1

Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

Oeoaiia ?oneai Ai?eniae/

OAeE 940.2 (477):339.172

A??AE? I?AAeAIII? OE?A?IE

1886–1914 ??.

07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Caii??aeaey

1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eyo Na?a?e ?iiaiiae/,

Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Na?aae A?oae?e A?eai?iae/,

?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie (i.Ee?a),

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

O?O – ii/aoeo OO no.

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

E?eaoeuenueea Oaoyia Ai?en?aia,

Caii??cueea aea?aeaaia ?iaeaia?ia aeaaeai?y,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oe?a?iiciaanoaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

eaoaae?a ?in?enueei? ?noi???

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 26 ” ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.17.051.01 a Caii??cueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie (aae?ana: 330600,
i.Caii??aeaey, aoe.AEoeianueeiai, 66, ei?i. 5, aoae. 327).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 330600,
i.Caii??aeaey, aoe.AEoeianueeiai, 66, ei?i. 2.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «17 » aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Oei/aiei N.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no. ia?aaoaaei a noai? aeeiai?/iiai
?icaeoeo ? iiiaeaiiy. Oe?a?ia, ye iaeia c iae?icaeioo?oeo /anoei
?in?enueei? ?iia???, iiaiith i??ith a?ae/oea ia nia? ?acoeueoaoe
eai?oae?noe/ii? iiaea?i?caoe??. A oeae /an caaa?oo?oueny oi?ioaaiiy
?aeii?a oiaa?iiai caiea?ianoaa, ae?inoathoue iia? i?iieneia? ?aeiie,
noai?th?oueny aonoa ia?aaea cae?cieoeue, ?icaeaa?oueny i?aei?e?iieoeoai,
i?aeaeuo?oueny iia?euei?noue ianaeaiiy, ia?inoa? caaaeueiiaeaiie?aoe/iee
oa iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo. Naia a oeae ia??iae iiaiith i??ith ?ice?eany
aaee/aciee aeiiii?/iee iioaioe?ae I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie, yea ia?aoai?eeany
ia iaeei c i?ia?aeieo ainiiaea?nueeeo eiiieaen?a e?a?ie.

sse na?ae/eoue na?oiaee aeina?ae, aoaeoeai?noue ainiiaea?nueeeo
a?aeiinei caeaaeeoue a?ae iayaiino? oa /?oei? aca?iiae?? on?o neeaaeiaeo
?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e. C iiyaith a??ae?, ye nooo?aiai aeaiaioo oe???
?io?ano?oeoo?e, a?aeaoany ia?ao?ae aei ye?nii iiaiai ??aiy ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei. *a?ac a??ae? ?aaoethaaany oiiaeiaee oa iioiaee oiaa?iee
?eiie, aiae?coaaeany aeiiii?/ia eii’thieoo?a, iioe?thaaeany ?ioi?iaoe?y
i?i noai ?eieo oiaa??a ? oe?iieo iaia??a. Ioaea, aiae?c ae?yeueiino?
a??ae I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie iai?ee?ioe? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no. aeicaieeoue
i?inoaaeeoe iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo iaeiiai c aieiaieo aeaiaio?a nenoaie
?ooo oa ia?a?iciiaeieo oiaa?ia ? eaiioaeia o ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noai
?aa?iio, aena?oeeoe aaaeeea? aniaeoe i?aeia?iaeieo
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a, c’ynoaaoe iaoiaee ae??oaiiy ieoaiue,
ui iinoaaaee ia?aae oiai/anieie i?aei?e?ioeyie, ?ice?eoe iniaeeaino?
noinoie?a i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e c o?yaeiaeie eieaie.

Iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? oaia iaaoaa? a eiioaeno? oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai oeio
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei a no/ani?e Oe?a?i?. Aiae?iaeaeaiiy ai?ae a
Oe?a?ii, yea noaeiny ia ii/aoeo 90-o ??. OO no., iineeth? i?e?iaeiee
iioa?an aei oai??? oa i?aeoeee ai?aeiai? oi?a?ae?. Aeei?enoiaoth/e
?noi?e/iee aeina?ae a??aeiai? ae?yeueiino?, iiaeia iaoeiai i?iaiicoaaoe
oa ae??ooaaoe eiie?aoi? i?iaeaie, ui iinoathoue ia?aae noa’?eoaie
aeiiii?/iiai i?aai?cio Oe?a?ie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei aea?aeathaeaeaoii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaie
?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
“I?eaaoia i?aei?e?iieoeoai I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie iai?ee?ioe? XVIII – ia
ii/aoeo XX noie?ooy” (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? V OA 01001047 ?).

Iaoa aeaiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, uia ia i?aenoaa?
eiiieaeniiai aiaeico aeiyeueiinoi oiaa?ieo ai?ae I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie
aecia/eoe aieiaii oaiaeaioei? ?o ?icaeoeo oa ?o i?noea o
ainiiaea?nueeiio oa a?iiaaenueeiio aeeoo? ?aa?iio.

Aiaeiiaiaeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe oi?ioeththoueny oa ?ica’ycothoueny
oaei aeineiaeieoeueei caaaeaiiy:

1) i?inoaaeeoe ?noi?e/i? oiiae aeieeiaiiy i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo ai?ae;

2) c’ynoaaoe niaoeeo?eo ?icaeoeo a??aeiai? ia?aae? o I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i?;

3) i?iaiae?coaaoe neeaae a??aeiaeo oiaa?enoa, iioeae ?o ae?yeueiino?;

4) ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe oiaa?io oa oiiaeiao oi?a?aeth ia a??aeao I?aaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie;

5) aea/eoe i?aaiaee noai a??ae oa nenoaio ?aaoethaaiiy a??aeiai?
ae?yeueiino?;

6) ?icaeyiooe niaoeeo?eo aca?iiaiaeiinei iiae ai?aeiaeie eieaie oa
o?yaeii;

7) aecia/eoe ?ieue ai?aeiaeo eii?oao?a o nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio
?icaeoeo I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie iai?eeiioei OIO – ia ii/aoeo OO no.

O?iiieiai/ii iaaei ?iaioe ioiieththoue ia??iae 1886-1914 ??. Oi/a ia?oa
a??aea o I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i? c’yaeeany ua o 1796 ?., aea o?eueee c
a?aee?eooyi o 1886 ?. Ieeiea?anueei? a??ae? ie iiaeaii aiai?eoe i?i
oi?ioaaiiy a??aeiai? ia?aae? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie ?, a?aeiia?aeii,
?icaeyaeaoe ?icaeoie oe??? ia?aae?, ye nenoaie. Aa?oiy iaaea iaoiiaeaia
ii/aoeii ? na?oiai? a?eie, eiee aoee i?aeoe/ii i?eieiai? aenii?oi?
a??aeia? iia?aoe?? ? ci?ieany oa?aeoa? ae?yeueiino? a??ae.
Oa?eoi??aeuei? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeathoue oa?aio I?aaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie, oiaoi iaaeai Eaoa?eiineaanueei?, Oaa??enueei? oa Oa?niinueei?
aoaa?i?e.

I?aaeiaoii aeineiaeaeaiiy ? aeiyeueiinoue oiaa?ieo ai?ae Iiaaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie iai?eeiioei OIO – ia ii/aoeo OO no. A oeueiio aniaeoi ia’?eoii
aeineiaeaeaiiy noaee aeaea?aea, ui aeieeee o i?ioean? aeiyeueiinoi
cacia/aieo ai?ae.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e
iaooe? ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai eiea aeaea?ae i?iaaaeaia
eiiieaenia e nenoaiaoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino?
i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo a??ae oa aecia/aia ?oi? i?noea a ?eieia?e
?io?ano?oeoo?? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy.

Aaoi?ii ?aeiino?oeiaaii i?ioean ? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo a??aeiai? ia?aae?
I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie iai?ee?ioe? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy.

C?iaeaii ni?iao aecia/eoe ianyae ia?ao oe?aa ia i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo
a??aeao oa eiai /anoee o caaaeueiiio aenii?o? c ii?o?a I?aaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie.

?icaeyiooi ia?niiaeueiee oa oaoiaee neeaae a??aeiaeo eii?oao?a, aei yeeo
aoiaeeee i?aei?e?ioe?, ui neeaaeaee a?cianiao ae?oo I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie ?
aoee ?oo?eiith neeith aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?iio.

Ioa?aeoa?eciaaii aianie a??aeiaeo eii?oao?a I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie a
aeiiii?/iee oa eoeueoo?iee ?icaeoie e?ath.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui eiai iaoa??aee
iiaeooue aooe caeo/ai? aeey aeeeaaeaiiy eo?no ?noi??? Oe?a?ie O?O –
ii/aoeo OO no. oa niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao.
Aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e noai?aii?
neioaoe/ieo i?aoeue c ?noi??? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie oa ?in??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o aeiiia?aeyo ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo: “?noi??y oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo” (Ee?a,
1994), “I?noi oa a?cian” (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1994), “I?aeia?iaei?
ca’ycee ia?iae?a ?a?iie” (Caii??aeaey, 1995); i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo: “Iaean?-200” (Iaeana, 1994), “?aa?iiaeueia oa caaaeueia a
?noi???” (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1995); ca?oieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1994-1998 ??.); o 5 noaooyo ? 4
oacao, i?aeaioiaaieo oa iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii, a oiio /ene? o 4 noaooyo
o oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

Aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaoaeiaaia ca i?iaeaiii-o?iiieiai/iei i?eioeeiii. Ianya
?iaioe – 157 noi??iie ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ic
anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icaeieia, aeniiaeia, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa
eioa?aoo?e (344 iaeiaioaaiiy), a oaeiae aeiaeaoeia.

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/aii i?aaeiao, ia’?eo,
o?iiieia?/i? ? oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoo ?
caaaeaiiy, aecia/aii iaoeiao iiaecio, i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? oa
ai?iaaoe?th ?? ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “?noi??ia?ao?y, aeaea?aeueia aaca oa iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy” – ?icaeyaea?oueny noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie,
iiaea?oueny iaeyae aeaea?ae , a oaeiae ?ice?eaa?oueny iaoiaeieia?y
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Niaoeiaeueieo ocaaaeueithth/eo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo ai?aeai
Iiaaeaiii? Oe?a?ie, ia ?nio?. A oie aea /an o iaoeiaie eioa?aoo?i
?niothoue i?aoe?, ui aena?oeththoue ie?ai? aniaeoe oei?? oaie. Oiiaii
?noi??th iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee aeaii? i?iaeaie iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia 4
ia??iaee. Ia?oee ioiieth? 50-90-o? ??. O?O no.; ae?oaee – 90-o? ??. O?O
no. – 10-o? ??. OO no.; o?ao?e – 20-80-o? ??.; /aoaa?oee ?icii/aany o
1990-o ??. Eiaeai c oeeo aoai?a ia? nai? iniaeeaino?, ye? aecia/aeeny
oiiaaie ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio oa ?noi?e/ii? iaoee cie?aia.

Iniaeea?noth ia?oeo i?aoeue, i?enay/aieo a??aeai ?in?enueei? ?iia???,
aoa ?o i?eeeaaeiee oa?aeoa?. Aiie neoaoaaee iin?aieeaie aeey i?aeoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino? a??aeiaeo ae?y/?a. Nai?th a?oioiai?noth na?aae oaeiai ?iaeo
i?aoeue aeae?eythoueny, ianaiia?aae, iiiia?ao?? ?in?enueeeo aeiiii?no?a
i?ioani??a A.Aacia?aciaa oa A.Aeieo???aa Aacia?acia A. Ae?aeaaua
iia?aoeee. – I., 1856. – 81 n.; Aeieo?eaa A. Ae?aea, ae?aeaaua
iin?aaeieee e ae?aeaaua iia?aoeee. – NIa.: Oei. A.Aieiaeia, 1863. – 148
n., ui c’yaeeeny iai?ee?ioe? 50-o – ia ii/aoeo 60-o ??. O?O no.

