IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AA?A?IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

AI?IAAE ?ai? ?aaiiae/

OAeE 631.4: 551.12.477:635.07

A?IEIA?*IA AEOEAI?NOUe ? ACIOIEE OIIAe EO*II-*I?IICAIIIAI A?OIOO
AIAe?OO?ANUeEIAI I?E?IAeII-N?EUeNUeEIAINIIAeA?NUeEIAI ?AEIIO OA ?O CI?IE
I?Ae AIEEAII A?OIOICAOENIEO OAOIIEIA?E AE?IUOAAIIss EOEUeOO?

06.01.03 – aa?ia?oioiciaanoai ? aa?io?ceea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,

aeaaeai?e OAAI

Oeeoea Ieeiea E?iae?aoiae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e a?oioiciaanoaa

oa ioi?iie a?oio?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,

No?aeue/aiei Aieiaeeie? Iao?iae/

Oe?a?inueea aa?iaeieia?/ia aeaaeai?y,

a.i. i?ioani?a eaoaae?e a?oioiciaanoaa

? caiea?ianoaa

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,

Oaa/aiei ?aai Iaaeiae/,

?inoeooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI,

caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? caoenoo a?oio?a

a?ae a?ic??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao, I?i?noa?noaa AIE Oe?a?ie, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “22” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26. 004. 04 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252041, i. Ee?a-41, aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie, 15,
iaa/aeueiee ei?ion 3, aoaeeoi??y 65.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 252041, i. Ee?a-41, aoe. Aa?i?a
iai?iie, 11, iaa/aeueiee ei?ion 10, /eoaeueiee cae.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “17”na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aaeaaaeei A.O.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A?oio — i?inoi?iaee aacen ? aieiaiee can?a
ae?iaieoeoaa o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, oiio aeooaeuei?noue ieoaiiy
caa?aaeaiiy a?oioiaiai iie?eao, yeee aeineoue /anoi ao?a/a? iioaioe?eio
?iaeth/?noue o ?acoeueoao? ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie, ia
i?aeeyaa? noii?ao.

A oaia??oi?e /an ?ic?iaeaii oe?eee ?yae a?oioicaoenieo oaoiieia?e
ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, ye? aeathoue ciiao
io?eioaaoe noaa?euei? a?iaea? ? caaacia/othoue a?oioicaoeniee aoaeo, aea
aeey aoaeoeaiiai ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a iaaiiio ?aa?ii? iaiao?aeia
aeineiiaea aea/aiiy ?o aieeao ia iai?yiie i?ioeano a?oioiooai?aiiy a
aa?ioeaiic?.

Ia iniaeeao oaaao caneoaiao? aea/aiiy a?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? a?oioo, yea
coiiaeth? i?ioeane a?io?i?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie oa
aeaiaio?a aeeaeaiiy. A?ieia?/ia aeoeai?noue iia’ycaia i?aeoe/ii c? an?ia
a?oioiaeie ?aaeeiaie, a iioeiaeuei? ?? iieacieee na?ae/aoue i?i
caaaeueia iie?auaiiy oiia ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ?ineei. Oiaoi, iaiao?aeii
?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, ye?
caaacia/aoue a?ieia?/iee noai a?oioo iaeneiaeueii iaaeeaeaiee aei
oe?eeiieo aiaeia?a, ui, a naith /a?ao, aeanoue ciiao aeey aaaeaiiy
caiea?ianoaa c ?icoe?aiei a?aeoai?aiiyi ?iaeth/ino? a?oioo.

Ca(ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeanue o iaaeao Aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?ia?aie 1549
“Aeei?enoaiiy aoaeaaiii?eieo nieae o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie”
caaaeaiiy “Aeei?enoaiiy aoaeaaiii?eieo aeia?ea o a?oioicaoeniiio
caiea?ianoa?”.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaa? o aea/aii? aieeao
a?oioicaoenieo oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eoeueoo?, ye? aacothoueny ia i?i?iaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, ia
a?ieia?/i? oaeoi?e oi?ioaaiiy ?iaeth/ino? eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo, a
oaeiae ?o aieea ia acioiee oiiae a?oioo ? ca’ycie ?c a?iaeaei?noth
oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a, iceii? ioaieoe? oa ai?ioo.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe ae??ooaaeenue oae? caaaeaiiy:

aecia/eoe aeoeai?noue oa?iaio?a, ye? i?eeiathoue o/anoue o ia?aoai?aii?
acioo;

aea/eoe ci?ie ai?noo i?ia?aeueieo oi?i acioo a a?oio?, i?ae aieeaii
i?i?iaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo;

aecia/eoe no?oeoo?o acioiiai oiiaeo eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo a oiiaao
a?oioicaoenieo oaoiieia?e;

anoaiiaeoe aeice aeia?ea, ye? caaacia/aoue iaeneiaeueiee o?iaeae ?
ieoii?noue iaeeieoe? iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei;

aecia/eoe aa?iiii?/io oa aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue a?oioicaoenieo
oaoiieia?e;

