ?in?enueei? ?iia???. C?iaeaii ni?iao iaoia?aaeaeaii
ioe?ieoe ia?aeiiai?noue e?aea??a oe??? ia?o?? a oeaiino? ia?aiiai
eai?inueeith ia?o??th oeyoo caaithaaiiy aeaaee oa aoae?aieoeoaa iiaiai
noni?euenoaa, ?ice?eoe i?e/eie iani?eeiyooy ieie ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee,
iieacaoe ?o oi?iiy a?aoiaiooaaoe nai? aeniiaee, caoeuaoe ?o a iieai?oe?
c iie?oe/ieie noia?ieeaie. Ia iniia? iiaeo eiioeaiooaeueieo i?aeoiae?a
?ice?eaathoueny ni?a?ia?oieoeoai Aoiaeo c Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith,
Aee?aeoi???th, aca?iia?aeiineie c aaoueiainueeei o?yaeii o ?ica’ycaii?
aaaeeeaeo ieoaiue aioo??oiuei? ? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie.

O aeena?oaoe?? iiaea?oueny ocaaaeueiaia ioe?iea oaeoi??a, ye? niiioeaee
aoiae?anueeeo e?aea??a a Oe?a?i?, cia/ii ?ai?oa, i?ae ?o ?in?enueeeo
iaeiiaeoioe?a, c?aeoeny nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ieo iiaeyae?a, ia?aeoe ia
eiioi?noe/io ieaooi?io ?, a?aoo?, i?aeo?eiaoe ?aaeyinueeo aeaaeo. Aia?oa
?ice?eaathoueny o?oaeiiu?, ye? ?i aeiaaeiny aeieaoe o o?eaaeeo
ia?aaiai?ao c ea??aieoeoaii EI(a)O i?i naiie?ea?aeaoe?th nai?o
ina?aaee?a ? ia’?aeiaiiy c iath oa aecia/a?oueny aianie eiaeiiai c
ia?oia??a o ae??oaiiy oe??? ni?aae, aiae?cothoueny i?e/eie
iaiaeiicia/iiai noaaeaiiy i?noeaaeo ia?o?eieo eii?oao?a aei ?a?aenueeeo
eiioi?noe/ieo naeoe?e o nai?io neeaae?.

Iaaaaeai? ocaaaeueiaiiy ni?yiiaai? ia iiaeieaiiy ?aeaieia?ciaaieo
noa?aioeiii iaaaoeaieo ioe?iie ae?yeueiino? Aoiaeo, Eiioa?aaiaeo.
?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo naeoe?e a Oe?a?i?, ui iaee i?noea a ?noi?e/i?e
e?oa?aoo?? iiia?aaei?o ?ie?a. Oea aeinyaa?oueny ia iniia? ii?aoethaaiiy
aaeeei? e?eueeino? aeieoiaio?a oa iaoa??ae?a, a?aeiieo aeine?aeieeai
ieioei? aeiae, aea aeei?enoiaoaaieo ieie, aeoiaey/e c
iaeiia?/ii-ia?o?eii? io?oe?eii? ioe?iee Aoiaeo. A aeena?oaoe?? nenoaiii
i?iaiae?ciaaii oe?iea eiei a?o?aieo aeaea?ae, cia/ia /anoeia yeeo aia?oa
aaiaeeoueny aei ia?ao iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?? neeaaeathoue i?eioeeie ?noi?ecio oa
ia’?eoeaiino?. I?e iaienaii? ?iaioe oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaeeny
o?aaeeoe?ei? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy: i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee,
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iee, ii??aiyeueiee, ?ao?iniaeoeaiee,
nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee, iaoiae ia??iaeecaoe?? oa ?io?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?? ci?no oa
aeniiaee nooo?ai ?icoe?ththoue niaeo? iaoeiaeo ciaiue c ?noi???
ae?yeueiino? Aoiaeo, Eiioa?aaiaeo, ?anaeoe?e EI(a)O, ni?eythoue
c’ynoaaiith ?o i?noey ? ?ie? a noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c nioe?aeueii? oa iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? iaoi?
aea?aeaae, o noai?aii? i?ae?o/iee?a, a oaeiae aeey /eoaiiy ii?iaoeaieo
oa niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee ai?iaiaai? o aenooiao ia
15 i?aeia?iaeieo, 6 ?anioae?eainueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo, a aeiiia?aeyo ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e ?noi??? aeey aoiai?oa?ieo oaeoeueoao?a ?noi?e/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, a?aeae?eo
?a?aenueei? ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e ?inoeoooo iie?oe/ieo oa
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe??. I?aenoiee aea/aiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie a?aeia?aaeai? a iaei?e
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e iiiia?ao??, 3 a?ioo?ao, a oaeiae o 20 noaooyo ?
iia?aeiieaiiyo, iioae?eiaaieo ye o a?o/eciyieo, oae ? caei?aeiiieo
aeo?iaeao oa i?aeaoc?anueeeo ca??ieeao (iiiaae 23 ae?oe. a?e.).

iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee ? aeaea?aeueia aaca
aeine?aeaeaiiy” i?iaiae?ciaaii e?oa?aoo?o, i?enay/aio ?noi??? Aoiaeo,
Eiioa?aaiaeo a Oe?a?i?, ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo naeoe?e o neeaae?
EI(a)O a cacia/ai? aeua o?iiieia?/i? iaae?.

Aeey ia?oiai, aei?aaiethoe?eiiai aoaio aea/aiiy oaie aoea i?eoaiaiiith
o/anoue a oeueiio aaciina?aaei?o o/aniee?a ?aaiethoe?eieo ia?aoai?aiue
oa ?a?aenueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo. O i?aoeyo, iaienaieo, ye i?aaeei,
c i?ioeeaaeieo ?aeaeieo iiceoe?e, ca a?aaeaiiyie a?ae eiie?aoieo iiae?e,
ciaoiaeeee nai? a?aeoai?aiiy ??ci? oi/ee ci?o ia ?ieue ? i?noea Aoiaeo,
eiai i?aai?caoe?e a ?icaeoeo aecaieueii? ai?ioueae. Oae, o ?iaioao
TH. Ia?oiaa, A. Iaaeaia, A. Einnianueeiai, A. Aeeiiaa cina?aaeaeoaaeany
oaaaa ia aeiaaaeaii? iiceoeaii? ?ie? Aoiaeo a caaaeueii?in?enueeiio
?ia?oie/iio ?on?, cie?aia a Oe?a?i?, ia iieac? eiai ae?yeueiino? ye
i?ioeano, ni?yiiaaiiai ia cao?ooaaiiy i?ieaoa??aoo ??cieo
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae a i?ioeai?noa? c oea?eciii. E??i oiai, aiie i?noyoue
oe?ii? aeai? i?i ca?iaeaeaiiy aoiae?anueeiai ?ooo a oe?a?inueeeo caieyo.

Aeey e?ai?aaeeeaeueiiai e?eea ?in?enueei? nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?? aoa
i?eoaiaiiee i?ioeeaaeiee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy ?aaiethoe?eieo
iiaeeeainoae aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e. Aeinoaoiuei aeoeaiooaaoe oaaao
ia eai?inueeiio noaaeaii? aei Aoiaeo, ia?oa a?aaeaiiy i?i yeiai o
iaeaooiueiai e?aea?a a?eueoiaee?a aoei iaiiaaiei. O ?iaio? “Iacaaei?e
iai?yi o ?in?enuee?e nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao??”, iaienai?e a 1899 ?., a
ia?ae?eo aeoeaieo o/aniee?a ?in?enueeiai ?ia?oie/iai ?ooo A.?. Eai?i
iacaaa “?a?aenueeee ?ia?oie/ee nithc”, ui ia noiya “in?aii” a?ae
i?ioeano ooai?aiiy ?NAe?I. Aea ai?iaeiaae aaaaoueio ?ie?a a?i i/iethaaa
ai?ioueao c aoiaeeciii ? ia aieiae e?aea??a oe??? iie?oe/ii? oa/??
neiaeeny caeioaa/aiiy a naia?aoeci?, iaioiaeci?, iii?ooi?ci?,
e?ea?aeaoi?noa?. Iiae?ai? ae ioe?iee eoiaee c noi??iie aaaaoueio
a?eueoiaeoeueeeo aeaeaiue, cie?aia i?noeeeny o i?aoe? I. Eyaeiaa
“Enoi?ey ?inneeneie nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?aai/ae ia?oee”.

Oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith ianooiiiai, ae?oaiai aoaio aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi???
Aoiaeo, ui ioiieth? 1920-1930 ??., iiaeia aaaaeaoe i?iaeiaaeaiiy
c?oeiaiiy aeoiie i?aaenoaaiee?a aeaio oaiaeaioe?e, ii/aoie yeei aoei
iieeaaeaii a aei?aaiethoe?eiee /an. Aeey iaaii? /anoeie aaoi??a iinooeao
i?i ?aaiethoe?ei?noue Aoiaeo oa eiai cia/iee aianie o ?icaeoie
aecaieueii? ai?ioueae caeeoaany aeo?aeiei iiiaioii aeey aea/aiiy ?noi???
ye ?a?aenueeiai, oae ? caaaeueii?in?enueeiai ?ia?oie/iai oa
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo. Cie?aia, i?i oea na?ae/aoue noaoo?
A. E?aia?a, I. Aooa?iaea?a, A. Oeiaeeia.

C iaeyaeo ia oaeee i?aeo?ae caneoaiaothoue ia oaaao ie?ai? iaoeia?
?ica?aeee, a yeeo eaeaoueny i?i noai?aiiy ia?oeo aoiae?anueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e a Oe?a?i?, i?i ?o o/anoue o aenooiao i?ioe ?nioth/iai eaaeo
?acii c ?ioeie iiiceoe?eieie oa?oioaaiiyie ia ii/aoeo OO no., o
?aaiethoe?eieo iio?yn?iiyo 1905 — ethoiai 1917 ??. I?aeoe/ii ?aeeiith
i?aoeath, a ye?e aaciina?aaeiuei aena?oeth?oueny ae?yeuei?noue Aoiaeo a
Oe?a?i? aei iiaaeaiiy naiiaea?aeaanoaa, iiaeia iacaaoe noaooth
A. THaeeoeueeiai.

Eiinoaooth/e iayai?noue iaaiiai oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, iaiaaaiiy aaoi??a
aeaoe aeanio ioe?ieo iiae?e, ?acii c oei nooo?aei iaaeie?eii oeeo
i?aoeue ? iaaeinoaoi?noue a?oioiaiiai aiae?co, o?aaiaioa?i?noue o
aeeeaae?, a?aenooi?noue oe?e?nii? ea?oeie ae?yeueiino? Aoiaeo a Oe?a?i?.

O oie aea /an, o i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy o a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao??
io?oe?eiiai ia?o?eiiai i?aeoiaeo aei aena?oeaiiy ?noi??? aecaieueii?
ai?ioueae, ?ie? oa i?noey a i?e ??cieo iie?oe/ieo nee, a?aeia?aaeaiiy
aoiae?anueeiai ?ooo iaaoaaei inoaoi/ii iaaaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o.
A?aeaoaaany i?ioean aaiethoe?? iiaeyae?a aeine?aeiee?a a ioe?ioe? ci?noo
? oa?aeoa?o ae?yeueiino? Aoiaeo. Nii/aoeo aaoi?e aeiaiaeeee iaooeeueio
ao?aoo iei nai?? ?aaiethoe?eiino?, ye aei iiaaeaiiy naiiaea?aeaanoaa,
oae ? iniaeeai a aeiao Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??, i?i ui na?ae/aoue
i?aoe? I. ?aoana. A iiaeaeueoiio aaea eoeiny i?i eiai eiio??aaiethoe?eio
ae?yeuei?noue, ye noaa?aeaeoaaee N. Aao?nueeee ? N. Aeeiaiooaei, ?
iaa?oue oaa?oaaiiy Aoiaeo ye aioea?eueoiaeoeueei? i?aai?caoe??
(A. Oaaainueeee).

C 1930-o — aei e?ioey 80-o ?ie?a (oeae /an iiaeia aecia/eoe ye o?ao?e
aoai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? Aoiaeo) o ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? iaioaaa
iiiiiieueiee ia?o?eii-eeaniaee i?aeo?ae aei i?ciaiiy noni?eueieo yaeu,
ui caiaeea aoaeue-yeee ?noi?e/iee i?ioean aei ?ino?oiaioo iie?oeee,
noaaea iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy a caeaaei?noue a?ae ia? ? oiaiiaeeeaethaaa
?o ?icaeoie aac oioaeueiiai eiio?ieth. A oiiaao noae?i?caoe?? ?noi?e/ii?
iaoee uiaei ?aeaeii-oai?aoe/ieo ianoaiia oa ae?yeueiino? iaoe?iiaeueieo
ia?o?e, a oiio /ene? e Aoiaeo, aoee ae?iaeai? ocaaaeueithth/? ooaiie
(“ao?aeoaciee iaoe?iiae?ci”, “ae??aiiao?aeoacia oaiaeianoai”,
“iaoe?iiaeueia iaiaaeai?noue” oiui), ye? aoee aee?aeoeaieie ?
ia?aoiaeeee ?c iaeiiai io?oe?eiiai aeaeaiiy aei ?ioiai.

Aeaiie?aoecaoe?y noni?eueiiai aeeooy o 1950-o? — ia ii/aoeo 60-o ?ie?a
ia aianea ?noioieo ci?i a ioe?ieo ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo Aoiaeo. Aea a
iecoe? iiiia?ao?e c ?noi??? ai?ioueae Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? c? nai?ie
iie?oe/ieie iiiiaioaie cia/ii ?icoe?aii aeieoiaioaeueio oa oaeoieia?/io
aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? i?noeaaeo aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, a
oiio /ene? a Oe?a?i?. Na?aae ieo ne?ae iacaaoe iiiia?ao?? E.I. Ni???ia,
O.I. Ano?aoaia, E.A. Aon?aa, a?ioo?o E.A. Aon?aa ? A.I. Iieooe?ii?,
eieaeoeaio i?aoeth “Iai?ieaoa?neea ia?oee. O?iee enoi?ee” oa ?io?.

O 1970-o? — ia ii/aoeo 80-o ??. Aoiae noa? ia’?eoii niaoe?aeueieo
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue *.A. Iaiaaana, TH.?. Oanoaea, I.N. A?o?iai?,
I.I. *a?ayeiai?, aea e ooo i?ia?aiia? i?aeaaeeie oa i?aeoe/ia
ae?yeuei?noue aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e oaeiae ?icaeyaeaeeny /a?ac
i?ecio i?ioeai?noaa c a?eueoiaeeaie ca aieea ia ia?iaei? iane. Iacaai?
aaoi?e canoaeaeoaaee e?aea??a Aoiaeo ca i?aeo?eieo Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo,
caeioaa/oaaee ?o o a?aenooiino? aeanii? oi/ee ci?o ia ia?niaeoeae
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie, o aaccanoa?aaeiiio noaaeaii?
eo?no ?in?enueeeo ana??a oa iaioiaee?a, a a Oe?a?i? — i?noeaaeo
nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a ? nioe?ae?no?a-?aaiethoe?iia??a, noai?thaaieo ieie
aeaaeieo ?inoeoooe?e. Iaeiicia/ii aena?oethaaeiny ia?ainieneaiiy
aoiae?aoeyie nai?? iie?oe/ii? i???ioaoe??, ni?eeiyooy ieie eiioi?noe/ii?
?aeaieia??, ?o ia?ao?ae ia iiceoe?? ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee, ooai?aiiy
Eiioa?aaiaeo ? ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo naeoe?e o neeaae? EI(a)O.

Aeey i?aoeue oe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaoe?a ?.O. Eo?ana, I.E. Aa?aaothea,
A.O. Nieaeaoaiea, I.I. Oii?aoia, ui aeoiaeeee ae?oeii a oeae ia??iae,
aoei i?eoaiaiiei ii?ooaiiy eiea aiaeia?/ieo ieoaiue aeeeth/ii a
caaaeueiiio eiioaeno? ?noi??? ?aaiethoe?eieo ia?aoai?aiue ia oa?aiao
Oe?a?ie. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ia ci?no? iacaaieo aeaeaiue iicia/aeeny
o?aaeeoe?ei? oiai/ani? eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee, oe? ?ica?aeee ni?eyee
?icoe?aiith oyae i?i oa?aeoa?, ci?no ? ?oo?ei? neee aecaieueii?
ai?ioueae, aaiaeeee aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao aaaaoi iiaeo aeieoiaioaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a ? eiie?aoieo oaeo?a.

Iaaiei e?ieii ia oeyoo iaoeiaiai ocaaaeueiaiiy ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo
Aoiaeo noaee aeena?oaoe?ei? aeine?aeaeaiiy I.N. A?o?iai? ?
I.I. *a?ayeiai?. C iaeyaeo ia no/ani? i?aeoiaee iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia
oe?ii?noue oeeo i?aoeue iieyaa? o aeyaeaii? oa ii?eethaeiaii? cia/ieo
a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a, iaoa??ae?a ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, ui
aaciina?aaeiuei noinothoueny ae?yeueiino? i?aai?caoe?e Aoiaeo,
Eiioa?aaiaeo, ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo naeoe?e o neeaae? EI(a)O.

?c i?iaieioaiiyi o 1991 ?. iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie aoei iieeaaeaii ii/aoie
no/aniiio aoaio aeine?aeaeaiiy ei??iieo a?o ?noi??? iaoi? aea?aeaae.
Iia? iiaeeeaino?, ui a?aee?eeeny o ia?ainieneaii? ieioeiai, aianee
ea?aeeiaeuei? ci?ie o ni?aao aena?oeaiiy ?aeaeii-oai?aoe/ieo canaae ?
ae?yeueiino? Aoiaeo a oe?a?inueeeo caieyo. I?ioa, nooo?aeo c?ooaiue o
oe?e ni?aa? ua ia a?aeaoeiny, aoiae?anueea i?iaeaiaoeea caeeoa?oueny
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoeiaeo ?ica?aeie c ?noi??? Oe?a?inueei?
?aaiethoe??, iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo i?ioean?a, ?ie? oa i?noey a ieo
?a?aenueei? ni?eueiioe oiui. I?i oea, cie?aia, na?ae/eoue ci?no i?aoeue
A.O. Nieaeaoaiea, E.TH. Aa?aiooaeia, ss.N. Oii?aniaia ? I.ss. Iaeiaia,
I.A. Ua?aaea ? I.I. Ua?aae oa ?ioeo. Oiae? ae ?icii/aa eiiieaenia
aea/aiiy iacaaii? oaie aaoi? aeena?oaoe??.

C?icoi?ei, ui ?noi?e/ia ieioea Aoiaeo ? ia’?eoii aea/aiiy ? ca iaaeaie
eieeoiueiai N?N?. Iaeiae ciaeiinoai c ?iicaiiith iaoeiaith e?oa?aoo?ith
aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe i?i a?aenooi?noue oe?e?nieo ?ic?iaie c ?noi???
aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e a Oe?a?i?, i?i ui, aei ?a/?, na?ae/aoue
iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? oai?aoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 100-??//th
canioaaiiy Aoiaeo (Aa?oaaa, eenoiiaae 1997 ?.). *e ia ?aeeiith
?ica?aeeith c aeaiiai ieoaiiy ? iiiia?ao?y N. Aieueaeaeueiaia
“AEeae?anueea iaoe?iiaeueia aaoiiii?y ia Oe?a?i? (1917-1920 ??.)”.