I?iaeiaaeaiiyi caii/aoeiaaii? iiia?aaei?ie aaoi?aie o?aaeeoe?? e
caiiaiaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?eii? i?o? noiniaii ?icaeoeo ?in?enueeeo a??ae
noaea i?aoey E.I.I?naeiae/a Ienaeiae/ E.I. I ae?aeao, ae?aeaauo
onoaiiaeaieyo e ia?ao ia?aie/aiey ae?aeaaie ea?u. – NIa., 1879. – 119
n., yeee ii?yae c ?noi???th ?icaeoeo na?oiai? a??aeiai? oi?a?ae?
ie?aneth? aieiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ?in?enueeeo a??ae aei e?ioey 70-o
??. O?O no. Cie?aia, aaoi? iia?aeii oi?ea?oueny ? ae?yeueiino? aeaio
oe?a?inueeeo a??ae – Iaeanueei? oa Ee?anueei?. Niaoeeo?eo oiiaeiaeo
iia?aoe?e ia Iaeanuee?e a??ae? ?icaeyioa A.?ieoiai ?ieoiai A. Iaoa
ae?aea. – Aui.1. – Iaeanna: Oei. “Oiaa?euanoai”, 1874. – 23 n.; – Aui.2.
– Iaeanna: Oei. “O?oae”, 1875. – 24 n.. Aeecueei aei ia? noi?oue i?aoey
i?ioani?a Oa?e?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo E.Aaooaiaa?aa?a Aaooaiaa?aa? E.E.
Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai e ae?aeaaay niaeoeyoeey. – Oa?ueeia, 1872. – 180 n.,
a ye?e aaoi? ?acii c ?noi???th a??ae ?icaeyaea? oiiaeia? a??aeia?
iia?aoe?? oa ni?iae ?oiueiai caeiiiaeaa/iai ?aaoethaaiiy.

O 90-o ??. O?O no. aeoiaeyoue i?aoe? I.Neaayieiiaa oa A.Iii?aao?
Neaayieiia I. Ae?aee e aeeueaeee. – NIa., 1894. – 120 n.; Iiieaaooe A.E.
Nia?aiaiiay ae?aea. – I.: Oei.-eeo. I.E.Eaoeaae/ e Ei, 1896. – 98 n.,
i?enay/ai? caaaeueiiio aiae?co ae?yeueiino? oiai/anieo a??ae. Aaoi?e
caa?oathoue oaaao ia o?niee ca’ycie a??ae? c iie?oe/iei aeeooyi. Oeae
ca’ycie, ia ?oith aeoieo, iieyaaa, c iaeiiai aieo, a oiio, ui a??aea
aoea iaee?auei noaeaeath on?o o?yaeiaeo caoiae?a, a c ?ioiai, aiia
oaeaeei ?aaaoaaea ia an? a?eueo-iaio aaaeeea? iie?oe/i? iiae?? ?
,iaa?oue, aoea caeaoia ia?aaeaa/eoe ?o.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? ?icaeoeo ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaie (e?iaoeue O?O –
ii/aoie OO no.) c’yaeythoueny i?aoe?, a yeeo aaoi?e iaiaaaeeny
ocaaaeueieoe ?noi??th ?icaeoeo a??ae, i?iaiae?coaaoe oiiae ?oiuei?
ae?yeueiino? oa aecia/eoe aianie ie?aieo ae?y/?a o ?icaeoie a??aeiaiai
?ooo a ?in??. Oeae ia??iae aoa i?aaenoaaeaiee i?aoeyie aeaio iai?yie?a.
Ia?oee c ieo ?aae?ciaaiee o tha?eaeieo iiioey?ieo aeaeaiiyo, ye? aoee
iaienai? ia caiiaeaiiy Ee?anueei?, Iineianueei?, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?cueei? oa
?ioeo a??ae ? a?aeia?aaeaee ?noi??th noai?aiiy oa aeaye? aniaeoe
ae?yeueiino? oeeo a??ae 25-oe eaoea Eeaaneie ae?aee. 1869-1894. – E.,
1895. – 250 n.; Iineianeay ae?aea. 1839-1889. – I., 1889. – 210 n.;
Enoi?ey Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneie ae?aee. 1703-1903. – NIa., 1903. – 296 n..
Oeiiaith ?enith i?aoeue oeueiai iai?yieo aoei o?i/enoa aeeeaaeaiiy
iaoa??aeo ? iaaia naiicaeioai?noue, ui, aacoiiaii, iiynithaaeiny
“caiiaiei” oa?aeoa?ii aeaeaiue.

Ae?oaee iai?yiie i?aaenoaaeaiee na?eicieie ocaaaeueithth/eie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie a??ae ?in?enueei? ?iia???, i?iaaaeaieie I.Iaaci?iaei oa
TH.Oieiiiaei Iaaci?ia A. ?onneea ae?aee. – Aui.1-4. – TH?ueaa,
1897-1900; Oeeeiia TH.Ae. Ae?aea. Aa enoi?ey, nia?aiaiiay i?aaiecaoeey e
ooieoeee. – NIa., 1912. – 202 n.. Oe? aaoi?e aeineiaeaeoaaee i?iaeaio,
ianaiia?aae, ia iaoa??aeao Naieo-Iaoa?ao?cueei? oa Iineianueei? a??ae, a
?aoo? a??ae e?a?ie i?eae?eyeiny cia/ii iaioa oaaae. Iiyniaiiy oeueiio
iiaeia aaa/aoe o oiio, ui aaoi?e ia iaee o iiaiiio ianyc? iio??aii?
iia?aoeaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? noiniaii ?aooe ?in?enueeeo a??ae.

Ia ii/aoeo 20-o ??. iaeiei ?c i?iya?a ?aae?caoe?? iiai? aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee noaei a?aeiiaeaiiy ?iaioe a??ae. O?ioe caiaeii c’yaeeeny
i?aoe?, a yeeo aaoi?e, aiae?coth/e ?icaeoie ?aaeyinueei? a??aeiai?
oi?a?ae?, iaiaaaeeny ii??aiyoe eiai c ?icaeoeii aei?aaiethoe?eieo a??ae.
Oae o aeine?aeaeaii? ?.N.Aaea Aae E.N. Ae?aea ia Caiaaea e a NNN?. –
Oa?ueeia: Eieaini?eea, 1926. – 144 n. a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ia ?icaeoie
?in?enueeeo aei?aaiethoe?eieo a??ae cia/iith i??ith aieeaaea
a?aenoae?noue ?in?enueeiai aeiiii?/iiai oa, /anoeiai, iie?oe/iiai
aeeooy. ?icaeoie aioo??oiueiai oa iniaeeai ciai?oiueiai oe?aiiai ?eieo
iaa nai?i iane?aeeii c?inoaiiy oa ?icaaeoaeaiiy a??aeiai? ia?aae?. Ia
aeoieo aaoi?a, aei?aaiethoe?ei? a??ae? aoee i?aai?/iith neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ?in??. Ia a?aei?io a?ae ?.N.Aaea,
E.A.Oi?aeo Oieaeo E. A. I?aaiecaoeey e i?aeoeea ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee a
NNN?. – I., 1927. – 228 n. aaaaeaa, ui a??ae? ia iaee na?eiciiai
cia/aiiy a aeiiii?oe? aei?aaiethoe?eii? ?in?? ? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny
oi?aiaaeueiith ao?aeoac??th ye no?iaaoe eeaniaiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa nai?o
?ioa?an?a.

C e?ioey 20-o ? aei ii/aoeo 90-o ??. o N?N? ia c’yaeeiny aeiaeiiai
niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?enay/aiiai aei?aaiethoe?eiei a??aeai
Oe?a?ie. Oaeo neooaoe?th iiaeia iiynieoe ?aeaieia?/iei oeneii oa
ni?yioaaiiyi coneeue ?noi?ee?a-ia?eneno?a ia aea/aiiy /?oei ie?aneaieo
oai oa i?iaeai ?noi???. Eeoa c 50-o ??. ?aaeyinuee? ?noi?eee ii/eiathoue
i?eae?eyoe oaaao a??aeia?e oi?a?ae? oa a??aeiaei i?aai?caoe?yi, ? oi ia
o niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, a o caaaeueieo i?aoeyo, i?enay/aieo
??ciei ieoaiiyi ?icaeoeo ainiiaea?noaa ?in?enueei? ?iia???. O i?aoe?
I.O?iiiaa O?iiia I.A. Yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea ?innee a XIX-XX aaeao. –
I., 1950. – 240 n. eiinoaooaaeiny, ui c ?icaeoeii eai?oae?cio a ?in??
ana a?eueoiai cia/aiiy iaaoaaee oiaa?i? a??ae? ye oeaio?e iioiai?
oi?a?ae?. Aieiaiith ia?aoeiaeith c?inoaiiy ai?aeiai? oi?aiaei aaoi?
aaaaeaa oaiaeaeueii-e?iiinieoeueeo aeiiiiieo.

Ie?ai? ?aaeyinuee? a/ai? ni?iaoaaee aeaoe ia’?eoeaio iaoeiao ioe?ieo
ae?yeueiino? aei?aaiethoe?eieo ?in?enueeeo a??ae. O iiiia?aoiyo
A.A.Aeeooy?a, E.?.Oaiae?aa, E.I.Eiaoeia, A.ss.Eaaa?e/aaa o 50-70-o? ??.
?icaeyaeaeeny ie?ai? i?iaeaie a?iiaaenueei? ae?yeueiino? ?in?enueeeo
a??aeiaeo i?aai?caoe?e oa ?oi? noinoiee c o?yaeiaeie eieaie, a o i?aoeyo
I.I.Ae?oaeeiiii?, I.I.Ao?aeiy, A.I.Cieioiaa oa O.I.E?oai?ii?, ui aeeoee
o 60-70-o ??. iaaia oaaaa i?eae?eyeany oi?aiaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino? a??ae.
Caaaeueia ioe?iea ae?yeueiino? a??ae oeeie aaoi?aie caiaeeoueny aei
ianooiiiai: aeeiioth/e ?yae oi?aiaaeueii-oaoii/ieo ooieoeie, a??ae?
ni?eyee oiaa?iiio iaiao oa iieaaooaaee i?iaeaae oiaa?ia, oei naiei
a?ae?a?aaaee nooo?ao ?ieue a aeiiii?oe? ?in?? iai?ee?ioe? O?O – ia
ii/aoeo OO no. Aeeooy? A.A. Aioo?aiiyy oi?aiaey a aei?aaiethoeeiiiie
?innee. – I., 1960. – 238 n.; Eeaoei E.E. Iiiiiieee a yeiiiieea ?innee.
– I., 1961. – 447 n.; Cieioia A.A. Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey THaeiie ?innee a 1-e
iieiaeia XIX a. – ?inoia, 1963. – 248 n.; Ao?aeie I.I. Oe?a?ia a nenoaii
Ana?inienueeiai ?eieo 60-90 ??. XIX no. – E., 1968. – 192 n.; Oaiaeaa
E.A. Oiiaeiaay ae?aea a ?innee a ia?eiae 1-e ie?iaie aieiu (1914–1917)
// Enoi?e/aneea caienee. – O.84. – I., 1969. – N.121-163; Ae?oaeeieia
A.E. THaeiay Oe?aeia a 1800-1825 aa. – I., 1970. – 260 n.; Eaaa?u/aa
A.ss. E?oiiay ao?aeoacey a ii?aoi?iaiiie ?innee (1861-1900 aa.). – I.:
Iuneue, 1974. – 252 n.; Eeoaieia O.I. Oeaaiay oi?aiaey ?innee a
1875-1914 aa. (I/a?ee i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie iieeoeee). – Eaieia?aae: Iaoea,
1978. – 288 n.. A oe?eiio ae i?noea ai?ae a aeiiiii/iie nenoaii
?inienueei? iiia?i? io?oe?eia ?noi??ia?ao?y caiaeeea aei oiai, ui aiie
“aoee oeaio?aie niaeoeyoei?, yea caaaa/oaaea ianaiia?aae, aaeeeeo
eaiioaeinoia, a aanue oyaa? aiae ia? eaaeaa ia ?aaeueieo iieoioeyo
oiaa?ia – oe?ieeo ia?iaeieo ianao” Inoi?iy Oe?a?inueei? ?N?: O 8-ie o.
10-oe ei. – O.3. – E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1978. – N.324..