?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c aeei?enoaiiy a?oioicaoenieo
oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a oa iceii? ioaieoe? a oiiaao
Aiae?oo?anueeiai i?e?iaeii-n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?aeiio
I?aaiaa?aaeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iieyaa? o aea/aii? a?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? oa ci?i
niieoe acioo eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo a oiiaao a?oioicaoenieo
oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, ye?
aacothoueny ia i?i?iaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo. A oiiaao Aiae?oo?anueeiai
i?e?iaeii-n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?aeiio aea/aii aieea a?oioicaoenieo
oaoiieia?e ia aeoeai?noue oa?iaio?a, ye? aa?ooue o/anoue o ia?aoai?aii?
acioo, a oaeiae ooai?a i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, ye? coiiaeththoue
neioac-?iceeaae acioiai?nieo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
oaoiieia??, ye? aacothoueny ia i?eeiio ieinei??ciiio ia?ia?oeo iathoue
ia?aaaao ia?aae oaoiieia?yie c i?aieith ca aieeaii ia a?ioo a?oioo ? ia
iia??oothoue caaacia/aiiy ?ineei acioii.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o aaeineiiaeaii?
a?oioicaoenieo oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eoeueoo?, ye? aacothoueny ia i?i?iaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo a?oioo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi? a?aa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o
iinoaiiaoe? i?ia?aie, ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee, caeeaaeaii? oa i?iaaaeaii?
iieueiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ocaaaeueiaii? e?oa?aoo?ieo iaoa??ae?a,
aeeiiaii? eaai?aoi?ieo aiae?c?a oa noaoenoe/i?e ia?iaoe? ?acoeueoao?a.
Iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee io?eiai? iniaenoi aeena?oaioii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeenue ia
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oa
ani??aio?a Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1998-99 ??.).

Ioae?eaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue
iioae?eiaaii 7 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a ? ia(?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeth/a? a naaa: anooi,
6 ?icae?e?a, aeniiaee, aeiaeaoee Aiia aeeeaaeaia ia 146 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, aeeth/a? 56 oaaeeoeue, 8 ?enoie?a. Nienie
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e iae?/o? 173 iaeiaioaaiue, c ieo 23 ia ?iicaiieo
iiaao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Ia(?eo, oiiae ? iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeenue o 1996-98 ??. a noaoe?iia?iiio aeine?ae? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, yeee caeeaaeaii a 1995 ?. o ENI “Nie?eue/a”
Iii?eueiyinueeiai ?aeiio AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?

Aeine?ae caeeaaeaiee ia eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiio aeeoaoaaiiio
a?oaiieeoaaoi-eaaeinoaeeieiaiio ia eaniaeaeiiio noaeeieo i?aenoaeaiiio
aeaaiueiaetha?aeueieie a?aeeeaaeaie a?oio?, yeee caeyaa? ia
iaaecaieaai?e oa?an? ??/ee Oiaaa, noee ae?eyiee iaioa 10 ? ca e?ooeciith
? oeiiaei aeey aeaiiai ?aeue?oo, yeee i?aaenoaaeaiee oe?ieioaeeynoith
??aieiith c iaaaeeeei ia?aiaaeii aenio. A?aioeiiao?e/iee neeaae a?oioo
iaeii??aeiee ii i?io?eth. I?noeoue a na?aaeiueiio 15% ioeo ? aeecueei
28% i?neo. ?aooa /anoie — ieeoaao?, c yeeo: e?oiiiai ieeo — 46,9,
na?aaeiueiai — 6,9, ae??aiiai — 2,8%. U?euei?noue iioeiaeueia aeey
a?eueoino? eoeueoo? ? noaiiaeoue 1,12 a/ni3, oa aeaui ca?eueoo?oueny o
ieaeiueiio ia?ao?aeiiio ai?eciio? (1,31 a/ni3). Caaaeueia ii?eno?noue
60,3%.

Ai?no aoiono a i?iiio oa?? noaiiaea 3,9±0,03, a i?aei?iiio 3,2±0,04%,
?aaeoe?y a?oioiaiai ?ic/eio neaaei-eenea. A i?iiio oa?? ?H (I2I)=6,0,
a?ae?ie?oe/ia eeneioi?noue a?oioo — 1,32, noia oa?a?aieo iniia
noaiiaeoue 23,1 ia-aea/100 a a?oioo, a nooi?iue iane/aiino?
iniiaaie 94,5%.

Caaacia/ai?noue acioii niieoe, ye? eaaeia?ae?ie?cothoueny, ca Oth??iei ?
Eiiiiiaith — aeniea, ?ooiieie oinoaoaie oa iai?iiei eae??i ca *e?eeiaei
– na?aaeiy.