Oaeei /eiii, iaa?oue noeneee aiae?c noaio iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee aeaii? oaie
ia?aeiieeai na?ae/eoue i?i a?aenooi?noue a no/ani?e ?noi??ia?ao??
niaoe?aeueii? iaoeiai? i?aoe?, i?enay/aii? aea/aiith ae?yeueiino?
Aoiaeo, Eiioa?aaiaeo, ?anaeoe?e EI(a)O, aecia/aiith ?o i?noey ? ?ie? a
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie (e?iaoeue O?O no. — a?oaeaiue
1921 ?.).

Aeaea?aeueiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ianaiia?aae aeieoiaioe oa
iaoa??aee, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio
a?o?a? Oe?a?ie, Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee
oa oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie, Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? a?iiaaenueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue Oe?a?ie, ?in?enueeiio oeaio?? caa??aaiiy ? aea/aiiy
aeieoiaio?a iia?oiuei? ?noi???, Aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? ?in?enueei?
Oaaea?aoe??. ?o aa?oi ?iciiae?eeoe ia o?e o?iiieia?/i? a?oie.

Ia?oa a?oia aeaea?ae, ye? noinothoueny ?noi??? Aoiaeo oa eiai i?noeaaeo
i?aai?caoe?e a Oe?a?i? c /ano ?o aeieeiaiiy ? aei ethoiai 1917 ?.,
ciaoiaeyoueny o oiiaeao I?aaeaiiiai ?aeiiiiai ioi?iiiiai a?aeae?eaiiy,
i. Iaeana (o. 268), Ee?anueeiai ioi?iiiiai a?aeae?eaiiy (o. 275),
Iaeanueeiai aeaiaea?inueeiai oi?aae?iiy (o. 385), eieaeoe?? eeno?aie
(o. 838) oa ?ioeo oiiae?a Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao
Oe?a?ie; o oiiaeao Caaaeueiiai ?a?aenueeiai ?ia?oie/iai Nithco (o. 271)
?in?enueeiai oeaio?o caa??aaiiy ? aea/aiiy aeieoiaio?a iia?oiuei?
?noi???; o oiiaeao Iniaeeaiai a?aeae?eo aeaia?oaiaioo iie?oe?? IAN ?in??
(o. 102) Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??. ?o ii?aoethaaiiy
aeicaieeei i?inoaaeeoe i?ioean ca?iaeaeaiiy ina?aaee?a oe??? ia?o??,
iinooiiaiai caaithaaiiy ieie aaoi?eoaoo na?aae ?a?aenueeiai ianaeaiiy ye
o aaeeeeo oeaio?ao, oae ? a i?noa/eao I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiai e?ath,
anoaiiaeaiiy ca’yce?a c i?aaenoaaieeaie ?ioeo iiiceoe?eieo oa?oioaaiue c
iaoith i?aai?caoe?? ni?eueii? ai?ioueae ca iiaaeaiiy naiiaea?aeaaii?
aeaaee.

Ae?oaa a?oia aeaea?ae — aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue
ae?yeuei?noue aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie i?ney iiaaeaiiy
oea?nueeiai naiiaea?aeaanoaa ? aei e?ioey 1921 ?. Aiie a?aeeeaeeny o
oiiae? Oeaio?aeueiiai Eii?oaoo Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? Oe?a?ie (o. 1),
oiiae? ?a?aenueeeo iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo ia?o?e ? i?aai?caoe?e (o. 41)
Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue Oe?a?ie; o
oiiae? Anaoe?a?inueeiai Oeaio?aeueiiai Aeeiiaa/iai Eii?oaoo ?aae
?ia?oie/eo, naeyinueeeo ? /a?aiiia?i?enueeeo aeaiooao?a (o. 1), oiiae?
Ia?iaeiiai Eii?na??aoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa O?N? (o. 5) Oeaio?aeueiiai
aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie; o oiiae?
Caaaeueiiai ?a?aenueeiai ?ia?oie/iai Nithco (o. 271), oiiae?
Oeaio?aeueiiai Ath?i ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo naeoe?e i?e OeE AEI(a)
(o. 445) ?in?enueeiai oeaio?o caa??aaiiy ? aea/aiiy aeieoiaio?a
iia?oiuei? ?noi???. ?o aeyaeaiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy aea? i?aenoaae aeey
aeniiae?a i?i caeaoi?noue Aoiaeo a?aeiiaethaaoe nai? ina?aaeee,
iiiiaithaaoe ?o eaae, oeeaaeaoe iie?oe/i? nithce o ai?iouea? ca
?aae?caoe?th nai?o i?ia?aiieo ianoaiia. Naia oey a?oia aeaea?ae noai?th?
iaiao?aeio aaco aeey aea/aiiy neeaaeii?, noia?a/eeai? ? /anii
ae?aiaoe/ii? ?aeaeii? oa i?aai?caoe?eii? aaiethoe?? Aoiaeo ca aeiae
Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??, aeey c’ynoaaiiy iioea?a, ye? a iiaeaeueoiio
niiioeaee aoiae?anuee? i?aai?caoe?? aei ceeooy c EI(a)O.

O?aoy a?oia aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a, ui aena?oeththoue i?ioean
noaiiaeaiiy ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo naeoe?e, ?o ia?o? e?iee o neeaae?
EI(a)O, i?noyoueny o oiiae? Oeaio?aeueiiai Eii?oaoo Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o??
Oe?a?ie (o.1), oiiae? ?a?aenueeeo iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo ia?o?e ?
i?aai?caoe?e (o. 41) Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao a?iiaaenueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue Oe?a?ie; oiiae? Anaoe?a?inueeiai Oeaio?aeueiiai Aeeiiaa/iai
Eii?oaoo ?aae ?ia?oie/eo, naeyinueeeo ? /a?aiiia?i?enueeeo aeaiooao?a
(o. 1), oiiae? Ia?iaeiiai Eii?na??aoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa O?N? (o. 5)
Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy
Oe?a?ie; oiiae? Oeaio?aeueiiai Ath?i ?a?aenueeeo naeoe?e i?e OeE AEI(a)
(o. 445) ?in?enueeiai oeaio?o caa??aaiiy ? aea/aiiy aeieoiaio?a
iia?oiuei? ?noi???. ?o aiae?c aea? ciiao ?ice?eoe iniiai? iai?yiee
ae?yeueiino? ?anaeoe?e ii iie?ioaiith iaoa??aeueiiai noaiiaeua
?a?aenueeiai ianaeaiiy, ii caeo/aiith eiai aei i?iaeoeoeaii? i?aoe?,
i?aai?caoe?? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ?iaioe, aeei?enoaiith aeiiiiiae
a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo aeaaiae?eieo onoaiia ii iiia?aaeaeaiith oa
i?eieiaiith ai?a?aoe?? ?a?a?a c Oe?a?ie. Iaaieo ieano oeeo aeaea?ae
aeicaiey? iieacaoe i?ioeai?noai ?anaeoe?e c ?a?aenueeith Eiioi?noe/iith
ia?o??th /I.-Oe./ c i?eioeeiiaeo ieoaiue iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy.
Ocaaaeueiaiiy iacaaieo aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a aea? i?aenoaao aeey
c’ynoaaiiy oi?i ? iaoiae?a ea??aieoeoaa EI(a)O iaoe?iiaeueieie
naeoe?yie, aecia/aiiy ?o i?aa oa iaia’yce?a, acaaae? ia?niaeoea
?nioaaiiy, iaoa??aeueiiai, o?iainiaiai, eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy oeeo
i?aai?a, aeey aeniiae?a i?i ae??a?noue eiio?ieth OeE ca aeeiiaiiyi
i?noeaaeie ia?oeiiaie iinoaiia ? ?icii?yaeaeaiue c aeaieo ieoaiue, i?i
iaiaeiicia/ia noaaeaiiy ia i?noeyo aei ?anaeoe?e a oe?eiio, i?i ?ieue
VI Anaoe?a?inueei? ia?o?eii? eiioa?aioe?? o ?ica’ycaii? oeeo i?iaeai.

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey aea/aiiy ae?yeueiino? Aoiaeo ? eiai
ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy ia ?aeeo oa ?in?enueeith iiaith, yeeo ca 25 ?ie?a
naiai ?nioaaiiy a ?in?? a?i iaa aeecueei 500. ??ciiiai?oi? ioae?eaoe??
ia ?o noi??ieao i?noyoue oe?iiee ?ioi?iaoeaiee iaoa??ae i?i
ae?yeuei?noue eiai OeE, ?iaioo ia?aae, eiioa?aioe?e, ieaioi?a oa
c’?cae?a, i?i noai ni?aa o i?noeaaeo eieaeoeaao, cie?aia a Oe?a?i?.

Caneoaiaothoue ia oaaao iaoa??aee i?i ae?yeuei?noue aoiae?anueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e a ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie aei ethoiai 1917 ?. ? i?ney
iiaaeaiiy naiiaea?aeaanoaa, ai?uai? a ia??iaee/ieo
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ieo aeaeaiiyo (“Ene?a”, “AEeciue”, “I?ieaoa?ee”,
“Oiaa?eu”, “Aiein nioeeae-aeaiie?aoa”, “Aeaei ia?iaea”, “Aeaiue”, “Ciaiy
o?oaea” oa ?io?), a oaeiae o aacaoao ??ciiai iie?oe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy, ui
ae?oeoaaeeny a Oe?a?i? (“Iiaa ?aaea”, “?ia?oie/a aacaoa”, “Aia?aae”,
“Eeaaneay iuneue”, “Eeaaeyiei” oa ?io?). Iaaiith i??ith ae?yeuei?noue
Aoiaeo ciaoiaeeea a?aeia?aaeaiiy a n?ii?nonuee?e ia??iaeeoe? (“Aa?aeneay
?aai/ay o?iieea”, “Aa?aeneay iaaeaey”, “Aa?aeneee ?aai/ee”, “Aa?aeneay
aeeciue”, “?aaiethoeeiiiia ciaiy” oa ?io?).

Aaaiiee ieano ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i noai ni?aa o i?noeaaeo aoiae?anueeeo
ina?aaeeao, Eiioa?aaiae? ? ?anaeoe?yo, noaaeaiiy aei ieo a?eueoiaee?a
i?ney caaithaaiiy ieie aeaaee i?noeoueny a ia?o?eieo oa ?aaeyinueeeo
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo (“Ecaanoey OeE ?EI(a)”, “Atheeaoaie Nae?aoa?eaoa
Oeaio?aeueiiai Eiieoaoa Eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee (aieueoaaeeia) Oe?aeiu”,
“Ecaanoey OeE EI(a)O”, “AEeciue iaoeeiiaeueiinoae”, “I?aaaea”,
“Eiiioieno”, “Ecaanoey Anaoe?aeineiai Oeaio?aeueiiai Eniieieoaeueiiai
Eiieoaoa Niaaoia ?aai/eo, e?anoueyineeo e nieaeaoneeo aeaiooaoia e
Oa?ueeianeiai Niaaoa ?aai/eo aeaiooaoia” oa ?io?).

Cia/io a?oio aeaea?ae, aeei?enoaieo o aeena?oaoe??, noaiiaeyoue ca??ee
aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a c ?noi??? ?aaiethoe?eiiai ?ooo, ae?yeueiino?
??cieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ? oa?oioaaiue, a oiio /ene? Aoiaeo, aei
iiaaeaiiy naiiaea?aeaanoaa a ?in??, ?icaeoeo noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai
aeeooy a Oe?a?i? a 1917-1921 ??.

Ie?aio a?oio aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue niiaaaee aeoeaieo o/aniee?a
aoiae?anueeiai ?ooo, i?aaenoaaiee?a ?in?enueei? nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao??
oiui. Iaioa?e I. ?aoana, I. Aeiia?aaeiai?, A. Aaeoeia, I. Aooa?iaea?a,
?. Ae?a?iae oa ?ioeo i?eaa?oathoue oaaao oei, ui a ieo iaaiaeyoueny
/eneaii? oaeoe, ?iciia?aea?oueny i?i iiae??, ui ia ciaeoee naiai
aeieoiaioaeueiiai i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy, cia/iith i??ith ia?aaea?oueny
iai?oaa noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae, aino?ioa ?aeaeieo
noia?a/iinoae, aeyaey?oueny iniaenoa noaaeaiiy aaoi??a aei ae?yeueiino?
aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e a Oe?a?i?.

Ioaea, iaaaaeaiee noeneee iaeyae aeaea?ae cana?ae/o? iayai?noue
aeinoaoiuei? aace aeey ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue, iinoaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe??,
aea? i?aenoaae aeey cae?eniaiiy a?aoiaioiaaieo ocaaaeueiaiue oa
aeniiae?a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Ca?iaeaeaiiy aoiae?anueeiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?
(e?iaoeue O?O — ii/aoie OO no.)” iniiaio oaaao cina?aaeaeaii ia
c’ynoaaii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aaeoiia aeieeiaiiy aoiae?anueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e, aena?oeaii? ?o iinooiiaiai i?aai?caoe?eiiai noaiiaeaiiy oa
aeeth/aiiy o ai?ioueao i?ioe oea?ecio ia oa?aiao Oe?a?ie.

Aiae?c nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ? iie?oe/iiai noaiiaeua ia?aaaaeii?
/anoeie ?a?aenueeiai ianaeaiiy, ae?ae iacaaeia?eueiiai iaoa??aeueiiai oa
iiaooiaiai ??aiy eiai aeeooy na?ae/eoue i?i aaaeeee noai ?a?aenueeeo
?ia?oiee?a, ?ai?niee?a, eonoa??a, ae??aieo e?aia??a oiui. Iniaeeai?
aino?ioe neooaoe??, ui neeaeany o oeueiio na?aaeiaeu?, iaaeaaaea nenoaia
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa ?ae?a?eiiai aiiaeaiiy, yea iaioaaea a naiiaea?aeaai?e
?in??. Oea noai?thaaei iaiao?aei? ia?aaeoiiae aeey iioe?aiiy
nioe?ae?noe/ieo ?aeae na?aae ?a?aenueeeo o?oaeyueo, aeieeiaiiy nii/aoeo
?aaiethoe?eieo ao?oe?a, a iio?i — aoiae?anueeeo ina?aaee?a.

Aaea o 80-90 ??. ieioeiai noie?ooy o Aa?aee/aa?, AEeoiie??, Ee?a?,
E?aiai/ooe?, Oa?eia?, Iaean?, I?aeei?, Iieoaa? oa aeayeeo i?noa/eao
Oe?a?ie aoee ooai?ai? ia?o? nioe?ae?noe/i? ?a?aenuee? ao?oee. Aiie
ia’?aeioaaee ?ia?oiee?a, ?ai?niee?a, eonoa??a ? ae??aieo e?aia??a i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii ia?enenonueei iaeaooiaaieo ?ioae?aaio?a. Ii?yae c
iaieiae?iiyi caaaeueiiina?oi?ie ciaiiyie neooa/? aea/aee iniiae oai???
E. Ia?ena, ciaeiieeeny c aeieoiaioaie oa aeina?aeii i?aeia?iaeii?
nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?? ? aiooaaeeny aei i?iiaaaiaeenonueei? ae?yeueiino?.

C aeoea?caoe??th caaaeueii?in?enueeiai aecaieueiiai ?ooo ia ii/aoeo
OO no. iineethaaeany oaiaeaioe?y aei noai?aiiy nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ieo
i?aai?caoe?e ? na?aae ?a?aenueeeo o?oaeyueo a Oe?a?i?. Ea??aio ?ieue a
oeueiio i?ioean? cae?enithaaa Aoiae, yeee ?icai?ioa aeoeaio
ae?yeuei?noue ia ?? oa?aiao. “…?a?aenueeee ?ia?oie/ee ?oo, ea?iaaiee
Aoiaeii, i?ioiaeeoue oe?ieith nioaith ii I?aaeith — Caoiaeo ?in??, —
cacia/aeiny o ca?o? Aoiaeo ca 1901-1902 ??. aei ?? c’?caeo ?NAe?I, —
aeieeathoue aoiae?anuee? eii?oaoe a AEeoiie??, Aa?aee/aa?, aoiae?anueea
i?aai?caoe?y a Iaean?, noai?ththoueny a?oie ? ao?oee, ye? i?eieeathoue
aei Aoiaeo, a Ee?a? ? Ee?anuee?e aoaa?i??, a *a?i?a?anuee?e,
Aieeinuee?e, Iiae?euenuee?e ? Iieoaanuee?e aoaa?i?yo”.

I?i iiaeaaaeaiiy aoiae?anueeiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? na?ae/aoue aeieoiaioe
oea?nueei? ioi?iiee, yea o?eiaea ae?yeuei?noue Aoiaeo a iianyeaeaiiiio
iie? ci?o. A aeiianaiiyo ?? ni?a?ia?oiee?a i?aee?anethaaeiny oi?iiy
/eai?a oe??? ia?o?? eiini??aoeaii aanoe ?iaioo, iiiiaithaaoe eaae nai?o
iaeiiaeoioe?a, iaoe iaeaaei? eaae?e ea??aiee?a ? i?iiaaaiaeeno?a,
iaeaaiaeaeoaaoe ca’ycee ia i?noeyo, c OeE oa caei?aeiiieie oeaio?aie.
I?ney iaeaa oa a?aoo?a aoiae?aoeyi oaeaaaeiny oaeaeei a?aeiiaethaaoe
aeione iaeaaaeueii? e?oa?aoo?e, noai?thaaoe a?ae?ioaee, a aieiaia — iia?
ina?aaeee. Iie?oe??th iino?eii aaeineiiaethaaeany nenoaia iaaeyaeo ca
ieie a Aa?aee/aa?, AEeoiie??, Eaoa?eiineaa?, E?aiai/ooe?., Iaean?,
Iieoaa? c iaoith nai?/aniiai caiia?aaiiy ?o ae?yi.

Aea/aiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo aca?iei Aoiaeo c ?NAe?I a oeae /an aeicaiey?
i?ine?aeeoe aaiethoe?th iiaeyae?a eiai e?aea??a ia canaaee
caaaeueiiia?o?eiiai aoae?aieoeoaa. Nii/aoeo a ?o iniiao aoei iieeaaeaii
ooaaeo IV c’?caeo Aoiaeo (1901 ?.) i?i aeioe?euei?noue o/ano?
?a?aenueeeo nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a o ?iaio? i?noeaaeo eii?oao?a ?NAe?I a
Oe?a?i?. Aea a iiaeaeueoiio V c’?cae Aoiaeo (1903 ?.) aeciaa ca
iaiao?aeia ooai?aiiy aaea aeanieo i?aai?caoe?e, iacaeaaeieo a?ae
eii?oao?a ?NAe?I, ine?eueee “iio?aae ?a?aenueeiai ?ooo i?eiee ia
iiaeooue aooe iiaiith i??ith caaeiaieai? iica i?aai?caoe?yie Aoiaeo”.
Aino?a iieai?ea i?ae eiai ea??aieoeoaii oa ?aaeaeoe??th “Ene?u”, aca?ii?
caeioaa/aiiy i?eaaee aei aeoiaeo aoiae?aoe?a c ?NAe?I ia ?? ?? c’?cae?.