Iiaee ia??iae ?icaeoeo ?noi??ia?ao?? a??aeiai? oi?a?ae? ?icii/aany o
90-o ??. A?i iicia/eany aeaiia aieiaieie iiiaioaie: ii-ia?oa, cieeiaiiy
?aeaieia?/iiai oeneo iiceoeaii a?aeia?aceeinue ia oa?aeoa?? ?noi?e/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo aeiiii?/iei i?iaeaiai; ii-ae?oaa,
a?aeiiaeaiiy a??aeiai? oi?a?ae? aeeeeeaei aeaaaee ?ioa?an aei
ae?yeueiino? a??ae o ieioeiio. Na?aae i?aoeue, ui c’yaeeeny a Oe?a?i? a
oeae /an, ianaiia?aae o?aaa a?aecia/eoe i?aoe? A.A.E?oaeyea E?oaeye A.A.
Oiaa?ii ai?aei a ?in?enueeie iiia?i? // Oe?. ?no. aeo?i. – 1992. – ?2. –
N.58-64; E?oaeye A.A. Aioo?aiiyy oi?aiaey a ?innee a eiioea OIO – a
ia/aea OO a. – Naia?a, 1992. – 190 n.; E?oaeye A.A. Aioo?ioiy oi?aiaey a
Oe?a?ii iai?eeiioei OIO – ia ii/aoeo OO no. // Aeen. ia caeia. a/. nooi.
ae. i. i. – E., 1993. – 395 n., a yeeo aaoi? ni?iaoaaa ocaaaeueieoe
?icaeoie oiaa?ieo a??ae ?in?enueei? ?iia???. I?ney iaeaea 70-??/ii?
ia?a?ae A.A.E?oaeye a?aeiiaea ii?iaeueia noaaeaiiy aei a??ae, ye?, ia
eiai aeoieo, aoee iaiao?aeiith i?aai?caoe??th aeey aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy
oiai /e ?ioiai ?aa?iio, a ?oiy iiyaa aoea caeiiii??i?noth, yea aeo?eaea
c iio?aa eai?oae?noe/iiai ?eieo.

No/anieie ?in?enueeeie ?noi?eeaie noai?aia iecea i?aoeue, i?enay/aieo
aei?aaiethoe?eiei a??aeai ?in?enueei? ?iia???. O i?aoeyo A.N.Ooiiaa,
A.?.Inaae/i?, A.A.Aaee?ia Ooiia A.N. Enoi?ey ae?aee a ?innee. – I.: ?AI,
1993. – 42 n.; Inaae/ay A.E. Ae?aea a ?innee // Aii?inu enoi?ee. – 1993.
– ? 10. – N.3-13.; Aaeeei A.A. Enoi?ey ae?aee a ?innee. – Ai?iiaae:
Oeaio?.-*a?iicai. eieaei. ecae-ai, 1996. – 146 n. iaa?oioiao?oueny
aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue oiaa?ieo a??ae iiai?noth
a?aeiia?aeaea iio?aaai aioo??oiueiai ?eieo, ? o? ooieoe??, ye? aiie
aeeiioaaee, noeioethaaee ?icaeoie eai?oae?noe/ii? aeiiii?ee,
ci?oeithaaee i?aeia?iaei? oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/i? ca’ycee.

Ioaea, a ?noi??ia?ao?? aena?oeai? eeoa ie?ai? aniaeoe ?noi??? oa
ae?yeueiino? i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo a??ae. Aea ? aei nueiaiaei? a?aenooi?
eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo a??ae I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie iai?ee?ioe?
O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy neeaee iioae?eiaai? e
iaiioae?eiaai? aeieoiaioaeuei? iaoa?iaee. Ca aeaeiaith iaeaaei?noth
aeieoiaioe c ?noi??? a??ae I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie iiae?eythoueny ia aeoia?,
ae?eiaiaei?, noaoenoe/i? oa ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy.

Aei aeoiaeo aeaea?ae, aeei?enoaieo o aeine?aeaeaii?, a?aeiinyoueny
caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe – oeace, iaeace, ?aaeaiaioe, noaoooe, iieiaeaiiy,
?ino?oeoe?? oa ?icii?yaeaeaiiy. *anoeia aeoiaeo aeieoiaio?a iioae?eiaaia
o “Iiaiiio c?a?aii? caeii?a ?in?enueei? ?iia???” 1849, 1893 oa 1913
?ie?a aeaeaiiy oa o “Caaaeaii? caeii?a ?in?enueei? ?iia???” 1893 ?.
aeaeaiiy. ?acii c oei cia/ia e?euee?noue aeieoiaio?a aeaiiai aeaeo ua ia
iioae?eiaaia e ?icii?ioaia ii a?o?aieo oiiaeao. Aaeeeee iaoeiaee ?ioa?an
noaiiaeyoue i?iaeoe noaooo?a a??ae, iieiaeaiue oa ?ino?oeoe?e, ui
?aaoethaaee a??aeiao oi?a?aeth oa ae?yeuei?noue a??aeiaeo i?aai?a,
i?aaeea i?iaaaeaiiy a??aeiaeo iia?aoeie, io?oe?ei? ?icii?yaeaeaiiy oa
iaeace noiniaii oeaoooaaiiy /e ?ai?aai?caoe?? a??ae Naiae caeiiia
?inneeneie eiia?ee. – O.OI. – *.2. – NIa., 1893; Onoaa Ieeieaaaneie
ae?aee. – Ieeieaaa, 1886; Onoaa Aa?aeyineie ae?aee. – Aa?aeyine, 1905 oa
ii.; Iaeanneea ae?aeaaua i?aaeea naeaeie ii iieoiea e i?iaeaaea oeaiiuo
aoiaa, cieioie aaethou, o?aoo e oiio iiaeiaiuo oeaiiinoae.– Iaeanna,
[a.a.]; Io/ao i aeayoaeueiinoe ae?aeaaiai eiieoaoa i?e Oa?niineie ae?aea
ca 1906 a. – Oa?nii, 1910 oa ii., ye? caa??aathoueny o oiiaeao
?in?enueeiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao o i. Naieo-Iaoa?ao?c? (o.18
– Aeaia?oaiaioo iaiooaeoo? oa aioo??oiuei? oi?a?ae? I?i?noa?noaa
o?iain?a, o.22 –Oeaio?aeueieo onoaiia I?i?noa?noaa o?iain?a o ni?aaao
oi?a?ae? oa i?iieneiaino?, o.23 – I?i?noa?noaa oi?a?ae? oa
i?iieneiaino?), aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Caii?icueei? iaeano? (o.24 –
Ieaenaiae?ianueei? iinueei? aeoie oa o.56 – Ieaenaiae?ianueei? iiaioiai?
cainueei? oi?aae), Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano? (o.216 – Ieeiea?anueei?
iinueei? oi?aae oa o.230 – Eaioeaey?i? Ieeiea?anueeiai aienueeiaiai
aoaa?iaoi?a), Iaeanueei? iaeano? (o.1 – Oi?aaeiiiy Iiai?inienueeiai oa
Aanna?aanueeiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a, o.42 – Eaioeaey??y iiia/eoaey
Iaeanueei? o/aiai? ie?oae oa o.59 – Iaeanueeiai aoaeiaaeueiiai
eiiioaoo).

Aeoia? aeaea?aea iaaeathoue iiaeeea?noue i?inoaaeeoe niaoeeo?eo
oi?ioaaiiy i?aaiai? aace a??aeiai? ae?yeueiino? oa aeyaeoe
caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo a??ae I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie.

Aiae?c iaiioae?eiaaieo ae?eiaiaeieo iaoa?iae?a, ui aaciina?aaeiuei
iia’ycaii c ae?yeueiinoth ai?ae, aea? iiaeeea?noue i?inoaaeeoe ?noi??th
noai?aiiy a??ae, c’ynoaaoe ia?niiaeueiee ? oaoiaee neeaae a??aeiaeo
eii?oao?a oa oiaa?enoa, eiie?aoecoaaoe iai?yiee ae?yeueiino? a??ae. Oea,
ianaiia?aae, caioe ai?aeiaeo eiiioaoia i?i naith aeiyeueiinoue, ae?eiaa
eenooaaiiy a??aeiaeo eii?oao?a, aeo?iaee ?o can?aeaiue, “iineoaei?
nienee” aie?a oa /eai?a a??aeiaeo eii?oao?a, eiooi?ene aeo?ao a??aeiaeo
eii?oao?a, aeiiia?ae?, iiaeaiiy, a?aeiia?ae? ia aieaoe oa aeniiaee ii
caieoao ??ciiiai?oieo onoaiia oa i?aai?caoe?e. Iaea?eueo oe?ii?
aeieoiaioe oeueiai aeaeo caa??aathoueny o ?Ae?A (o.20 – Aeaia?oaiaioo
oi?a?ae? e iaiooaeoo? I?i?noa?noaa o?iain?a) oa aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? i.
Ee?aa (o.226 – Ee?anueeiai a??aeiaiai eii?oaoo).

Ci?noiai?noth a?aecia/athoueny ui??/i? ca?oe a??aeiaeo eii?oao?a i?i
naith ae?yeuei?noue. Oea aeaea?aei i?noeoue ?ioi?iaoe?th uiaei ci?i o
neeaae? oiai /e ?ioiai a??aeiaiai oiaa?enoaa, a?aeaeaa? ?iaioo a??aeiaeo
eii?oao?a, ?ice?eaa? iai?yiee o?yaeiai? iie?oeee noiniaii a??ae, iiaea?
oe?ie ia i?aaeiaoe a??aeiaiai ia?ao oa ?io? oe?ii? a?aeiiino?.

A a?oiaao Oe?a?ie oa ?in?? caa?aaeeny iaiioae?eiaai? iaoa??aee
ae?eiaiaenoaa, i?aaenoaaeai? oaeei aaaeeeaei eiiieaenii, ye ae?eiaa
eenooaaiiy a??aeiaeo eii?oao?a c o?yaeiaeie no?oeoo?aie, i?noeaaith
aeaaeith, i?ae niaith, ??ciiiai?oieie a?iiaaenueeeie onoaiiaaie oa
i?eaaoieie iniaaie. A oe?eiio aeaea?aea ae?eiaiaenoaa ?ice?eaathoue
aaeee? iiaeeeaino? aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?yie?a ae?yeueiino? a??ae,
neeaaeo a??aeiaeo oiaa?enoa, nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy a??aeiai?
ae?yeueiino?, noinoie?a a??aeiaeo e?e c o?yaeiaeie oa i?eaaoieie
onoaiiaaie.

O?ao?e aeae aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue ?iciiai ?iaeo noaoenoe/ii oa
aeiaiaeeiai aeaeaiiy. Oea, ianaiia?aae, ui??/i? noaoenoeei-aeiiii?/i?
iaeyaee ii aoaa?i?yo ? iia?oao I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie, noaoenoe/i? ca??ieee
Noaoenoeei-yeiiiie/aneee iaci? Oa?niineie aoaa?iee ca 1912 a. – Oa?nii,
1914. – 171 n.; Noaoenoe/aneee aaeaaiaeiee ia 1912 aiae. – NIa, 1912. –
560 n. oa ?i., aae?an-eaeaiaea?? i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?e oa
i?no, ??ciiiai?oi? oi?aiaaeueii-i?iieneia? aeia?aeieee Ni?aai/iee ii
oeaaiie oi?aiaea. – NIa.: Oei. A.O.Ee?oaaoia, 1911. – 802 n.;
Oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiay ?inney. – NIa., 1899; ?inney a eiioea OIO aaea. –
NIa., 1900; Yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue. – O.OI-A. – NIa: Ecae-ai
A?ieaaoc e Ao?ii, 1894; Nai?iee iauaiieaciuo e iaiaoiaeeiuo naaaeaiee ii
aii?inai i?iiuoeaiiui, oi?aiaui e ae?aeaaui. – NIa., 1888 oa ii.. A ieo
e?ii aiaeiiinoae uiaei ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa oa caooo oiaa??a ca
?aa?iiaie ?in??, aenii?oo oe?aa c i?aaeaiieo ii?o?a, a??aeiaeo oe?i ia
oiaa?e, iiaeia ciaeoe iioi?iaoeith uiaei neeaaeo ea?iaieoeoaa ai?ae,
ca’yce?a ai?aeiaeo eii?oao?a c ??cieie onoaiiaaie ? o. ii.