Aeine?ae IAO ia? aeaa aa??aioe nenoai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ? aeaa’youe
aa??aio?a oaeia?aiiy. Aea/aeinue /ioe?e aa??aioe — aea
aeei?enoiaoaaeanue ai?a/ia nae?o?a.

A aeine?aeaeaiiyo i?iaiaeeeinue ii??aiyeueia aea/aiiy aa?iiii?/ii? ?
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a,
ai?ioo oa iceii? ioaieoe?:

1. O?aaeeoe?eii?, yea aaco?oueny ia iieeoeaa?e i?aioe?.

2. A?oioicaoenii?, yea aaco?oueny ia i?i?iaeueiiio ieinei??ciiio
ia?ia?oeo (aei 12 ni).

Ia oii? yeeo aea/aeenue /ioe?e nenoaie oaeia?aiiy (e?euee?noue aeia?ea
ia 1 aa n?aici?iii? ieiu?)

Aac aeia?ea (eiio?ieue)

Ai?e 12 o/aa + ?45E45 – oii (i?ae oeoe?ia? ao?yee 40 o/aa + ?45E45, i?ae
iceio ioaieoeth oa ai?io — ?45E45)

Oii + N30

Oii + N60

Aa??aioe ?ici?uoaaeenue – iaoiaeii ?icuaieaieo aeie?a, ?ici?? iin?aii?
ae?eyiee 6o22=132, iae?eiai? – 100i2. Iiaoi?i?noue aeine?aeo o?e?aciaa.
Aeine?aeaeoaai? eoeueoo?e: oeoe?iaee ao?ye ni?oo – “Neia’yinueeee-94”;
ai?io ni?oo – “Aa?a??e”; iceia ioaieoey ni?oo – “Iie?nueea-93”.

Iaoai?ieia?/i? oiiae ??cieeenue caeaaeii a?ae ?ieo. Na?aaeiy oaiia?aoo?a
noaiiaeea 6,4 (1996?.), 6,9 (1997?.) oa 7,60N (1998?.) i?e
na?aaeiueiaaaaoi??/iiio iieacieeo 6,50N. O 1996-97 ??. iaeoieiaei?oee
i?nyoeue n?/aiue (-10,9; -6,8), o 1998 ?. — a?oaeaiue (-6,20N). Iaeaeu?
na?aaeiueii?ny/i? oaiia?aoo?e iaee i?noea o 1996 ?. a na?ii? (+18,40N),
1997 ?. — a eeii? (+18,30N), 1998 ?. — a /a?ai? (+190N).

Ca noiith iiaae?a ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue iaeaea ia ??cieeenue i?ae niaith,
i?ioa inoaiiy cia/ii ia?aaeuoaaea na?aaeiueiaaaaoi??/io ii?io, yea
noaiiaeoue 549 ii. Ii i?nyoeyo niinoa??aaeenue cia/i? a?aeoeeaiiy noie
iiaae?a ye ii ?ieao aeine?aeaeaiue, oae ? ii??aiyii c aaaaoi??/ieie
aeaieie.

Ci?oai? c 7-10 ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo i?ia c?acee a?oioo a?aeae?aeenue o?e
?ace ca ia??iae aaaaoaoe??: o?aoy aeaeaaea ea?oiy, ia?oa aeaeaaea eeiiy,
ia?oa aeaeaaea aa?aniy. Aeeaeia a?aeai?o c?ace?a – 0-15 ? 15-30 ni, a
yeeo aecia/aeenue: ?I aiaeiee oa ieenii-a?aeiiaiee iioaioe?ae (a
iieueaeo oiiaao) iioaioe?iiao?e/ii; i?o?eo?eaoe?eia caeaoi?noue ca
E?aaeiaei; aiii?eiee acio c ?aaeoeaii Iannea?a, i?o?aoiee acio ca
aeiiiiiaith ?iinaeaeoeaieo aeaeo?iae?a; caaaeueiee acio ca E’?eueaeaeai;
acio niieoe, ye? eaaei a?ae?ie?cothoueny, ca Oth??iei ? Eiiiiiaith;
oi?ie acioo ca Oeiiaea ? Ei?ieueiaith; aeoeai?noue o?aace oa i?ioaac ca
iaoiaeaie, iienaieie a iin?aieeo “Nia?aiaiiua iaoiaeu oeie/aneiai
aiaeeca ii/a e ?anoaiee” (1984). *enaeuei?noue i?e?ii?aai?ci?a aecia/aee
iaoiaeii aen?aaiiy a?oioiai? noniaic?? ia u?euei? iiaeeai? na?aaeiaeua:
e?euee?noue oeaetheici?iceeaaeath/eo i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ?aooaaeanue ia
na?aaeiaeu? Aao/einiia c ee?oeiaeiith; neioacoth/eo iie?naoa?eaee — ia
na?aaeiaeu? Ia?o?ia; neioacoth/eo iaeai?ie — ia na?aaeiaeu? *aiaea i?e
?I=5.0; ?iceeaaeath/eo aoiaoe — ia na?aaeiaeu? c aoiaoii iao??th;
iaaeio?io?a — ia a?oioiaiio aaa??. E?euee?noue i?e?ii?aai?ci?a
ia?a?aoiaoaaeanue ia 1 a nooiai a?oioo c o?aooaaiiyi eiai aieiaino?.
?ioaineai?noue ?iceeaaeaiiy ee?oeiaeie aecia/aee ii ciaioaiith iane
o?eueo?oaaeueiiai iaia?o i?ney 30-aeiaiai? aeniiceoe?? ? ae?aaeaee a %
a?ae aeo?aeii? iane.

Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a cae?enithaaeanue ia ia?niiaeueiiio
eiii’thoa?? c aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aie “Agrostat”.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

A?ieia?/ia aeoeai?noue eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo aoea aeineoue
aeeiai?/iith ? ci?ithaaeanue i?ioyaii ia??iaeo aaaaoaoe??. I?ioyaii
1996-98 ??. a oa?? a?oioo 0-15 ni i?e canoinoaaii? i?i?iaeueiiai
ia?ia?oeo ae?oeo aeoeai?noue i?ioaac i?aeaeuoaaeanue ia 12,0-15,8, ia
i?aioe? — ia 7,4-15,9 ia/ea, a ainaie cao?eniaaia cieaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii
ia 6,9-10,3 oa 10,0-16,5 ia/ea. A oa?? 15-30 ni aeeiai?ea aoea
aiaeia?/iith, oiaoi i?aeaeuaiiy i?ioaacii? aeoeaiino? ia 10,1-16,2 ?
10,4-17,3 ae?oeo oa cieaeaiiy ia 8,7-12,1 ? 10,1-16,6 ia/ea a?oioo
ainaie.

Aeeaeia caai?oaiiy i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea oa iiaeieaieo ?aooie coiiaeth?
ci?io aeoeaiino? i?ioaac a oa?ao a?oioo 0-15 oa 15-30 ni. Canoinoaaiiy
i?i?iaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo (oaae.1) coiiaeth? i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino?
i?ioaac ia 8-37 a oa?? a?oioo 0-15, ? cieaeaiiy ia 47-56% a oa?? 15-30
ni, a a ai?eciio? 0-30 ni niinoa??aa?oueny cieaeaiiy ia 3-19%.
Iaea?eueoa cieaeaiiy a?aeiinii i?aiee iaei i?noea a 1996 ?. (11-39%). A
1997 ?. ia aa??aio? aac oaeia?aiiy cieaeaiiy ia cao?eniaaia, a ia
oaeia?aieo oiiao aiii noaiiaeei 10-12%. O 1998 ?. aac aeia?ea
aeoeai?noue i?ioaac ia i?i?iaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo aei??aithaaea aeoeaiino?
i?e i?aioe?, a ia aa??aioao c aeia?eaaie iiaa?oiaaee ia?ia?oie cieaeoaaa
aeaiee iieaciee ia 2-9%. Oiaoi c eiaeiei ianooiiei ?ieii canoinoaaiiy
i?i?iaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo, cieaeaiiy aeoeaiino? i?ioaac a?aeiinii i?aiee
ia? iaioo aaee/eio. Oea aea? ciiao c?iaeoe i?eiouaiiy, ui aeiaaino?ieiaa
canoinoaaiiy a?oioicaoenieo oaoiieia?e, ye? aacothoueny ia i?i?iaeueiiio
ia?ia?oeo coiiaeoue i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino? i?ioaac a i?iiio oa??
eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo.

I?ioyaii 1996-98 ??. aeoeai?noue o?aace a oa?? 0-15 ni ae?oeo
i?aeaeuoaaeanue ia 3,5-17,5 i?e oaoiieia?? c iieeoeaaith i?aieith oa ia
14,6-20,8% i?e oaoiieia?yo, c i?i?iaeueiei ia?ia?oeii ? cieaeoaaeanue
ainaie a?aeiia?aeii ia 3,4-21 oa 13-21%. A oa?? 15-30 ni i?e
aeei?enoaii? i?i?iaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo aeoeai?noue o?aace i?aeaeuoaaeanue
ia 13-34 ae?oeo ? cieaeoaaeanue ia 15-22% ainaie. I?e aeei?enoaii?
i?aiee aac aeia?ea iaaani? oa ae?oeo aeoeai?noue o?aace aoea ia iaeiiio
??ai?, ? cieaeoaaeanue aei inai?. Ia aa??aioao c aeia?eaaie
niinoa??aaeanue oaiaeaioe?y aei cieaeaiiy ?? ae?oeo ? i?aeaeuaiiy
ainaie.