Ia iniia? aea/aiiy aeieoiaioaeueieo aeaea?ae iieacaii o/anoue
aoiae?anueeeo eieaeoea?a a aa?oaoe?eii-i?iiaaaiaeenonuee?e ?iaio? na?aae
o?oaeyueo, a i?aai?caoe?? no?aee?a oa aeaiiino?aoe?e, ?ioeo aenooi?a
?a?aenueeeo o?oaeyueo i?ioe oea?ecio. Iacaaaeath/e ia i?aai?caoe?ei?
iacaiaee, i?noeaa? eii?oaoe Aoiaeo ? ?in?enueeeo nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a a
1900-1904 ??. i?iaaee ?yae ni?eueieo iie?oe/ieo aeoe?e: iaaani?-ae?oeo
1902 ?. — c i?eaiaeo aaiaaii? aecaeooe?? iaae a?oiith a?eainueeeo
?ia?oiee?a — o/aniee?a ia?oio?aaiaai? aeaiiino?aoe??, i?ioe no?aoe
A. Eaea?oa, yeee a/eiea caiao ia aeeooy i?noeaaiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a,
ianooiiiai ?ieo c??aaee ni?iae ?aaeoe?? aeaoooaaoe iia?iie iaae ?a?ayie
a ?yae? ?aeii?a Oe?a?ie. Aoaeoeaieie aoee ea?iaai? ieie ia?oio?aaiaa?
aeaiiino?aoe?? i?ieaoa??a ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae a AEeoiie??,
Ieeiea?a?, Iaean?, Iieoaa?, *a?i?aia?, a oaeiae aenooie ?ia?oiee?a i?ae
/an caaaeueiiai no?aeeo ia I?aaei? ?in??.

O ?icia?oo? iie?oe/ieo nee oa oa?oioaaiue, ui ae?yee a Oe?a?i? ia
ceai? O?O — OO no., Aoiae caeiya aeanio iiceoe?th ? a?ae?a?aaaa iii?oio
?ieue o caaaeueiiaeaiie?aoe/iiio i?ioean?. Eiai i?aai?caoe??
iaeaaiaeaeoaaee eiino?oeoeai? eiioaeoe c on?ia iiiceoe?eieie
naiiaea?aeaanoao oa/?yie, cie?aia c i?aaenoaaieeaie
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo. Aeineoue ie?aeieie aoee ?o noinoiee c
?aaiethoe?eiith Oe?a?inueeith ia?o??th, “Ni?eeith” oa ?ioeie. ?acii c
oei, o ai?iouea? ca e?aea?noai na?aae ?a?aenueeiai ianaeaiiy i?noeaa?
aoiae?aoe? aaee iai?oaeaio ai?ioueao i?ioe n?ii?nonueeeo oa?oioaaiue.

Aiae?c nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo ia?aaeoiia ca?iaeaeaiiy oa
noaiiaeaiiy aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e a Oe?a?i? aeicaieea aaoi?o ae?eoe
aeniiaeo i?i ia’?eoeaio coiiaeai?noue oeueiai i?ioeano. Nai?
?aeaieia?/i? oa i?aai?caoe?ei? i?eioeeie Aoiae ooaa?aeaeoaaa o ni?euei?e
c ?ioeie ia?o?yie ai?iouea? i?ioe oea?ecio, ci?oeithaaa ca’ycee c
?a?aenueeeie ianaie ? iaaoaaa aeina?aeo ea??aieoeoaa ?o aenooiaie. Oea
na?ae/eei i?i oa, ui iai?ee?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no. aoiae?anuee?
i?aai?caoe?? noaee neeaaeiaith /anoeiith noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy a
Oe?a?i?.

O?ao?e ?icae?e “Aoiae?anuee? i?aai?caoe?? Oe?a?ie a ?aaiethoe?eiiio
?on? 1905-1907 ??.” i?enay/aiee c’ynoaaiith i?noey oa ?ie? ina?aaee?a
Aoiaeo a ?icai?oaii? oeueiai i?ioeano. Naia a oeae /an an? ia?o?? a
?in?? aia?oa a?aee?eoi aenooieee ia iie?oe/i?e a?ai?. ?o i?ia?aiia?
ianoaiiae ? oaeoe/i? iiaeyaee ia?aa??yeeny aaciina?aaeiuei ae?yie ian a
i?ioean? ?aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo.

Oe?ioa ? ?iciao ?aaiethoe?? iinoaaeee ia?aae aoiae?aoeyie iia? caaaeaiiy
o ni?aa? ae?iaeaiiy oa aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?i ? iaoiae?a ?iaioe, ci?oeiaiiy
?o eaa. O aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeth?oueny i?aai?caoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue
Aoiaeo, ni?yiiaaia ia ooaa?aeaeaiiy naiai aaoi?eoaoo a ?a?aenueeiio
na?aaeiaeu? c iaoith iiiiiieueiiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa eiai ?ioa?an?a, c
iaeiiai aieo, caaacia/aiiy ?aeiino? caaaeueii?in?enueeiai
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo, c ae?oaiai.

Ai?iaeiaae 1905 — ia?oi? iieiaeie 1906 ??. aoiae?aoe? cae?enithaaee
ia?aaoaeiao ia?o?eii? ae?yeueiino? oeyoii oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy
eaaaeueieo iiaeeeainoae, ui aoee caaieiaai? a /an i?aeianaiiy
?aaiethoe??. Aiae?c aeieoiaio?a /ioe?ueio ?aeiiieo eiioa?aioe?e Aoiaeo
(Aa?aee/?anueei?, Ee?anueei?, Eaoa?eiineaanueei?, Iiae?euenueei?)
na?ae/eoue, ui a ?o ?iaio? a?aee o/anoue i?aaenoaaieee 58 i?noeaaeo
i?aai?caoe?e, ui ia?aoiaoaaee aeecueei 6 oen. /ie.. O oeae aea /an
OeE Aoiaeo aaaaeaa “ni?aaith iaaecae/aeii iaiao?aeiith” ?aei?noue ae?e
nai?o eieaeoea?a c i?noeaaeie eii?oaoaie ?NAe?I aeey ea??aieoeoaa
aenooiaie o?oaeyueo. C oe??th iaoith i?aeoeeoaaeiny noai?aiiy
eiae?oe?eieo, oaaea?aoeaieo eii?oao?a, ii?aeioaaeueieo eii?n?e oiui.
Naia a ieo oaea a n?/i? 1905 ?. ciaoiaeeee ii?icoi?iiy aoiae?aoe? ?
?in?enuee? nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe Aa?aee/aaa, Iaeane, *a?ean oa ?ioeo i?no.
Ioi?iiea eiinoaooaaea aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe oaeeo i?aai?caoe?e ?
iaaieiooaaea ia iaiao?aeiino? “iaaaeiiai i?eieiaiiy ?o cei/eiii?
ae?yeueiino?”.

O ?icae?e? aena?oeththoueny iniiai? iai?yiee ae?yeueiino? aoiae?anueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e ii ea??aieoeoao aenooiaie ?a?aenueeeo o?oaeyueo ia ciae
i?ioanoo i?ioe ?icno??eo iaoa?ao?cueeeo ?ia?oiee?a 9 n?/iy 1905 ?.,
i?iaaaeaiiyi no?aee?a, i?oeia?a oa aeaiiino?aoe?e a Iaean?
ae?oeo-ainaie, a oaeiae o a?oaei? oeueiai ?ieo a aaaaoueio i?noao
Oe?a?ie, i?ioeae??th e?eaaaei ?a?aenueeei iia?iiai.

Noaaeaiiy Aoiaeo aei ianiaeo i?aai?caoe?e o?oaeyueo, ui aeieeaee a
i?ioean? ?aaiethoe??, cia/iith i??ith ni?aiaaeaei c iiaeyaeaie
a?eueoiaee?a. Oea i?ine?aeaeo?oueny ia iniia? aea/aiiy a?o?aieo
aeieoiaio?a i?e aecia/aii? aoiae?aoeyie i?noey oa ?ie? ?aae ?ia?oie/eo
aeaiooao?a, i?ioni?eie oiui. Aiaeia?/iee i?aeo?ae niinoa??aaany i?e
?ic?iaoe? oaeoeee aieeioo ? Aeoie.

Cia/i? ci?ie a i?aai?caoe?eiiio noaiiaeu? ? oaeoeoe? aoiae?aoe?a
a?aeaoeeny iai?ee?ioe? 1906 — ia?o?e iieiaei? 1907 ??., aeeeeeai?
iineeaiiyi ianooio oea?ecio ia caaithaaiiy ?aaiethoe??. sse ? a ?ioeo
iiiceoe?eieo ia?o?yo, o Aoiae? ciaioeeany e?euee?noue i?noeaaeo
i?aai?caoe?e, /enaeuei?noue ?o eaa. “Iaoa i?aai?caoe?y ciaoiaeeoueny a
aeoaea aaaeeiio noai?. AEaoeea? iie?oeaenuee? oiiae caaiaee ian o o?nia
i?aei?eey, cia/ii oneeaaeithth/e iaoo ?iaioo, — eiinoaooaaeiny a
i?ieeaiaoe?? iaeanueeeo aoiae?aoe?a. — A??oa ca ana, ui cia/io /anoeio
iaoi? i?aai?caoe?? ioiiea cia/iee ?iaeeoa?aioeci aei i?aai?caoe?eii? ?
ia?o?eii? ?iaioe”. “Iana ?ica?aeany ? ianooieea oeoa”, “?ia?oieee
caiaaeoi caeyeai?”, “eaai/ea iaoa cae?eeany”, — oaeeie aeniiaeaie
?yni?ee iia?aeiieaiiy a?ae aoiae?aoe?a c aaaaoueio i?no Oe?a?ie aei
OeE Aoiaeo.

Ca oiia, ui neeaeeny, aoiae?aoe? iaiaaaeeny ia ao?a/aoe ca’yce?a c
ianaie, caa??aaoe na?e aieea ia ieo. C iaeyaeo ia oea, aiie aiineee
iaai? ci?ie aei nai?o i?aeoe/ieo ae?e, aa?o/e o/anoue o aeai?ao aei
?? Aeoie, ?icoe?thth/e ae?yeuei?noue a i?ioni?eeiaeo oa ?ioeo eaaaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?yo c iaoith aeei?enoaiiy ?o ye o?eaoie aeey iie?oe/ii?
i?ina?oe oa cao?ooaaiiy ?a?aenueeeo o?oaeyueo.

Ioaea, a ?aaiethoe?? 1905-1907 ??. aoiae?anuee? i?aai?caoe?? a Oe?a?i?
aenooiaee ye iine?aeiaia ?aaiethoe?eia neea, ui iaooeeueii
aeio?eioaaeanue eo?no ia ?oeiaoe?th naiiaea?aeaaiiai ono?ith,
i?iaieioaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?anioae?ee, caaacia/aiiy ??aieo i?aa on?o
iaoe?e. ?aeaieia?/i? ianoaiiae Aoiaeo, oi?ie ? iaoiaee i?aeoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino? a ianao a?aeiia?aeaee ??aith ?icaeoeo caaaeueii?in?enueeiai
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/iiai oa ?ia?oie/iai ?ooo c on?ia ?o aeinyaiaiiyie ?
aaaeaie.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Aoiae a Oe?a?i? a oiiaao i?ioenoiyiiy ?aaeoe??,
iaia?aaeiaei? ? a ia??iae ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie (1907-ethoee 1917 ??.)”
cina?aaeaeaii oaaao ia aena?oeaii? ei??iieo iai?yie?a ae?yeueiino?
aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e a ia??iae i?ae aeaiia ?aaiethoe?yie,
c’ynoaaii? iniiaieo oi?i ?o i?aai?caoe?eii? ?iaioe, i?aeoe/ieo caoiae?a
ii a?aeiiaeaiith oa noaiiaeaiith ia?o?eieo ina?aaee?a, iineeaiith ?o
aieeao ia an? noa?e aeeooy ?a?aenueeiai ianaeaiiy.

O ia?o? i?ney?aaiethoe?ei? ?iee aoiae?anuee? i?aai?caoe?? noaee ia’?eoii
iniaeeai? oaaae c aieo oea?nueeeo aeanoae. Ea?aeuei? caoiaee
naiiaea?aeaanoaa i?ecaaee aei ??ceiai ciaioaiiy ?o e?eueeino? oa niaaeo
aeoeaiino? o Aieeinuee?e, Iieoaanuee?e, Iiae?euenuee?e, Oa?niinuee?e,
*a?i?a?anuee?e oa ?ioeo aoaa?i?yo. Iiooe iiaeo oi?i ae?yeueiino? cionea
ea??aieoeoai Aoiaeo ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe i?noeaaei ina?aaeeai “aeey ?icoe?aiiy
naiai aieeao a?aoe o/anoue o an?o a?iiaaenueeeo ?ooao ? onoaiiaao”,
cie?aia, “a i?ioni?eeiaiio ?on?, a eoeueoo?i?e ?iaio?, a ae?yeueiino?
iaueie ? o.ae.”, noai?thaaoe oai aoiae?anuee? naeoe??.

O ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui, ia a?aeiiaeyth/enue a?ae iaeaaaeueieo cania?a,
aoiae?anuee? i?aai?caoe?? a Oe?a?i? iaiaaaeeny ianaiia?aae oi?ioaaoe
nai? ina?aaeee a ??cieo eaaaeueieo ia’?aeiaiiyo: i?ina?oi?o,
oaao?aeueieo, e?oa?aoo?ieo oiaa?enoaao, ao?oeao ? a?oiao ii aea/aiith
?aeeo, a?ae?ioaeao, a?aoe o/anoue o ooieoe?iioaaii? ?a?aenueei? iaueie.
Iaaooee i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae aeicaieea ?i, ye neooii cacia/aa iaeei c
ae?y/?a Aoiaeo a Oe?a?i? ?. ?iiia, ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui “ii?aeioaaoe
iaeaaaeueueio c eaaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth iiaeeeai ? iaiao?aeii, ? an?
ieoaiiy i?i oa, ui /iio i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny ? aea oeaio? oyae?iiy,
ieoaiiy ia?i?, ? aeey i?aeoe/ii? ?iaioe ia iiaeii? ?nioaaoe”.

Eii?oea ?iaioa aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e ni?eyea c?inoaiith ?o
aaoi?eoaoo na?aae ?a?aenueeeo o?oaeyueo. O naith /a?ao, oea i?ecaaei a
1910-1911 ??. aei aeieeiaiiy iiaeo oa ci?oeiaiiy aaea ae?th/eo
ina?aaee?a Aoiaeo. A oeae /an aoee noai?ai? aai a?aeiiaeee naith
ae?yeuei?noue a?oie aoiae?aoe?a o Iiaia?aae-Aieeinueeiio, Aa?aiia?,
*oaeiia?, Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeiio, I?ineo?ia?, I?eeoeao, Ie?yoei?,
Eioaeoe?, Aa?aee/aa?, AEeoiie??, Oanoia? oa ?ioeo i?noao. Iniaeeai
aeoeaii i?aoethaaa aoiae?anueeee eieaeoea o Eaoa?eiineaa?, ca
?i?oe?aoeaith yeiai o 1912 ?. a?aeaoeiny ia’?aeiaiiy c i?noeaaeie
?in?enueeeie nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoaie ia oaaea?aoeai?e iniia?.

A?aeiiaeaiiy ia?o?eieo i?aai?caoe?e ia i?noeyo aeicaieeei Aoiaeo
iinooiiai ia?aoiaeeoe aei ea??aieoeoaa aeiiii?/ieie oa iie?oe/ieie
aenooiaie ?a?aenueeeo ian. I?i aeioe?euei?noue ae??oaiiy oaeiai
caaaeaiiy na?ae/eea ?aciethoe?y eiai VIII eiioa?aioe?? (aeiaoaiue
1910 ?., Euea?a), yea aecia/eea iaiao?aei?noue cae?aoe “neee
i?ieaoa??aoo ia iniia? caaeiaieaiiy eiai aeeoo?aeo iio?aa a on?o noa?ao
ai?ioueae, caoaeaeoaaoe ?ioa?an aei oe?ieeo iie?oe/ieo caaaeaiue,
cao?oiaoaaoe ?ia?oie/? iane a o?nio caieiooo a?i?th, yea a aiooaaeany
aei iiaaeaiiy oaia??oiueiai iie?oe/iiai ?aaeeio”.

Iniaeeai aeoeaii ae?yee aoiae?anuee? ina?aaeee i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy
i?oeia?a, aeaiiino?aoe?e, no?aee?a i?ioanoo i?ioe ?icno??eo ?ia?oiee?a
ia eainueeeo eiiaeueiyo iaaani? 1912 ?., i?ioe i?ioeano iaae I. Aaee?nii
ainaie 1913 ?., ui??/iiai nayoeoaaiiy 1 o?aaiy, a?aecia/aiiy ??/ieoeue
“e?eaaai? iaae?e?”. Iii?oiith aoea ?o ?ieue a ia??iae aeai??a aei
IV Aeoie. ?acii c oei aoiae?aoe? i?iaeiaaeoaaee aeoeaii ae?yoe a
eaaaeueieo i?aai?caoe?yo: a Iaean? — a i?ioni?eoe? /iaioa??a, o Ee?a? —
a e?eueeio eoeueoo?ieo oa ina?oi?o onoaiiaao. O Aa?aee/aa? ?o aaoi?eoao
aoa iano?eueee aenieei, ui aiie aeeeooaaee aeanieeai i?aei?e?inoa ?
iaenoa?aiue oiiae i?aoe?, ?? iieaoe, ianya caiiaeaiue oiui.

O ?icae?e? i?ine?aeaeo?oueny aaiethoe?y iiaeyae?a Aoiaeo uiaei ia?oi?
na?oiai? a?eie, aeey yei? aoei i?eoaiaiiei nii/aoeo a?aenooi?noue /?oei?
aecia/aiino?, a a iiaeaeueoiio — iinooiiaa oi?ioaaiiy
?ioa?iaoe?iiae?nonueei? iiceoe??. Aiia ia?aaeaa/aea yeiaeoaeaeoa
i?eieiaiiy e?eaaai? a?ei?, a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca yeo iieeaaeaeany ia
o?yae oa iaioth/? aa?noae, aeoeaiooaaea oaaao ia ai?iouea? ca
aeaiie?aoe/iee ie?, a ye?e ?ia?oie/ee eean, uia a?yooaaoe e?a?io a?ae
ciai?oiueiai ?ica?iio, ia? aenooiaoe naiino?eii ? aeiiaaaoeny iiaii?
e?ea?aeaoe?? iiia?o??. Ia aeeiiaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue iaoe?ethaaea,
cie?aia, eiioa?aioe?y i?aaenoaaiee?a aoiae?anueeeo ina?aaee?a Ee?aa,
AEeoiie?a, E?aiai/oea, Iice?y ca o/anoth /eaia OeE ia?o??
(/a?aaiue 1915 ?.).

Aoiae, ye ? ?io? iiiceoe?ei? aei oea?ecio ia?o??, i?ae /an a?eie
aiane?aeie iie?oeaenueeeo ia?ane?aeoaaiue ciooaiee aoa cai?oaoe naith
ae?yeuei?noue na?aae ?a?aenueeeo ian. Oea i?eaaei aei i?eieiaiiy ?iaioe
OeE, nei?i/aiiy e?eueeino? ina?aaee?a ia i?noeyo oa ?o /enaeueiino?.
“Aiane?aeie i?eieiaiiy, caaaeath/e ia a?eio, ocaiaeaeaieo ae?e
aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e a ?in?? ? a?aenooiino? aeuiai ea??aieoeoaa a
inia? OeE ia?o?? Aoiae, — eiinoaooaaee ni?a?ia?oieee ioi?iiee a n?/i?
1917 ?., — e?euee?noue i?aai?ciaaieo ?ia?oiee?a cia/ii ciaioeeany, a
caeo/aiiy iiaeo /eai?a a ia?o?th noaei iaaeoi aaaeeei”.