?ioi?iaoe?eii iane/aieie ? iaoa?iaee ia?iiaeeee e?ioey OIO – ii/aoeo OO
no. Iaeaieueoa iiaiaeiieaiue i?i ai?aeiao aeiyeueiinoue cono?i/a?ii o
oaeeo aeaeaiiyo, ye “Ae?aea”, “Ae?aeaaua aaaeiiinoe”,
“Oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiay aacaoa”, ui aeaeaaaeeny o Naieo-Iaoa?ao?ci i aoee
caaaeueiiiiia?nueeeie aeaeaiiyie, eio?i, oi/a ? niaoeiaeicoaaeeny ia
aeiiiii/iie oaiaoeoei, i?noeee noaooi c iieioe/iiai oa eoeueoo?iiai
aeeooy. Oeiea iecea ?aa?iiaeueieo aeaeaiue, na?aae yeeo “Iaeanneee
aanoiee”, “Iaeanneea iiainoe”, “Oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiue tha”, “Eeaaneay
ae?aea”, “Ieeieaaaneee aanoiee”, “THaeiay ii/oa” oa ii., ui aeoiaeeee a
Oe?a?ii, iaee niaoeiaeueii ?icaeiee, a yeeo aenaioethaaeany iioi/ia
aeiyeueiinoue iiaaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo ai?ae, nenoaiaoe/ii ioae?eoaaeeny
ai?aeiai eo?ne oa eioe?iaee, aiaeioe/ii noaooi oa iio? iaoa?iaee c
a??aeiai? oaiaoeee.

Ie?aii ne?ae a?aecia/eoe aeani? ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy
i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo a??ae. Cia/io ?ioi?iaoeaio oe?ii?noue iathoue
atheaoai? oa oi?aiaaeuei? a?aeiiino? a??ae. A oeeo aeaeaiiyo
ae?oeoaaeeny a??aeia? oe?ie iaee?oii?oeo ?in?enueeeo oa caei?aeiiieo
?eie?a, ?acoeueoaoe a??aeiaeo oaiae, i?iaiice ia a?iaeae o
e?a?iao-eiieo?aioao, ianyae aenii?oo oiaa??a ca ei?aeii oa ?io?
eiia?oe?ei? iia?aeiieaiiy, ui noinoaaeeny a??aeiai? oi?a?ae?.

Eiiieaenia aeei?enoaiiy i?aaenoaaieoeueeiai eiiieaeno ??ciiiai?oieo
aeaea?ae aeicaieeei c?a?aoe aeinoaoiuei ?ai?acaioaoeaiee ? a iniiaiiio
aeinoia??iee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, yeee iaaeaa iiaeeea?noue ae??oeoe
iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/eee oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iee
i?aeo?ae i?ciaiiy ?noi?e/ii? ?aaeueiino?, a iniiao yeiai iieeaaeaii
ae?aeaeoe/i? i?eioeeie i?ciaiiy. Aaoi? ea?oaaany i?eioeeiii ?noi?ecio,
yeee ia?aaeaa/a? i?aeo?ae aei ?noi?e/ieo yaeu oa i?ioean?a c iiceoe?e ia
noaoeee, a aeeiai?ee, aea/aiiyi aca?iica’yce?a i?ae ieie oa ?o
aca?iiiaoiiaeaiino?.

Aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ii? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy
noaa i?eioeei aaaaoioaeoi?iino?, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? a?aooaaiiy ??cieo
oaeoi??a (ia’?eoeaieo oa noa’?eoeaieo) aeey aecia/aiiy aeoie?a
i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo a??ae, aecia/aiiy aaeoi??a ?o ?icaeoeo oa
iai?yie?a ?o ae?yeueiino?. Aaoi? oaeiae ea?oaaany i?eioeeiii anaa?/iino?
oa ia’?eoeaiino? i?ciaiiy, yeee ?aae?ciao?oueny /a?ac eiiieaeniee aiae?c
noeoiiino? aeaea?ae, ui noinothoueny ae?yeueiino? a??ae I?aaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie.

Cacia/ai? i?eioeeie ?aae?cothoueny /a?ac canoinoaaiiy eiiieaeno iaoiae?a
ye ?ino?oiaioa??th aaciina?aaeiueiai aiae?co ?noi?e/ii? ae?eniino?.

Eiie?aoieie iaoiaeaie, ia yeeo aacoaaany aaoi?, aoee ye caaaeueiiiaoeia?
iaoiaee – ?noi?e/iee oa eia?/iee (nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee), oae ?
caaaeueii?noi?e/i? iaoiaee – ia??iaeecaoe??, i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee,
?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueiee, ?noi?eei-aaiaoe/iee, ?noi?eei-oeiieia?/iee oa
noaoenoe/iee.

O ae?oaiio ?icaeie? – “Oiiae oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoie a??aeiai? ia?aae?
I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie (e?iaoeue O?O – ii/aoie OO no.)” – ?icaeyaeathoueny
iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy a??aeiai? ia?aae? ?aa?iio.

Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie iaea?eueo
?ioaineaii ?icai?ioeiny i?ney i?iaaaeaiiy ?aoi?i 60-o ??. O?O no. ? aoei
iia’ycaia ?c caaaeueiei i?aeianaiiyi aeiiii?ee e?a?ie. Oeae i?ioean,
oi/a ? noeioethaaany o?yaeii, aea caeaa?eueoiai caeaaeaa a?ae
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ?i?oe?aoeae. Naia oiio aeieeiaiiy eiaeiiai c
aeaiaio?a ?io?ano?oeoo?e ?eieo oa ?? ?icoe?aiiy aoei iaoiiaeaii ia
o?eueee aeania iio?aaaie ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, a e ona?aeiieaiiyi
i?aei?e?ioeyie iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae aeaiaio?a ?eieiai?
?io?ano?oeoo?e.

Na?aae aieiaieo oaeoi??a oi?ioaaiiy a??aeiai? ia?aae? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie
iai?ee?ioe? O?O no. – ia ii/aoeo OO no. iiaeia aecia/eoe ianooii?:

1. Ia?aoai?aiiy i?aaeaiiiai ?aa?iio ia ?aeii oi?aiaaeueiiai ca?iiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa ? ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a aeiaaaee
iayaiino? iino?eii ae?th/eo onoaiia, ui caaacia/oaaee iiaeeea?noue
iia?aoe?e c aaeeeeie ia?o?yie oiaa??a oa ?aaoethaaee oe?ie ia ieo;
oaeeie onoaiiaaie noaee oiaa?i? a??ae?.

2. Noai?aiiy o Aeiiaoeueei-I?eaei?i?ianueeiio ?aeii? iaeiiai c
i?ia?aeieo i?iieneiaeo eiiieaen?a ?in?enueei? ?iia???. I?aei?e?inoaa
oeueiai ?aeiio aoee ca oi?iith aeoe?iia?ieie oiaa?enoaaie, yeei aeey
?ici?uaiiy nai?o aeoe?e oa ?oiueiai iiaeaeueoiai ia?ao aoei ae?ae
iaiao?aeiei ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a – oiiaeiai? a??ae?.

3. Oaeineiiaeaiiy o?ainii?oii? ia?aae? ?aa?iio, ui aeeeooaaeiny
c?inoaiiyi ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa, iiaea?i?caoe?y noa?eo oa a?aee?eooy
iiaeo ii?nueeeo ii?o?a noai?eee ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo a??aeiai?
ia?aae?, yea i?ae ?ioei aeicaieyea cia/iith i??ith ?aaoethaaoe oene
oiaa?ii? iane ia o?ainii?o, caiia?aath/e caeaei ia?ai?uaiiyi.

4. Noai?aiiy iiooaeii? aaie?anueei? ia?aae? o I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i?
iiceoeaii aieeioei ia ?icoe?aiiy oiaa?ieo ? oiiaeiaeo a??aeiaeo
iia?aoe?e caaaeyee iiaeeeaino? io?eiaiiy aaie?anueeeo e?aaeeo?a oa iiya?
ia a??aeao aeoe?e aaie?a.

Aeieeiaiiy oa iioe?aiiy a??aeiai? oi?a?ae? o I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i? aoei
aeeeeeaii, ianaiia?aae, iio?aaaie oe?aiiai aenii?oo. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
a??aeiai? oi?ie oi?a?ae? aoei iaeiei ?c cania?a caa?aaeaiiy, a caiaeii ?
ca?eueoaiiy /anoee I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie o i?aeia?iaei?e oe?ai?e oi?a?ae?.
Oi?ioaaiiy a??aeiai? ia?aae? o I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i? aoei iaoiiaeaii
eia?eith aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?iio ? a?aeaoaaeiny caaaeyee
?i?oe?aoea? iaea?eueo na?aeiii? /anoeie i?aei?e?ioe?a (eoioe?a,
i?iieneiaoe?a oa caieaaeaniee?a), ui iaee ia iao? oii?yaeeoaaiiy iioiai?
oi?a?ae? ? ?icoi?ee aea?aei?noue ?nioaaiiy ai?ae aeey ?icoe?aiiy aeanieo
oi?aiaaeueieo iai?io?a oa io?eiaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo i?eaooe?a.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo a??ae (e?iaoeue OV??? no. –
e?iaoeue 60-o ??. XIX no.) e??i Iaeanueei?, a oe?a?inueeeo caieyo
aeieeei eeoa aea? a??ae? – o E?aiai/ooe? (o 1834 ?.) oa Ee?a? (o 1869
?.). Caaaeii a ?iia??? ia e?iaoeue 60-o ??. ae?yei 7 ai?ae
(Naieo-Iaoa?ao?cueea, Iaeanueea, Aa?oaanueea, Iineianueea, ?ea?inueea,
E?aiai/ooeueea oa Ee?anueea). A oeae /an ?acii ?c aei?aoethaaiiyi
iaoai?cio a??aeiai? oi?a?ae? oa a??aeiai? eioe?iaee oiaa??a ? oiiae?a
aaeaeiny noi?ioaaoe ? aecia/eoe ii?yaeie ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a
naiia?yaeoaaiiy a??aeiaiai oiaa?enoaa.

Ii/aoie ia?oiai aoaio a??aeiaiai ooiaeaoi?noaa a Oe?a?i? iia’ycaiee c
a?aee?eooyi o 1796 ?. Iaeanueei? a??ae?. I?ioyaii ia?oi? iieiaeie O?O
noie?ooy aiia aoea i?ia?aeiei oeaio?ii iioiai? oi?a?ae? I?aaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie. Ia i?e oeeaaeaeany ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue oaiae ?c oe?aii, ui
aenii?ooaaany ca ei?aeii. E??i oiai, o oeae ia??iae Iaeanueea a??aea
aoea iaeiei ?c aieiaieo oeaio??a oiiaeiai? oi?a?ae? ?in?enueei? ?iia???
? ?aeeiei oaeei oeaio?ii a Oe?a?i?.

Ae?oaee aoai a??aeiaiai ooiaeaoi?noaa a Oe?a?i? ioiiethaaa /an c 70-80-o
??. O?O no. aei ii/aoeo OO no. Aeieeiaiiy iiaeo a??ae aoei iia’ycaii c
ae?iaieoeoaii aaeeei? e?eueeino? oiaa??a oa noaiiaeaiiyi ?icaaeoaeaii?
aaie?anueei? ia?aae?, ui ?icoe?eea iiaeeeaino? e?aaeeoo. Ioaea, iiyaa
iiaeo a??ae aoea aeeeeeaia, ianaiia?aae, c?inoath/eie iio?aaaie ?eieo.