Oaaeeoey 1 — Aieea oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eoeueoo? ia iieacieee a?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo,
1996-98 ??.

??ciiaeeaeiia i?aiea I?i?iaeueiee ia?ia?oie

Oa?

a?oioo,ni aeoeai?noue i?ioaac, ia/ea N-NH2 aeoeai?noue o?aace, ia/ea
N-NH4 i?o?eo?eaoe?eia caeaoi?noue, ia/ea N-NO3 oeaetheicie?oe/ia
aeoeai?noue,% aeoeai?noue i?ioaac, ia/ea N-NH2 aeoeai?noue o?aace, ia/ea
N-NH4 i?o?eo?eaoe?eia caeaoi?noue, ia/ea N-NO3 oeaetheicie?oe/ia
aeoeai?noue, %

Aac aeia?ea (eiio?ieue)

0-15 51,2 11,1 9,0 — 70,1 13,6 10,7 —

15-30 70,7 12,9 14,4 — 48,1 11,2 8,4 —

0-30 60,9 12,0 11,7 31,0 59,1 12,4 9,5 27,3

12 o aiith +?45E45 ia 1 aa n?aici?ie — oii

0-15 71,7 11,5 12,9 — 79,7 13,7 11,5 —

15-30 84,3 14,5 15,8 — 54,8 12,2 8,8 —

0-30 78,0 13,0 14,3 28,2 67,2 13,0 10,1 32,0

Oii +N30

0-15 78,3 13,3 11,6 — 84,2 14,5 10,5 —

15-30 89,8 15,6 14,1 — 61,1 12,2 8,7 —

0-30 84,1 14,5 12,9 30,0 72,6 13,4 9,6 32,2

Oii+N60

0-15 79,8 12,9 14,6 — 85,7 15,2 14,7 —

15-30 95,7 15,6 16,5 — 61,5 12,5 9,3 —

0-30 87,8 14,4 15,5 26,9 73,6 13,9 12,0 39,6

Canoinoaaiiy i?i?iaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo (aeea. oaae.1) i?aeaeueei
aeoeai?noue o?aace a oa?? a?oioo 0-15 ni ia 9-20 a?aeiinii i?aiee ?
cieaeoaaei ia 15-28% a oa?? 15-30 ni. O?aacia aeoeai?noue oa?o 0-30 ni
iaeaea iaeiaeiaa i?e iaio niiniaao ia?ia?oeo, i?ioa o aa??aio? oii+N30
cao?eniaaii i?aeaeuaiiy ia 8,2% i?e i?aioe?. Ioaea, i?i?iaeueiee
ia?ia?oie i?aeaeuo? aeoeai?noue o?aace a oa?? a?oioo 0-15 ? cieaeo? o
oa?? 15-30 ni. Eiai canoinoaaiiy ia coiiaeei cieaeaiiy o?aacii?
aeoeaiino? oa?o 0-30 ni a a?eueoino? aa??aio?a c aeia?eaaie, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i a?aenooi?noue a?ieia?/ieo /eiiee?a uiaei iia??oaiiy
caaacia/aiiy ?ineei acioii aiii?th i?e ai?iaaaeaeaii? a?oioicaoenieo
oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy eoeueoo?.

Canoinoaaiiy a?oioicaoenieo oaoiieia?e, ii??aiyii c oaoiieia?yie, ye?
aacothoueny ia iieeoeaa?e i?aioe? coiiaeei cieaeaiiy i?o?eo?eaoe?eii?
caeaoiino? o ieaei?e /anoei? ia?iaethaaiiai oa?o ia 62-80%. O aa?oi?e
/anoei? i?o?eo?eaoe?eia caeaoi?noue a?oioo ia aa??aioao c i?i?iaeueiei
ia?ia?oeii i?aeaeuo?oueny ia 10-19% (aeea. oaae.1). Aeaia yaeua
iia’ycaia c ia?a?iciiae?eii ?ineeiieo ?aooie ? i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea. Ca
i?i?iaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo iniiaia ?o iana neiioeaio?iaaia o aa?oi?e
/anoei? i?iiai oa?o (0-15 ni), ui ? /eiieeii i?aeaeuaii?
i?o?eo?eaoe?eii? caeaoiino?. Ia aa??aioao c iieeoeaaith i?aieith a?eueoa
/anoeia aia?aaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo iaaeoiaeeoue aei oa?o 15-30 ni, ui
coiiaeth? iineeaiiy i?o?eo?eaoe?eii? caeaoiino? aeaiiai ai?eciioo.