?acii c oei, ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui aoiae?anuee? i?aai?caoe?? iaiaaaeeny
c?iaeoe ana iiaeeeaa ye aeey caa?aaeaiiy nai?o nee, oae ? aeey
i?iaeiaaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? a ianao. O ea?oi? 1916 ?ieo a Oa?eia? aoa
noai?aiee iaeei c oeaio?aeueieo i?iiaaaiaeenonueeeo eieaeoea?a, ui iaa
?icai?iooe ni?yiiaoth/o ae?yeuei?noue ii a?aeiiaeaiith i?noeaaeo
i?aai?caoe?e. O oeae ia??iae aoiae?aoe? ia?aaaaeii aeei?enoiaoaaee
eaaaeuei? oi?ie ?iaioe, iaiaaath/enue i?aoethaaoe ia a??aeao i?aoe?, a
aeia?aeeiaeo ath?i, oieoaeyo, a?ae?ioaeao, oeieao, onoaiiaao ii
aeiiiiic? a?aeaioeyi oiui.

Oaeei /eiii, a ia??iae i?ae aeaiia ?aaiethoe?yie, caaaeath/e ia
ia?ane?aeoaaiiy c aieo naiiaea?aeaanoaa, aoiae?aoeyi aaeaeiny caa?aaoe
iaaiee aieea na?aae ?a?aenueeiai ianaeaiiy. Oeueiai aoei aeinyaiooi
caaaeyee ?o ??ciiiai?oi?e ae?yeueiino?, a ye?e ii?aeioaaeeny eaaaeuei? ?
iaeaaaeuei? oi?ie oa caniae ?aeaeiiai ? i?aai?caoe?eiiai aieeao,
iaiaaaiiy nai?/anii ? aaeaeaaoii ?aaaoaaoe ia aaaeeea? iiae?? a
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? e?a?ie. A?aenoithth/e nai? i?aoaic?? ia
iiiiiieueia i?aaenoaaieoeoai ?ioa?an?a ?a?aenueeeo o?oaeyueo, aoiae?aoe?
?acii c oei aeyaeyee aioiai?noue ? caeaoi?noue aei eiii?ii?n?a c ??cieie
iiiceoe?eieie oa?oioaaiiyie a ni?euei?e ai?iouea? i?ioe oea?ecio.

I’yoee ?icae?e “Aoiae?anuee? i?aai?caoe?? a noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio
aeeoo? Oe?a?ie i?ney iiaaeaiiy naiiaea?aeaanoaa a ?in?? (ethoee —
aeiaoaiue 1917 ?.)” i?enay/aiee aena?oeaiith ?ie? ? i?noey Aoiaeo a
?icaeoeo ?aaiethoe?eieo iiae?e a oe?a?inueeeo caieyo a oeae /an.
Ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey aeoea?caoe?? iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?, ui neeaeeny
i?ney e?ea?aeaoe?? oea?ecio, aoee aeei?enoai? aoiae?aoeyie aeey
iiiiaiaiiy nai?o eaa oa noai?aiiy iiaeo ina?aaee?a. O na?ii? 1917 ?. a
Oe?a?i? i?aoethaaei 60 i?aai?caoe?e Aoiaeo. Iaea?eueoeie c ieo aoee:
Eaoa?eiineaanueea — 800 /ie., Iaeanueea — 700, Ee?anueea — 760,
Oa?e?anueea — 582, I?eeooeueea — 435, A?eioea?e?anueea — 350,
?e?naaaoa?aaenueea — 300, A?iieoeueea — 250. Aei aa?aniy oeueiai ?ieo c
20 oen. ca?a?no?iaaieo aoiae?aoe?a ii an?e ?in?? a Oe?a?i?
ia?aoiaoaaeiny iaeaea 10 oen., ?o ae?yeuei?noth ea?oaaa I?aaeaiiee
iaeaniee eii?oao oa o?e ?aeiiieo — o Ee?a?, Eaoa?eiineaa? oa Iaean?.

Oe?ioa oa ?iciao iiae?e, ui ?icaeaaeenue a ?in??, cioooaaee Aoiae
ae?iaeoe /?oeo ioe?ieo ia?niaeoea nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa
iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie. Eiai ea??aieoeoai aaaaeaei, ui ?in?y
“o?eueee noaea ia oeyo eai?oae?noe/iiai ?icaeoeo ? yeui i?ieaoa??ao
caoiieoue aeaaeo, a?i a?aeooiaoia a?ae naaa an? ?io? eeane. A?i
iano?i?oue ?o i?ioe naaa ? caaeia a ia??ai?e ai?iouea?”. Oaeo iiceoe?th
iiae?eyee aoiae?anuee? i?aai?caoe?? Oe?a?ie, cie?aia, e?aea? iaeanueeeo
aoiae?aoe?a O. E?a?i aeiaiaeea: “…a ?in?? oaia? aeoiaoe i?i
nioe?ae?noe/io ?aaiethoe?y iaaeoi ?aii, oi, iaaooue, ia ia? e
iiaeeeaino? aei?aaaeaoe aaaeaiiy caoiieoe anth aeaaeo aei nai?o ?oe. ?ac
? iacaaaeaee ie iiaeii? cayaeoe, ui ia i?aaiaii caoiieoe oa, ui iai iiee
ui ia aeaii ?noi?e/iith oiaeith ?icaeoeo i?iaeoeoeaieo nee iaoi?
aaouee?aueie”.

O oeae aea /an, ye na?ae/aoue a?o?ai? aeaea?aea oa aeieoiaioaeuei?
iaoa??aee, aoiae?anuee? i?aai?caoe?? iaiaaaeeny aecia/eoeny ?c
c’ynoaaiiyi nai?o nithciee?a o iiaeaeueoiio i?ioean? ?aaiethoe?eieo
ia?aoai?aiue. Ni?euei?noue ioe?iie ?o ia?niaeoea aaea aei
?aeaeii-iie?oe/iiai aeueyino c iaioiaeeaie, ui iaaoa i?aai?caoe?eiiai
caaa?oaiiy ia ia’?aeiaa/iio c’?cae? ?NAe?I o na?ii? 1917 ?. A
iioae?eiaai?e i?ney oe??? iiae?? caya? OeE Aoiaeo aiai?eeiny, ui a?i
“aoiaeeoue neeaaeiaith /anoeiith a ?NAe?I ? ni?eeia? an? ?? i?ia?aii?
iieiaeaiiy”.

Eo?n a?eueoiaee?a ia ia?a?inoaiiy ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?aaiethoe??
a nioe?ae?noe/io aeeeeeaa iaaaoeaio ioe?ieo Aoiaeo, yeee ??oo/a aenooiea
i?ioe aoaeue-yeeo ni?eueieo ae?e c eai?ioeyie, a?aeeeioaoe iiaeeea?noue
i?eie?aiiy c ieie. A?aenoithth/e naith i?eioeeiiao e?i?th c ieoaiue
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? aaoiiii??, caia?a/oth/e aeioe?euei?noue
aoae?aieoeoaa iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae a Iaeanoei?, aoiae?anuee?
ina?aaeee i?iaeiaaeoaaee ai?ioueao ca ?a?aenuee? iane, iauaaeii
oaa?oth/e ?aeaeii-iie?oe/i? iiaeyaee ? oaeoeeo iie?oe/ieo oa?oioaaiue
n?ii?nonueeiai ni?yioaaiiy.

Iniaeeao oaaao a ?icae?e? cina?aaeaeaii ia aena?oeaii? noaaeaiiy
aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e a Oe?a?i? aei Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo. Aiie
nie?aeeny ia ??oaiiy O Ana?in?enueei? ia?o?eii? eiioa?aioe?? (ea?oaiue
1917 ?.), ui aeneiaeeany ia i?aeo?eieo iiai? aeaaee, i?ia?aia ae?e yei?
“i?noeoue iniiai? iie?oe/i? aeiiae ?in?enueei? aeaiie?ao?? aeey
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo aei Onoaiia/eo cai??a”. ?icaeyaeath/e ieoaiiy
a?eie ? ie?o ia I?aaeaii?e iaeani?e eiioa?aioe?? (na?iaiue 1917 ?.),
i?noeaa? aoiae?aoe? i?iiiioaaee “iai?oaeeoe an? neee, uia ia?aoai?eoe
i?eueeiie ?in?enueeeo nieaeao ia o?iio? a aeenoeeie?iiaai? ?aaiethoe?ei?
eieiie, ye? caeaoi? caoeuaoe e?a?io ? ?aaiethoe?th”.

O ?icae?e? aena?oeth?oueny aaiethoe?y iiaeyae?a Aoiaeo ia ia?niaeoeae
Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? i?ioyaii aa?aciy — aeiaoiy 1917 ?. O oeaio??
oaaae ciaoiaeeeany i?iaeaia aaoiiii?? Oe?a?ie, yea, ye aaaaeaee
aoiae?anuee? e?aea?e, ia iiaeiia aeoiaeeoe ca iaae?
“caaaeueii?in?enueeiai aeaiie?aoe/iiai o?iioo”, a ?? inoaoi/ia
?ica’ycaiiy caeeoaeiny ca Oei/aniaei o?yaeii. I?aaenoaaieee oe??? ia?o??
canoaeeee ni?iao iaaiai?aiiy ia can?aeaii? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiia?ano a
ea?oi? 19?7 ?. ieoaiiy i?i noaa?aii? Oe?a?inuee? Onoaiia/? cai?e ye
ia?oee e?ie aei aaoiiii??, o /a?ai? oeueiai ?ieo iaaaoeaii cono??ee
? Oi?aa?nae Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, yeee ia/aaoi ni?yiiaoaaa oe?a?inueeee
?oo ia oeyo a?ae?eao a?ae ?aaiethoe?eii? aeaiie?ao??.

Aeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aca?ieie Aoiaeo c Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith, yeo a?i
aaaaeaa iine?aeiaiei i?aaenoaaieeii ?ioa?an?a oe?a?inueeiai caaaeo,
iaaoee i?ney i?eeiyooy ?? Oi?aa?naeo, eiee aoiae?aoe? oa?eoee aei ??
neeaaeo. Oei naiei, ye aaaaeaee aiie, aoei caii/aoeiaaii aoae?aieoeoai
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? aaoiiii??, iniiaith yei? aeey ?a?aenueeiai
ianaeaiiy iaea noaoe iaueia. Aoiae a?oaa noai?aiiy Aaia?aeueiiai
Nae?aoa??aoo, aaaaeath/e, ui oeei aoei caeeaaeaii i?aeaaeeie aaoiiii??
Oe?a?ie, ?aeiiaiaeoaaa nai?i i?aai?caoe?yi eoe “oeei oeyoii ni?eueii c
on??th oe?a?inueeith ? iaoe?a?inueeith aeaiie?ao??th”.

O na?ii? 1917 ?. Aoiae aoa nie?aea?iei c Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith o
iaaaoeai?e ioe?ioe? “Oei/aniai? ?ino?oeoe?? aeey Nae?aoa??aoo
Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo ia Oe?a?i?”. Aea o aeiaoi? oeueiai ?ieo aoiae?aoe?
aenooieee i?ioe iai??o Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee neeeeaoe Oe?a?inuee?
Onoaiia/? cai?e, aaaaeath/e, ui oaea onoaiiaa ye iaeei c ao?eaoo?a
noaa?ai?oaoo aea?aeaae aaciina?aaeiuei caa?iaeo? ?aeiino? ae?e a
?in?enuee?e ?aaiethoe??. Ia ?o aeoieo, “?aeeiith aieath, ia?aae yeith
aiie noeeythoueny, iathoue aooe Ana?in?enuee? Onoaiia/? cai?e,
iiaeeea?noue ?ic?eao c yeeie ? aioe?aaiethoe?eiith oi/eith ci?o”.

O ia?o? aei? i?ney aeiaoiaaiai ca?ieiiai iianoaiiy a Iao?ia?aae?
aoiae?aoe? ??cei canoaeeee oeae aeo. 26 aeiaoiy 1917 ?. ia can?aeaii?
Ee?anueei? i?nueei? aeoie ?o i?aaenoaaiee cayaea, ui “aaaioth?a, yea
?ic?a?o?oueny a?eueoiaeeaie, noaaeoue i?ae caa?ico neeeeaiiy Onoaiia/eo
cai??a ? a?aee?eaa? eeaiai aia?o?? ? iia?iiiei aenooiai, ? ca oaeeo
oiia, iaa?oue yeae a?eueoiaeee ia?aiiaee, oi aiie iaaeiaai caeeoeeeny a
i?e aeaae?. A?eueoa ie ia iiaeaii i?aeo?eioaaoe i? Oei/aniaee o?yae, i?
aenooi a?eueoiaee?a, ye? ia nueiaiaei? iiaeooue aeiaanoe e?a?io aei
aia?o??”. ?aeeiith aa?aio??th oni?oo aeaeueoeo aeaiie?aoe/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue, caii?oeith ?aae?caoe?? aoiae?anueeeo i?ia?aiieo ianoaiia
iiaea noaoe oaa?aea aea?aeaaia aeaaea. Ni?iiiaeiith ae??oeoe oaea
caaaeaiiy, ca aeoieith Aoiaeo, aoea o?eueee Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea.

Ocaaaeueiai? a ?icae?e? iaoa??aee aeicaieeee aaoi?o ae?eoe aeniiaeo i?i
oa, ui i?ioyaii ethoiai — aeiaoiy 1917 ?. aoiae?anuee? eieaeoeae a
Oe?a?i? ca ei?ioeee /an a?aeiiaeee naith i?aai?caoe?eio no?oeoo?o,
ca?eueoeee /enaeuei?noue ia?o?eieo ina?aaee?a. Aeoiaey/e ?c nai??
ioe?iee i?neyethoiaaiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie, aiie caeiyee eiino?oeoeaio
iiceoe?th uiaei aea?aeaaioai?/i? ae?yeueiino? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee,
iaaieiooth/e ia aacoiiaiiio caaacia/aii? i?aa i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiei iaioeiai. I?ney aeiaoiaaeo iiae?e a Iao?ia?aae? Aoiae
??oo/a aenooiea i?ioe a?eueoiaee?a, iaeiicia/ii i?aeo?eiaa aeaaeo
oe?a?inueeeo aeaiie?ao?a.

O oinoiio ?icae?e? “Ae?yeuei?noue Aoiaeo a Oe?a?i? i?ney AEiaoiaaiai
ca?ieiiai iianoaiiy a Iao?ia?aae? (eenoiiaae 1917 — aeiaoaiue 1918 ??.)”
?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? iai?yiee ae?yeueiino? aoiae?anueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e a cacia/aiee ia??iae, ui noaa iaaiei ceaiii o ?o
?aeaeii-oai?aoe/ieo iiaeyaeao ia ?icaeoie Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? oa
aecia/aii? naiai i?noey a oeueiio i?ioean?.

Ia?aaaaeio oaaao cina?aaeaeaii ia c’ynoaaii? aca?iei Aoiaeo c
Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith, ?? Aaia?aeueiei Nae?aoa??aoii, aena?oeththoueny
iaiaaaiiy aoiae?anueeeo eieaeoea?a i?aoethaaoe ni?eueii c oe?a?inueeith
aeaiie?ao??th. I?eioeeiiaith aoiae?aoe? aaaaeaee oaco ??? oi?aa?naeo i?i
oa, ui i?iaieioaia Oe?a?inueea Ia?iaeia ?anioae?ea ia “a?aeaeaey?oueny
a?ae ?in??” ? aeiiiiaaa? ?e noaoe oaaea?aoe??th ??aieo ? a?eueieo
ia?iae?a, ui aa?aiooaaei ia?oeyio ia?niiaeueii-iaoe?iiaeueio aaoiiii?th.
Ia nai?io O??? c’?cae? (a?oaeaiue 1917 ?.) Aoiae ciaia’ycaa i?noeaa?
ia?o?ei? eieaeoeae “iaaeaaaoe Oe.?. naio aia?a?eio i?aeo?eieo a ??
ai?iouea? ca caaacia/aiiy iniia aeaiie?aoe/ii? aaoiiii?? i?ioe iaiaaeo c
aieo ?aaee Ia?iaeieo Eii?na??a”. sse ? ?io? ?a?aenuee? iie?oe/i? neee,
Aoiae a?oaa caeii i?i ia?niiaeueii-iaoe?iiaeueio aaoiiii?th, ui ooaaeeea
Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea a n?/i? 1918 ?.

A oiae? n?/iaaeo iiae?e 1918 ?. o Ee?a?, eiee oai oi/eeany caiaeea
ai?ioueaa i?ae a?enueeaie Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ? ica?i?ieie caaiiaie,
ea?iaaieie a?eueoiaeeaie, a aei i?noa i?aenooiaee ?aaeyinuee? /anoeie,
aoiae?anuee? i?aai?caoe?? i?aeo?eioaaee ae?? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee,
aaaaeath/e, ui ?? ii?acea, ye cacia/aeiny o a?aeica? ea??aieoeoaa ia?o??
aei ?a?aenueeiai ianaeaiiy, aoaea “nia?oaeueiei oaea?ii aeey
?aaiethoe??, nia?oth Oe?a?inueeeo Onoaiia/eo cai??a, ii/aoeii no?aoii?
aia?o??, a ye?e i?aea ia aeii ana, ui noai?aii ?aaiethoe??th”. ?acii c
oei aoiae?aoe? aenooiaee eaoaai?e/ii i?ioe i?iaieioaiiy a oie /an
iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie, aaaaeath/e, ui neaaea o ai?iiiio, aeiiii?/iiio
a?aeiioaii?, oa ua e ?ic??aaaoe ca’ycee c ?in??th, OI? iaieio/a
iio?aieoue a caeaaei?noue a?ae I?ia//eie ? Aano??? ? caaeia ye
naiino?eia aea?aeaaa. C iaeyaeo ia oea, i?aaenoaaieee Aoiaeo
i?iaieinoaaee i?ioe ooaaee IV Oi?aa?naeo, aeneiaeeeny i?ioe ie?iiai
aeiaiai?o c e?a?iaie *aoaa?iiai nithco.

Neooaoe?y, ui neeaeany i?ney ieoiaoe?? Oe?a?ie i?iaoeueeeie ?
aano??enueeeie a?enueeaie, i?eaaea Aoiae aei ia?aaeyaeo naiai noaaeaiiy
aei Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. Aoiae?anueea ea??aieoeoai aaaaeaei, ui ??
eiii?ii?n c ieoiaoe?eiei ?aaeeiii a?a aei ao?aoe aeia??e ian aei
oe?a?inueei? aeaiie?ao??. A ?aciethoe?? “Iie?oe/ia noaiiaeua a Oe?a?i? ?
caaaeaiiy nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao??”, yeo aoei ooaaeaii ia eiioa?aioe??
aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e (aa?acaiue — ea?oaiue 1918 ?.) cacia/aeiny,
ui iiaeaeueoa ?nioaaiiy Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee “ci?oeith? o ?icoi?
ia?iaeieo ian ?aeath no?iaao?a cai?noue ?noeiii ia?iaeiiai
i?aaenoaaieoeoaa /a?ac onoaiiae, iiaoaeiaai? ia caaaeueiiio aeai?/iio
i?aa?” ? aeieth aea?aeaaii? aeaaee iiaeii? ae??ooaaoe Oe?a?inuee?
Onoaiia/? cai?e, neeeeaiiy yeeo ia? noaoe ia?oi?yaeiei caaaeaiiyi.