I?ioyaii oeueiai aoaio o aoceiaeo oeaio?ao oi?a?ae? oa i?iieneiaino?
Oe?a?ie a?aee?eaathoueny aea? iia? a??ae?: Oa?e?anueea (1876 ?.) oa
Ieeiea?anueea (1886 ?.). Iiyaa inoaiiuei? a??ae? a?aee?eea ye?nii iiaee
aoai o ?icaeoeo a??aeiai? oi?a?ae? o I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i?. Ia e?iaoeue O?O
no. caaaeueia e?euee?noue a??ae o ?in?enuee?e ?iia??? aeinyaea 24, c ieo
a Oe?a?i? i?aoethaaei 5 (Iaeanueea, E?aiai/ooeueea, Ee?anueea,
Oa?e?anueea oa Ieeiea?anueea). Oa?aeoa?ieie iniaeeainoyie oeueiai aoaio
noaei ?icoe?aiiy ia?aae? a??ae oa eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a o ?in?enuee?e
?iia???, iioe?aiiy e iiaeeaeaiiy aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei? iioiai?
oi?a?ae?, iioe?aiiy aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie i?aei?e?inoa, aeoe?? yeeo noaee
i?aaeiaoaie a??aeiaeo oaiae.

O?ao?e aoai o ?icaeoeo a??aeiai? oi?a?ae? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie i?eiaaea?
ia ii/aoie OO noie?ooy. O oeae ia??iae o a??aeiaiio ooiaeaoi?noa?
niinoa??aaany ni?aaaei?e a??aeiaee aoi. Ca ia??iae c 1901 aei 1917 ??. a
e?a?i? ii/aea ae?yoe aeineoue iiooaeia ia?aaea ai?ae, a ?oiy caaaeueia
e?euee?noue ia?aaeueea nioith. A oe?a?inueeeo caieyo ca oeae aea ia??iae
aeieeei 10 a??ae (caaaeii ia 1917 ?. a Oe?a?i? ae?yei 15 a??ae), a naia:
?eenaaaoa?aaenueea oe?aia (1901), Oa?e?anueea eai’yiiaoa?eueia oa
cae?cioi?aiaaeueia (1902), Aa?aeyinueea (1906), Oa?niinueea (1906),
Eaoa?eiineaanueea (1907), Oaiaein?enueea (1908), Ia??oiieuenueea (1910),
??aiainueea (1910), N?ioa?iiieuenueea o?oeoiai-aeiia (1914) oa
Iieoaanueea (1917). Aiie i?oeii oei??iyeeny aei ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie oa
noaaaee eiai i?aai?/iith /anoeiith.

O ooieoe?iioaaii? a??aeiai? ia?aae? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie iiaeia aecia/eoe
oae? aieiai? oaiaeaioe??:

1. Ia?o? i?aaeaiiioe?a?inuee? a??ae?, ui aeieeee o iaee?oii?oeo
oi?aiaaeueieo ii?oao ?aa?iio – Iaean? oa Ieeiea?a?, iaaeaee iiaeeea?noue
i?noeaaei oa ?iicaiiei i?aei?e?ioeyi i?iaiaeeoe iia?aoe?? c oiaa?aie oa
oe?iieie iaia?aie ia ia??iaee/ii (ye ia y?ia?eao), a ia iino?ei?e
iniia?, oiaoi aiie ci?ieee nai oa?aeoa? iioiai? oi?a?ae? o I?aaeaii?e
Oe?a?i?.

2. ?icoe?aiiy ia?aae? a??ae o I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i? aoei aeeeeeaii
c?inoaiiyi iiieoo ia oe?a ia na?oiaiio ?eieo ? iani?iiiaei?noth noa?eo
a??ae caaacia/eoe ?aae?caoe?th aaeeei? oiaa?ii? iane.

3. A??ae? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie aoee onoaiiaaie, aea ca?aaeeny ?ioa?ane
a?cianiai? ae?oe ?aa?iio: aaie???a, aeaniee?a i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa,
caieaaeaniee?a, aenii?oa??a oa iina?aaeiee?a, ?ioeo eaoaai??e
i?aei?e?ioe?a. Naia a??ae? ii?yae ?c iiaeeea?noth i?iaiaeeoe
oi?aiaaeuei? oa o?iainia? iia?aoe??, iaaeaaaee oeei i?aei?e?ioeyi
iiaeeea?noue caoeuaoe aeani? ?ioa?ane ia?aae o?yaeii, neoaoth/e oaeei
/eiii nai???aeiei i?aaenoaaieoeueeei i?aaiii.

O o?aoueiio ?icaeie? – “A??aeiaa oi?a?aey I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie oa ??
caeiiiaeaa/a ?aaoethaaiiy (e?iaoeue 80-o ??. O?O no. – 1914 ?.)” –
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oiaa?ia ? oiiaeiaa oi?a?aey ia a??aeao I?aaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie oa ?icaeyaea?oueny ?icaeoie i?aaiaeo canaae a??aeiai?
ae?yeueiino?.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae e?a?i ?a?iie oa Aia?eee, a ?in?enuee?e ?iia??? oiaa?i?
? oiiaeia? iia?aoe?? i?iaiaeeeeny ia caaaeueieo a??aeao (oiaoi oaeeo, ia
yeeo iaeii/anii aaeany oi?a?aey ??ciiiai?oieie oiaa?aie, a oaeiae
oe?iieie iaia?aie). Oea a?aeaeaaei niaoeeo?eo ?icaeoeo e?a?ie, aea
aeineoue i?cii c’yaeeeny a ianiaiio ia?ao oiiaeia? oe?iiino?.

Niaoeiaeicaoeiy o a??aeia?e oi?a?ae? ii/eia?oueny eeoa c 90-o ??. O?O
no. Iiooiaoii aei oeueiai noaei, ii-ia?oa, ca?eueoaiiy oiaa?ii? iane oa
e?eueeino? oiiaeiaeo oe?iiinoae, a ii-ae?oaa, oneeaaeiaiiy aeania
a??aeiaeo iia?aoe?e, aeey i?iaaaeaiiy yeeo aoee iio??ai? niaoe?aeuei?
ciaiiy oa aeina?ae. ?icaeoie eiieo?aioe?? cionea a??aeiaeo ae?ee?a /?oei
aecia/eoeny c i?aaeiaoaie nai?o iia?aoe?e, oiaoi c? nai?th
niaoe?ae?caoe??th, yea i?ecaaea aei a?aee?eooy ia iaecia/i?oeo oiaa?ieo
a??aeao ?in?enueei? ?iia??? niaoe?aeueieo oiiaeiaeo a?aeae?e?a aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy iia?aoe?e c oe?iieie iaia?aie oa aaethoith. C 15
oe?a?inueeeo a??ae oiiaeia? a?aeae?ee ?nioaaee eeoa ia o?ueio a??aeao –
Ee?anuee?e, Oa?e?anuee?e oa Iaeanuee?e. I?e/iio, inoaiiy ii?yae ?c
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?cueeith a??aeath aoea iaeiei ?c i?ia?aeieo oeaio??a
oiiaeiai? oi?a?ae? an??? ?in?enueei? ?iia???.

C iiaeaeueoei ?icaeoeii aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ia a??aeao I?aaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie ii?yae c oaiaeaie ia iayaiee oiaa? aeaaeae? oe?oa ii/eia?oueny
aeei?enoaiiy oa?i?iiaeo oaiae (oaiae ia no?ie), ui iaee aaaaoi
??ciiaeae?a. Oaea neooaoe?y a?aeaeaaea caaaeueiina?oiao oaiaeaioe?th
?icaeoeo a??aeiai? oi?a?ae?, yea ia?aoiaeeea a?ae iia?aoe?e c iayaiei
oiaa?ii aei iia?aoe?e c “iaeaooi?i” oiaa?ii. ?icaeoie oa?i?iiai?
a??aeiai? oi?a?ae? ia i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo a??aeao, ye ? a oe?eiio a
?in??, a?aeaoaaany iia?eueii. Oea, ia iaoo aeoieo, caeaaeaei a?ae aeaio
aieiaieo /eiiee?a: 1) ineoieia?? ?in?enueeeo i?aei?e?ioe?a, ye? caeeee
iaoe ni?aao c ?aaeueiei oiaa?ii, a oiio aeey ni?eeiyooy iiai? oi?ie
oi?a?ae? aoa iio??aai iaaiee /an; 2) caoiae?a o?yaeo, yeee caai?iiya
oa?i?iia? iia?aoe?? c ie?aieie eaoaai??yie a??aeiaeo oe?iiinoae.

Aieiaieie /eiieeaie ?ooo a??aeiaeo oe?i ia i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo a??aeao
aoee: 1) ianyae ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? o i?ia?aeieo
e?a?iao-aenii?oa?ao, a?ae /iai caeaaeaea iiooaei?noue iiieoo ia oe?a c
i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?e, a cia/eoue, ? eiai a??aeiaa oe?ia; 2)
iie?oe/i? iiae?? ana?aaeei? e?a?ie, ui aieeaaee aieiaiei /eiii ia
oiiaeiao a??aeiao oi?a?aeth; 3) noai i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, ui
a?aeaeaaany ye ia oiiaeia?e, oae ? ia oiaa?i?e a??aeia?e oi?a?ae?, yea o
I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i? aaee/aciith i??ith caeaaeaea a?ae eiyeueiino?
Oo?a//eie, ui eiio?iethaaea /i?iiii?nuee? i?ioiee.

A??aeiaa oi?a?aey I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO no.
iin?aeaea /?eueia i?noea a iioia?e oi?a?ae? ?iia???. Oiio c’ynoaaiiy ??
ianooaa?a – e?eueeino? oa neeaaeo o/aniee?a, a oaeiae ?ici??o
eiia?oe?eiiai ia?ao a??ae – noaiiaeoue niaith iaaiee iaoeiaee ?ioa?an.
Ca ianooaaaie a??aeiai? oi?a?ae? iaaiith i??ith iiaeia noaeeoe i?i
??aaiue ?icaeoeo oe??? oi?ie oi?a?ae? o caaaeuei?e no?oeoo?? oi?a?ae?.
Iiaia aecia/aiiy ianya?a a??aeiai? oi?a?ae? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie
iaiiaeeeaa /a?ac a?aenooi?noue caaaeaii? noaoenoeee ia?ao ia a??aeao
?in?enueei? ?iia???. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, i?e aecia/aii? ianya?a
oi?aiaaeueiiai ia?ao ia a??aeao I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie iiaeia ea?oaaoeny
aeaiia ianoaaeiaie: iayaieie a?aeiiinoyie noiniaii ianya?a oaiae c
oe?aieie i?iaeoeoaie (ui iin?aeaee a no?oeoo?? a??aeiaiai ia?ao
i?ia?aeia i?noea ? oeeaaeaeeny ia?aaaaeii aeey aenii?oo) ia aeayeeo
i?aaeaiieo a??aeao oa caaaeueieie ianyaaie aenii?oo oe?aa c oeo
i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo i?no, a yeeo i?aoethaaee a??ae?. I?e an?e
iaaeineiiaeino? aeaiiai iaoiaeo a?i aeicaiey? ?aeiino?othaaoe aeeiai?eo
a??aeiaeo ia?a?a oa aea? oyaeaiiy i?i ianyae ia?ao i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo
a??ae. Iayai? iaoa??aee iaaeathoue iai iiaeeea?noue i???ioiaii aecia/eoe
na?aaei? ianyae ia?ao oe?aa ia a??aeao I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie. *a?ac
a??aeiao ia?aaeo ?aa?iio i?ioiaeeei aeecueei 60% caaaeueiiai aenii?oo
oe?aa c i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo ii?o?a. Oea aoei aeinoaoiuei aenieei
iieacieeii ?icaeoeo a??aeiai? oi?a?ae?.