Canoinoaaiiy i?i?iaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo cieceei i?o?eo?eaoe?eio caeaoi?noue
0-30 ni oa?o eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo ia 23-42% ii??aiyii c
oaoiieia?yie, ye? aacothoueny ia iieeoeaa?e i?aioe?.

Aac canoinoaaiiy aeia?ea i?i?iaeueiee ia?ia?oie aeeeeea? cieaeaiiy
?ioaineaiino? ?oeioaaiiy ee?oeiaeie a oa?? a?oioo 0-30 ni ii??aiyii c
i?aieith ia 11,9%. A oie /an ye ia oii? aiith c i?ia?aeueieie aeia?eaaie
i?aeaeuaiiy noaiiaeoue 7-47% (aeea. oaae.1).

Ia oii? i?aiee, aeia?eaa cieaeoaaee ?ioaineai?noue ?oeioaaiiy
oeaetheice. Ia iaoo aeoieo, aeaia yaeua iia’ycaia ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
aeeaeie caai?oaiiy aeia?ea ((15 ni), a oeaetheicie?oe/io aeoeai?noue a
iniiaiiio coiiaeththoue aa?iai? i?e?ii?aai?cie e?euee?noue yeeo ia oae?e
aeeaei? iacia/ia.

Canoinoaaiiy i?i?iaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo (oaae.2) coiiaeth? i?aeaeuaiiy
e?eueeino? iaaeio?ioieo i?aai?ci?a a i?iiio oa?? ia 16-48%, c iaeneioiii
ia aa??aio? c aianaiiyi 12 o aiith+?45E45 ia 1 aa n?aici?ie. Aianaiiy
N30 ? N60 ia oii? aiith oa i?ia?aeueieo oinoi?o ? eae?th ni?ey? ?inoo
/eneaiiino? iaaeio?io?a eeoa ca oiia ??ciiaeeaeiiiai iieeoeaaiai
ia?ia?oeo, i?e i?i?iae?caoe?? aeeaeie ?icioooaaiiy ci?ie ?o e?eueeino?
ia cao?eniaaii

E?euee?noue i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, ye? ?iceeaaeathoue aoiaoe, ia iaea /?oei?
caeaaeiino? a?ae niiniao ia?ia?oeo a?oioo. Aac aeia?ea i?i?iaeueiee
ia?ia?oie coiiaea cieaeaiiy ?o /enaeueiino?, a ia oaeia?aieo oiiao —
i?aeaeuaiiy (aeea. oaae.2).

I?e?ii?aai?cie, ye? neioacothoue iie?naoa?eaee, iioa?iaee ci?i i?ae
aieeaii ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, aeia?ea oa iiaiaeieo oiia ?ieo. Iaeaeua ?o
e?euee?noue niinoa??aaeanue i?e ae?iuoaaii? oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a (1996).

Ai?e, aianaiee noi?nii c oinoi?ieie ? eae?eieie i?ia?aeueieie aeia?eaaie
(oii) ca?eueooaaa e?euee?noue i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, ye? neioacothoue
iie?naoa?eaee, ia 16 (i?aiea) oa 7% (i?i?iaeueiee ia?ia?oie) (aeea.
oaae.2). Ia aa??aioao oii+N30, oii+N60 niinoa??aaeinue ianooo?aa
i?aeaeuaiiy, aai cieaeaiiy ia 24-27% a?aeiinii oiio .

Ioaea, aianaiiy i?ia?aeueiiai acioo a aeicao N30 oa N60 ia oii? 12 o
aiith+?45E45 ia 1 aa n?aici?ie coiiaeth? ciaioaiiy e?eueeino?
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, ye? neioacothoue iie?naoa?eaee a i?iiio oa??.
I?i?iaeueiee ia?ia?oie ni?eya i?aeaeuaiith ?o e?eueeino? iacaeaaeii a?ae
aianaieo aeia?ea.

Oaaeeoey 2 — Aieea oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eoeueoo? ia /enaeuei?noue i?e?ii?aai?ci?a o eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiio a?oio?,
1996-98 ??.

I?e?ii?aai?cie, ye? i?eeiathoue o/anoue o ?iceeaaeaii? aoioniaeo
?a/iaei I?e?ii?aai?cie, ye? i?eeiathoue o/anoue o neioac? aoioniaeo
?a/iaei

Ia?ia?oie a?oioo iaaeio?ioi?, iei/1a ?iceeaae aoiao?a, oen/1a neioac
iie?naoa?eae?a, iei/1a neioac iaeai?i?a, oen/1a

Aac aeia?ea (eiio?ieue)

