2

HAOe?IHAEUeHA AEAAeAI?ss AHOO??OH?O NI?AA OE?A?HE

?AAIIA TH??e Oaiaein?eiae/

OAeE 343.9

AI?IOUeAA ?C CEI*EHHEIE IINssAAHHssIE HA

AEANI?NOUe, I?AAeIAOII ssEEO ? AAOIO?AINII?OI?

CANIAE (E?EI?HAEUeHI-I?AAIA? ?

E?EI?HIEIA?*H? ANIAEOE)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.08 — e?ei?iaeueia i?aai

oa e?ei?iieia?y; e?ei?iaeueii-aeeiiaa/a i?aai

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? e?ei?iieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai??
aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — caneoaeaiee th?eno Oe?a?ie, eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani? Aeaenaiae?ia TH??e Aaea?’yiiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueia
aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? eaoaae?e e?ei?iieia??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee
Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AI?IO
Eaiiaaiei ?ai? Iao?iae/, ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i.A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai
IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee;

— eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe
?iu?i Ieaenaiae? ?ee?/, aaeaieao.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 19 ” o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.007.03 i?e Iaoe?iiaeuei?e
aeaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252035, Ee?a — 35,
Nieii’yinueea ieiua, 1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252035, Ee?a — 35,
Nieii’yinueea ieiua, 1.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 17 ” ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee A.?.AEaioio?e

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia no/aniiio ??ai? ia?e
aaoio?ainii?oieo cania?a a Oe?a?i? neeaaea? a?eueoa i?ae 10 i?eueeii?a
iaeeieoeue. Oiio iaei??th c aeooaeueieo i?iaeai aenooia? caaacia/aiiy
iaae?eiiai caoenoo aaoio?ainii?oieo cania?a a?ae cei/eiiiai caaieiae?iiy
ieie.

O no?oeoo?? cei/eiiino? i?eaeecii 5 a?aenioe?a neeaaeathoue cei/eie, ye?
iia’ycai? ?c cei/eiieie iinyaaiiyie ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ?
aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae. Aea, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ieoiia aaaa iacaaieo
cei/ei?a o caaaeuei?e cei/eiiino? a?aeiinii iaaaeeea, aiie iathoue
cia/io noni?eueio iaaaciaeo. Oae, iaoa??aeueia oeiaea, yea i?e oeueiio
caiiae?th?oueny ye ie?aiei a?iiaaeyiai, oae ? aea?aeaa? a oe?eiio,
ia/eneth?oueny i?eueeiiaie a?eaaiue. Ca ianooaaaie cei/eiiiai
caaaa/aiiy, cei/eiiee aaoia?cian iin?aea? o?ao? i?noea i?ney iao?iaoe?e
o o?iainiai-aaie?anuee?e noa?? ? cei/eiieo ae?e c ia?eioeeaie.

Ca noaoenoe/ieie aeaieie, o 1997 ?ioe? a Oe?a?i? aoei ca?a?no?iaaii
19630 e?aae?aeie aaoio?ainii?oieo cania?a, oaiaii — 5718
aaoio?ainii?oieo cania?a. Ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui i?aai?caoe?y oa niin?a
a/eiaiiy e?aae?aeie oa oaii?a aaoio?ainii?oo iaaoaathoue ana a?eueo
i?aai?ciaaieo oi?i. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iinyaaiiy
ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae, a/eith? cia/ia
e?euee?noue cei/eiieo oa?oiiaaiue, ye? ia?aoai?eee oeth ae?yeuei?noue ia
cei/eiiee i?iienae. Noai?th?oueny a?aaeaiiy, ui Oe?a?ia noa?
a?aeno?eieeii aeey aee?aaeaieo aaoiiia?e?a aai ae o?aiceoiith
oa?eoi???th aeey ?o iiaeaeueoi? ?aae?caoe?? a ?ioeo e?a?iao.

Iniaeeai ??cei ca?eueoeeanue e?euee?noue iinyaaiue ia aeani?noue,
i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae, o 90-? ?iee. O?aaa
i?aee?aneeoe, ui a oiiaao iiaeeaeaiiy cioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece,
no?eaea oe?i, iia??oaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy, ciaoe?iaiiy aeooiaiino? oiui
iinyaaiiy ia aea?aeaaio, eieaeoeaio e ?iaeea?aeoaeueio aeani?noue, o
oiio /ene? ? i?ioei?aaia caaieiae?iiy aaoio?ainii?oii, ana a?eueoa
ia?aaaaeathoue iaae ?ioeie aeaeaie cei/ei?a.

Iniiai? /eiieee, ui ni?eythoue aee?aaeaiith aaoiiia?e?a: iaaei?iaee ?
ia??oe o ?iaio? i?aaiioi?iieo i?aai?a (neaaea oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy,
iecueea eaae?o?eaoe?y i?aeoe/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a, iaoa??aeueia
iacaoe?eaaeai?noue), a?ae aa?aae?a ? noiyiie, ui ioi?iiythoueny,
ianeeaaei? i?ioeoa?ii? i?eno?i? oa noaiaea?oi? caiee, ui eaaei
a?aeieeathoueny, a oaeiae a?aenooi?noue aoaeoeaii? i?io?eaeoe/ii? ?iaioe
c iniaaie, ye? noeeuei? aei a/eiaiiy iinyaaiue ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii
yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae.

Ha iniia? aiae?co oaiaeaioe?e ? no?oeoo?e iacaaieo cei/ei?a, i?e/ei ?o
ii?iaeaeoth/eo, a oaeiae ii??aiyiiy c neooaoe??th uiaei iiae?aieo
cei/ei?a ca ei?aeiiii iiaeia ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui o?eueee eiiieaenia
i?iaaaeaiiy caoiae?a ii ai?iouea? c oaiiaie oa ?ioeie aiaeia?/ieie
cei/eiaie, caeaoia aeeeeeaoe nooo?a? ci?ie o ?ica’ycaii? oeueiai
ieoaiiy.

Ieoaiiy ai?ioueae c iacaeiiiei caaieiae?iiyi aeaniino?, i?aaeiaoii
eio?i? ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae, aoee ia’?eoii aaaaoueio aeena?oaoe?eieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, a oaeiae ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iaoeiaeo ?iaioao
A.A.A?aiaea?aiei, A.I.Aao?ia, I.A.Aone??aa, A.?.?ai?iaa, I.A.?oeiiaa,
I.O.Caaeiyiiai, E.?.Eenaeaanueei?, A.A.Eo?eiiaa, TH.A.Eyioiiaa,
A.A.Eeoiea?, A.I.Iaioae??aa, A.I.Oiie/a oa ?ioeo iaoeiaoe?a. Iaeaaeii
ioe?ithth/e aianie iacaaieo a/aieo, ne?ae, iaeiae, cacia/eoe, ui oe?
?iaioe aoee iaienai? ca /ane ?nioaaiiy ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco. A
nueiaiaeaii?, eiee Oe?a?ia noaea iacaeaaeiith aea?aeaaith, ? iaaaeueia
iio?aaa a aiae?c? cacia/aieo aeae?a cei/ei?a c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeo
i?aeoiae?a aei ae??oaiiy oeeo i?iaeai.

Oaeei /eiii, i?aeoeea iio?aao? iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie uiaei ieoaiue, ye?
iia’ycai? c? noaiii, aeeiai?eith, no?oeoo?ith cei/eiieo iinyaaiue ia
aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae, iniaeeainoyie
in?a, ye? ?o a/eiythoue, i?e/eiaie oa oiiaaie, ye? ?o ii?iaeaeothoue, a
oaeiae o iiia?aaeaeaii? oeeo cei/ei?a. O ?ica’ycaii? oe??? i?iaeaie
iaaia i?noea iaeaaeeoue iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaiith ? aeei?enoaiith iiaeo
caoiae?a ? iaoiae?a i?io?eaeoeee noiniaii iacaaieo cei/ei?a.

E??i oiai, aeooaeuei?noue ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeththoueny ?ic?iaeith iiaiai e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie, eiai iiaoaeiaith ia canaaeao no/aniiai noaio
oai??? ? i?aeoeee, aeina?aeo e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ?ioeo
aea?aeaa, a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiue e?ei?iieia?/ii? iaoee.