Aaoueiainueeee ia?aai?io I. Nei?iiaaenueeiai aeeeeeaa iaeiicia/io
iaaaoeaio ioe?ieo c aieo Aoiaeo, yeee eaae?o?eoaaa eiai ye
eiio??aaiethoe?eiee. Aoiae?aoe? aeoeaii aenooiaee i?ioe ?icaiio
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, e?ea?aeaoe?? OI?, neanoaaiiy caeiio i?i
ia?niiaeueii-iaoe?iiaeueio aaoiiii?th, caeioaa/oaaee iiao
aaei?i?no?aoe?th o ?ica’ycaii? oa?i?o i?ioe ianaeaiiy.

Ao?oeeaee ia?aa?a iiae?e a Oe?a?i?, ci?ie aea?aeaaieo ?inoeoooe?e,
iaiaeiicia/i?noue ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e, iaaia ?ic/a?oaaiiy
ian a ieo, i?enooi?noue ?iicaiieo a?enuee ni?eyee c?inoaiith
?aaeeeaeueieo iano?i?a o noni?euenoa? ? a?aeiia?aeii oyae?iith iaaieo
iie?oe/ieo nee aei a?eueoiaecio. A ?icae?e? ?icaeyaea?oueny aaiethoe?y
iiaeyae?a Aoiaeo ia aca?ieie c eai?ioeyie, ia ioe?ieo ia?niaeoea
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c ieie ? noaaeaiiy aei ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. sseui
iae?aco i?ney aeiaoiaaeo iiae?e I?aaeaiiee iaeaniee eii?oao Aoiaeo
iaoe?ethaaa i?noeaa? i?aai?caoe?? ia a?aeiaaeoaaiiy a?ae
a?eueoiaeoeueei? aeeeoaoo?e, aaaaeaa, ui aeeiiaa/a aeaaea ia?
ia’?aeioaaoe i?aaenoaaiee?a on?o nioe?ae?noe/ieo ia?o?e “a?ae i.n. aei
a?eueoiaee?a aac anyei? eiae?oe?? c e.ae. ? aaeeeith ao?aeoac??th”, oi a
iiaeaeueoiio iie?oe/iee eo?n aoiae?aoe?a caciaaaa nooo?aeo ci?i. O
aeieoiaioao ?o eiioa?aioe?? (aa?acaiue — ea?oaiue 1918 ?.) aaea ia
i?noeeeny caeioaa/aiiy a?eueoiaee?a a aaaioth?eci? ? aeiiae i?i
noai?aiiy “iaeii??aeiiai nioe?ae?noe/iiai o?yaeo”, caeeoaeiny a?aee?eoei
ieoaiiy i?i aeciaiiy aeaaee ?aae.

Aiae?c aeieoiaio?a oa a?o?aieo aeaea?ae na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui c e?oa
1918 ?. a aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?yo Oe?a?ie aeieeathoue ia?o? e?a?
a?oie, ye? aeneiaethaaeeny ca ia?aaeyae noaaeaiiy aei a?eueoiaee?a oa
ni?ai?aoe? c ?aaeyinueeith aeaaeith. Oea iicia/eeiny ia oa?aeoa??
??oaiue aeaio ia?aae i?aaenoaaiee?a Aoiaeo o aa?ani? oa aeiaoi? 1918 ?.
Ia ?o can?aeaiiyo aaea aeneiaethaaeany ?aeay iaiao?aeiino? oaiaee c
eai?ioeyie, aea, aeyaeyth/e iaa?aaei?noue, aoei ae??oaii ia i?eeiaoe
eiie?aoieo “??oaiue c iie?oe/ieo ieoaiue aei iiaeo iaaiai?aiue ?o a
i?aai?caoe?yo”.

Oaeei /eiii, aoiae?anuee? i?aai?caoe?? e?a?ie i?ney aeiaoiaaeo iiae?e
i?aeo?eiaee Oeaio?aeueio ?aaeo, aeio?eioth/enue nai?? i?eioeeiiai?
iiceoe?? c ieoaiue aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, a?aenoithth/e ?aeath
ia?niiaeueii-iaoe?iiaeueii? aaoiiii??. Eiino?oeoeai?noue ?o ae?e
iieyaaea, a ia?oo /a?ao, a ni?eyii? ooaa?aeaeaiith iieiaei? oe?a?inueei?
aeaiie?ao??, caa?aaeaiith caaithaaiue ?aaiethoe??. Aiie canoaeeee
aaoueiainueeee ?aaeei, yeee, ia ?o aeoieo, caoeuaa ?ioa?ane iii?uee?a ?
eai?oae?no?a. ?icaeoie iiae?e, c?inoaiiy iaaaeiaieaiiy ian nai?i
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei noaiiaeuai ni?eyee ia?aaeyaeo noaaeaiiy Aoiaeo
aei ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee oa a?eueoiaecio.

Nueiiee ?icae?e “Ii/aoie ia?aaeyaeo aoiae?aoeyie Oe?a?ie nai??
iie?oe/ii? ieaooi?ie (eenoiiaae 1918 — aa?acaiue 1919 ??.)” i?noeoue
aiae?c /eiiee?a, ui aeeeeeaee ei??ii? c?ooaiiy a iie?oe/iiio eo?n?
Aoiaeo a iai?yieo aeciaiiy eiioi?noe/ii? ?aeaieia??, aena?oeaiiy
eiie?aoieo i?aeoe/ieo ae?e ii i?aai?caoe?eiiio ioi?ieaiith oeueiai
i?ioeano, ui iaaoa naiai caaa?oaiiy c ooai?aiiyi e?aiai Aoiaeo.

Aaaeeeaith ia?aaeoiiaith iineeaiiy eiioi?noe/ii? ?aeaieia?? a
aoiae?anueeiio na?aaeiaeu? noaa oni?o ?aaiethoe?? a I?ia//ei?, yeo
?aeaieiae Aoiaeo ?icaeyaeaee ye nioe?ae?noe/io, ui, ia ?o iiaeyae,
i?iaeaiiino?oaaea ae??a?noue aaaaoueio neeaaeiaeo ?aaiethoe?? a ?in??. C
iaeyaeo ia oea, ia?niaeoeae ooaa?aeaeaiiy iiaiai eaaeo a Oe?a?i?
caeaaaeeny ?i ?aaeueiei caaaeaiiyi nueiaiaeaiiy. “I?ae a?aaeaiiyi
?aaiethoe?? a I?ia//ei?, yea a?aeaoeany a eenoiiaae? 1918 ?., —
caaaeoaaa I. ?aoan, — Aoiae a 24 aiaeeie ia?aaoaeoaaany a iiaee aieiaee
ii?yaeie, aeeeeeaiee iio?aaaie nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aaiethoe??”.

Aei ia?aaeyaeo Aoiaeii nai?? iie?oe/ii? ieaooi?ie niiioeaea e
iaiine?aeiaia ae?yeuei?noue Aee?aeoi???, yea ia ciiaea caaeiaieueieoe
“nioe?aeuei? ? iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane o?oaeyueo eean?a Oe?a?inueei?
Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee”. Iia?e aeaae? ia aaeaeiny caaacia/eoe ?aae?caoe?th
ia?oeyii? nai?? i?ia?aie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue,
iaeaaiaeeoe ii?iaeuei? eiioaeoe c ?in??th, coieieoe oaeeth e?eaaaeo
iia?ii?a, ui aeeeeeaee iai?eo na?aae ?a?aenueeiai ianaeaiiy. Oiio aaea a
n?/i? 1919 ?. aoiae?anuee? e?aea?e oa?aeoa?ecoaaee Aee?aeoi??th ye
oaeo, ui ia aei?aaaeaea niiae?aaiue ?ia?oie/eo ? naeyinueeeo ian.

E??i oiai, iiaeeaeaiiy a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie cioooaaei ea??aieoeoai
aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e a Oe?a?i? ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui ca oaeeo oiia
“ia?o?y aaea ia iiaea caeeoaoeny iaeo?aeueiith o ai?iouea? iie?oe/ieo
nee” ?, aa?o/e aei oaaae “nioe?ae?noe/iee oa?aeoa? ?aaiethoe?? a ??
anana?oiueiio cia/aii?”, iio??aii “eoe c oeie ianaie, ye? ai?thoueny ca
?aaeyinueeo i?aai?caoe?th aeaaee”. E?aea?e Aoiaeo eiinoaooaaee, ui
“aaoi?eoao ? ii?aeueia i?aeo?eiea Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? aoee aaee/acieie.
Aaaeaiiy aooe c eiioi?noaie c?inoaei c eiaeiei aeiai”. Aei
a?eueoiaeoeueeeo eii?oao?a iaaeoiaeeei aaaaoi caya ye a?ae ie?aieo in?a,
oae ? eieaeoea?a i?i ia?ao?ae ia eiioi?noe/io ieaooi?io.

Iineeaiiy ?aaeeeaeueieo aeaiaio?a o aoiae?anueeeo eaaao i?eaaei aei
?iceieo a Oei/aniaiio ath?i Aieiaiiai Oe?a?inueeiai eii?oaoo Aoiaeo. A
ethoiio 1919 ?. a?eueo?noue eiai /eai?a cayaeea i?i ?ic?ea c ieaooi?iith
nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao??, yea “neiii?iiaooaaea naaa a i?ioean? a?eie,
?in?enueei? ? i?iaoeueei? ?aaiethoe?e, ca oe?iith yei? i?eoiaothoueny
ai?iae? nioe?ae?noe/i?e ?aaiethoe?? aeaiaioe ? yea ia iiaea aooe aacith
aeey cao?ooaaiiy i?ieaoa??aoo”.O oee?eoey?iiio eeno? Oei/aniaiai ath?i
iia?aeiieyeiny, ui 25 ethoiai 1919 ?. ieaio?oueny i?iaaaeaiiy
eiioa?aioe?? aoiae?anueeeo eieaeoea?a a Oe?a?i? c iaoith noai?aiiy
?aeeii? ?a?aenueei? eiioi?noe/ii? i?aai?caoe??.

I?ioa, aaiethoe?y iiaeyae?a aoiae?aoe?a iineea noia?a/eeaee oa?aeoa?,
ine?eueee aiie ia aaaeaee ??cei ?iciaaeiaoaaoeny c eieeoi?ie
iaeiiaeoioeyie. Iaiieaaeeai iioe?thaaeany aeoiea i?i iaiao?aei?noue
caeeoeoe aeey iiai? i?aai?caoe?? iacao “Aoiae”, aeneiaethaaeeny noii?ae
uiaei aeioe?eueiino? ?nioaaiiy ?a?aenueeeo naeoe?e i?e eii?oaoao EI(a)O
oiui. Aiaeii/an aoiae?aoe? aenooiaee i?ioe aeeeoaoo?e a?eueoiaee?a iaae
?aaeaie, ?aae iaae ?ia?oieeaie, aaaaeath/e, ui oaeee aeeeoao ia ni?ey?
iineeaiith aaoi?eoaoo iiai? aeaaee na?aae ia?iaeieo ian.

O ?icae?e? c’yniao?oueny cia/aiiy Anaoe?a?inueei? aoiae?anueei? ia?aaee,
ui a?aeaoeany 28 ethoiai 1919 ?. Anoia?a/ nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ii?
iaioino? aoei i?eeiyoi ooaaeo i?i iaaaeia ooai?aiiy e?aiai Aoiaeo, a
eiai Oei/aniaiio Oe?a?inueeiio eii?oaoia? aei?o/aeiny ia i?ci?oa
15 o?aaiy 1919 ?. neeeeaoe eiioa?aioe?th iaeiiaeoioe?a ? anooieoe a
ia?aaiai?e c ea??aieoeoaii EI(a)O i?i ia’?aeiaiiy c iath. O/anieee
ia?aaee iaae?neaee oaeaa?aio aei Iineae ia aae?ano Onoaiia/iai Eiia?ano
??? ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeo c iia?aeiieaiiyi i?i noai?aiiy ?a?aenueei?
eiioi?noe/ii? i?aai?caoe?? a Oe?a?i?.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaaeeny a eaaao
iaeaooi?o nithciee?a e?aeo aoiae?aoe?a — ia’?aeiaieo ?a?aenueeeo
nioe?ae?no?a. ?o ??? Anaoe?a?inueea eiioa?aioe?y (aa?acaiue 1919 ?.)
ae?eoea aeniiaeo, ui “oi/ea ci?o aeeeoaoo?e i?ieaoa??aoo o oi?i?
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee” noaea aeii?ioth/ith a i?noeaaeo i?aai?caoe?yo ?
i?eeiyea iinoaiiao i?i ooai?aiiy “Ia’?aeiaii? Eiioi?noe/ii? ?ia?oie/i?
ia?o??”, aeyaeyth/e oei naiei aioiai?noue aei eiioaeo?a c iiae?aieie
oa?oioaaiiyie a ?a?aenueeiio na?aaeiaeu?.

Ioaea, ia??iae c eenoiiaaea 1918 ii aa?acaiue 1919 ??. aoa iaaecae/aeii
aaaeeeaei a aeeoo? Aoiaeo a Oe?a?i?. ?aaiethoe?y a I?ia//ei?, a oaeiae
ianoaa?euei?noue noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai noaiiaeua a oe?a?inueeeo caieyo
noaee iiooiaoii aei iinooiiaiai ia?aaeyaeo eiai iie?oe/ii? i???ioaoe??.
A?aeiiaeaoenue a?ae nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ieo iiaeyae?a, a?i ni?eeiya
a?eueoiaeoeueeo ieaooi?io, ia?aeiiaaoenue o iacaeaoiino? Aee?aeoi???
cae?enieoe ?aaeeeaeuei? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ci?ie a Oe?a?i?, aeciaa
?aaeyinueeo aeaaeo. Aaciina?aaei?i ?acoeueoaoii oeueiai neeaaeiiai ?
noia?a/eeaiai i?ioeano noaei i?iaieioaiiy e?aiai Aoiaeo.

O ainueiiio ?icae?e? “Ooai?aiiy Eiioa?aaiaeo oa eiai ceeooy c EI(a)O
(aa?acaiue — a?oaeaiue 1919 ?.)” aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?ioean ooai?aiiy
aoiae?anueeeo eieaeoea?a, ui noaee ia eiioi?noe/io ieaooi?io,
c’yniao?oueny noaaeaiiy a?eueoiaee?a aei iai??o e?aiai Aoiaeo ceeoeny c
ieie, ?icaeyaeathoueny i?eioeeiia? iniiae ?o i?aai?caoe?eiiai
ia’?aeiaiiy.

Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue aoiae?anueeeo eieaeoea?a a Oe?a?i? iiceoeaii
cono??ea ca?noeo i?i noai?aiiy e?aiai Aoiaeo. A o?aai? 1919 ?. eiai
ina?aaeee i?aoethaaee o 19 ianaeaieo ioieoao ?anioae?ee. ?ic?iaeyth/e
i?aai?caoe?ei? i?aeaaeeie ia?aaoaaiiy o neeaae? EI(a)O, ?o ea??aieoeoai
aaaaeaei aeioe?eueiei oi?ioaaiiy ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo naeoe?e i?e
i?noeaaeo a?eueoiaeoeueeeo eii?oaoao. ?acii c oei, iaaieiooaaeiny ia
iaiao?aeiino? ?ic?iaee “iniaeeaiai Noaoooo aeey anueiai Eiioi?noe/iiai
Aoiaeo, yeee ia? anooieoe a EI(a)O ye ia’?aeiaia ianiaa ?a?aenueea
?ia?oie/a i?aai?caoe?y”.

Anaoe?a?inueea eiioa?aioe?y e?aiai Aoiaeo (o?aaaiue 1919 ?.) i?iaieineea
ooai?aiiy ?a?aenueeiai Eiioi?noe/iiai ?ia?oie/iai Nithco a Oe?a?i?
(Eiioa?aaiaeo), aei yeiai oa?eoee oaeiae eieeoi? ia’?aeiai? ?a?aenuee?
nioe?ae?noe. A aeieoiaioao eiioa?aioe?? aoei i?aeoaa?aeaeaii iai??
anooieoe aei neeaaeo EI(a)O ye ?aeeia oe?ea c oei, uia caaacia/eoe
“aeeeth/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy ?a?aenueeeo ?ia?oiee?a c oi/ee ci?o aa?oaoe??
? i?iiaaaiaee”. E??i oiai, ia?aaeaa/aeiny, ui Eiioa?aaiae iaoeia aeani?
ea??ai? i?aaie, i?iaiaeeoeia c’?caee ? eiioa?aioe??, aeioneaoeia naith
ia??iaee/io e?oa?aoo?o.

*anoeia aoiae?aoe?a, ui ia aeciaee eiioi?noe/io ieaooi?io,
i?iaeiaaeoaaee i?aeo?eioaaoe ae?? Aee?aeoi???. I?i oea na?ae/eoue,
cie?aia, ?o cayaa ia cono??/? c N. Iaoeth?ith (eeiaiue 1919 ?.) i?i oa,
ui “Aoiae caeeoa?oueny ia iiceoe??, yea a?aeiia ua c O?oaeiaiai
eiia?ano” ? ia? iai?? ni?a?ia?oie/aoe c aeaiie?aoe/ieie ?inoeoooe?yie,
ye? “a ciic? ooai?eoe ? ooai?youe a?eueio ? naiino?eio Oe?a?inueeo
?anioae?eo”.

O ?icae?e? aena?oeth?oueny i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy noaaeaiiy a?eueoiaee?a aei
ia’?aeiaiiy c e?aei Aoiaeii, aei i?aai?caoe?eiiai ioi?ieaiiy ?o aca?iei.
??? c’?cae EI(a)O a ?aciethoe?? “I?i noaaeaiiy aei ae??aiiao?aeoacieo
ia?o?e” aeneiaeany ca iiaeeea?noue ocaiaeaeaieo ae?e c e?aei Aoiaeii.
Aea, a?aoiaoth/e, ui eiai “nioe?aeueio aaco noaiiaeea iana i?nueeiai
?ai?nieoeoaa, yea iia?eueii caeeaaea aieea ae??aiiao?aeoacii?
?aeaieia??”, aoei aeciaii “iaaea?aeieie aoaeue-ye? e?iee uiaei
i?aai?caoe?eiiai caeeaeaiiy ? ia’?aeiaiiy c oe??th i?aai?caoe??th”.
“O?eueee iine?aeiaia, aei e?ioey aeo?eiaia oaeoeea c iaoiai aieo, —
cacia/aeiny a aeieoiaio?, — ni?eyoeia i?enei?aiith i?ioeano iiaeieaiiy
ae??aiiao?aeoacieo ia?anoae?a ianith ?ai?nieoeoaa oa eiai iie?oe/ieie
ae?acieeaie”.