I?aiea 8,9 11,0 4,9 10,9

I?i?iaeueiee ia?ia?oie 11,5 10,6 5,9 10,1

12 o aiith + ?45E45 ia 1 aa n?aici?ie — oii

I?aiea 9,5 11,3 5,7 10,9

I?i?iaeueiee ia?ia?oie 14,1 11,7 6,3 10,3

Oii+ N30

I?aiea 11,1 11,6 4,9 11,5

I?i?iaeueiee ia?ia?oie 12,9 13,2 6,6 11,2

Oii+N60

I?aiea 12,0 14,0 4,8 13,7

I?i?iaeueiee ia?ia?oie 14,6 13,9 5,1 8,9

Canoinoaaiiy i?i?iaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo iniaeeai o ii?aeiaii? c acioii o
aeic? N60 coiiaeth? ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, ye?
i?eeiathoue o/anoue o neioac? iaeai?i?a o 0-30 ni oa?? aei 54% ii??aiyii
c i?aieith. I?e canoinoaaii? i?aiee, aianaiiy aiith noi?nii c
oinoi?ieie, eae?eieie, oa acioieie i?ia?aeueieie aeia?eaaie a aeicao
N30, N60 ca?eueooaaei e?euee?noue aeaieo i?aai?ci?a a?aeiinii eiio?ieth.

?icaeoie i?e?ii?aai?ci?a o a?oio? caeaaeeoue a?ae ieenii-a?aeiiaieo
oiia. Aecia/aii ?aaeoe?th a?oioiaiai ?ic/eio oa ieenii-a?aeiiaiee
iioaioe?ae a?oioo, yeee ae?oeo i?aeaeuoaaany ia 54-172 a?aeiinii aanie ?
cieaeoaaany ia 71-183 iA ainaie. Iieaciee ?I aiaeiiai iaa iaa?iaio aei
iieaciee?a IAI aeeiai?eo: cieaeoaaany ae?oeo ? i?aeaeuoaaany ainaie. A
na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee a?oioicaoeni? oaoiieia??, ye? aacothoueny ia
i?i?iaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo, coiiaeee oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy aaee/eie
IAI oa ?I aiaeiiai, iaeiae ciaioaiiy ia ia?aaeuo? 5%.

Aeei?enoaiiy a?oioicaoenieo oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, ye? aacothoueny ia i?i?iaeueiiio
ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, aieeioei ia iaeiie/aiiy i?o?ao?a a oa?ao 0-15 oa 15-30
ni. A oa?? a?oioo 0-15 ni i?i?iaeueiee ia?ia?oie coiiaethaaa
i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo i?o?aoiiai acioo ii??aiyii c i?aieith ia 4-21 ?, a
oie aea /an, ciaiooaaa ?o e?euee?noue ia 61-77% o oa?? 15-30 ni. A
na?aaeiueiio, i?e aeei?enoaii? oaoiieia?e, ye? aacothoueny ia iieeoeaa?e
i?aioe? a oa?? a?oioo 0-30 ni e?euee?noue i?o?aoiiai acioo aoea aeuith
i?ae i?e aeei?enoaii? a?oioicaoenieo oaoiieia?e ia 15-25%.
(eiio?ieue-24; oii-25; oii+N30-15; oii+N60-22 %).

I?ae aieeaii ia?ia?oeo a?oioo oa oaeia?aiiy ci?ithaaeanue e?euee?noue
oa?a?aiiai aiii?th. A oa?? a?oioo 0-15 ni i?e i?i?iaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia ?ieo e?euee?noue aiii?eiiai acioo aoea ia 8-110%
aeua i?ae ia aiaeia?/ieo aa??aioao c i?aieith. A oa?? 15-30 ni i?aiea
coiiaethaaea ca?eueoaiiy ia 3-96%.

O?e??/ia canoinoaaiiy ia?ia?oeo a?oioo aac iaa?oaiiy neeae ia aeeaeio
aei 12 ni i?aeaeuo? ai?no oa?a?aiiai aiii?th a oa?? a?oioo 0-15 ni
a?aeiinii i?aiee ia 32-55 ? a oie aea /an cieaeo? ia 30-72% o oa?? 15-30
ni.

A oa?? a?oioo 0-30 ni aac aianaiiy aeia?ea a na?aaeiueiio ca 1996-98 ??.
i?e aeei?enoaii? i?i?iaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo cao?eniaaii i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo
oa?a?aiiai aiii?th ia 14, a i?e aianaii? 12 o aiith + ?45E45 ia 1 aa
n?aici?ie ia 7%. A oie /an aianaiiy 30 ? 60 ea/aa acioo ia oii? 12 o
aiith + ?45E45 coiiaeei cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? aiii?eiiai acioo a?aeiinii
i?aiee ia 4-12%.