Oai?aoe/iei i?aea?oioyi aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee ?iaioe
a?aeiieo a/aieo a aaeoc? e?ei?iieia?? oa e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa:
A.A.Aaaianiaa, TH.A.Aeaenaiae?iaa, I.I.Aiae?ooea, TH.I.Aioiiyia,
TH.Ae.Aeoaooaeia, A.I.Aeooeiaa, I.I.Aeaeoaee, A.?.Aeieaiai?,
A.O.Cae?inueeiai, ?.?.Ea?iaoey, I.E.Ei?aeainueeiai, A.I.Eoae?yaoeaaa,
?.I.Eaiiaaiea, I.I.Eeoaaea, A.A.E?oieiaa, I.N.Iaoeoaanueeiai,
I.?.Iaeueieea, I.I.Ieoaeeaiea, I.?.?iu?ia, I.ss.Naaoeiaa, A.I.Ni?o??iea,
?.E.Oo?eaae/, ?.A.Oanaiea, E.A.O?aiea, I.A.O?ieiai?, O.Ae.Oeeaoeaiei,
A.E.*oaa?aaa, A.?.Oaeoia, I.I.sseiaeaaa oa ?ioeo iaoeiaoe?a, a oaeiae
iaoa??aee ca?oa?aeii? i?ane.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
ca?aeii c iniiaieie iai?yiaie, cacia/aieie Eiiieaeniith oe?eueiaith
i?ia?aiith ai?ioueae ?c cei/eii?noth ia 1996-2000 ?iee, caoaa?aeaeaiith
Oeacii I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ? 837/96 a?ae 17 aa?aniy 1996 ?ieo, Iaeacii
IAN Oe?a?ie ? 722 a?ae 20 aeiaoiy 1996 ?ieo «I?i i?aai?caoe?th aeeiiaiiy
Eiiieaenii? oe?eueiai? i?ia?aie ai?ioueae ?c cei/eii?noth ia 1996-2000
?iee» oa ia?niaeoeaiei ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o Haoe?iiaeueii?
aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaathoue o aaeineiiaeaii? c
iiceoe?? no/anii? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? ? e?ei?iieia?/ii? iaoee ioi?iie
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei o noa?? cei/eiieo iinyaaiue ia aeani?noue,
i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae, a oaeiae o ?ic?iaoe?
i?iiiceoe?e uiaei iie?ioaiiy i?aeoeee canoinoaaiiy oeueiai iai?yio o
e?ei?iaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeo aeiia oa i?aeaeuaiiy
??aiy caiia?aeieo caoiae?a uiaei oeeo cei/ei?a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe ia?aae aeine?aeaeaiiyi noaaeeenue oae?
caaaeaiiy:

1. Aecia/aiiy oa iaa?oiooaaiiy nioe?aeueii? iaoiiaeaiino?
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo ii?i, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
cei/eii? iinyaaiiy ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi?
caniae.

2. Aecia/aiiy iniiaieo iieiaeaiue a?aeiaaeoaaiiy oeeo cei/ei?a a?ae
noi?aeieo cei/eiieo iinyaaiue.

3. Aecia/aiiy i?e/ei oa oiia, ye? coiiaeththoue a/eiaiiy cacia/aieo
cei/ei?a.

4. Aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae iniae cei/eioey, yea a/eith? iinyaaiiy ia
aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae.

5. C’ynoaaiiy ? iiaeaeueoa ?ic?iaea oi?ie oa ci?noo iai?yi?a ? caoiae?a,
ni?yiiaaieo ia caiia?aaiiy iiaeaeueoiai a/eiaiiy cei/ei?a, ui
?icaeyaeathoueny.

6. ?ic?iaea i?iiiceoe?e uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa a?aeiinii cei/ei?a, ye? iia’ycai? ?c cei/eiieie
iinyaaiiyie ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae.

7. Cai?iiiioaaiiy i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa uiaei ae??oaiiy
oeueiai ieoaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny, ia?aaeon?i, a oiio, ui aiia
? ia?oei a no/ani?e Oe?a?i? eiiieaeniei iiiia?ao?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi
cei/eiieo iinyaaiue ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi?
caniae c o?aooaaiiyi iia??oaiiy e?ei?iiaaiii? neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iieyaa? oaeiae ? a oiio, ui ia iniia? oe?ieeo
aii??e/ieo aeaieo, aeena?oaio a caaaeueii-oai?aoe/iiio ?
eiie?aoii-i?aeoe/iiio iai?yi? i?ia?a ?icai?iooee aiae?c i?e/ei oa oiia,
eio?? coiiaeththoue a/eiaiiy cei/ei?a, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny ? ni?iaoaaa
?ic?iaeoe oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei i?io?eaeoeee
cei/eiieo iinyaaiue ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi?
caniae o ?eieiaeo oiiaao.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeai? ? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno oae?
iieiaeaiiy:

— a?aeia?aaea?oueny ?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie ? no/aniee noai e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie uiaei cei/ei?a, ye? iinyaathoue ia aeani?noue,
i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae;

— iaa?oioiao?oueny eiiieaen oaeoi??a, ui coiiaeththoue iayai?noue
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? caai?iie, yea aeine?aeaeo?oueny oa ?ioeo ii?i o
/eiiiio ? iaeaooiueiio e?ei?iaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie;

— aecia/a?oueny iniiaiee aaciina?aaei?e ? aeiaeaoeiaee ia’?eoe cei/ei?a,
ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iacaai? cei/eie;

— aiae?co?oueny iniaa cei/eioey, yea /eieoue cei/eii? iinyaaiiy;

— c’yniaothoueny oi?ie oa ci?no iai?yie?a ? caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia
caiia?aaiiy cei/eiiei i?iyaai;

— iiaeathoueny iia? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa a?aeiinii cei/ei?a, ye? iia’ycai? ?c cei/eiieie
iinyaaiiyie ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae;

— i?iiiio?oueny eiiieaen caoiae?a ii i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino?
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa uiaei oeeo cei/ei?a.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Noi?ioeueiaai? oa aeeeaaeai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iathoue ye
oai?aoe/ia, oae ? niaoe?aeueii-aaeocaaa cia/aiiy aeey ?icaeoeo iaoee
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa oa e?ei?iieia??, a oaeiae a i?aeoe/i?e
ae?yeueiino? i?aaiioi?iieo i?aai?a.

?ic?iaeai? aaoi?ii i?iiiceoe?? iai?aaeai? aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee c iaoith
aaeineiiaeaiiy /eiii? no. 215-3 EE Oe?a?ie ? a iiaeaeueoiio, iie?ioaiiy
o i?iaeo? E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie nenoaie e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo
ii?i uiaei cei/eiieo iinyaaiue ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ?
aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae. Aianai? eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? a?aeiinii ci?i ?
aeiiiaiaiue aei ea??aieo ?ic’yniaiue iinoaiiae Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo
Oe?a?ie «I?i noaeiao i?aeoeeo o ni?aaao i?i ei?eneea? cei/eie i?ioe
i?eaaoii? aeaniino?».

I?aeoe/i? i?iiiceoe?? aeena?oaioa ? aeioe?eueieie aeey iioei?caoe??
i?io?eaeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?aoe?aiee?a i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, a
oaeiae i?aoe?aiee?a ?ioeo i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a i?e ?ica’ycaii?
ieoaiue, ui aaciina?aaeiuei noinothoueny e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiai aiae?co,
eaae?o?eaoe?? oa a?aeiaaeoaaiiy cei/ei?a, eio?? iia’ycai? ?c iinyaaiiyie
ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae, a oaeiae
?ic?iaeith ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi a aeeooy iiia?aaeaeoaaeueieo caoiae?a
a?aeiinii aeacaieo cei/ei?a.

Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe a?aoiaai? i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? a?aeiia?aeieo ?icae?e?a i?ae?o/iee?a oa iaa/aeueieo
iin?aiee?a c eo?no “E?ei?iieia?y ? i?io?eaeoeea cei/ei?a”, a oaeiae o
aeei?enoai? a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? th?eaee/ieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
i?e aeeeaaeaii? a?aeiia?aeieo oai c iniaeeaeo /anoei e?ei?iaeueiiai
i?aaa ? e?ei?iieia??.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo c i?iaeai e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa oa e?ei?iieia?? (Ee?a-1996,
Ee?a-1997), a oaeiae iaaiai?thaaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
e?ei?iieia?? Haoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie.

Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? Haoe?iiaeueii?
aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie oa o/eeeua i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee
AO IAN Oe?a?ie a i. Ee?a?.

Aeena?oaioii ia a?oio? aeine?aeaeaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?io?eaeoeee ?icaeyaeoaaieo cei/ei?a, a oaeiae
i?iiiceoe?? aei i?iaeoo E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee, ui noi?ioeueiaai? a
aeena?oaoe??, a?aeia?aaeai? a /ioe?ueio iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny ?? iaoith oa iinoaaeaieie
caaaeaiiyie ? neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, ye? ioiieththoue
aeaa’youe i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae o
e?eueeino? 185 iaeiaioaaiue oa aeaio aeiaeaoe?a ia 5 noi??ieao. Iiaiee
ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 189 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe??, aena?oeththoueny ??
aeooaeuei?noue ? ??aaiue ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie, aecia/athoueny iaoa oa
caaaeaiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieacaia iaoeiaa iiaecia, oi?ioeththoueny
iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, ?ice?eaa?oueny oai?aoe/ia ?
i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iaaiaeyoueny aeai? uiaei
?o ai?iaaoe?? oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo.

Ia?oee ?icae?e — “E?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia? ieoaiiy ai?ioueae ?c cei/eiieie
iinyaaiiyie ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae” —
i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith ieoaiue uiaei cei/ei?a, ye? iia’ycai? c
iinyaaiiyie ia a?aeiineie aeaniino?, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi?
caniae, ? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? ai?iouea? c ieie oa neeaaea?oueny c
/ioe?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a. O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? — “Noni?eueia iaaaciaea
cei/eiieo iinyaaiue ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi?
caniae” — ?icaeyaeathoueny a ?noi?e/iiio ieai?, ii/eiath/e c ia?oeo
aeiaaee?a cei/eiiiai iinyaaiiy ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ?
aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae, acaaae? e a iao?e aea?aeaa? cie?aia.