C ii/aoeo OO no., ?c noaa?e?caoe??th oa iinooiiaei c?inoaiiyi oe?aieo
oe?i, a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa?ii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??, ui o naith /a?ao i?ecaaei aei
?icoe?aiiy ia?aae? oiaa?ieo a??ae o I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i?. A?aoiaoth/e
caaaeueio e?euee?noue i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo a??ae oa io?oe?eio
e?euee?noue /eai?a a??aeiaiai oiaa?enoaa eiaeii? c ieo, yea c ?ieo a ??e
eieeaaeany o iaaeao a?ae 100 aei 200 /ieia?e, ie iiaeaii i?eaeecii
aecia/eoe caaaeueio e?euee?noue aeoeaieo a??aeiaeo ae?y/?a i?aaeaiiiai
?aa?iio, yea neeaaeaea a?ae 900 aei 1800 in?a a ??ci? ?iee. Ca?nii, oey
oeeo?a ia a?aoiao? oeo in?a, ui aeeiioaaee aeiiii?aeio ?ieue o a??aeiaeo
iia?aoe?yo, a oaeiae cia/io e?euee?noue iaio?oe?eieo a??aeiaeo
iina?aaeiee?a, ui oaeiae a?aee aeoeaio o/anoue o a??aeia?e oi?a?ae?.

Aiae?c oi?ioaaiiy ii?iaoeaii? aace, yea ?aaoethaaea a??aeiao
ae?yeuei?noue, aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iai?ee?ioe? OV??? – ia
ii/aoeo O?O no. a??aea o ?in?enueeee ?iia??? aoea a?aee?eoith
onoaiiaith. Ca oiiae aeeiiaiiy iaaieo i?aaee aoaeue-yeee i?aei?e?iaoeue
i?a noaoe o/anieeii a??aeiaiai oi?ao. O?yae oa i?noeaaa aaei?i?no?aoe?y
cae?enithaaee eeoa caaaeueiee iaaeyae ca ii?yaeeii ia a??aeao.

Aioo??oi?e ono??e a??ae ?in?? aoa iaeaea oe?eeii oi?o?eiaaiee o iaaeao
on??? aea?aeaae, oi/a a iueiio e ?nioaaee aeaye? ?aa?iiaeuei?
a?aei?iiino?. A i?aai?caoe?ei?e no?oeoo?? i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo a??ae
aeae?eyeeny ianooii? neeaaeia? aeaiaioe: 1) a??aeia? oiaa?enoaa; 2)
a??aeia? eii?oaoe – ye aeeiiaa/? i?aaie ai?ae, ui ae?yee i?ae
caaaeueieie cai?aie a??aeiaiai oiaa?enoaa; 3) ??ciiiai?oi? eii?n??
(eioe?oaaeueia, a?a?o?aaeia, ?aa?c?eia oa ii.). On? iiae?icaeiee a??ae?
ae?yee ia i?aenoaa? ?? noaoooo, iieiaeaiue oa ?ino?oeoe?e, ui
caoaa?aeaeoaaeeny caaaeueieie cai?aie a??aeiaiai oiaa?enoaa aai
oiiaiiaaaeaiei ieie i?aaiii.

Oi?ioaaiiy ? iiaeaeueoa aaeineiiaeaiiy aioo??oiueiai ono?ith
i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo a??ae o?eaaei i?ioyaii onueiai O?O no. ?
i?iaeiaaeoaaeiny ia ii/aoeo OO no. I?e/iio, naia i?aaeaiiioe?a?inuee?
a??aeia? ae?y/? iaiaeii?aciai aenooiaee iiaaoi?aie o ni?aa? iie?auaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eiiai ono?ith a??ae. Naia ooo c’yaeeeny ia?o? a?a?o?aaei?
eii?n??, iiyaa yeeo aoea aeeeeeaia i?aaiaiiyi i?aei?e?ioe?a aei
oeea?e?ciaaiiai ?ica’ycaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo noia?a/ie. I?aaeaii? a??aeia?
eii?oaoe aenooieee oaeiae ?i?oe?aoi?aie anoaiiaeaiiy a??aeiaiai
eiio?ieth ca ye?noth aenii?oiaaiiai ca?aeaey.

Aaaeeeaith iciaeith ae?yeueiino? a??ae aenooiaa i?eioeei
naiia?yaeoaaiiy, yeee ?aae?ciaoaaany a??aeiaei eoiaoeoaii /a?ac a?eueia
ia?aiiy aeeiiaa/iai i?aaio a??ae? – a??aeiaiai eii?oaoo, ?ioeo
no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a a??ae? oa aeoeai?e o/ano? /eai?a a??aeiaiai
oiaa?enoaa a ?ic?iaoe? oa ai?iaaaeaeaii? a aeeooy noaooo?a a??ae?,
i?aaee ? ii?i a??aeiai? ae?yeueiino?, ?ioeo i?aaiaeo aeieoiaio?a.
Canoinoaaiiy i?eioeeio naiia?yaeoaaiiy o a??aeiaiio ono?i? ia o?eueee
aeeiioaaei caaaeaiiy cao?ooaaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo e?e, aeicaieyth/e ?i
caoeuaoe aeani? ?ioa?ane /a?ac i?aaie a??aeiaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, aea e
iiceoeaii aieeaaei ia ?icaeoie naieo a??ae ? ainiiaea?nueeeo noinoie?a o
oe?eiio.

C e?ioey ia?oiai aeanyoe??//y O?O no. ono??e oa ae?yeuei?noue a??ae
ii/eiathoue ?aaeaiaiooaaoeny o?yaeii nii/aoeo oeyoii caoaa?aeaeaiiy
iieiaeaiue aai noaooo?a ie?aieo ai?ae, ye? ae?iaeyei naia a??aeiaa
eoiaoeoai, a i?ci?oa e o ii?yaeeo caaaeueiiai oi?aiaaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa. Iinoeaaa aeaaea o a??aeia? ni?aae ia ao?o/aeany;
caaaeueiee iaaeyae ca a??aeaie cae?enithaaany Iiiinoa?noaii o?iain?a, a
c ii/aoeo OO no. – Iiiinoa?noaii oi?a?ae? oa i?iieneiaino?. Oeae iaaeyae
caiaeeany aei caoaa?aeaeaiiy aeayeeo ??oaiue a??aeiaeo cai??a, i?aaee
a??aeiai? oi?a?ae?, caiae?a i?noeaaeo oi?aiaaeueieo cae/a?a oa
iaiaaeaiiyie a??aeiai? niaeoeyoe??. Ioaea, a??ae? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie
iiaeia ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye aaoiiiii?, naiia?yaei? oa a?aee?eo?
i?aai?caoe?? i?aei?e?ioe?a.

Ae?iaeai? a??aeiaei eoiaoeoaii ua o ia?o?e iieiaei? O?O no. ii?iaoeai?
aeieoiaioe, ui noinoaaeeny a??aeiaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy oa ?aaoethaaee
a??aeiao ae?yeuei?noue, iaaaaaoi aeia?aaeeee na?e /an ? ae?yee aei
e?ioey noie?ooy. ?acii c oei ?icaeoie aeiiii?/ieo noinoie?a oa
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie a??aeiai? oi?a?ae? aeiaaaee ci?i oa aeiiiaiaiue
ii?iaoeaii? aace a??aeiai? oi?a?ae?. Oe? ieoaiiy ae??ooaaeeny oeyoii
aea/aiiy aeina?aeo caei?aeiiieo a??ae, i?iaaaeaiiy ia?aae oa c’?cae?a
i?aei?e?ioe?a, o oiio /ene? e ca o/anoth i?aaenoaaiee?a o?yaeiaeo e?e.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? – “Ai?aeia? eii?oaoe o a?iiaaenueeiio oa
ainiiaea?nueeiio aeeoo? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie iai?ee?ioe? O?O – ia ii/aoeo
OO no.” – ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy caoenoo i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeie
a??aeiaeie eii?oaoaie ?ioa?an?a oi?a?ae? oa i?iieneiaino? a o?yaeiaeo oa
caaaeueii?in?enueeeo i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo no?oeoo?ao, a oaeiae aianie
a??aeiaeo eii?oao?a I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie o ?ica’ycaiiy ainiiaea?nueeeo,
nioe?aeueieo oa eoeueoo?ieo i?iaeai ?aa?iio.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae a??ae Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, ii?yae ?c aieiaiei iai?yieii
ae?yeueiino? i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo a??ae – oi?aiaaeueiei, ia iaio
aaaeeeaei aoa ua iaeei – i?aaenoaaieoeueeee. Iaaiith i??ith oea aoei
iaoiiaeaii iaaeinoaoiueith ?icaeiai?noth i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo onoaiia o
e?a?i?. Aeei?enoaiiy i?aei?e?ioeyie I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie a??aeiaeo
eii?oao?a, ye iaeiiai c iaaaaaoueio i?aai?a aeaniiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa,
aeicaieyei iino?eii i?eaa?oaoe oaaao o?yaeo aei aieiaieo i?iaeai
oi?aiaaeueii-i?iieneiaiai aeeooy. ?acii ?c i?noeaaeie a?iiaaenueeeie
onoaiiaaie (aeoiaie oa cainoaaie) oa i?aai?caoe?yie a??aeia? eii?oaoe
iaiaaaeeny ? naiiooaeee ae??ooaaoe eiie?aoi? i?iaeaie a?iiaaenueeiai oa
ainiiaea?nueeiai aeeooy I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie. Eiiiaoaioe?y ai?aeiaeo
eii?oao?a ioiiethaaea ieoaiiy cae?cie/iiai oa aiaeiiai o?ainii?oo,
oe?aii? oi?a?ae?, ieoi?, iiaeaoeia? oa ?io? i?iaeaie
oi?aiaaeueii-i?iieneiaiai oa?aeoa?o.

Aieiaieie oi?iaie caoenoo ?ioa?an?a i?aei?e?ioe?a I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie
aoee: o/anoue i?aaenoaaiee?a a??ae o ??ciiiai?oieo ia?aaeao i?e
I?i?noa?noa? o?iain?a ? I?i?noa?noa? oi?a?ae? oa i?iieneiaino?, ?iaioa
ia c’?caeao a??aeiaeo ae?y/?a, a?aeaoee a??aeiaeo eii?oao?a ia caieoe
i?i?noa?noa oa a?aeiinoa, iiaeaiiy eeiiioaiue, nea?a oa i?iiiceoe?e
noiniaii ??ciiiai?oieo i?iaeai oi?aiaaeueii-i?iieneiaiai oa?aeoa?o.

Iaei??th c iaeaieeaia?oeo i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e o I?aaeaii?e
Oe?a?i? noaea c’?cae?anueea i?aai?caoe?y i?aaenoaaiee?a a??aeiaeo
eii?oao?a oa aenii?oa??a i?aaeaiieo ii?o?a. Oey i?aai?caoe?y ?ic?iaeyea
oa iaiaaaeany ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe o aeeooy i?iaeoe iiaea?i?caoe??
oi?aiaaeueieo ii?o?a, aoae?aieoeoaa iiaeo o?ainii?oieo iaa?no?aeae oa
cania?a ca’yceo, ai?iieea ?ioa?ane i?aaeaiieo aenii?oa??a ca ei?aeiiii,
aa?o/e o/anoue o i?aeia?iaeieo oi?aiaaeueieo eiioa?aioe?yo, noai?thth/e
(ca aaciina?aaeiueith o/anoth a??aeiaeo eii?oao?a) ia?aaeo oi?aiaaeueieo
i?aaenoaaieoeoa ca ei?aeiiii.

Caaaeyee ?i?oe?aoea? i?aaeaiieo a??aeiaeo eii?oao?a aoei aaaaeaii
a??aeiaee eiio?ieue iaae aenii?oiaaiei ca ei?aeii oe?aii,
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy yeiai ni?eyei i?aeaeuaiith yeino? aenii?oiaaiiai
ca?aeaey oa anoaiiaeaiith ia iueiai a?eueo a?aeiia?aeieo ?icoe?iie ia
?a?iiaenueeeo ?eieao.