Iniaeeao iai?oaeai?noue o ia?aaiai?ao i?ae i?aaenoaaieeaie Eiioa?aaiaeo
? EI(a)O i?i ia’?aeiaiiy ai?n eeno OeE EI(a)O a?ae 5 /a?aiy 1919 ?., ca
yeei eiioa?aaiae?aoeyi i?iiiioaaeiny anooiaoe a ia?o?th a
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio ii?yaeeo. A?eueoiaeeaie ia a?aeeny aei oaaae
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy i?i oaa?aeee iai?? iia’ycaoe naith iiaeaeueoo aeieth c
EI(a)O, c?iaeai? ia?aaeith Eiioa?aaiaeo a eeii? 1919 ?. O?eueee
ao?o/aiiy Oeaio?aeueiiai ath?i ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo naeoe?e i?e
OeE ?EI(a), eiie?aoi? ?ino?oeoe?? ? ?ic’yniaiiy OeE ?EI(a) “i?i
aeiiouaiiy ?nioaaiiy ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo naeoe?e i?e
oa?eoi??aeueieo i?aai?caoe?yo” i?eioneee inoaoi/ii ?ica’ycaoe oeth
i?iaeaio.

18 na?iiy 1919 ?. ia can?aeaii? I?aath?i OeE EI(a)O aoei i?eeiyoi
iinoaiiao “I?i ceeooy Eiioa?aaiaeo c EIO”, yea ia?aaeaa/aea ?icione
?a?aenueeiai Eiioi?noe/iiai ?ia?oie/iai Nithco a Oe?a?i? ye naiino?eii?
iie?oe/ii? i?aai?caoe??. I?e OeE oa aoaeiiao a?eueoiaeoeueei? ia?o??
ooai?thaaeenue ?a?aenuee? eiioi?noe/i? naeoe??, eoaee aoiaeeee eieeoi?
eiioa?aaiae?aoe?. Ea??aieoeoai ?o ae?yeuei?noth cae?enithaaei Aieiaia
ath?i i?e OeE I(a)O, caaaeaiiy yeiai iieyaaei o iineeaii? “aieeao
eiioi?noe/ieo ?aeae ? Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? na?aae ?a?aenueeeo ?ia?oiee?a
oa a?aeiiai ianaeaiiy, ui iiaeiii i?eaanoe ?a?aenuee? iane aei oai?/i?
nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?iaioe”.

Eiie?aoia ?aae?caoe?y oeueiai ??oaiiy cae?enithaaeany i?ae /an ianooio
aeai?e?inueeeo a?enuee oa ?o ia?aaoaaiiy ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. Ca oiia
o?ce/iiai oa?i?o, yeiai caciaaaei ?a?aenueea ianaeaiiy, eieeoi?
eiioa?aaiae?aoe?, ui caeeoeeeny a Oe?a?i? ?acii c eiioi?noaie, a?aee
aeoeaio o/anoue o i?aei?euei?e ?iaio?. Aiie aeioneaee iaeaaaeuei?
aacaoe, ?iciianthaeaeoaaee eeno?aee na?aae i?noeaaeo aeeoae?a,
iai?aaeyee, ye ? i?aaenoaaieee ?ioeo ?a?aenueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e,
iieiaeue aei eaa *a?aiii? A?i??.

Oaeei /eiii, i?ioyaii aa?aciy — a?oaeiy 1919 ?. iaaoa naiai caaa?oaiiy
i?ioean ia’?aeiaiiy e?aeo aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e c EI(a)O,
ia?ao?aeiith oi?iith yeiai noaa Eiioa?aaiae. Iineeaiiy oyae?iiy ??cieo
oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e aei ia’?aeiaiiy c a?eueoiaeeaie,
iaaaaeaiiy inoaii?o, a /anii ? iaaioiai?noue aei oaeiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa
c eieeoi?ie iiiiaioaie coiiaeee iaiaeiicia/ia noaaeaiiy OeE EI(a)O aei
oaeiai i?ioeano, iaaaoeai? ?aoeeaeeae yeiai aeaee i?i naaa ciaoe a
iiaeaeueoeo aca?ieiao i?noeaaeo ia?o?eieo eii?oao?a c ?a?aenueeeie
eiioi?noe/ieie naeoe?yie.

Aeaa’yoee ?icae?e “Ia?o? e?iee ae?yeueiino? ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo
naeoe?e i?e eii?oaoao EI(a)O (a?oaeaiue 1919 — a?oaeaiue 1920 ??.)”
i?enay/aii ocaaaeueiaiith oi?i ? iaoiae?a ?iaioe oeeo ina?aaee?a ii
caeo/aiith ?a?aenueeeo o?oaeyueo aei ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue nioe?ae?noe/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue, ?icaeyaeo ?o i?aai?caoe?eieo aca?iei c OeE EI(a)O ?
i?noeaaeie a?eueoiaeoeueeeie eii?oaoaie, c’ynoaaiith i?e/ei ? noo?
noia?a/iinoae i?ae ieie a cae?eniaii? ia?o?eiiai eo?no.

Ia?niaeoeae ae?yeueiino? ?a?aenueeeo naeoe?e aoee aecia/ai? aaea ia
ii/aoeo a?oaeiy 1919 ?. o ni?eueiiio iaii?aiaeoi? Oeaio?aeueiiai ath?i
i?e OeE ?EI(a) ? Aieiaath?i ?anaeoe?e i?e OeE EI(a)O “I?i caaaeaiiy ?
iinoaiiaeo ?a?aenueei? ia?o?eii? ?iaioe”, a yeiio iaaieiooaaeiny ia
caeo/aii? ?a?aenueeiai ianaeaiiy aei i?aoe? ii a?ae?iaeaeaiith
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ?anioae?ee, i?iaaaeaii? i?ia?aie iie?oe/ieo oa
eoeueoo?ii-aeoiaieo caoiae?a a ?a?aenueeiio na?aaeiaeu?. Oei naiei
noai?thaaeany aaca aeey iaeaaiaeaeaiiy ?iaioe ?anaeoe?e o oeueiio
iai?yieo ni?eueii c ia?o?eieie eii?oaoaie.

Iaeiae, ?aae?caoe?y ae?iaeaiiai eo?no ia ii/aoeo 1920 ?. cono??eany c
iaaieie o?oaeiiuaie a ca’yceo c ??ciei i?aeoiaeii aei oeueiai OeE EI(a)O
? ia?o?eieo eii?oaoea, c iaeiiai aieo, ? ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo
naeoe?e, c ae?oaiai. Ia?o?, aeoiaey/e c iaiao?aeiino?
?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeiino? o?oaeyueo o aoae?aieoeoa? iiaiai
noni?euenoaa, iaiaaaeeny cae?enithaaoe ea??aieoeoai an?ia noa?aie
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy, ia i?eae?eyth/e iaeaaeii? oaaae
iniaeeainoyi noaiiaeua ? caieo?a iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei. Ae?oa? ae,
ia?aa?eueooth/e cia/aiiy ?o niaoeeo?ee, i?aoaiaeoaaee ia aeeeth/ia
?icoi?iiy ? i?aaenoaaieoeoai ?ioa?an?a naiai ia?iaeo. Oae, ia
oa?e?anuee?e ia?aae? i?aaenoaaiee?a ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo naeoe?e
(aa?acaiue 1920 ?.) i?aee?anethaaeiny, ui naia aiie iathoue noaoe
“aia?aoii oe?iei? ?iaioe, yeee i?iaiaeeoue a?ae ?iai? nai?? ia?o??
aa?oaoe?th ? i?iiaaaiaeo na?aae oe?ieeo ?a?aenueeeo ?ia?oie/eo ian ?
?icaeaa? eiioi?noe/io na?aeii?noue /eai?a ia?o??”.

I?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano OeE EI(a)O ia ni?ii?any ae?iaeoe eiie?aoio oi/eo
ci?o c i?aai?caoe?eieo a?aeiinei c ?a?aenueeeie eiioi?noe/ieie
naeoe?yie. A “?ino?oeoe?? aeey ?a?aenueeeo naeoe?e”, noaaeaii? iei
(aa?acaiue 1920 ?.), ?o ooai?aiiy i?aeoe/ii noaaeeiny a caeaaei?noue
a?ae ?icnoaeo ia?o?eieo eii?oao?a. Eia?/iei caaa?oaiiyi oaeiai i?aeoiaeo
aei ae?yeueiino? iaoe?iiaeueieo naeoe?e a oe?eiio noaea iinoaiiaa
OeE EI(a)O a?ae 15 ea?oiy 1920 ?., yea ia?aaeaa/aea ?o ?icione ? cai?io
a?aeiia?aeieie a?aeae?eaie aa?oaoe?? oa i?iiaaaiaee i?e aoaeiiao ia?o??.
Iniaeea? i?aoaic?? aeneiaethaaeeny aei ?anaeoe?e, ye? ia/aaoi
a?ae??aaeeny a?ae caaaeueiiia?o?eiiai aeeooy ? iaiaaaeeny ae?yoe
naiino?eii.

Ii/eiath/e c /a?aiy 1920 ?. ?icai?ioee ?iaioo ?aa?aeae?e i?e OeE EI(a)O
oa eiai i?ae?icae?ee ia i?noeyo. Iacaaaeath/e ia o?oaeiiu?, ?i
aaeaaaeiny iaeaaiaeaeoaaoe eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue
na?aae ?a?aenueeeo ian, iaei??th c aoaeoeaieo oi?i yei? noaee ?ia?oie/?
eeoae, i?aai?caoe?th aeiiiiiae iino?aaeaeaeei a?ae iia?ii?a, ai?ioueao c
ai?a?aionueeeie iano?iyie na?aae ?a?aenueeiai ianaeaiiy ?anioae?ee.
?acii c oei, ia aoea ?aae?ciaaia ?o ?aeay i?i noai?aiiy Ia?iaeiiai
Eii?na??aoo o ni?aaao iaoe?iiaeueiinoae o neeaae? ?aaeia?eiio Oe?a?ie,
aac?acoeueoaoii caaa?oeeeny ni?iae i?iaiaeeoe aacia?o?ei? ?ia?oie/?
eiioa?aioe?? oiui.

O ?ica’ycaii? iaaaeueieo iio?aa ?a?aenueeeo o?oaeyueo ?aa?aeae?eai
aeiaiaeeeiny anooiaoe o i?ioeai?noai c i?noeaaeie i?aai?caoe?yie
?a?aenueei? Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? (I.-Oe.), ooai?aii? a na?ii? 1919 ?.
I?ae oeeie iie?oe/ieie noia?ieeaie oi/eeany ai?ioueaa ca e?aea?noai o
?a?aenueeiio a?iiaaenueeiio aeeoo?. Aiia iaaoaaea iano?eueee
ianooiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o c aieo aeai?no?a, ui OeE EI(a)O aoa ciooaiee
iaae?neaoe ea??aieoeoao oe??? ia?o?? oeueoeiaoeaiiai eenoa, a yeiio
iaaieiooaaeiny, ui oaea ae?yeuei?noue ? iaeeaiii ia EI(a)O, neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith yei? ? ?o iiiiaioe.

A?aenooi?noue /?oeiai aecia/aiiy i?aa ? iaia’yce?a ?aa?aeae?e?a,
iino?ei? eiioe?eoe i?ae ia?o?eieie eii?oaoaie ? ieie c aeaieo ieoaiue
noai?thaaee e?eciao neooaoe?th a oeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo i?ae?icae?eao.
Aiae?c a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a na?ae/eoue, ui OeE EI(a)O iaa aeinoaoith
?ioi?iaoe?th i?i noai ni?aa o ?aa?aeae?eao ? iaiaaaany aaeeoe iaaieo
caoiae?a. C /ano aeoiaeo iinoaiiae a?ae 15 ea?oiy 1920 ?. a?i o?e/?
caa?oaany c oee?eoey?ieie eenoaie aei aoaeii?a, a yeeo iaaaaeoaaa, ui
“cai?ia ?anaeoe?e a?aeae?eaie ia iiaeiia ni?eeiaoeny ye a?aeiiaa aai
iineaaeaiiy ia?o?eii? ?iaioe na?aae o?oaeyueo ian iaoe?iiaeueieo
iaioei, ? ?a?a?a cie?aia” ? iiia?aaeaeaa i?i ?o a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
oeae iai?yiie ?iaioe na?aae iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei.

Aea aei iiceoeaieo c?ooaiue o noaaeaii? ia?oeii?a aei ?aa?aeae?e?a oe?
caa?iaiiy ia i?eaiaeeee. “?iaioa ?icaaeeeany, iino?eii ia aenoa/a?
eaae??a, o aaaaoueio i?noao noai?eeiny oaea noaiiaeua, ui iaia? iaeaea
aeiaeiiai aeoeaiiai ia?o?eiiai i?aoe?aieea, ? o?eueee i?eeiyooyi
iaeaeoeai?oeo caoiae?a uiaei iai?aaeaiiy na?aeeo ia?o?eieo nee iiaeia
aoaea caa?aaoe ?iaioo ?aa?aeae?e?a”, — i?aeaiaeea o a?oaei? 1920 ?.
i?aenoiee nai?? ?iaioe ?aa?aeae?e OeE EI(a)O. Ianei?noe/iith aoea
ioe?iea eiai ae?yeueiino? Oeaio?aeueiei ath?i ?anaeoe?e i?e OeE ?EI(a),
yea ae?eoei aeniiaeo, ui “naeoe?? aeeaooue a?aeie?aieaii a?ae
caaaeueiiai ia?o?eiiai aia?aoo, iniaeeai a Oe?a?i?”.

Oaeei /eiii, ia?o? e?iee ae?yeueiino? ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo naeoe?e
na?ae/eee i?i ?o aioiai?noue ? caeaoi?noue iaeaaiaeaeoaaoe naith ?iaioo
ia eiioi?noe/ieo canaaeao. ?acii c oei, ?ica?aeiino? c ia?o?eiei
ea??aieoeoaii ? i?noeaaeie eii?oaoaie c ieoaiue ?? ?icaeoeo a
?a?aenueeiio na?aaeiaeu?, a?aenooi?noue /?oei? i?aai?caoe?eii?
no?oeoo?e, iaae??oai?noue i?iaeai iaoa??aeueiiai, o?iainiaiai oa
eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy ia aeicaieyee ?anaeoe?yi iaaeaoe nai?i ae?yi
eiino?oeoeaiiai oa iine?aeiaiiai ni?yioaaiiy.

O aeanyoiio ?icae?e? “Iiooee oi?i ?iaioe ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo
naeoe?e oa ia?niaeoeae ?o ?nioaaiiy o neeaae? EI(a)O (a?oaeaiue 1920 —
a?oaeaiue 1921 ??.)” ?icaeyaea?oueny i?ioean ?o i?aai?caoe?eiiai
ci?oeiaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy noa?eo oa cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oi?i
ae?yeueiino? na?aae ?a?aenueeeo ian, aiae?cothoueny aca?ieie c
i?noeaaeie ia?o?eieie eii?oaoaie oa c’yniaothoueny iai?yiee ?o
iiaeaeueoi? ni?eueii? ?iaioe.

Iai?ee?ioe? 1920 — ia ii/aoeo 1921 ??. ?a?aenuee? eiioi?noe/i? naeoe??
ia?aaeeaaee iaai? o?oaeiiu? o nai?io ?icaeoeo. Iie?auaiith neooaoe??
ni?eyee ??oaiiy O c’?caeo ?EI(a), ca?aeii yeeo o ea?oi? 1921 ?. o
neeaae? EI(a)O aoei a?aeiiaeaii iaoe?iiaeuei? naeoe??. O iieiaeaii? i?i
ieo i?aee?anethaaeiny, ui aiie noai?thaaeeny “aeey aaaeaiiy aa?oaoe?? ?
i?iiaaaiaee na?aae ?ia?oiee?a ? o?oaeyueo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei, aeey
?ic?iaee ? iinoaiiaee ia?aae ia?o??th ? ?aaeyinueeeie i?aaiaie ieoaiue
ia?o?eiiai ? ?aaeyinueeiai aoae?aieoeoaa a ?aieao ia?o?eieo iinoaiia,
ye? aeieeaathoue c iiaooiaeo ? eoeueoo?ieo iniaeeainoae oeeo ian ? aeey
aeeiiaiiy niaoe?aeueieo caaaeaiue ia?o?eieo i?aai?a”.

Iacaaaeath/e ia a oe?eiio neaioe/ia, a /anii e iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy c
aieo i?noeaaeo ia?oeii?a aei ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo naeoe?e o nai?io
neeaae?, e?euee?noue inoaii?o ana ae oaee c?inoaea. Iai?ee?ioe? 1921 ?.
i?e aoaa?inueeeo oa iia?oiaeo eii?oaoao EI(a)O i?aoethaaei 50 ?anaeoe?e.
Ea??ai? eaae?e aeey ieo aiooaaee ?aeiii? ?a?aenuee? ia?o?ei? oeiee a
Oa?eia? oa E?aiai/ooe?, iaeiae aiie ia iiaee caaeiaieueieoe iio?aae a
iaiao?aei?e e?eueeino? a?aeiia?aeaeueieo i?aoe?aiee?a, i?ioa OeE EI(a)O
ia aeicaieea a?aee?eoe ?a?aenueea a?aeae?eaiiy ia ee?anueeeo aeueo
iie?oe/ieo eo?nao, a oaeiae oeieo a Iaean?. *a?ac oea o ia?o?e iieiaei?
1921 ?. ia aoei iiai?noth oeiiieaeoiaaii eaae?aie Aieiaath?i, ia iaee
caa?aeoth/eo eiai i?ae?icae?ee a ?yae? i?no Oe?a?ie.

O i?aeoeeo i?aai?caoe?eii? ?iaioe a oeae /an aoiaeeei i?iaaaeaiiy cai??a
? eiioa?aioe?e ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?no?a, ye? ia??iaee/ii a?aeaoaaeeny a
??cieo i?noao ?anioae?ee. ?anaeoe?? i?e eii?oaoao EI(a)O o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?ino?oeoe??th OeE ?EI(a) i?i aoiaeaeaiiy Aoiaeo a
ia?o?th, i?eeiyoi? i?ney eiai O??? Ana?in?enueei? Iaaecae/aeii?
eiioa?aioe?? (aa?acaiue 1921 ?.), a?aee o/anoue a ?iaio? oeaio?aeueii? ?
i?noeaaeo eii?n?e, ?ic’ynithaaee aeioe?euei?noue oaeiai ceeooy c
aoiae?aoeyie, aeaooiaoaaee iaea?eueo aeoeaieo c ieo ia ?iaioo. A Oe?a?i?
oeae i?ioean caaa?oeany iai?ee?ioe? o?aaiy 1921 ?. ? ia?aaaaeio
a?eueo?noue /eai?a Aoiaeo aoei i?eeiyoi aei eaa ?EI(a).

O ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai?, iaea?eueo ae??a? oi?ie aeoiaii?
?iaioe ?anaeoe?e na?aae ?a?aenueeeo o?oaeyueo. Aeieath/e iaaiee ii??
ia?o?eieo eii?oao?a, ?i aaeaaaeiny ?icoe?thaaoe ia?aaeo ?a?aenueeeo
eiioi?noe/ieo oa ?ia?oie/eo eeoa?a, i?iaiaeeoe aacia?o?ei? ?a?aenuee?
eiioa?aioe?? oiui. sse ? a iiia?aaei?e ia??iae, aino?i noiyei ieoaiiy
i?i ai?a?aoe?th ?a?aenueeiai ianaeaiiy c Oe?a?ie. OeE EI(a)O a?aooaaa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? Aieiaath?i ?anaeoe?e uiaei iaiaaeaiiy a?oi ?a?a?a, yeei
aeicaieyeiny ae?aeaeaeaoe ca ei?aeii.