Aea?oueny e?euee?nia oa?aeoa?enoeea ca?a?no?iaaieo o?ainii?oieo cania?a
? e?euee?nia oa?aeoa?enoeea cei/eiieo iinyaaiue uiaei aaoio?ainii?oieo
cania?a. Eiinoaoo?oueny, ui aaeeeeo iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a ye aea?aeaa? a
oe?eiio, oae ? ie?aiei a?iiaaeyiai caaaea?oueny i?e iacaeiiiiio
caaieiae?ii? aaoiiia?eyie, iniaeeai iiaeie. Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue
caaieiae?iue i?eiaaea? ia aaoiiia?e? ae?iaieoeoaa Aieaenueeiai
aaoicaaiaeo. Aiie neeaaeathoue i?eaeecii 60 a?aenioe?a a?ae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? aee?aaeaieo aaoiiia?e?a. Ianooiieie ca ieie e?euee?nii
?aeooue aaoiiia?e? I?ia//eie, NOA, ssiii?? oa ?ioeo e?a?i. Iniaeeai
oae?, ye “Volkswagen”, “Iarsedes-Benz”, “Jeep”, “BMW”.

Iaaeoi iaaacia/ia noaiiaeua c oeeo aeae?a cei/eio neeaeinue o
i. Ee?a?, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e, Aeiiaoeuee?e, Caii??cuee?e, Eoaainuee?e,
Euea?anuee?e, Iaeanuee?e, Oa?e?anuee?e oa Oa?niinuee?e iaeanoyo.

Ne?ae oaeiae caoaaaeeoe, ui cia/ia /anoeia oeeo cei/ei?a a/eith?oueny
i?aai?ciaaieie oa?oiiaaiiyie, ye? caeeoathoueny ia?ice?eoeie. Iniaeeai
iecueeee a?aenioie ?ice?eooy e?aae?aeie aaoio?ainii?oieo cania?a
ii??aiyii c ?ice?eooyi caaaeueii? e?eueeino? a/eiaieo cei/ei?a. sseui
a?aenioie ?ice?eooy an?o cei/ei?a, ui a?aoiaothoueny ii e?i?? ea?iiai
?icooeo a 1996-1997 ?.?., neeaaeaa a?aeiia?aeii 58,2 a?aenioea ? 65,3
a?aenioea, oi oeae iieaciee a?aeiinii e?aae?aeie aaoio?ainii?oieo
cania?a neeaaeaa a?aeiia?aeii 32,6 a?aenioea ? 43,2 a?aenioea. Oe?
oeeo?e ia?aeiieeai na?ae/aoue i?i i?aai?ciaai?noue oa caeiini??iaai?noue
cei/eiieo oa?oiiaaiue, ye? a/eiththoue iinyaaiiy ia aeani?noue,
i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?i? caniae, aaeaea naia oae? ae?yiiy
?ice?eaathoueny aaeueie neeaaeii.

I?e ?icaeyae? ieoaiiy i?i iaeaaei?noue aaoio?ainii?oiiai caniao ne?ae
caoaaaeeoe, ui aea?aeaai? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae ? aaoio?ainii?oi?
caniae, ui iaeaaeaoue a?iiaaenueeei i?aai?caoe?yi, i?aaeiaoii iinyaaiiy
noathoue cia/ii ??aeoa, i?ae aaoio?ainii?o, yeee iaeaaeeoue a?iiaaeyiai
ia i?aaao iniaenoi? aeaniino?. Oae, i?ioei?aaia caaieiae?iiy
aea?aeaaiiai aaoio?ainii?oo neeaaea? ia a?eueoa 15 a?aenioe?a a?ae
caaaeueii? e?eueeino? aee?aaeaieo aaoio?ainii?oieo cania?a.

Ca inoaii? ?iee iioe?eeenue ?ica?ei? iaiaaee c iaoith caaieiae?iiy
aaoio?ainii?oiei caniaii. Iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeai? aiie o aaeeeeo
i?noao ? ia aaoiiaa?no?aeyo. O?eueee ia aaoioeyoao Oe?a?ie ca 8 i?nyoe?a
1997 ?ieo a/eiaii 130 ?ica?eieo iaiaae?a. Iniaeeai iaaacia/i? cei/eie
aeacaii? eaoaai??? o?, ui a/eiythoueny ?c canoinoaaiiyi aiaiaiaeueii?
ca?i?. Iaea?eueoa ?o aoei o 1997 ?ioe? ia oa?eoi??? Euea?anueei? iaeano?
(26), i.Ee?aa (11), Oa?e?anueei? (9), Iaeanueei? (5), Caii??cueei? (4)
iaeanoyo.

I?eaeecii 20 a?aenioe?a iinyaaiue ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ?
aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae, noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ianooiiei oieniei cieuaiiyi
aai iioeiaeaeaiiyi naiiai aaoio?ainii?oiiai caniao. Eiaeia /aoaa?oa
cieuaiiy aai iioeiaeaeaiiy a/eith?oueny oeyoii i?aeiaeo aaoio?ainii?oo.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? oaeiae ?icaeyaea?oueny aaiethoe?y oa?i?ia “oaii”.
Iaaiaeyoueny i?eeeaaee cia/aiiy oaiio o oeoia/ieo neiaieeao. Aea?oueny
aiae?c iiiyooy oaiio a caeiiiaeaanoa? ?icaeiooeo e?a?i.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? — “Aeaee cei/eiieo iinyaaiue ia aeani?noue,
i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae” — ?icaeyaea?oueny i?aaeiao
cacia/aieo cei/ei?a, yeee ? iaia’yceiaith iciaeith ?o neeaaeo. Aea?oueny
iiiyooy i?aaeiaoa cei/eiieo iinyaaiue — iaoai?/ieo aaoio?ainii?oieo
cania?a, aei yeeo a?aeiinyoueny i?eno?i?, ye? i?ecia/ai? aeey
ia?aaacaiiy ethaeae /e aaioaae?a, ? i?eaiaeyoueny aei ?ooo ca
aeiiiiiaith aeaeaoia. Oeae oa?i?i iioe?th?oueny ia ianaaee?nuee? e
aaioaaei? o?aiaa? ? o?ieaeaone, an? aeaee o?aeoi??a, a oaeiae ia
oeyoia?, aoae?aaeuei?, cae?aeuei?, n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? oa ?io?
niaoe?aeuei? naiio?aei? iaoeie (aeneaaaoi?, a?aeaea?, aaoie?ai, ne?aia?,
aaoiiaaaioaaeoaa/ oiui) e??i iiiaae?a. Iiiaaee oa aaeineiaaee c
i?aea?niei aeaeaoiii c ?iai/ei ia’?iii aeaeaoia iaioa ye 50 eoa. ni ia
iaeaaeaoue aei aeacaii? eaoaai??? iaoai?/ieo aaoio?ainii?oieo cania?a
a?aeiia?aeii aei iieiaeaiue I?aaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo ? ia
?a?no?othoueny ye oae? o AeA?.

Aaoi?ii ?icaeyaeathoueny aeaee cei/eiieo iinyaaiue ia aeani?noue,
i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae, aei yeeo a?aeiinyoueny: oaii,
e?aae?aeea, a?aa?ae, ?ica?e, oao?aenoai, aeiaaaoaeuenoai, ?ice?aaeaiiy
oeyoii i?eaeaniaiiy aai ceiaaeeaaiiy iinaaeiaei noaiiaeuai, oienia
cieuaiiy aai iioeiaeaeaiiy aaoio?ainii?oiiai caniao.

Caaaeueiei ia’?eoii iinyaaiiy i?e aee?aaeaii? ? noni?euei? a?aeiineie,
ui ioi?iiythoueny caeiiii, c i?eaiaeo i?aaa aeaniino? uiaei aieiae?iiy,
ei?enooaaiiy ? ?icii?yaeaeaiiy iaeiii. Aaciina?aaei?i ia’?eoii i?e
aee?aaeaii? ? noni?euei? a?aeiineie noiniaii aea?aeaaii?, eieaeoeaii? /e
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? aeaniino?.

Ui noino?oueny ia’?eoa, ia yeee iinyaa? oaii, oi /eiia caeiiiaeaanoai
aecia/a? aaciina?aaei?i ia’?eoii noni?euei? a?aeiineie o noa?? aaciaeo
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, aeiaeaoeiaei — caei?ia’y e aeeooy eiai o/aniee?a.
Aeena?oaio ?icaeyaea? ??ci? iiaeyaee ui ?niothoue a oai???
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa uiaei ia’?eoa, ia yeee iinyaa? oaii. Aaoi?
aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui aaciina?aaei?i ia’?eoii oaiio aaoio?ainii?oieo
cania?a ? noni?euei? a?aeiineie i?aaa aeaniino? (iniiaiee aaciina?aaei?e
ia’?eo) ? noni?euei? a?aeiineie, ye? caaacia/othoue a?iiaaenueeo aaciaeo
o noa?? aenieoaoaoe?? oa aeei?enoaiiy o?ainii?oo (aeiaeaoeiaee
aaciina?aaei?e ia’?eo).