?acoeueoaoeaio ?iaioo i?iaiaeeee a??aeia? eii?oaoe o ii?aeiiieo
eii?oaoao aeey a?aaoethaaiiy ianiaeo ia?aaacaiue aaioaae?a cae?cieoeyie.
Oey ae?yeuei?noue aoea ni?yiiaaia ia eii?aeeiaoe?th ae?e cae?cieoeue oa
i?aei?e?ioe?a o ni?aa? aii?yaeeoaaiiy ia?aaacaiue oe?aieo oa ?ioeo
aaioaae?a, a oaeiae iaaeaaaea iiaeeea?noue a?aoe aaciina?aaeith o/anoue
o oi?ioaaii? oa?eoii? iie?oeee.

*a?ac ?iaioo o i?noeaaeo iiaeaoeiaeo i?aaiao a??aeia? eii?oaoe
I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie cae?enithaaee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?th
iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee, ui o naith /a?ao ni?eyei ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
a ?aa?ii?.

Ooieoe?? a??aeiaeo eii?oao?a I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie ia ae/a?ioaaeeny
caa?aeoaaiiyie a??aeiaeie ni?aaaie oa caoenoii i?ioan?eieo ?ioa?an?a
i?aei?e?ioe?a. Iii?oia i?noea a ?o ae?yeueiino? iin?aeaea ?iaioa,
ni?yiiaaia ia ae??oaiiy eiie?aoieo nioe?aeueieo oa ainiiaea?nueeeo
i?iaeai ?aa?iio.

Iio??aii aeacaoe ia /eiaeee aianie a??aeiaeo eii?oao?a I?aaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie o noai?aiiy ia?aae? niaoe?aeueieo eiia?oe?eieo o/aiaeo
caeeaae?a, ui aiooaaee ina?/aieo o?iainiaeo, oi?aiaeo oa i?iieneiaeo
ae?y/?a. Ca ?i?oe?aoeaith oa o?iainiaith i?aeo?eieith i?aaeaiieo
a??aeiaeo eii?oao?a a?aee?eaathoueny eiia?oe?ei? o/eeeua o N?ioa?iiie?,
Eaoa?eiineaa? (1901), Ieaenaiae??anueeo (1902), Eoaainueeo, Iae?oiiie?,
Ieeiea?a? (1903), I?eiiie?, THciaoe?, Oa?nii? (1908), ?eenaaaoa?aae?,
Aa?aeyinueeo (1912) oa sseo? (1914).

Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith a?iiaaenueei? ae?yeueiino? i?aaeaiieo a??aeiaeo
eii?oao?a aoei aeaaiae?eieoeoai. Nooo?aei aianeii o ni?aao
aeia?i/eiiino? aoei a?ae?aooaaiiy eioo?a ia oo?eiaiiy eiia?oe?eieo
o/eeeu, ??ciiiai?oi? aeia?ia?euei? iiaea?oae oeieai, o/eeeuai,
?aeaeueiyi aeey a?aeieo, aieiaeoth/ei. ? oi/a a oeueiio iiaeia iiaa/eoe
iaaiee cene, a ia /enoo aacei?eneea?noue, oe? caoiaee a??aeiaeo
eii?oao?a i?aoethaaee ia o?eueee ia ieo, a e ia ana noni?euenoai, ?
ae??ooaaee eiie?aoi? i?iaeaie.

Ia caoeeeethth/enue ia aocueeii?ioan?eieo ieoaiiyo, a??aeia? eii?oaoe
iaiaaaeeny ?icaeaaoe o? noa?e nioe?aeueii? oa ainiiaea?nueei?
?io?ano?oeoo?e, ye? aoee iaea?eueo caiaaeaai? ye oeaio?aeueieie, oae ?
i?noeaaeie i?aaiaie aeaaee, ? oei naiei ni?eyee iiaeaeueoiio
aeiiii?/iiio oa eoeueoo?iiio ?icaeoeo e?ath.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ? AENIIAEE

IAOEIAIAI AeINE?AeAEAIIss

1. Noai?aiiy iaeiiai c aieiaieo aeaiaio?a ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e –
a??ae o I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i? aeeeooaaeiny eia?eith aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
?aa?iio ? aoei iaoiiaeaii iio?aaaie ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa. Oiaa?i?
a??ae? a?aee?eaaeeny, ye i?aaeei, o aieiaieo ioieoao aenii?oo oe?aa. 2/3
a??ae I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie ae?yei a aenii?oieo ii?oao, a 1/3 o i?noeyo
eiioeaio?aoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a, ui noaiiaeee i?aaeiao a??aeiai?
oi?a?ae?.

2. A??aeiaa ia?aaea aeeiai?/ii c?inoaea. I?ioyaii 1886-1914 ??.
e?euee?noue a??ae o I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i? ca?eueoeeanue o 4,5 ?aca,
i?e/iio, e?aea?ii ca e?euee?noth aoea Oa?niinueea aoaa?i?y, aea
ciaoiaeeeiny 4 a??ae? (Iaeanueea, Ieeiea?anueea, ?eenaaaoa?aaenueea oa
Oa?niinueea); ae?oaa i?noea iin?aeaea Oaa??enueea aoaa?i?y – 3 a??ae?
(Aa?aeyinueea, Oaiaein?enueea oa N?ioa?iiieuenueea); o?ao? i?noea
caeiaea Eaoa?eiineaanueea aoaa?i?y – 2 a??ae? (Eaoa?eiineaanueea oa
Ia??oiieuenueea). ?acii ?c ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? oiaa?ieo a??ae
a?aeaoaaeiny c?inoaiiy a??aeiaiai ia?ao. I?i a?ioiaee ia?a oiaa?ieo
a??ae iathoueny iaiiai? aeai?. Iayai? aeai? i?i iaoo?aeuei? ianyae
a??aeiai? oi?a?ae? aeicaieythoue i???ioiaii aecia/eoe ia?a a??ae
?aa?iio: /a?ac ieo ui??/ii i?ioiaeeei 50-60% oe?aa, ui aenii?ooaaany c
i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo ii?o?a.

3. ?icoe?aiiy a??aeiai? oi?a?ae? noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny aaeineiiaeaiiyi
oaoi?ee a??aeiaeo iia?aoe?e. ?icaeoie a??aeiai? oi?a?ae? o I?aaeaii?e
Oe?a?i? i?eca?a aei noai?aiiy iecee niaoe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a, ui
caaacia/oaaee aoaeoeaio ?iaioo a??ae – ?ic?aooieiaeo, eeaneo?eaoe?eieo
(aiae?oe/ieo) oa aeia?aeeiaeo ath?i, eioe?oaaeueieo, aenia?oieo oa
a?a?o?aaeieo eii?n?e, iaeaaiaeaeaiiy a??aeiaiai eiio?ieth ca
aenii?oiaaiei oe?aii, a?aee?eooy caei?aeiiieo oi?aiaaeueieo
i?aaenoaaieoeoa ? o. ?i. i?ecaaei aei aeieeiaiiy oe?ei? no?oiei?
i?aai?caoe??, ui ea?oaaea a??aeiaei ?eieii. Oeei oeyoii a??ae? iinooiiai
caeiyee a?aeia i?noea o ainiiaea?noa? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie, ye ?aaoeyoi?
oe?i ia aieiai? i?iaeoeoe niiaeeaaiiy oa ye oaeoi?, ui iioe?thaaa
aeiiii?/iee aieea ?aa?iio ia na?oiaee ?eiie, ni?eya a?eueo ??aiii??iiio
?iciiae?eo i?aaeiao?a ae?iaieoeoaa oa caaacia/oaaa a?eueo aea?aeio
o/anoue ?aa?iio o na?oiaiio oiaa?iiai?i?.

4. Oe?ie ia oiaa?e ia ??cieo a??aeao iaee oaiaeaioe?th aei i?aaethaaiiy.
Iino?eia nei?i/aiiy ?ic?eao o oe?iao ia ie?aieo a??aeao aeinyaaeiny oei,
ui iniiaia /anoeia a??aeiaeo oaiae cae?enithaaeany aeey aenii?oo, a ia
oe?ie i?ia?aeieo a??ae i???iooaaeeny ? ?aooa a??ae.

5. I?ioyaii ia??iaeo, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny, iii?/a?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei
c?inoaiiy ??aiy eiioeaio?aoe?? a??aeiaeo oaiae ?c iaaieie oiaa?aie ia
ie?aieo a??aeao. Iinooiiai a ?aa?ii? c onueiai caaaeo aeie?aieeenue
i?ia?aei? a??ae? ?aa?iio, ianyae oaiae ia yeeo c?inoaee a?eueo aenieeie
oaiiaie, i?ae ia ?ioeo a??aeao. Ii/eiath/e c e?ioey 80-o ??. O?O no.,
/a?ac Iaeanueeo oa Ieeiea?anueeo a??ae? i?ioiaeeei a?eueoa iieiaeie
aenii?oo oe?aa c I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie. Iaeanueea a??aea, e??i oiai, aoea
e?aea?ii iia?aoe?e c oiiaeiaeie oe?iiinoyie ia o?eueee a ?aa?ii?, aea e
a?ae?a?aaaea i?ia?aeio ?ieue ia oiiaeiaiio ?eieo ?in??.

6. I?aeoeea ae?yeueiino? i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo a??ae aeyaeea
iaiao?aei?noue ?oiuei? niaoe?ae?caoe?? ia ie?aieo a?oiao oiaa??a. Oi/a
ia i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo a??aeao iaa?oaeeny ??ciiiai?oi? oiaa?e,
a?eueo?noue a??ae ?aa?iio aenooiaee i?ia?aeieie oeaio?aie iioiai?
oi?a?ae? oe?aii, ui aoea i???ioiaaia ia?aaaaeii ia aenii?o. Oea
a?aeaeaaei niaoeeo?eo I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie, yea aoea oeaio?ii
oi?aiaaeueiiai ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
ainiiaea?noaa i?ecaiaeea aei noai?aiiy ?ioeo niaoe?ae?ciaaieo a??ae
(N?ioa?iiieuenueea o?oeoiai-aeiia a??aea).

7. O neeo niaoeeo?/ieo oiia a?iiaaenueeiai ono?ith ?in?enueei? ?iia???
a??ae? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie aoee ia o?eueee i?aai?ciaaiei ?eieii, aea e
i?aaiii i?aaenoaaieoeoaa oa caoenoo i?noeaaeo oi?aiaaeueii-i?iieneiaeo
?ioa?an?a ? neoaoaaee aaaeaeai aieeao i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo e?e ia o?yae oa
cae?enithaaio iei iie?oeeo.

Aaaiiee aianie c?iaeee a??aeia? eii?oaoe o ?ica’ycaiiy ainiiaea?nueeeo,
nioe?aeueieo oa eoeueoo?ieo i?iaeai ?aa?iio. Ca ni?eyiiyi a??aeiaeo
eii?oao?a a?aeaoaaeiny aoae?aieoeoai oiaa?ieo neeaae?a oa aeaaaoi??a,
iiaea?i?caoe?y oi?aiaaeueieo ii?o?a, aaeineiiaeaiiy cae?cie/ii? oa
oaeaoiiii? ia?aae. Niaoe?aeuei? i?aaie a??ae cae?aee, aiae?coaaee oa
?iciianthaeaeoaaee eiia?oe?eio ? noaoenoe/io ?ioi?iaoe?th. Ca
o?iainiaith i?aeo?eieith i?aaeaiieo a??aeiaeo eii?oao?a o aaaaoueio
i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo i?noao aeieeee eiia?oe?ei? o/eeeua oa oeiee.

A??ae? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy yaeyee niaith aeineoue
ae?eiaee ?ino?oiaio ?io?ano?oeoo?e ?eieo, yeee oe?eeii a?aeiia?aeaa
iio?aaai ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa oa caaacia/oaaa iiaeeea?noue
?aae?caoe?? cia/ii? iane oiaa??a ? oiiaeiaeo oe?iiinoae.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy

aeeeaaeai? o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Oeoaiia ?.A. ?icaeoie a??aeiai? oi?a?ae? ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie
iai?ee?ioe? XIX – ia ii/aoeo XX no. // I?aei?e?iieoeoai I?aaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie inoaiiuei? /aa?o? XVIII – ia?oi? /aa?o? XX no. – Caii??aeaey:
CAeO, 1995. – N.43-64.