Ie?aiei aniaeoii ae?yeueiino? ?anaeoe?e a oeae /an aoea i?aai?caoe?y
caoenoo ?a?a?a a?ae iia?ii?a. O /a?ai? 1921 ?. I?aath?i OeE EI(a)O
i?eeiyei ??oaiiy i?i e?ea?aeaoe?th caaii?a naiiiai?iie, noai?aieo ia ca
eeaniaith, a ca iaoe?iiaeueiith iciaeith. O?eueee i?ney oiai, ye o
aaaaoueio ianaeaieo ioieoao ia aaeaaaeiny caiia?aoe e?eaaaei ?ici?aaai
iaae ?a?ayie, o aa?ani? 1921 ?. aoei aeicaieaii noai?thaaoe
iaoe?iiaeuei? caaiie a i?noa/eao Ee?anueei?, E?aiai/ooeueei?,
*a?i?a?anueei? aoaa?i?e. A eenoiiaae? oeueiai ae ?ieo ca iaiieyaaiiyi
Aieiaath?i ?anaeoe?e OeE EI(a)O i?aeoaa?aeea nai? ??oaiiy i?i
a?aeiiaeaiiy o ?yae? i?noeaainoae oaeeo oi?ioaaiue, aea i?e oiia?
caeo/aiiy aei ?o neeaaeo aeeeth/ii “i?ieaoa?nueeiai o?oaeiaiai
aeaiaioo”.

?acii c oei, ye aaea cacia/aeiny, oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith oeueiai ia??iaeo
ae?yeueiino? ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo naeoe?e aoei i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?o
iaii?icoi?iue c OeE EI(a)O oa i?noeaaeie eii?oaoaie c i?aai?caoe?eieo
ieoaiue, iniaeeai ?icii/aoa i?aeoeea ia?o?eieo /enoie. Ana oea aaei aei
ciaioaiiy aeoeaiino? ?anaeoe?e, caoaeaiiy noa?e ?o ?iaioe. Aei oiai ae
oneeaaeithaaei neooaoe?th caaino?aiiy a?aeiinei i?ae naeoe?ii?noaie oa
aeai?noaie. Oaeee noai ni?aa coiiaea aeniiaie Oeaio?aeueiiai ath?i
?anaeoe?e i?e OeE ?EI(a) i?i iacaaeia?eueio ?iaioo nai?o i?ae?icae?e?a a
Oe?a?ie (eenoiiaae 1921 ?.).

Iiaeaeueoo aeieth iaoe?iiaeueieo, o oiio /ene? ?a?aenueeeo, naeoe?e o
neeaae? EI(a)O ae??oeea VI Anaoe?a?inueea ia?o?eia eiioa?aioe?y —
(a?oaeaiue 1921 ?.). A ?? iinoaiia? “I?i iaoe?iiaeuei? naeoe??”
aenoaaeany aeiiaa ?o aea?eueiaiiy a?ae aeeiiaiiy ooieoe?e ?aaeyinueeeo
i?aai?a, a?ae i?aai?caoe?eieo ia?o?eieo caaaeaiue ? cina?aaeaeaiiy
coneeue “aeeeth/ii ia i?iiaaaiaeenonueei-ia?o?ei?e ?iaio? a o?niiio
ca’yceo c ?ioeie i?ae?icae?eaie ia?oeii?a”. Aoei iinoaaeaii ieoaiiy i?i
nei?i/aiiy “/anoi-aonoi caeaeo iaoe?iiaeueieo naeoe?e, ye? ia
aei?aaaeaee naiai ?nioaaiiy”. ?anaeoe?? i?iaeiaaeoaaee naith ?iaioo a
on?o aoaa?inueeeo i?noao, a oaeiae o ?yae? iia?o?a ?anioae?ee.

Oaeei /eiii, o 1921 ?. Aoiae i?eieiea nai? ?nioaaiiy ye naiino?eia
iie?oe/ia ia?o?y a Oe?a?i?. ?a?aenuee? eiioi?noe/i? naeoe?? ye
niaaeei?iieoe? eiai e?aueo o?aaeeoe?e i?iaeiaaeoaaee naith ?iaioo,
iaiaaath/enue aeeiioaaoe ?ieue ae?acieea ?ioa?an?a ?a?aenueeeo
o?oaeyueo. ?acii c oei, o?oaeiiu? ? noia?a/iino? ?o ia?aaoaaiiy o
neeaae? eii?oao?a EI(a)O, ui ia iaaoee naiai ?ica’ycaiiy, ii?iaeaeoaaee
aioo??oi? iaii?icoi?iiy ? eiioe?eoe, iiaeeaethaaee e?ecia? yaeua a eaaao
?anaeoe?e, noaaaee ia?aoeiaeith ia oeyoo ?o aeoeaii? ae?yeueiino?.

O aeniiaeao aeeeaaeaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao??
c?iaeaii ni?iao i?iaiae?coaaoe ae?yeuei?noue aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e
c /ano ?o ca?iaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? aei ceeooy c EI(a)O. ?o ?noi??y
ia?aeiieeai aeiaiaeeoue, ui a noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? e?a?ie
iii?oio ?ieue a?ae?a?aea ia?o?y, ui ae?iaeea aeanio i?ia?aio,
ei?enooaaeany iaaaeyeei aieeaii o cia/ii? /anoeie ?a?aenueeiai
ianaeaiiy, iaea iaiao?aeio nioe?aeueio aaco aeey iiiiaiaiiy nai?o eaa,
?icaaeoaeaio ia?aaeo i?noeaaeo i?aai?caoe?e, no?oeoo?a yeeo aeicaieyea
?i oni?oii i?aoethaaoe a neeaaeieo oiiaao i?ioeai?noaa c naiiaea?aeaaiei
eaaeii.

Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui Aoiae ia ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye ia?o?th, ui caoeuaea
aocueeiiaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane ?a?a?a ia oeiaeo ?ioei ia?iaeai
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae. O ai?iouea? c oea?eciii eiai
i?aaenoaaieee aenooiaee ?acii c o?oaeyueie ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae,
aeei?enoiaoth/e i?e oeueiio oae? ni?eueii ai?iaiaai? aoaeoeai? caniae ye
no?aeee, i?oeiae, aeaiiino?aoe??, ca?iei? aenooie oiui. Aiie
i?aeo?eioaaee aanea aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?anioae?ee, Onoaiia/eo cai??a,
8-aiaeeiiiai ?iai/iai aeiy, iie?oe/ieo oa a?iiaaeyinueeeo naiaiae.
Iaei??th c aaaeeeaeo na?aae ieo aoea aeiiaa ??aiii?aaiino? ?a?a?a c
?ioeie ia?iaeaie e?a?ie.

Aoiaeo aeiaaeiny aanoe iai?oaeaio ai?ioueao ca e?aea?noai na?aae
o?oaeyueo ian c ??cieie iie?oe/ieie oa?oioaaiiyie a ?a?aenueeiio
na?aaeiaeu?. Ia iiaei aooe e iiae i?i ye?nue iinooiee nai?i
?aeaieia?/iei noia?ieeai o oeoia/aii? i?eioeeiiaeo iieiaeaiue, ye?
noinoaaeeny ??cieo ieoaiue aeeooy ?a?a?a, ianaiia?aae i?i
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueio aaoiiii?th oa ?? i?aeoe/ia cae?eniaiiy, i?i
aoae?aieoeoai iiaiai aeeooy ia ?noi?e/i?e aaouee?auei?, a Iaeanoei? aai
ae o i?noeyo eiiiaeoiiai i?iaeeaaiiy ?a?a?a o ??cieo e?a?iao, cie?aia a
?in??.

Caneoaiao? ia oaaao noaaeaiiy Aoiaeo aei iie?oeee eiaeii? aeaaee a
Oe?a?i?, yea ooaa?aeaeoaaeany ia ?? oa?eoi??? i?ney iiaaeaiiy
oea?nueeiai naiiaea?aeaanoaa. Eiai e?aea?e i?aeo?eioaaee oo c ieo, yea
iaea /?oeo i?ia?aio ae?e, caaeiaieueiyea caieoe ? iio?aae ianaeaiiy
e?a?ie, ei?enooaaeany aaoi?eoaoii ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?. Aea aiie
ae?iaeee aeanio oi/eo ci?o ia ia?niaeoeae iie?oe/iiai ?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy aea?aeaae, aeoeaii a?aenoithaaee ?? a
o?yaeiaeo eieao, ia iaiaaaeeny i?enoiniaoaaoe nai? iiaeyaee i?ae
iiceoe?? i?aaey/eo ia?o?e oa oa?oioaaiue, iaa?oue ia?aaeath/enue ia
eiioe?eoe oa iiaeeea?noue inoaoi/iiai ?ic?eao c ieie.

Iaiaei?iiith oiiaith i?aeo?eiee oeo /e ?ioeo aeaaeieo no?oeoo?
aoiae?aoe? aaaaeaee iane?eueee ?aaeueiith aoea ?o i?ia?aia caaacia/aiiy
i?aa iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei, noai?aiiy aeey ?o ?aae?caoe?? i?aai?a
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy. sseui aea?aeaaa c ??cieo i?e/ei
ii-ni?aaaeiueiio ia caeaoia oo?aoaaoeny i?i aeia?iaoo an?o aoi?/ieo
ni?eueiio, noai?thaaoe ?i oiiae aeey i?iyao ?icoiiaeo ? o?ce/ieo
cae?aiinoae, ciooo? ?o eeaeaoe ??aei? aeii?aee, ia aea? iaeaaeii?
a?aen?/? i?eieaeaiith iaoe?iiaeueii? a?aeiino? ie?aieo a?iiaaeyi,
iaaieiooaaee ?o e?aea?e, aiia aaaaoi ao?a/a? ia oeyoo aei noni?eueiiai
?icaeoeo.

Iia/aeueiei ? i?ioean ia?ainieneaiiy Aoiaeii a Oe?a?i? nai?? iie?oe/ii?
i???ioaoe??. Ia?aeiiaaoenue, ui cae?enieoe aeiiae
ia?niiaeueii-iaoe?iiaeueii? aaoiiii??, a oiio /ene? aeey ?a?aenueeiai
ianaeaiiy, ca oiia aeaaee Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo, Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee,
Aee?aeoi???, aaoueiaiaoo iaiiaeeeai, aoiae?anueea ea??aieoeoai ciooaia
aoei iiaa?iooe a a?e ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. ?acii c oei, aiii aino?i
e?eoeeoaaei ?? ca iaaeaiie?aoe/i?noue, aeeeoaoi?noai ii a?aeiioaiith aei
?ia?oiee?a ? naeyi, ia?ane?aeoaaiiy iie?oe/ieo noia?iee?a oiui. I?e
oeueiio eiio aeiaiaeeeiny aeneooiaoaaoe caeioaa/aiiy nai?o ?aeaeieo
noia?iee?a o caaooo? ?ioa?an?a naiai ia?iaeo.

Iine?aeiai?noue oa ??oo/?noue o aeinyaiaii? iinoaaeaii? iaoe /?oei
aeyaeeany a ae?yeueiino? Aoiaeo i?ae /an aoiaeaeaiiy a?eueoino? eiai
i?aai?caoe?e aei neeaaeo Eiioa?aaiaeo oa ia?aaiai??a eiai e?aea??a c
i?aaenoaaieeaie EI(a)O i?i ia’?aeiaiiy iaio ia?o?e. I?eeiyaoe oaea
??oaiiy i?ae oeneii ianoaaei, ui neeaeeny, a?aoiaoth/e iano?i? ia?o?eieo
iec?a, aiie aeiaaee ni?aao aei e?ioey, iacaaaeath/e ia caeioaa/aiiy o
iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo oa naia?aoenonueeeo iano?iyo, ia?icoi?ii?
cai?iiiiiaaieo oiia aeey ?nioaaiiy a iaei?e i?aai?caoe?? c a?eueoiaeeaie
Oe?a?ie.

Noia?a/eeaei aoei noaiiaeua ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo naeoe?e o neeaae?
eii?oao?a EI(a)O. I?aeic?e o naia?aoeci?, iai??ao noai?eoe naiino?eio
i?aai?caoe?eio no?oeoo?o, ui eoeueoeaoaaeeny a i?noeaaeo ia?o?eieo
eii?oaoao, a?aenooi?noue iaiao?aeii? e?eueeino? eaae??a, iaoa??aeuei? ?
o?iainia? o?oaeiiu? ia aeaaaee ?i ciiae ii-ni?aaaeiueiio ?icai?iooe
iie?oeei-aeoiaio e eoeueoo?ii-ianiao ?iaioo na?aae ?a?aenueeiai
ianaeaiiy. A ae?yeueiino? ?anaeoe?e aeaaaeiny aciaee ia/?oea aecia/aiiy
?o i?aa ? iaia’yce?a, iaiaeii?acia? ci?ie a noaoon? naeoe?e, iaiaaaiiy
a?aoeny ca ?ica’ycaiiy on?o neeaaeieo ieoaiue aeeooy o?oaeyueo. I?e
oeueiio aeiaiaeeeiny aeo?eioaaoe aino?o eiieo?aioe?th c ?ioeie
?a?aenueeeie iie?oe/ieie ? a?iiaaenueeeie i?aai?caoe?yie, a oiio /ene?,
caei?aeiiieie.

O aeniiaeao aecia/ai? i?iaeaie, ye?, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iio?aaothoue
a?oioiaii? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee. Cie?aia, caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia
aeioe?euei?noue aena?oeaiiy ae?yeueiino? ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo
naeoe?e o 1922-1930 ??. Iio?aao? aea/aiiy iiaeaeueoa aeiey eieeoi?o
aoiae?aoe?a, yeeo ia?ane?aeoaaee ye oaeeo, ui ia c?aeeeny naiai
ieioeiai, yeeo ca iaeiaioith i?aeic?ith aeeeth/aee c ia?o?? i?ae /an
/eneaiieo /enoie. Iaeiaeine?aeaeaieie caeeoathoueny ?aeaei? iiaeyaee oa
i?aeoe/i? ae?? aoiae?aoe?a, ui ai?a?oaaee ca ei?aeii, cie?aia aei
Iieueu?, iaia?aaeiaei? ? a ia??iae ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie, o iiai?ii?
?iee.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaiee o ioae?eaoe?yo:

?iaeea?aeoaeueia iiiia?ao?y

Aoiae, Eiioa?aaiae, ?anaeoe?? EI(a)O: i?noea a iie?oe/iiio aeeoo?
Oe?a?ie (1917-1921 ??.). — E.: Anioe?aoe?y “Oe?a?ii”, 1996.-132 n.

A?ioo?e, ?icae?ee a eieaeoeaieo i?aoeyo, noaoo?, oace aeiiia?aeae

2.Aoiae a Oe?a?i?: i?noea a noni?eueiiio aeeoo? /e?iaoeue O?O no. —
1921 ?./. — E., 1995.-72 n. (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c Eaa?oanii O.E.).

3.Aoiae ia Oe?aeia: ianoi a iieeoe/aneie aeecie (ia?o-ieoya?ue 1917 a.).
Eiiniaeo eaeoeee. Eeaaneia aunoaa eiaeaia?iia ?aaeeioaoie/aneia o/eeeua
IAI ei. ia?oaea aaeaoeee Iie?uoeeia A.E. — E., 1992.-35 n. (o
ni?aaaoi?noa? c Aeeeaiyiii A.A.).

4.Oe?a?ia ia?oi? iieiaeie 20-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy: ia/ooa /e caiey
ia?oiaaia aeey ?a?a?a? — Ee?a: OIA “I?aeia?iaeia o?iainiaa aaaioe?y”,
1997.-36 n. (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c Ieeei/oeii I.A.).

Aoiae, Eiioa?aaiae, aanaeoeee EI(a)O: no?aieoeu iieeoe/aneie aeia?aoee.
1917 — 1921 aa. — I?ai?eio. — Iineaa: Iauanoai “Aa?aeneia ianeaaeea”,
1994.-20 n.

E aii?ino i ca?iaeaeaiee aoiaeianeiai aeaeaeaiey a Oe?aeia (eiiaoe O?O —
ia/aei OO aaea). Iiaua a?oeaiua aeieoiaiou // Aanoiee Aa?aeneiai
oieaa?neoaoa a Iineaa. — 1996.-?2(12).-N. 104-133.

I aa?aeneeo iia?iiao, iiiiue iino?aaeaaoei e yiea?aoeee aa?aaa ec
Oe?aeiu (1917-1921 aa.) // Aanoiee Aa?aeneiai oieaa?neoaoa a Iineaa. —
1994.-?3(7).-N. 64-81.

“Ni no?aoiie auno?ioie ?anooo aeoeaiua neeu neiienoia ec iaae? aa?aeneeo
ian…” // Aanoiee Aa?aeneiai oieaa?neoaoa a Iineaa. —
1997.-?1(14).-N. 178-192.

Aoiae a Oe?a?i?: i?noea a iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? (aa?acaiue-aeiaoaiue
1917 ?.). // Iaoeia? i?aoe? c ieoaiue iie?oe/ii? ?noi???: I?aea?aeii/ee
iaoe. ca??iee. Aei. 172. Iie?oe/i? ia?o?? ia Oe?a?i?
(1905-1925 ??.).-E., 1992.-N. 71-85.

Aoiae?anuee? i?aai?caoe?? Oe?a?ie a 1905 ?ioe?. // Iaoeia? i?aoe? c
ieoaiue iie?oe/ii? ?noi???: I?aea?aeii/ee iaoe. ca??iee. Aei. 173.
Ia?o?? ? nioe?aeuei? a?oie a ia?o?e ?in?enuee?e ?aaiethoe??. — E.,
1992.-N. 35-49.

Aoiae, Eiioa?aaiae, ?anaeoe??. Noi??iee iie?oe/ii? a?ia?ao?? //
A?/a.-1992.-?7.-N. 133-146.

Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea ? Aoiae (eenoiiaae 1917- ea?oaiue 1918 ??.) //
Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae.-1992.-?10-11.-N. 24-34.

Aoiae a Oe?a?i? // I?aeaioia/? iaoa??aee iiioey?ii? aioeeeeiiaae??
“Oe?a?inueea ?a?aenoai”. Aei. 3.-Ee?a: ?inoeooo thaea?ee,
1998.-N. 123-132.

Iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioeie a ieaiao ?icaoaeiae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae //
?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae.-?12.-N. 27-33.

I?iaeaie oe?a?inueei-?a?aenueeeo aca?iei ia noi??ieao “Oe?a?inueeiai
?noi?eea” // Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?ee.-Ithioai.-1994.-N. 72-76.

?a?aenueea naeoe?y (a?aeae?e) eii?oaoo EI(a)O: o?oaeiiu? noaiiaeaiiy
(a?oaeaiue 1919-a?oaeaiue 1921 ??.) // Iaoeia? caienee. Aei. 4.-E.:
?inoeooo iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie. —
1998.-N. 40-53.

Neiienoneia aeaeaeaiea a Oe?aeia a 20-a aiaeu OO aaea: nioeeaeueiay
aaca, iieeoe/aneea a?oiie?iaee, i?aeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue //
Aa?aeneia ianeaaeea THaa Oe?aeiu. Aaeaaiaeiee. Enneaaeiaaiey,
ainiiieiaiey, aeieoiaiou.-Oa?ueeia-Caii?iaeuea.-1995.-N. 78-85.