Oaeo iiceoe?th aaoi? iiynith? oei, ui, c iaeiiai aieo, oaii
aaoio?ainii?oieo cania?a ia caaaeaee noaaeoue i?ae caa?ico a?iiaaenueeo
aaciaeo, ine?eueee a?i iiaea aooe e ia iia’ycaiee c oaeeie ianoaaeiaie,
ye ea?oaaiiy aaoio?ainii?oiei caniaii o noai? aeeiaieueiiai ni’yi?iiy
aai iniaith, yea ia ia? aiae?enueeiai iina?ae/aiiy (iaae/ie ea?oaaiiy),
ii?ooaiiy i?aaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo oiui, oiaoi ianoaaeiaie, ye?
aieeaathoue ia a?iiaaenueeo aaciaeo. C ae?oaiai — oaii i?e aoaeue-yeeo
ianoaaeiao ii?ooo? i?aaa aeanieea aaoio?ainii?iiai caniao ia
ei?enooaaiiy ? ?icii?yaeaeaiiy iaeiii, oiaoi iinyaa? ia iniiai?
eiiiiiaioe i?aaa aeaniino?. I?e oeueiio, a/eiyth/e oaii aaoio?ainii?oo,
aeiiee ona?aeiieth? ii?ooaiiy iei i?aa aeanieea oa iacaeiiia
aeei?enoaiiy /oaeiai iaeia.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? — “A?aeiaaeoaaiiy oaiio aaoio?ainii?oieo
cei/ei?a a?ae ?ioeo cei/ei?a” — aea?oueny ?iciaaeoaaiiy i?ae oaiiii ?
oaeeie cei/eiaie, ye e?aae?aeee aea?aeaaiiai, a?iiaaenueeiai iaeia aai
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai iaeia a?iiaaeyi; iacaeiiia aeei?enoaiiy aaoiiia?ey
aai ?ioiai aaoio?ainii?oiiai caniao oiui ca ia’?eoeaieie oa
noa’?eoeaieie iciaeaie. Iaiao?aei?noue ?icaeyaeo oeueiai ieoaiiy
iia’ycaia c oei, ui neeaae oaeiai cei/eio, ye oaii aaoio?ainii?oieo
cania?a ia? aeaye? iaeiaeia? iciaee c aeuaiacaaieie cei/eiaie, a ioaea,
ia aeeeth/aia iiaeeea?noue iai?aaeeueiiai eaae?o?eoaaiiy oaiio, ui, a
naith /a?ao, oneeaaeith? i?aai?caoe?th ??oo/i? ai?ioueae c oeeie aeaeaie
cei/ei?a.

Oaii a?ae aee?aaeaiiy a?ae??ciy?oueny ca iciaeaie noa’?eoeaii? noi?iie
cei/eio, oiaoi oei, ui aeiia iniaa ia noaaeoue nia? ca iaoo i?eaeanieoe
aaoio?ainii?oiee can?a. I?i iayai?noue oieneo ia aee?aaeaiiy
aaoio?ainii?oiiai caniao iae/ano?oa na?ae/aoue cai?ia aea?aeaaieo
iiia??a ? iiia??a aeaeaoia oa eociaa, o?eaaeee /an aenieoaoaoe??
aaoio?ainii?oiiai caniao cei/eioeai aai ?ioeie iniaaie, ci?ia eiai
eieuei?o ?, c?icoi?ei, eiai i?iaeaae. I?i a?aenooi?noue iaoe aee?aaeaiiy
iiaea na?ae/eoe caeeoaiiy oaiaiiai aaoio?ainii?oiiai caniao, ii
iiaeeeaino?, aeey eiai iiaeaeueoiai aeei?enoaiiy cei/eioeai.

I?e cao?eiaii? cei/eioe?a i?ney oiai ye nieeioa iacia/iee no?ie
caaieiae?iiy aaoio?ainii?oiei caniaii, aeieacaoe oienae ia aee?aaeaiiy
(yeui a?i aoa) aaeueie neeaaeii. Oeei ? ei?enoothoueny ceiae??, ai oaii
aaaaea?oueny iaio iaaacia/iei cei/eiii, i?ae e?aae?aeea ?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca eiai a/eiaiiy ianoa? c 16-oe??/iiai a?eo. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iaaeineiiae?noue e?ei?iaeueii? ii?ie, ui ia?aaeaa/a?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oaii.

Aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui i?e oaii? aaoio?ainii?oiiai caniao c iiaeaeueoei
aee?aaeaiiyi ie?aieo eiai aeaoaeae, aoce?a, aa?aaao?a, oae? ae??
aeioe?eueii eaae?o?eoaaoe ye naia aee?aaeaiiy aaoio?ainii?oiiai caniao,
aac aoaeue-yei? eaae?o?eaoe??. Ia iaoo aeoieo, o oaeeo aeiaaeeao iaoith
cei/eioey ? caaieiae?iiy aeani?noueth iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai, /e
noino?oueny oea anueiai aaoio?ainii?oiiai caniao, /e eiai iaaieo /anoei.

O?oaeiiu? aeieeathoue i?e a?aeie?aieaii? oaiio a?ae naiioi?aaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy aaoio?ainii?oiiai caniao o aeanieo oe?eyo, eiee eaeaoueny
iiaa i?i ae?? aiae??a, iaoaiee?a, aaoinethna??a, aeaeo?ee?a, neoaeaiaeo
in?a aaoiainiiaea?noa, ?ioeo aea?aeaaieo aai a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e.

Aaaaea?ii, ui aiae?e, ca yeei aaoiiia?eue cae??ieaiee ca i?noeai ?iaioe,
i?e aeacaieo ae?yo ia iiaea ianoe a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca no. 215-3 EE
Oe?a?ie. Nei?ia o oaeeo aeiaaeeao ia? ?icaeyaeaoeny ye naiioi?aanoai,
yea oyaia ca niaith aeenoeeie?ia?io a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, a i?e
iayaiino? an?o iaiao?aeieo iciae — e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
no. 198 EE Oe?a?ie.

Aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui ?io? ?ia?oieee aaoio?ainii?oieo i?aei?e?inoa
(aaoinethna??, iaoai?ee, aeeniao/a?e oiui) iiaeooue aooe noa’?eoaie
neeaaeo oaeiai cei/eio, ye oaii, i?e ianoaaeiao, eiee aiie oei/aniai ?
i?ioei?aaii aeei?enoiaothoue aaoiiia?eue ia cae??ieaiee ca ieie. Oea
iiynith?oueny oei, ui ca nai?ie iiaiiaaaeaiiyie oa oa?aeoa?ii ?iaioe
aeacai? i?aoe?aieee ia iathoue i?yeiai i?aaa aeei?enoiaoaaoe
aaoio?ainii?oiee can?a.

Ia iiaeooue aooe i?eoyaioo? aei e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
oaii iinaaeia? iniae, yeei iaaeaii i?aai iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy oa
?icii?yaeaeaiiy aaoio?ainii?oii (ia/aeueieee aaoii?aei?e?inoa, aieiai?
?iaeaia?e, aieiai? iaoai?ee), oa iinaaeia? iniae, ye? iathoue
aaciina?aaei? a?aeiioaiiy aei iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy aaoio?ainii?oieie
caniaaie (i?i?aae, ea??aieee i?aai?caoe?e ? ainiiaea?noa, ?o
canooiieee), yeui aiie aeei?enoiaothoue aaoio?ainii?o aeey nai?o aeanieo
iio?aa.

Noaeia? i?aaie, aei i?eeiyooy no. 215-3 EE Oe?a?ie, i?eoyaaee in?a, ye?
aoee aeii? a oaii? aaoio?ainii?oieo cania?a, aei e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ye ca a/eiaiiy ooe?aainoaa. Aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui
eiee iniaa a/eiy? oaii aaoio?ainii?oiiai caniao c ooe?aainueeeo iioea?a
? a iiaeaeueoeo eiai ae?yo a?aenooiy iayai?noue neeaaeo cei/eio
ce?niiai aai iniaeeai ce?niiai ooe?aainoaa, oae? ae?? iathoue
eaae?o?eoaaoeny eeoa ye oaii.

A /aoaa?oiio i?ae?icae?e? — “Eaae?o?eoth/? iciaee cei/eiieo iinyaaiue ia
aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae” -aiae?cothoueny
eaae?o?eoth/e iciaee aee?aaeaiiy ? oaiio. Nii/aoeo ?icaeyaeathoueny
ni?euei? iciaee oaiio ? aee?aaeaiiy: iiaoi?i?noue, a/eiaiiy ca
iiia?aaei?i caiai?ii a?oiith in?a, a/eiaiiy cei/eio c canoinoaaiiyi
ianeeuenoaa.

Noeeyth/enue aei oiai, ui aaciina?aaei?i ia’?eoii oaiio ? i?aai
aeaniino?, i?iiiio?oueny aianoe aeiiiaiaiiy i?i iiaoi?i?noue aei
i?ei?oie o no. 81 ?140 EE Oe?a?ie iii?noeaoe o oeae ia?ae?e ? no. 215-3
EE Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae aei aac. 2 i. 23 iinoaiiae Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo
Oe?a?ie a?ae 25 a?oaeiy 1992 ?. ca ? 12 “I?i noaeiao i?aeoeeo a
ni?aaao i?i ei?eneea? cei/eie i?ioe i?eaaoii? aeaniino?”.