2. Oeoaiia ?.A. Noaiiaeaiiy a??aeiai? oi?a?ae? o I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i?
(e?iaoeue XVIII – XIX no.) // Caienee iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? eaai?aoi???
?noi??? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie. I?aaeaiia Oe?a?ia XVIII–XIX noie?ooy. –
Aeione 1. – Caii??aeaey: ?A “Oaiaeai-O”, 1996. – N.92-94.

3. Oeoaiia ?.A. A??ae? a ?io?ano?oeoo?? ?eieo I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie XIX–
ii/aoeo XX no. // Iiaa ia?aaeeaia. – Aeione 1. – Caii??aeaey: CAeO,
1996.– N.14–17.

4. Oeoaiia ?.A. I?aaeaiiioe?a?inuee? a??ae? a nenoai? ?aaoethaaiiy
a??aeiai? ae?yeueiino? ?in?enueei? ?iia??? // Caienee
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? eaai?aoi??? ?noi??? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie. I?aaeaiia
Oe?a?ia XVIII–XIX noie?ooy. – Aeione 2. – Caii??aeaey: ?A “Oaiaeai-O”,
1996. – N.139-149.

5. Oeoaiia ?.A. Caeiiiaeaa/a ?aaoethaaiiy a??aeiai? ae?yeueiino? a
?in?enuee?e ?iia??? // Iaoeia? aeiiia?ae? nooaeaio?a oa ani??aio?a
eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie CAeO. – Aeione 1. – Caii??aeaey: ?A
“Oaiaeai-O”, 1996. – N.25–27.

6. Oeoaiia ?.A. Iaeanueea a??aea e?ioey XVIII – ii/aoeo XX no. //
Iaean?–200. Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??,
i?enay/aii? 200-??//th i?noa. – Iaeana, 1994. – N.11-13.

7. Oeoaiia ?.A. “Iinoaiiaa aeey Iaeanueeiai a??aeiaiai eoiaoeoaa” ye
aeaea?aei aei ii/aoeiaiai ia??iaeo ?nioaaiiy Iaeanueei? a??ae? // Oace
aeiiia?aeae iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a oi?aa?neoaoo.
– Aeione IV. – *anoeia II. – Caii??aeaey: CAeO, 1994. – N.41-42.

8. Oeoaiia ?.A. C ?noi??? Eaoa?eiineaanueei? a??ae? (1907–1917) //
?aa?iiaeueia oa caaaeueia a ?noi???. Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 140-??//th a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy Ae.?.
ssai?ieoeueeiai oa 90-e?ooth XIII A?oaieia?/iiai c’?caeo. –
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: “Ii?iae”, 1995. – N.222-223.

9. Oeoaiia ?.A. Ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue a??ae I?aaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie // I?aeia?iaei? ca’ycee ia?iae?a ?a?iie. Iaoa??aee iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe??. – Naeoe?? ???, ?V. – Caii??aeaey: ?A “Oaiaeai-O”, 1996. –
N.119–120.

Oeoaiia ?.A. A??ae? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie. 1886–1914 ??. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. – Caii??cueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Caii??aeaey, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii eiiieaeniiio aiae?co oiia aeieeiaiiy, oaeoi??a
oa oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo a??aeiai? ia?aae? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie. Aecia/aia
i?noea i?aaeaiieo a??ae a ?eieia?e ?io?ano?oeoo?? e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo
OO no.

Iiaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo aieiaieo iai?yie?a ae?yeueiino?
i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo a??ae, iieacaii niaoeeo?eo oiaa?ii? oa oiiaeiai?
a??aeiai? oi?a?ae?. ?icaeyiooi i?aai?caoe?eio no?oeoo?o a??ae, ooieoe??
?? i?aai?a oa i?aaia? canaaee a??aeiai? ae?yeueiino?.

?ice?eoi aianie a??aeiaeo eii?oao?a I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie o
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie ?aa?iio.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: a??ae?, a??aeia? eii?oaoe, iioiaa oi?a?aey, aenii?o,
I?aaeaiia Oe?a?ia, i?aei?e?iieoeoai, ?eiie, oe?aia oi?a?aey, aeiiii?/ia
?noi??y Oe?a?ie.

Shikhanov R.B. The Stock Exchange of Southern Ukraine. 1886–1914. –
Manuscript. Dissertation on competition of a scholarly degree of the
candidate of historical scholarship on a speciality 07.00. 01 – History
of Ukraine. – Zaporizhzhya State University, Zaporizhzhya, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the comprehensive analysis of conditions
of origin, factors and tendencies of development of an exchange web of
Southern Ukraine. The place of southern exchanges in a market
infrastructure of the extremity O?O – beginning OO century.

The performance of main directions of activity southern stock exchanges
is given, the specifity of documentary and share exchange trade is
shown. The organizational structure of exchanges, function it of organs
and legal principles of exchange activity are considered.

The contribution of exchange committees of Southern Ukraine to
socio-economic development of region is uncovered.

Key words: stock exchange, stock exchange committees, wholesale trade,
export, Southern Ukraine, business, market, corn trade, economic history
of Ukraine.

Oeoaiia ?.A. Ae?aee THaeiie Oe?aeiu. 1886–1914 aa. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 – Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. – Caii?iaeneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Caii?iaeuea, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee aiaeece?othony oneiaey aicieeiiaaiey e oaiaeaioeee
?acaeoey ae?ae a THaeiie Oe?aeia. Ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi nicaeaiea
ae?aeaaie naoe aeeeoiaaeinue eiaeeie yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ?aaeiia e
auei iaoneiaeaii iio?aaiinoyie ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa. Oiaa?iua ae?aee
ioe?uaaeenue, eae i?aaeei, a aeaaiuo ioieoao yenii?oa oeaaa. 2/3 ae?ae
THaeiie Oe?aeiu aeaenoaiaaei a yenii?oiuo ii?oao, a 1/3 a ianoao
eiioeaio?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia, eioi?ua aunooiaee i?aaeiaoii
ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee. ?acaeoea ae?aeaaie naoe a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
caaenaei io i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eieoeeaoeau e iiieiaiey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie aiciiaeiinoae eniieueciaaiey ae?ae aeey ?anoe?aiey
nianoaaiiuo oi?aiauo iai?ioia, auno?iai iieo/aiey eiiia?/aneie
eioi?iaoeee, oeaio?aeecaoeee iioiaie oi?aiaee. Aaoi? iieacuaaao, /oi a
1886-1914 aa. iaaethaeaeny aeeiaie/iue ?ino ae?aeaaie naoe. Ca yoio
ia?eiae eiee/anoai ae?ae a THaeiie Oe?aeia oaaee/eeinue a 4,5 ?aca.
Aianoa n oaaee/aieai eiee/anoaa oiaa?iuo ae?ae i?ienoiaeee ?ino
ae?aeaaiai iai?ioa.

Aaoi? auaeaeyao aaaeouea ae?aee ?aaeiia, iauaiu naeaeie ia eioi?uo ?inee
aieaa aunieeie oaiiaie, /ai ia ae?oaeo ae?aeao, /oi oeacuaaao ia
oaiaeaioeeth e ?inoo o?iaiy eiioeaio?aoeee ae?aeaauo naeaeie n
ii?aaeaeaiiuie oiaa?aie ia ioaeaeueiuo ae?aeao. Iiaen/eoaii, /oi ia/eiay
n eiioea 80-o aa. O?O a. /a?ac Iaeanneoth e Ieeieaaaneoth ae?aee
i?ioiaeeei aieueoa iieiaeiu yenii?oa oeaaa ec THaeiie Oe?aeiu.
Oi?ioee?oaony auaiae, /oi Iaeanneay ae?aea auea eeaea?ii iia?aoeee n
oiiaeiauie oeaiiinoyie ia oieueei a ?aaeiia, ii e ea?aea aaaeouoth ?ieue
ia oiiaeiaii ?uiea ?innee.

Iieacaii, /oi aieueoeinoai ae?ae ?aaeiia aunooiaei aaaeoueie oeaio?aie
iioiaie oi?aiaee oeaaii, i?eaioe?iaaiiie i?aeiouanoaaiii ia yenii?o. A
yoii aaoi? aeaeeo io?aaeaiea niaoeeoeee THaeiie Oe?aeiu, eioi?ay auea
oeaio?ii oi?aiaiai ca?iiaiai oicyenoaa. Aeaeueiaeoaa oicyenoaaiiia
?acaeoea i?eaiaeeei e nicaeaieth ae?oaeo aeaeia niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo
ae?ae (Neioa?iiieueneay o?oeoiai-aeiiay ae?aea).

A enneaaeiaaiee ioia/aaony, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey ae?aeaaie
oi?aiaee a THaeiie Oe?aeia aue nicaeai ?yae niaoeeaeueiuo einoeoooia,
iaania/eaaaoeo yooaeoeaioth ?aaioo ae?ae – ?an/aoiuo, eeanneoeeaoeeiiiuo
(aiaeeoe/aneeo) e ni?aai/iuo ath?i, eioe?iai/iuo, yenia?oiuo e
a?aeo?aaeiuo eiiennee, ae?aeaaiai eiio?iey ca yenii?oe?iaaiiui oeaaii,
oi?aiaua i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa ca a?aieoeae e. o. ae. Ana yoi i?eaaei e
aicieeiiaaieth oeaeie no?ieiie i?aaiecaoeee, ?oeiaiaeeaoae ae?aeaaui
?uieii. A aeenna?oaoeee ?ane?uaaaony iaoaieci eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, eae
?aaoeyoi?a oeai ia aeaaiua i?iaeoeou iio?aaeaiey e eae oaeoi?a,
?ani?ino?aiyaoaai yeiiiie/aneia aeeyiea ?aaeiia ia ie?iaie ?uiie, eae
n?aaenoaa aieaa ?aaiiia?iiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?aaeiaoia i?iecaiaenoaa e
iaania/aiey aieaa auaiaeiiai o/anoey ?aaeiia a ie?iaii oiaa?iiaiaia.

Aaoi? iieacuaaao, /oi a neeo niaoeeoe/aneeo oneiaee iauanoaaiiiai no?iy
?inneeneie eiia?ee ae?aee THaeiie Oe?aeiu auee ia oieueei i?aaieciaaiiui
?uieii, ii e i?aaiii i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa e caueou ianoiuo
oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo eioa?ania e neoaeeee ?u/aaii aeeyiey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo e?oaia ia i?aaeoaeuenoai e inouanoaeyaioth ei
iieeoeeo.

Inaauaaony aeeaae ae?aeaauo eiieoaoia a ?aoaiea oicyenoaaiiuo,
nioeeaeueiuo e eoeueoo?iuo i?iaeai ?aaeiia, a eiaiii: niaeaenoaea
nicaeaieth oiaa?iuo neeaaeia e yeaaaoi?ia, onei?aiea iiaea?iecaoeee
oi?aiauo ii?oia, ?anoe?aiea e oii?yaei/aiea no?ieoaeuenoaa
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiie e oaeaoiiiie naoae, oeiaine?iaaiea nicaeaiey ai
iiiaeo thaeiioe?aeineeo ai?iaeao eiiia?/aneeo o/eeeu e oeie.

Iieacaia ?ieue ae?ae THaeiie Oe?aeiu a icaei?iaeaiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
oi?aiauo naycae. Aaoi? i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi ae?aee THaeiie Oe?aeiu a
ia/aea OO a. i?aaenoaaeyee niaie aeiaieueii aeaenoaaiiue eino?oiaio
eio?ano?oeoo?u ?uiea, eioi?ue iieiinoueth ioaa/ae iio?aaiinoyi
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa e iaania/eaae aiciiaeiinoue ?aaeecaoeee
cia/eoaeueiiai eiee/anoaa oiaa?iie iannu e oiiaeiauo oeaiiinoae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ae?aee, ae?aeaaua eiieoaou, iioiaay oi?aiaey, yenii?o,
THaeiay Oe?aeia, i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, ?uiie, oeaaiay oi?aiaey,
yeiiiie/aneay enoi?ey Oe?aeiu.

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