Caaaeueiee ?a?aenueeee ?ia?oie/ee Nithc a Eeoa?, Iieueu? ? ?in??. —
Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ?noi??? ?a?a?a Oe?a?ie: Ca. noaoae. — E.: ?inoeooo
iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei ? iie?oieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, 1994.-N. 15-20.

N. Aieueaeaeueiai i?i ?noi??th Oe?a?ie a 1917-1920 ??. Iaoa??aee i?i
oe?a?inueei-?a?aenuee? a?aeiineie (iiaeyae c ai?a?aoe??). — ?a?aenueea
?noi??y oa eoeueoo?a a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie:
Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? 2-5 aa?aniy 1997 ?. — E.: ?inoeooo
thaea?ee, 1998.-N. 41-46.

Aoiae a Oe?a?i?: o?iee ae?yeueiino? oa cieeiaiiy c iie?oe/iiai aeeooy //
?a?aenueea ianaeaiiy I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie: ?noi??y oa no/ani?noue: Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? 27-28 aeiaoiy 1994 ?. — Caii??aeaey,
1995.-N. 33-36.

E aii?ino i neeyiee Aoiaea n EI(a)O — ?a?aenueea ianaeaiiy I?aaeiy
Oe?a?ie: ?noi??y oa no/ani?noue: Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??
19-20 eenoiiaaea 1992 ?. — Caii??aeaey, 1992.-N. 59-62.

I?ioni?eee: ia?o?ei? /e iaeo?aeuei?? Aoiae i?eeia? ??oaiiy. — 90 ?ie?a
aeieeiaiiy ianiaiai i?ioni?eeiaiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?: Iaoa??aee iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe?? 28 ethoiai 1994 ?. — E., 1996.- N. 60-62.

E??i oiai, ii oai? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii ua
20 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue caaaeueiei ianyaii iiiaae 5 ae?oe. a?e.

Aon?a A.?. Aoiae a noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie /e?iaoeue
O?O no. — 1921 ?./. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. — Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

Ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy a?o?aieo aeaea?ae, aeieoiaio?a a iioae?eiaaieo
ca??ieeao, aacaoieo ? e?oa?aoo?ieo iaoa??ae?a aeine?aeaeo?oueny
noaiiaeaiiy aoiae?anueeeo i?aai?caoe?e a Oe?a?i? iai?ee?ioe? O?O — ia
ii/aoeo OO no., ?o ai?ioueaa ni?eueii c ?ioeie iiiceoe?eieie
oa?oioaaiiyie ca iiaaeaiiy naiiaea?aeaanoaa. Iieacaia o/anoue eieaeoea?a
oe??? ia?o?? a noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? e?a?ie i?ney ethoiai
1917 ?., iiaea?oueny ioe?iea e?aea?aie Aoiaeo coneeue oe?a?inueei?
aeaiie?ao?? ii ooaa?aeaeaiith aea?aeaaiino?, ii caaacia/aiith ?ioa?an?a
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioinoae. ?ice?eaa?oueny noaaeaiiy aoiae?aoe?a aei
aeiaoiaaeo iiae?e a Iao?ia?aae?, aei aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei?
iie?oeee Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, aaoueiainueeiai ?aaeeio, Aee?aeoi???.
I?iaiae?ciaai? i?e/eie iinooiiaiai ia?aoiaeo a?eueoino? aoiae?anueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e ia iiceoe?? ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee, ?o ceeooy c EI(a)O,
ooai?aiiy ?a?aenueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo naeoe?e o neeaae? ?? eii?oao?a.
Caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia o?oaeiiu?, ye? aeiaiaeeeiny aeieaoe ?anaeoe?yi a
i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Aoiae, aoiae?anueeee eieaeoea, ?a?aenueea
Nioe?ae-Aeaiie?aoe/ia ?ia?oie/a Ia?o?y /I.-Oe./, ?a?aenueea Eiioi?noe/ia
Ia?o?y /I.-Oe./, Eiioa?aaiae, ?a?aenueea iaueia,
ia?niiaeueii-iaoe?iiaeueia aaoiiii?y, ?a?aenueea eiioi?noe/ia naeoe?y,
?a?aenueeee eiioi?noe/iee a?aeae?e.

Aonaa A.E. Aoiae a iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie Oe?aeiu
/eiiaoe O?O no. — 1921 a./. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 — Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. — Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie
Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

Ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey oe?ieiai e?oaa a?oeaiuo enoi/ieeia,
aeieoiaioaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia enneaaeothony nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea e
iieeoe/aneea i?aaeiinueee noaiiaeaiey aoiaeianeeo i?aaiecaoeee a Oe?aeia
a eiioea O?O — ia/aea OO noieaoey. Iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi naie
eaeaieiae/aneea e i?aaiecaoeeiiiua i?eioeeiu Aoiae ooaa?aeaeae a
niaianoiie n ae?oaeie iiiiceoeeiiiuie ia?oeyie a ai?ueaa i?ioea
naiiaea?aeaaey, oe?aieyy nayce n aa?aeneeie o?oaeyueieny e i?eia?aoay
iiuo iieeoe/aneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa eie. A 1905-1907 aa. ianoiua aoiaeiaoeu
iaoeeiiii neaaeiaaee eo?nii ia naa?aeaiea oea?ecia, i?iaicaeaoaiea
aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?anioaeeee, iaania/aiea ?aaiii?aaey anao iaoeee.

Iieacaii, /oi a ia?eiae iaaeaeo aeaoiy ?aaiethoeeyie a ?innee
aoiaeiaoeai a Oe?aeia oaeaeinue nio?aieoue naie aaoi?eoao n?aaeu /anoe
aa?aeneiai ianaeaiey aeaaiaea?y ni/aoaieth eaaaeueiuo e iaeaaaeueiuo
oi?i aeeyiey ia iannu, niiniaiinoe naiaa?aiaiii e aaeaeaaoii
?aaae?iaaoue ia aaaeiaeoea niauoey a iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie
no?aiu. Ionoaeaay naie i?aoaicee ia iiiiiieueiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai
eioa?ania aa?aeneeo o?oaeyueony, aoiaeianeea i?aaiecaoeee aianoa n oai
i?iyaeyee aioiaiinoue caeeth/aoue eiii?iiennu n ?acee/iuie
?aaiethoeeiiiuie ia?oeyie e a?oiie?iaeaie a i?ioeaiai?noaa n
ianooieaieai nee ?aaeoeee.

?ane?uaaaony ianoi Aoiaea a ?aaiethoeeiiiuo niauoeyo a Oe?aeia iinea
naa?aeaiey naiiaea?aeaaey a ?innee, aai ?aaioa ii ainnoaiiaeaieth noa?uo
e nicaeaieth iiauo i?aaiecaoeee, iiiieiaieth eo ?yaeia. Enoiaey ec naiae
ioeaiee ia?niaeoea iinea aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey no?aiu, aoiaeianeea
eeaea?u caiyee eiino?oeoeaioth iiceoeeth ii ioiioaieth e aeayoaeueiinoe
Oeaio?aeueiie ?aaeu, Aaia?aeueiiai Nae?aoa?eaoa ii ooaa?aeaeaieth
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe n o/aoii i?aa iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa. Aoiae
?aoeoaeueii aunooiee i?ioea ieoya?ueneiai aii?oaeaiiiai ainnoaiey
aieueoaaeeia a Iao?ia?aaea, iiaeaea?aeae aeanoue oe?aeineeo aeaiie?aoia,
a oiaea a?aiy i?aaeinoa?aaay eo i?ioea i?iaicaeaoaiey iacaaeneiinoe OI?.
Aoiaeiaoeu ?acei inoaeeee onoaiiaeaiea aaoiaineiai ?aaeeia a Oe?aeia,
ioeaiea aai eae eiio??aaiethoeeiiiue ia?aai?io.

Aiaeece?oaony i?ioeann ia?aniio?a aoiaeiaoeaie a Oe?aeia naiae
iieeoe/aneie ieaooi?iu, ia/aaoeeny inaiueth 1918 a., i?e yoii
iiae/a?eeaaaony cia/aiea iiya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee a Aa?iaiee, a oaeaea
?yaea aioo?aiieo i?aaeiinueie. Ioeacaaoenue io nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneeo
acaeyaeia, oaaaeeaoenue a ianiiniaiinoe Aee?aeoi?ee inouanoaeoue
?aaeeeaeueiua nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea i?aia?aciaaiey a ?anioaeeea,
Aoiae auioaeaeai aue i?eciaoue niaaoneoth aeanoue e noaoue ia iooue
nio?oaeie/anoaa n iath. A ?acoeueoaoa aue ia?aciaai eaaue Aoiae, caoai
Eiioa?aaiae, eioi?ue i?ae?aoee naia nouanoaiaaiea a aaaonoa 1919 a.,
iauaaeeieaoenue ia i?aaao aa?aeneie eiiioienoe/aneie naeoeee n EI(a)O.
Iauyniythony i?e/eiu iaiaeiicia/iiai ioiioaiey aieueoaaeeia e neeyieth n
auaoeie aoiaeiaoeaie.

Iieacaiu ia?aua oaae aeayoaeueiinoe aanaeoeee a ninoaaa eiieoaoia EI(a)O
a aeaeaa?a 1919 — aeaeaa?a 1921 aa., iiae/a?eeaaaony eo aioiaiinoue
?acaa?ouaaoue naith ?aaioo ia eiiioienoe/aneeo ia/aeao. Aeoeaioe?oaony
aieiaiea ia ?aciiaeaneyo ii aii?inai aa ?acaeoey a aa?aeneie n?aaea,
iinoiyiii aicieeathueo iaaeaeo yoeie iaoeeiiaeueiuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie e
ia?oeeiui ?oeiaiaenoaii, a oaeaea ia ionoonoaee /aoeie i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
no?oeoo?u, ia?aoaiiinoe iaoa?eaeueiiai, oeiainiaiai e eaae?iaiai
iaania/aiey, /oi ia iicaieyei aanaeoeeyi i?eaeaoue naiei aeaenoaeyi
eiino?oeoeaioth e iineaaeiaaoaeueioth iai?aaeaiiinoue.

?ane?uaaaony cia/aiea ?aoaiey IV Anaoe?aeineie ia?oeeiie eiioa?aioeee
(aeaeaa?ue 1921 a.), ii?aaeaeaiey ei i?aa e iaycaiiinoae iaoeeiiaeueiuo
naeoeee i?e eiieoaoao EI(a)O. A niioaaonoaee n yoei aeieoiaioii
aanaeoeee i?iaeieaeaee naith aeayoaeueiinoue ai anao aoaa?ineeo
ai?iaeao, a oaeaea ?yaea oacaeia ?anioaeeee. Aianoa n oai, o?oaeiinoe e
i?ioeai?a/ey eo nouanoaiaaiey, eioi?ua ia iieo/aee aeieaeiie ioeaiee
OeE EI(a)O e a ia iieiie ia?a ono?aiyeenue ei, ii?iaeaeaee aioo?aiiea
iaaei?acoiaiey e eiioeeeou, oaeoaeyee e?eceniua yaeaiey a n?aaea
aa?aeneeo eiiioienoia, i?aiyonoaiaaee oneeaieth eo aeoeaiie ?aaiou a
iannao.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Aoiae, aoiaeianeee eieeaeoea, Aa?aeneay
Nioeeae-Aeaiie?aoe/aneay ?aai/ay Ia?oey /I.-Oe./, Aa?aeneay
Eiiioienoe/aneay Ia?oey /I.-Oe./, Eiioa?aaiae, aa?aeneay iaueia,
ia?niiaeueii-iaoeeiiaeueiay aaoiiiiey, aa?aeneay eiiioienoe/aneay
naeoeey, aa?aeneee eiiioienoe/aneee ioaeae.

Gusev V.I. Bund in Social and Political Life of Ukraine /late XIX-th
century — 1921/ — Manuscript.

Dissertation for a Doctor’s degree in historical sciences, speciality
07.00.01 — History of Ukraine. — Kyiv Taras Shevchenko University, Kyiv,
1999.

The dissertation presents research in formation of Bund’s organisations
in Ukraine during the period of late XIX-th — early XX-th centuries as
well as their struggle, jointly with other opposition groups, for
overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, all being based on archival sources,
documented facts from published articles, newspapers and literary
materials. It shows the party members taking part in social and
political life of the country after overthrow of the tsarist autocracy,
depicts how its leaders estimated the effort of Ukrainian democracy in
strengthening the State system and securing interests of national
minorities. The dissertation reveals Bund members’ attitude to the
October Revolution in Petrograd, to home and foreign policy of the
Central Rada, Hetman’s regime Directoria. The author analyses the
motives of gradual transition of most of Bund’s organisations towards
ideology of the Soviet power, to merging with the CP(b)U, setting up
Jewish communist sections within its committees. Attention was focused
on difficulties the Jewish sections had to overcome in their practical
activity.

Key words: Bund, Bund’s groups, Jewish Social Democratic Labour Party
/Po’ale-Zion/, Jewish Communist Party /Po’ale-Zion/, Komfarband, Jewish
community, personal-national autonomy, Jewish Communist sections, Jewish
Communist department.

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Eai?i A.?. Inoaii? neiai aoiae?anueeiai iaoe?iiae?cio.-ICO.-
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OeAe?A Oe?a?ie, o. 317, ii. 1, ni?. 5120, a?e. 5.

OeAe?A Oe?a?ie, ni?. 1930, a?e. 258.

Oai naii, ni?. 2142, a?e. 107, 110; o. 442, ii. 854, a?e. 124.

Oai naii, o. 1597, ii. 1, ni?. 25, a?e. 32, 34, 43, 44; o. 317, ii. 1,
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Oiaa?eu.-1906.-29 naioya?y.

OeAe?A Oe?a?ie, o. 275, ii. 1, ni?. 1747, a?e. 331.

Oai naii, o. 838, ii. 3, ni?. 5, a?e. 1.

OeAe?A Oe?a?ie, o. 268, ii. 1, ni?. 343, a?e. 3.

AeA?O, o. 102, ii. 238, ni?. 6, /. 46, a?e. 1, 2, 3, 5, 7.

I?ieaoa?ee. -1908.-12 ia?oa.

I?aaaea.-1911.-29 yiaa?y.

OeAe?A Oe?a?ie, o. 705, ii. 1, ni?. 862, a?e. 4.

I?aaaea.-1911.-29 yiaa?y.

AeA?O, o. 102, ii. 241, ni?. 6, /. 51, e?oa?a A, a?e. 8;
OeAe?A Oe?a?ie, o. 274, ii. 4, ni?. 402, a?e. 17.

OeAe?A Oe?a?ie, o. 278, ii. 1, ni?. 69, a?e. 47.

Oai naii, o. 274, ii. 4, ni?. 4, a?e. 133.

Oai naii.

?in?enueeee oeaio? caa??aaiiy ? aea/aiiy aeieoiaio?a iia?oiuei? ?noi???
(aeae? — ?OeCAAeI?), o. 271, ii. 2, ni?. 31, a?e. 27, 38, 41, 42, 49,
52, 55.

Iao aiein.-1917.-16 ethey.

I?ia?aiia Aoiaea.-Eeaa, 1917.-N. 2.

Aeaiue.-1917.-8 ai?aey.

?OeCAAeI?, o. 271, ii. 2, ni?. 31, a?e. 5.

1917 aiae ia Eeaaueia. O?iieea niauoee.-E., 1928.-N. 120.

. ?OeCAAeI?, o. 271, ii. 2, ni?. 31, a?e. 174.

1917 aiae ia Eeaaueia.-N. 283.

Eeaaeyiei.-1917.-27 ieoya?y.

Iiaay aeeciue.-1917.-7 aeaeaa?y.

Oeeo. ca: ?aoan I. Aeaa aiaea ?aaiethoeee ia Oe?aeia (Yaiethoeey e
?aneie “Aoiaea”).-I., 1920.-N. 78.

?OeCAAeI?, o. 271, ii. 2, ni?. 32, a?e. 695, 696, 697.

Oai naii, o. 445, ii. 1, ni?. 36, a?e. 87.

?aoan I. Iaeaioia iaaeaiey aaoueiaiueiu. Ec ia?aaeeoiai 1918 aiaea.-E.,
1918.-N. 24.

?aoan I. Aeaa aiaea ?aaiethoeee a Oe?aeia.(Yaiethoeey e ?aneie
“Aoiaea”).-I., 1920. — N. 3.

Oeaio?aeueiee aea?aeaaiee a?o?a a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue Oe?a?ie
(aeae? — OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie), o. 41, ii. 1, ni?. 15, a?e. 2.

OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie, o. 41, ii. 1, ni?. 16, a?e. 16.

?aoan I. Aeaa aiaea ?aaiethoeee a Oe?aeia.(Yaiethoeey e ?aneie
“Aoiaea”).-I., 1920.-N. 141.

OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie, o. 41, ii. 1, ni?. 23, a?e. 50-52.

Aia?aae.-1919.-14 oaa?aey.

Ai?ueaa.-1919.-22 oaa?aey.

Oeaio?aeueiee aea?aeaaiee a?o?a aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy
Oe?a?ie (aeae? — OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie), o. 1738, ii. 1, ni?. 41, a?e. 91.

OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie, o. 1, ii. 20, ni?. 90, a?e. 20 cai?io.

?OeCAAeI?, o. 445, ii. 1, ni?. 14, a?e. 213.

?a?a? oa Oe?a?inueea ?anioae?ea. ?a?aenueea aeaeaaaoe?y o Aieiaiiai
ioaiaia 17 eeiiy 1919 ?ieo a Eai’yioe? ia Iiae?ee?.-Aeaeaiiy i?ane oa
?ioi?iaoe??.-Eai’yiaoeue ia Iiae?ee?, 1919.-N. 6-7.

Eiioi?noe/ia ia?o?y Oe?a?ia a ?aciethoe?yo ? ??oaiiyo c’?cae?a,
eiioa?aioe?e ? Ieaioi?a OeE.-E., 1971.-O. 1.- 1918-1941.-N. 44.

OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie, o. 41, ii. 1, ni?. 31, a?e. 71.

Oai naii, o.1, ii. 20, ni?. 338, a?e. 16.

Ecaanoey Anaoe?aeineiai Oeaio?aeueiiai Eniieieoaeueiiai Eiieoaoa
Niaaoia ?aai/eo, e?anoueyineeo e e?aniia?iaeneeo
aeaiooaoia.-1920.-24 ai?aey.

OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie, o. 1, ii. 20, ni?. 339, a?e. 73.

. Eiiioieno.-1920.-5 ethiy, 1 naioya?y.

OeCAAeI?, o. 445, ii. 1, ni?. 72, a?e. 34.

Ecaanoey OeE ?EI(a).-1920.-?28.-N. 20.

?OeCAAeI?, o. 445, ii. 1, ni?. 40, a?e. 278.

Ecaanoey OeE EI(a)O.-1921.-?9.-N. 7.

OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie, o. 1, ii. 20, ni?. 776, a?e. 351.

Ecaanoey OeE EI(a)O.-1921.-?5.-N. 12-13.

?OeCAAeI?, o. 445, ii. 1, ni?. 43, a?e. 123.

Oai naii, ni?. 40, a?e. 277.

Oai naii, ni?. 72, a?e. 29.

Eiioi?noe/ia ia?o?y Oe?a?ie a ?aciethoe?yo ? ??oaiiyo c’?cae?a,
eiioa?aioe?e ? Ieaioi?a OeE. O. 1. 1918-1941.-E., 1976.- N. 169.

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