Eaae?o?eoth/? iciaee oaiio, ui ii?aeiaiee c ianeeuenoaii ??ciiai nooiaiy
oyaeeino?, ca ia?’eoeaieie iciaeaie oioiaei? c a?aaaaeai ? ?icai?i.
Aaoi? i?iiiio? aaaaeaoe cacia/ai? cei/eie ??aieie ca nooiaiai
noni?eueii? iaaaciaee.

A aeena?oaoe?? i?iiiio?oueny aianoe iiao eaae?o?eoth/o iciaeo oaiio —
“oaii c? noiaeua”. Oaea eaae?o?eaoe?y iiaeiia aooe cae?eniaia o ?ac?,
eiee oaii aaoio?ainii?oiiai caniao, a/eiaiee c i?ei?uaiiy aai aoaeiae,
ye? i?ecia/ai? aeey caa??aaiiy iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae, a oaeiae c
ae?eyiie oa?eoi??e, a?aeaaaeaieo aeey iino?eiiai /e oei/aniaiai
caa??aaiiy iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae, o oiio /ene? e oeo, eio??
iaeaaeiai? iai?iaeath, oaoi?/ieie caniaaie aai caaacia/ai? ioi?iiith.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e — “E?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea iinyaaiue ia
aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae” — i?enay/aiee
e?ei?iieia?/iiio aiae?co oeeo cei/ei?a. O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? —
“I?e/eie oa oiiae, ye? ni?eythoue cei/eiiei iinyaaiiyi ia aeani?noue,
i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae” — ?icaeyaeathoueny i?e/eie
a/eiaiiy cacia/aieo cei/ei?a ? oiiae, ui ?i ni?eythoue. Nieane oeeo
cei/ei?a iiaeia iiynieoe oaeeie /eiieeaie, ye ?oeioaaiiy ?ai?oa
ae?th/iai ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio, ?ic?ea aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a i?ae
iiainoai?aieie aea?aeaaaie, niaae ae?iaieoeoaa oiui. O ca’yceo c oeei
niinoa??aathoueny ??cea c?inoaiiy oe?i, aeniea ?ioeyoe?y, iaae?iiy
aeia?iaooo ethaeae, aac?ia?ooy. An? oe? nooo?a? ianoaaeie aeeeeeathoue
iia??oaiiy iaoa??aeueiiai noaiiaeua a?eueoino? ethaeae, ui ? iaei??th c
aieiaieo i?e/ei cei/eiiino? a oe?eiio ? ?icaeyaeoaaieo cei/ei?a cie?aia.

Aei oaeoi??a, ui iineeththoue iaaaciaeo uiaei cei/eiiiai caaieiae?iiy
aaoio?ainii?oiei caniaii, a?aeiinyoueny: i?anoeaei?noue eiie?aoii?
iiaeae? aaoiiia?ey; aeao?oeeo ? aei?iaeia/a aoce?a ? aeaoaeae aeaii?
iiaeae?; i?noea noiyiee; ??aaiue cei/eiiino? o aeaiiio ?aa?ii?;
iayai?noue ? iaae?ei?noue i?ioeoa?ieo i?eno?i?a.

Cei/eie, ui iia’ycai? c iinyaaiiyie ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ?
aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae, caeaa?eueoiai a/eiththoueny o i?noao. Cia/ia
e?euee?noue e?aae?aeie ? oaii?a a/eith?oueny /a?ac oa, ui cei/eioe?
aeia?a ?icoi?thoueny ia iaoai?ciao noaiaea?oieo caie?a ? ia?aaaaeii
ianeeaaeieo nenoaiao i?ioeoa?iieo i?eno?i?a. Ianaiia?aae, oaaao
cei/eioe?a i?eaa?oathoue aaoiiia?e? aac iaeaaeiiai aeiaeyaeo. ?o
e?euee?noue aeineoue cia/ia c-ca iaaeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino? noiyiie, ui
ioi?iiythoueny, ? eiiia?aoeaieo aa?aae?a.

Oa e naia iayai?noue eiiia?aoeaieo aa?aae?a ? noiyiie, ui
ioi?iiythoueny, ua ia ci?ia? aaniethoii? aaciaee uiaei caaieiae?iiy
aaoio?ainii?oieie caniaaie, oiio ui aeiaiai?e ia ?o caa??aaiiy i?ae
aeanieeaie aaoiiia?e?a ? a?aeiia?aeieie iinaaeiaeie iniaaie ia
oeeaaeathoueny. I?e aea/aii? oeea?eueieo ni?aa, ui ?icaeyaeaeeny ca
iiciaaie ii a?aeoeiaeoaaiith iaoa??aeueieo ? ii?aeueieo caeoe?a o
ca’yceo c aee?aaeaiiyi aaoiiaoei, iaie ia anoaiiaeaii aeiaeiiai
aeiaaeeo, eiee a aeacai? i?aai?caoe?? ianee aoaeue-yeo iaoa??aeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue. O an?o aeiaaeeao iiciai? cayae ia aoee caaeiaieai?
/a?ac oa, ui a Onoaaao noiyiie, ui ioi?iiythoueny, oa a Onoaaao
aa?aaeieo eiiia?aoea?a oiaa?enoa aaoiethaeoae?a ia aeacaii, ui aiie
ianooue iaoa??aeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca caa??aaiiy aaoio?ainii?oieo
cania?a, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny ia ?o oa?eoi???.

Aeena?oaioii aecia/ai? oa ?icaeyaeathoueny oiiae, ye? ni?eythoue
a/eiaiith iinyaaiue ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi?
caniae, e ye? noinothoueny ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa. Oea:

— iaaeinoaoiy i?aai?ciaai?noue ? oe?eani?yiiaai?noue ae?yeueiino? ??cieo
aaeocaaeo neoaea IAN;

— iaiaaeaiee ianya ?ioi?iaoe?? noiniaii i?ioei?aaiiai caaieiae?iiy
aaoio?ainii?oieie caniaaie, iniaeeai oea noino?oueny a?aaaae?a, ?icai?a,
oao?aenoaa;

— iaiaeaaeiee e?ei?iieia?/iee aiae?c iinyaaiue ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii
yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae, ? in?a, ye? a/eiththoue oe? iinyaaiiy;

— nooo?a? i?iaaeeie a ieaioaaii? caoiae?a i?io?eaeoeee a?aeiinii
cacia/aieo cei/ei?a;

— iecueeee ??aaiue i?io?eaeoe/ii? ?iaioe: neaaeee aieea ia onoiaiiy
ianoaaei, ye? coiiaeththoue a/eiaiiy ?icaeyaeoaaieo cei/ei?a;

— ianai?/ani?noue ii?ooaiiy e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa;

— iacaaeia?eueiee noai i?aai?caoe?? ae?caeo ne?ae/i-iia?aoeaieo a?oi ia
i?noey a/eiaiiy cei/ei?a.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? — “Iniaa cei/eioey o cei/eiao i?i iinyaaiiy ia
aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae” — iaaiaeeoueny
e?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea in?a, ye? a/eiythoue cei/eie aeaiiai
aeaeo.

Ca a?eiaeie iciaeaie aeae?eythoueny oae? a?oie cei/eioe?a: a?ae 11 aei
13 ?ie?a — 1,6 a?aenioea (iniae, ui ia aeinyaee a?eo e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?); a?ae 14 aei 15 ?ie?a — 4,2 a?aenioea; a?ae 16 aei
17 ?ie?a — 26,3 a?aenioea; a?ae 18 aei 21 ?ie?a — 28,7 a?aenioea; a?ae
22 aei 24 ?ie?a — 17,7 a?aenioea; a?ae 25 aei 29 ?ie?a — 12,2 a?aenioea;
a?ae 30 aei 39 ?ie?a — 8,2 a?aenioea; a?ae 40 ? a?eueoa — 1,1 a?aenioea.

O ?iaio? ?icaeyaeathoueny aeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii cei/eiao, ui aoee
a/eiai? o neeaae? a?oie. Cei/eioe? iaeiiiniaiai a/eiythoue 15 a?aenioe?a
iinyaaiue ia aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae, o a?oi? c 2 in?a — 41 a?aenioie, o
a?oi? c 3 in?a — 37 a?aenioe?a, o a?oi? c 4 in?a ? a?eueoa -7
a?aenioe?a. Oa?aeoa?ii, ui iaiiaiie?oi? aei 16 ?ie?a naiino?eii ia
a/eiythoue cacia/aieo cei/ei?a, a o a?oi? i?ney 40 ?ie?a cei/eioe?
a/eiythoue iinyaaiiy aeeeth/ii naiino?eii.

Aaoi? aiae?co? ina?oi?e ??aaiue cei/eioe?a, yeee aeyaeany iecueeei. ?c
caaaeueii? e?eueeino? cei/eioe?a — 43,1 a?aenioea — ia iathoue
na?aaeiuei? ina?oe. A ?iaio? aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea nioe?aeueiiai
noaio cei/eioe?a, c ieo 33,5 a?aenioea — i?aea ia i?aoeth? ? ia
iaa/a?oueny. 40 a?aenioe?a i?ioei?aaieo caaieiae?iue aaoio?ainii?oieie
caniaaie a/eith?oueny o noai? ni’yi?iiy.

Ca iaoei aeine?aeaeaiiyi anoaiiaeaii, ui na?aae in?a, ye? i?eoyaaeeny
aei e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iinyaaiiy ia aeani?noue,
i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae, ?ai?oa a/eithaaee cei/eie 39,6
a?aenioea, c ieo 39,2 a?aenioea — iaeii??aei?.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? — “Iniaa iioa?i?eiai o ni?aaao i?i iinyaaiiy ia
aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae” —
aeine?aeaeo?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea iniae iioa?i?eiai.

E?euee?noue iioa?i?eeo a?eii aei 25 ?ie?a neeaaea? 11,8 a?aenioea, 26-35
?ie?a — 58,8 a?aenioea, 35-50 — 26,5 a?aenioea ? i?ney 50 ?ie?a — 2,9
a?aenioea. Aeuo ina?oo iaee 60,6 a?aenioea iioa?i?eeo, 39,4 a?aenioea —
na?aaeith.

A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaii ae?ae iaaeaaeeeaa noaaeaiiy aiae??a ?
aeaniee?a aei caa??aaiiy aaoio?ainii?oieo cania?a. O eiaeiiio i’yoiio
aeiaaeeo i?e caeeoaii? aaoio?ainii?oiiai caniao aiae??i ia aaeeaaeinue
aeaiaioa?ieo caoiae?a caa??aaiiy aaoio?ainii?oo. Iae/ano?oa oea
aeyaeyeinue o oiio, ui ia ca/eiyeenue ia eeth/ aeaa?? eaa?ie, o caieo
caiaethaaiiy caeeoaeenue eeth/? oiui.

?iaeea?aeoaeueiee aaoio?ainii?o iae/ano?oa noa? i?aaeiaoii iinyaaiiy
a?ey aeiio iioa?i?eiai (63 a?aenioee), aea?aeaaiee aai eieaeoeaiee —
a?ey i?noey oei/aniai? coieiee (48 a?aenioe?a). I?ioyaii aeiae,
cei/eioe? ia??aeei i?ioei?aaii caaieiae?aathoue ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei
aaoio?ainii?o a?ae 0 aei 6 aiae. (43 a?aenioee) ? a?ae 21 aei 24 aiae.
(29 a?aenioe?a), aea?aeaaiei /e eieaeoeaiei — a?ae 12 aei 18 aiae. (29
a?aenioe?a) ? a?ae 18 aei 21 aiae. (26 a?aenioe?a).

Iieiaeaiiy ae?oaiai ?icae?eo ?iaioe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? ieoaiue
o?aoueiai ?icae?eo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “Iniiai? iai?yiee i?io?eaeoeee cei/eiieo
iinyaaiue ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae” —
aena?oeththoueny ieoaiiy uiaei iiia?aaeaeaiiy ? i?io?eaeoeee
aeuaiacaaieo cei/ei?a.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? — “I?aaia? caoiaee iiia?aaeaeaiiy cei/eiieo
iinyaaiue ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae” —
eiioeaio?o?oueny oaaaa ia ianooiieo iiiaioao.

?icaeyaea?oueny iiiyo?eiee aia?ao, ui canoiniao?oueny i?e ?icaeyae?
i?iaeaie i?io?eaeoeee cei/ei?a. Iaea?eueo ocaaaeueithth/ei ?, ia iiaeyae
aeena?oaioa, iiiyooy “i?io?eaeoeea cei/ei?a”. I?ae i?io?eaeoeeith
cei/ei?a ne?ae ?icoi?oe ae?yeuei?noue ye aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a,
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e oae ? ie?aieo a?iiaaeyi ii aeyaeaiith ?
onoiaiith i?e/ei cei/eiiino? a oe?eiio ? oiia, ye? ?? coiiaeththoue, a
oaeiae ie?aieo aeae?a cei/eio. I?io?eaeoeea cei/eiiino? cae?enith?oueny
o aeaio iai?yiao: iiia?aaeaeaiiy ? i?eieiaiiy.

I?iaiaeeoueny aiae?c uiaei canoinoaaiiy ??cieo oi?i iiea?aiiy ca
cei/eie, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny, ?o aoaeoeai?noue. ?aeeiei ?aaeueiei
iieacieeii oiai, ui iiea?aiiy aeinyaei iaoe iiia?aaeaeaiiy cei/ei?a ?
aeeiai?ea oeeo cei/ei?a a oe?eiio ? iinoiai?oaioe?a?ia iiaaae?iea
canoaeaeaieo.

I?iaaaeaia aieaooaaiiy i?aoe?aiee?a AeA? ? ea?iiai ?icooeo, ye?
caeiathoueny i?iaeaiaie iinyaaiue ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ?
aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae, iieacaei, ui 94 a?aenioee ni?a?ia?oiee?a
aaaaeathoue ca iaiao?aeia iineeeoe iiea?aiiy o aeaeyae? iicaaaeaiiy aie?
ca aeacai? ae?yiiy, 43 a?aenioee — i?iiiiothoue ia?aaeaa/eoe a caeii?
eiio?neaoe?th iaeia. H?yeeo ae?oaeo aeueoa?iaoeaieo aa??aio?a ia aoei
cai?iiiiiaaii.

Caeiaoaa/ aea? naith i?iiiceoe?th uiaei oi?ioaaiiy e?ei?iaeueii? ii?ie,
yea ia?aaeaa/a? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oaii aaoio?ainii?oiiai caniao.
A?i aaaaea?, ui ?? o?aaa ?icoaooaaoe a aeaa? iiaiai E?ei?iaeueiiai
eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie “Cei/eie i?ioe aeaniino?”. Ii-iiaiio ?icaeyaea?oueny
iiiyooy oaiio. Ia iao iiaeyae, oaii — oea iacaeiiia, oienia, a?aee?eoa
aai oa?iia caaieiae?iiy /oaeei iaoai?/iei aaoio?ainii?oiei caniaii c
iaoith eiai i?eaeaniaiiy, aai c aoaeue-yeith ?ioith iaoith.

Aeena?oaio i?iaiaeeoue ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c e?ei?iaeueieo ii?i, ui
ia?aaeaa/athoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oaii aaoio?ainii?oieo cania?a.
Ii??aiththoueny /eiia ?aaeaeoe?y no. 215-3 EE Oe?a?ie, ?aaeaeoe?y
i?iaeoo EE i?aeaioiaeaiiai ?iai/ith a?oiith Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie,
i?iaeoo EE Oe?a?ie i?aeaioiaeaiiai ?inoeoooii caeiiiaeaanoaa Aa?oiaii?
?aaee Oe?a?ie, a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oeae aeae cei/eio o
E?ei?iaeueiiio eiaeaen? ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? c ?aaeaeoe??th
cai?iiiiiaaiith aaoi?ii.

C iaoith iaaeiiouaiiy aeei?enoaiiy oaiaiiai aaoio?ainii?oiiai caniao, a
oaeiae aee?aaeaieo aoce?a ? aa?aaao?a, aaoi? aaaaea? ca aeioe?eueia
i?iaiaeeoe ia?e??oaaiiy iaea?eueo iacaoeuaieo aoce?a ? aa?aaao?a,
aeioe?euei?noue yeiai i?aeoaa?aeaeaia i?aeoeeith.

Oaeiae aeena?oaio aaaaea? ca aeioe?eueia, ui i?ney aeaea/? iioa??onii
aei?o/aiiy ia aieiae?iiy, aeei?enoaiiy /e ?icii?yaeaeaiiy
aaoio?ainii?oiei caniaii i?ioyaii ia i?ci?oa i?ae 5-oe ae?a eiai o?aaa
?a?no?oaaoe o i?ae?icae?eao I?AA AeA?. ? o?eueee i?ney oeueiai oae?
aei?o/aiiy iaae?athoue /eiiino? ? iaaeathoue i?aai aieiae?oe,
ei?enooaaoenue /e ?icii?yaeaeaoenue aaoio?ainii?oiei caniaii inia?,
a?aeiinii yei? oea aei?o/aiiy c?iaeaii. Oea aeanoue ciiao iia?aoeaii
a?aene?aeeiaoaaoe ?aaeueiee ia?ao?ae aaoio?ainii?oiiai caniao aei eiai
iiaeo aeaniee?a ? aeei?enoiaoaa/?a.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? — “Ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa ii
i?io?eaeoeoe? cei/eiieo iinyaaiue ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ?
aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae” — ?icaeyaeathoueny iaoiaee caaaeueii? oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? i?io?eaeoeee aeacaieo ae?yiue. Caaaeueia i?io?eaeoeea
cei/ei?a ni?yiiaaia ia aeyaeaiiy oa onoiaiiy i?e/ei oa oiia, ui ?o
coiiaeththoue.

I?e aea/ai? aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ianea?a A?N “Oaii” ?A AO-OIAN-IAN
a ai?iouea? c aee?aaeaiiyie aaoio?ainii?oieo cania?a, caa?oa?oueny
oaaaa, ui aeecueei 20 a?aenioe?a ?ioi?iaoe?? ia a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai
Iaeaco IAN Oe?a?ie a?ae 1995 ?. ? 99 “I?i i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaoiiaoeciaaii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? nenoaie ?icooeo
aee?aaeaieo o?ainii?oieo cania?a (A?N “Oaii”). Iniiaiei oaeoi?ii, yeee
aieeaa? ia iaaeinoaoith aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy aaoiiaoeciaaieo
ianea?a, ? iaaeiioe?iea iiaeeeainoae aeacaieo nenoai c aieo
ni?a?ia?oiee?a i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, ?o iecueeee ??aaiue i?aeaioiaee
uiaei aeei?enoaiiy oeeo nenoai.

I?iaiaeeoueny aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei aoaeoeaiino? i?iaaaeaiiy i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie oe?ieiianooaaieo
iia?aoe?e “Aaoiiia?eue”, “O?ana”, “O?ae” ?c caeo/aiii an?o neoaea IAN.
Ca ??e, a ?acoeueoao? ?o i?iaaaeaiiy ?icooeaii 547 aaoiiaoei, 632
iioioeeeee, ?ice?eoi 2795 e?aae?aeie oa oaii?a aaoio?ainii?oieo cania?a.
O aeena?oaoe?? aeathoueny i?iiiceoe?? ii i?aeaeuaiith ?acoeueoaoeaiino?
cae?eniaiiy oeeo caoiae?a.

Aei caoiae?a caaaeueii? i?io?eaeoeee a?aeiineoueny oaeiae i?aai?caoe?y
ae?cieo noaeiaeo i?ioean?a ii ni?aaao, ye? noinothoueny oaii?a oa ?ioeo
iinyaaiue a?aeiinii aaoio?ainii?oieo cania?a. Oae? i?ioeane, ye aeyaeei
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iathoue aaeeea i?io?eaeoe/ia cia/aiiy ? iiaeii?
i?iaiaeeoenue cia/ii /ano?oa.

Aiinyoueny i?iiiceoe?? uiaei iineeaiiy aeei?enoaiiy i?aaiaiai aeoiaaiiy,
yea aeeth/a? o naaa ?ic’yniaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa, ?ioi?ioaaiiy ianaeaiiy
i?i noai cei/eiiino?, a oaeiae i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy eiai i?aaiai?
na?aeiiino? oa i?aaiai? eoeueoo?e.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? aoei c’yniaaii, ui o?eueee 6 a?aenioe?a aee?aaeaieo
aaoio?ainii?oieo cania?a, aoee iaeaaeiai? i?ioeoa?iieie i?eno?iyie. Ia
iao iiaeyae aei oe??? ?iaioe iiaeii? caeo/aoenue ni?a?ia?oieee AeA?, ye?
a i?e aea/aii? iaoai?cio i?ioeoa?iieo i?eno?i?a aeaaaee aeniiaie i?i
iaae?ei?noue eiie?aoii? nenoaie ? i?iiaaoaaee a ?? na?aae aeaniee?a
aaoiiaoei.

Iaoa ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? i?io?eaeoeee — oea iaaeiiouaiiy a/eiaiiy cei/eio
eiie?aoiith iniaith. Ia’?eoii ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? i?io?eaeoeee iiaeii?
aooe iniae, ye? noeeuei? aei a/eiaiiy cei/eio, ? aiae??, ai aiie
iiaeooue noaoe iioa?i?eeie. Aeena?oaio aea? i?iiiceoe?? o oeueiio
iai?yi?.

O aeniiaeao aaoi? neiioeaio?oaaa oaaao ia aieiaieo iieiaeaiiyo ?iaioe,
ui iathoue oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeey iaoee ? i?aeoeee
e?ei?iieia?? oa e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa. I?e/eie cei/eiiino? ? iinyaaiue ia
aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae, cie?aia, o?aaa
ooeaoe ianaiia?aae a aeiiii?/i?e neooaoe?? o noni?euenoa?, a?ae yei?
caeaaeeoue a?eueoa /anoeia ?ioeo aeaoa?i?iaio?a noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo
ae?yiue. A/eiaiiy aeuaiacaaieo cei/ei?a ni?e/eiythoue oaeiae
iaaeineiiae?noue caeiiiaeaanoaa, iaiaeaaeiee ??aaiue ae?yeueiino?
i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa, iaaeinoaoiy o ?yae? aeiaaee?a aca?iiae?y i?ae
?o aaeocaaeie neoaeaaie, iecueeee ??aaiue i?io?eaeoe/ii? ?iaioe.

O?aaa caaacia/eoe aeei?enoaiiy an??? i?aaiioi?iiii? nenoaie ii
aeyaeaiith in?a, noeeueieo aei a/eiaiiy cei/eiieo iinyaaiue ia
aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae, ? iinoaiiaoe? ?o
ia iia?aoeaiee iae?e c iaeii/aniei i?iaaaeaiiyi c ieie
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? i?io?eaeoe/ii? ?iaioe.

Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, e?ei?iaeueio ii?io, yea ia?aaeaa/a?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oaii, iaiao?aeii aianoe o aeaao “Cei/eie i?ioe
aeaniino?” E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie; aeeth/eoe a /enei ae?yiue,
ui a?aeiinyoueny aei oyaeeeo cei/ei?a (/. 2 no. 7-1 EE Oe?a?ie), oaii
aaoio?ainii?oieo cania?a, ii?aeiaiee c ianeeuenoaii, iaaacia/iei aeey
aeeooy ? caei?ia’y iioa?i?eiai, aai c iia?icith canoinoaaiiy oaeiai
ianeeuenoaa; aeiiiaieoe /. 2 no. 10 EE Oe?a?ie, yea i?noeoue ia?ae?e
cei/ei?a, a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ye? ianoa? c 14 ?ie?a, oaiiii
aaoio?ainii?oieo cania?a.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a oaeeo ?iaioao:

1. I?noea oaiio o e?ei?iaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? ia no/aniiio aoai? //
I?aai Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ? 5. — N. 81-84.

2. Iniaa cei/eioey o cei/eiao i?i iinyaaiiy ia aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae
// I?aai Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ? 8. — N. 93-97.

3. I?io?eaeoeea cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo ?c iinyaaiiyie ia aaoio?ainii?oi?
caniae // Iaoeiaee a?niee Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa. —
1998. — ? 1. — N.84-90.

4. Iinyaaiiy ia o?ainii?oi? caniae: i?e/eie oa oiiae // Iaoeiaee a?niee
Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie. — 1998. ? 4. —
N. 113-118.

Aiioaoe??

?aaiia TH.O. Ai?ioueaa ?c cei/eiieie iinyaaiiyie ia aeani?noue,
i?aaeiaoii yeeo ? aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae (e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia? ?
e?ei?iieia?/i? aniaeoe). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.08 — e?ei?iaeueia i?aai oa e?ei?iieia?y;
e?ei?iaeueii-aeeiiaa/a i?aai. — Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o ni?aa
Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi aaeineiiaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai?
ai?ioueae ?c cei/eiieie iinyaaiiyie ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ?
aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae, a oaeiae i?io?eaeoeoe? oeeo ae?yiue.
Iaa?oioiao?oueny aeoiea a?aeiinii oiai, ui aaciina?aaei?ie ia’?eoaie i?e
oaii? ? noni?euei? a?aeiineie i?aaa aeaniino? oa noni?euei? a?aeiineie,
ye? caaacia/othoue a?iiaaenueeo aaciaeo o noa?? aenieoaoaoe?? oa
aeei?enoaiiy aaoio?ainii?oo.

Aea?oueny e?euee?nia ? ye?nia oa?aeoa?enoeea cei/eioeyi ca a?eiaeie
iciaeaie, ina?oi?i ??aiai, nioe?aeueiei noaiii, a oaeiae oaeei, ye?
a/eiyee cei/eie iaiaeia?iciai, o iaoaa?aciio noai?, o neeaae? a?oie
oiui.

Aiae?cothoueny iaoiaee caaaeueii? oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? i?io?eaeoeee ye?
canoiniaothoueny i?aaiaie aioo??oi?o ni?aa a?aeiinii cei/ei?a, ui
?icaeyaeathoueny ? aiinyoueny i?iiiceoe?? ii i?aeaeuaiith ?o
aoaeoeaiino?, i?iiiiothoueny caoiaee, ?ic?iaeai? aeena?oaioii.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iinyaaiiy ia aeani?noue, i?aaeiaoii yeeo ?
aaoio?ainii?oi? caniae, e?ei?iaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iinyaaiiy,
i?io?eaeoeea iinyaaiue.

Eaaiia TH.O. Ai?ueaa n i?anooiiuie iinyaaoaeuenoaaie ia nianoaaiiinoue,
i?aaeiaoii eioi?uo yaeythony aaoio?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa
(oaieiaii-i?aaiaua e e?eieiieiae/aneea aniaeou). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.08 — oaieiaiia i?aai e e?eieiieiaey;
oaieiaii-eniieieoaeueiia i?aai. — Iaoeeiiaeueiay aeaaeaiey aioo?aiieo
aeae Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai oniaa?oainoaiaaiey oaieiaii-i?aaiaie
ai?ueau n i?anooiiuie iinyaaoaeuenoaaie ia nianoaaiiinoue, i?aaeiaoii
eioi?uo yaeythony aaoio?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa, a oaeaea i?ioeeaeoeea yoeo
aeayiee.

?anniao?eaathony ia?u ii ?ac?aoaieth yoeo aii?inia a ae?oaeo no?aiao e
aiciiaeiinoe eo i?eiaiaiey o ian. Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony
enneaaeiaaieth i?aeoe/aneeo e oai?aoe/aneeo aii?inia ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
iinyaaoaeuenoaa ia nianoaaiiinoue, i?aaeiaoii eioi?uo yaeythony
aaoio?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa, i?ioeeaeoe/aneie ?aaioa, iai?aaeaiiie ia
oiaiueoaiea eiee/anoaa yoeo i?anooieaiee.

Aeaaony eiee/anoaaiiay oa?aeoa?enoeea ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo
aaoio?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa e eiee/anoaaiiay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?anooiiuo
iinyaaoaeuenoa ia nianoaaiiinoue, i?aaeiaoii eioi?uo yaeythony
aaoio?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa.

Ia?auaaony aieiaiea ia oi, /oi cia/eoaeueiay /anoue yoeo i?anooieaiee
niaa?oaaony i?aaieciaaiiuie a?oiiaie e inoaaony ia?ane?uouie. I?ioeaio
?ane?uaaaiinoe e?aae o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa a 1996-1997 aa.
niioaaonoaaiii aue 32,6% e 43,2%. Oieueei 15% iinyaaoaeuenoa i?eoiaeeony
ia ainoaea?noaaiiue aaoio?ainii?o e aaoio?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua
i?eiaaeeaaeao iauanoaaiiui i?aaiecaoeeyi.

Aeaaony oaieiaii-i?aaiaay oa?aeoa?enoeea anao i?anooieaiee, eioi?ua
naycaiu n iinyaaoaeuenoaaie ia o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa.

Auaeaeaaaony i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi iauaeoaie i?e oaiia aoaeoo
iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe (iniiaiie iaiin?aaenoaaiiue
iauaeo) e iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho iauanoaaiioth
aaciianiinoue a noa?a yenieoaoaoeee e eniieueciaaiey o?ainii?oa
(aeiiieieoaeueiue iaiin?aaenoaaiiue iauaeo).

Aeaaony ?aca?aie/aiea iaaeaeo oaiiii e oaeeie i?anooieaieyie, eae e?aaea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai eee iauanoaaiiiai eiouanoaa, iacaeiiiiai
eniieueciaaiey aaoiiiaeey eee eiiai o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa, ae?oaeo
i?anooieaiee, noiaeeo ii noauaeoeaiui e iauaeoeaiui i?eciaeai.

N/eoaaony, /oi aiaeeoaeue, ca eioi?ui cae?aieaii aaoio?ainii?oiia
n?aaenoai ii ianoo ?iaiou, ia iiaeao auoue noauaeoii i?anooieaiey ii
no. 215-3 OE Oe?aeiu. Niaa?oaiiua aeaenoaey, aiaeiae/iua oaiio, aeieaeiu
?anniao?eaaoueny eae naiioi?aanoai, eioi?ia ianao ca niaie
aeenoeeieeia?ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue. Ae?oaea ?aaioieee aaoio?ainii?oiuo
i?aaei?eyoee (aaoineana?e, iaoaieee, aeeniao/a?u e o.ae.) iiaoo auoue
noauaeoaie oaiia, i?e oneiaee, /oi iie a?aiaiii i?ioeaii?aaii
eniieuecotho aaoio?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai, eioi?ia ca ieie ia cae?aieaii.
Ia iiaoo i?eaeaeaoueny e oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeieaeiinoiua eeoea,
eioi?ui aeaii i?aai iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey e ?anii?yaeaiey
aaoio?ainii?oii (ia/aeueieee aaoii?aaei?eyoee, aeaaiua eiaeaia?u).

Oaeaea oaeaeaii aieiaiea oaiio aaoio?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa, naycaiiiio n
ianeeeai, eioi?ia iianii aeey aeecie e caei?iauey iino?aaeaaoaai (/. 3
no. 215-3 OE Oe?aeiu) ?aaiicia/iiio ?acaith (no. 86, 142 OE Oe?aeiu)..
I?aaeeaaaaony aeiiieieoue ia?a/aiue noaoae, eioi?ua aeaiu a no. 7-1 OE
Oe?aeiu (Iiiyoea oyaeeiai i?anooieaiey) /. 3 no. 215-3 OE Oe?aeiu.

Oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa i?anooiiuo iinyaaoaeuenoa ia nianoaaiiinoue,
i?aaeiaoii eioi?uo yaeythony aaoio?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa iauyniyaony
?ac?ooaieai aeaenoaothuaai oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia, ?ac?uaii
yeiiiie/aneeo naycae, niaaeii i?iecaiaenoaa. A eae neaaenoaea yoiai
i?ienoiaeeo ?aceia aic?anoaiea oeai, eioeyoeey, oiaiueoaiea
aeaaininoiyiey ethaeae, aac?aaioeoea.

?anniao?eaaaony aii?in, eanathueeny aa?aaeae e io?aiyaiuo noiyiie.
Iaaeaaii?eyoiay neooaoeey neeaaeuaaaony a nayce n oai, /oi ia
caeeth/athony aeiaiai?a ia nio?aiaiea aaoio?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa iaaeaeo
aeaaeaeueoeaie aaoio?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa e aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie. A
?aaioa iieacaii, /oi cayaeaiey ii aiciauaieth iaoa?eaeueiuo e ii?aeueiuo
oauoeia inoathony aac oaeiaeaoai?aiey, o.e. a Onoaaao io?aiyaiuo noiyiie
e eiiia?aoeaiuo aa?aaeae yoi iieiaeaiea ia cae?aieaii.

Aeaaony eiee/anoaaiiay e ea/anoaaiiay oa?aeoa?enoeea ee/iinoe
i?anooiieea ii aic?anoiui iieacaoaeyi, ia?aciaaieth, nioeeaeueiiio
iieiaeaieth, a oaeaea oao eeoe, eioi?ua niaa?oaee i?anooieaiey
iaiaeiie?aoii, a iao?acaii ninoiyiee, a ninoaaa a?oiiu.

Oaeaea aeaaony oa?aeoa?enoeea iioa?iaaoaai, aai ia?aciaaoaeueiue
o?iaaiue, ?anniao?eaathony neooaoeee aacioaaonoaaiiiai ioiioaiey
aeaaeaeueoeaa e nio?aiaieth naieo aaoio?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa.

I?aaeeaaaaony iiaay ?aaeaeoeey oaieiaii-i?aaiaie ii?iu, eioi?ay
i?aaeoniao?eaaao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca oaii o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa.
Aiineony i?aaeeiaeaiea ioiineoaeueii aeeth/aiey iiaie oaieiaii-i?aaiaie
ii?iu, eioi?ay i?aaeoniao?eaaao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca oaii, a aeaao
“I?anooieaiey i?ioea nianoaaiiinoe” iiaiai Oaieiaiiai eiaeaena Oe?aeiu.

I?iaiaeeony n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec oaieiaiuo ii?i, eioi?ua
i?aaeoniao?eaatho ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca oaii o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa;
n?aaieaathony aeaenoaothuay ?aaeaeoeey no. 215-3 OE, ?aaeaeoeey i?iaeoa,
iiaeaioiaeaiiay ?aai/ae a?oiiie Eaaeiaoa Ieieno?ia Oe?aeiu, i?iaeo OE
Oe?aeiu, iiaeaioiaeaiiue Einoeoooii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa
Oe?aeiu, ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca yoio aeae i?anooieaiey a Oaieiaiii Eiaeaena
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee n ?aaeaeoeeae i?aaeeiaeaiiie aaoi?ii.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iinyaaoaeuenoai ia nianoaaiiinoue, i?aaeiaoii eioi?ie
yaeythony aaoio?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa, oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
iinyaaoaeuenoai, i?ioeeaeoeea iinyaaoaeuenoa.

Ivanov U.F. Combatment with criminal encroachment on vehicles (criminal
law and criminological aspects). — Manuscript.

Candidate dissertation on law. Speciality 12.00.08 — criminal law and
criminology; criminal executive law. National Academy of Internal
Affairs of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis is on aspects of improvement of combating and preventing
criminal encroachments on vehicles. Foregn countries experience is
analysed in connection with the possibilities of its adoption in our
state. Special attention is paid to the research of practical and
theoretical aspects of vehicles encroachment charges and the ways of
crime prevention.

Detail characteristic of this problem in connection to public safety is
given. Quantitive and qualitive charateristics of criminals according to
their age, educational level, social position, previous convictions are
qiven.

Methods of general and individual prevention of above mentioned crimes
are described. The ways of further updating of preventive measures are
suggested.

Key words: criminal encroachments on vehicles, criminal
responsibility, crime prevention.

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