Aeei?enoaiiy i?i?iaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo coiiaeei o 1996 ?. ci?ie o
e?eueeino? acioo niieoe, ye? eaaeia?ae?ie?cothoueny. A oa?? 0-15ni
cao?eniaaii i?aeaeuaiiy ia 3,3-6,4, a o oa?? 15-30 ni — cieaeaiiy ia
1,5-12,5% ?o ai?noo. O 1997-98 ?? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y iiaeeaethaaeanue:
i?aeaeuaiiy a oa?? a?oioo 0-15 ni noaiiaeei 1,2-8,0 oa 12,4-20,8%, a oie
/an a oa?? 15-30 ni iaei i?noea ciaioaiiy ia 30-45 ? 14-24%. Ioaea,
i?i?iaeueiee ia?ia?oie coiiaethaaa i?aeaeuaiiy a?aeiinii i?aiee ai?noo
niieoe acioo, ye? eaaeia?ae?ie?co?oueny a oa?? a?oioo 0-15 ni ia 18-21 ?
cieaeaiiy o oa?? 15-30 ni — ia 5-10%.

Ia?ia?oie aieeaaa ia no?oeoo?o acioiiai oiiaeo a?oioo. I?i?iaeueiee
ia?ia?oie coiiaea oaiaeaioe?th aei ca?eueoaiiy a?aeiinii i?aiee /anoee
i?ia?aeueiiai acioo ia 0,2-0,3, oa acioo niieoe, ye?
eaaeia?ae?ie?cothoueny (0,1-0,3%) a oa?? a?oioo 0-15 ni. A oa?? a?oioo
15-30 ni /anoea aeaieo niieoe ca?eueoo?oueny i?e canoinoaaii? i?aiee ia
0,4-0,8 ? 0,5-0,9 % (oaae.3).

Oaaeeoey 3 — Aieea oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eoeueoo? ia acioiee oiiae eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo, 1996-98 ??.

Acio, ia/ea

Nenoaia

ia?ia?oeo a?oioo Oa?

a?oioo, ni

caaaeueiee

i?ia?aeueiee niieoee, ye? eaaeia?ae?ie?cothoueny niieoee, ye?
aaaeeia?ae?ie?cothoueny niieoee, ye? ia a?ae?ie?cothoueny

Aac aeia?ea (eiio?ieue)

0-15 2007 17,5 67,6 222 1700

Iieeoeaaa 15-30 1989 25,2 72,3 227 1665

i?aiea 0-30 1998 21,4 69,9 225 1682

0-15 2017 23,3 74,4 234 1685

I?i?iaeueiee 15-30 1981 17,1 60,6 202 1701

ia?ia?oie 0-30 1999 20,2 67,5 218 1693

12 o/aa aiith + ?45E45 ia 1 aa n?aici?ie — oii

0-15 2030 20,9 71,7 245 1692

Iieeoeaaa 15-30 1999 27,3 75,5 266 1630

i?aiea 0-30 2015 24,1 73,6 256 1661

0-15 2040 24,8 78,0 238 1699

I?i?iaeueiee 15-30 1986 17,6 63,3 210 1695

ia?ia?oie 0-30 2013 21,2 70,7 224 1697

Oii+N30

0-15 2032 22,5 74,9 241 1694

Iieeoeaaa 15-30 2000 33,0 78,7 260 1628

i?aiea 0-30 2016 27,8 76,8 250 1661

0-15 2040 27,1 79,4 255 1679

I?i?iaeueiee 15-30 1989 18,3 61,9 221 1688

ia?ia?oie 0-30 2015 22,7 70,7 238 1684

Oii+N60

0-15 2035 26,2 78,3 244 1687

Iieeoeaaa 15-30 2002 35,0 79,1 278 1610

i?aiea 0-30 2019 30,6 78,7 261 1649

0-15 2042 31,8 80,0 255 1675

I?i?iaeueiee 15-30 1995 18,9 61,8 222 1692

ia?ia?oie 0-30 2019 25,3 70,9 235 1688

Acioiee oiiae eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo caeaaeaa a?ae niiniao ia?ia?oeo
oa oaeia?aiiy ? neeaaeaany ia 82-85% ?c niieoe, ye? ia
a?ae?ie?cothoueny; 11-13 — niieoe, ye? aaaeeia?ae?ie?cothoueny;
3,4-3,9% — /anoea niieoe, ye? eaaeia?ae?ie?cothoueny, a ai?no
i?ia?aeueieo niieoe acioo, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei aeinooii? ?ineeiai
noaiiaea 1-1,5%.

A oa?? a?oioo 0-30 ni i?e i?aioe? ae?aaea?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei
ca?eueoaiiy i?ia?aeueiiai acioo ia 0,1-0,3% oa acioo niieoe, ye?
eaaeia?ae?ie?cothoueny (ia 0,1-0,4), a oaeiae niieoe, ye?
aaaeeia?ae?ie?cothoueny (ia 0,4-1,6%) ii??aiyii c i?i?iaeueiei
ia?ia?oeii. Eieeaaiiy ai?noo niieoe acioo, ui ia a?ae?ie?cothoueny
(0,6-1,9%) i?e ai?no? caaaeueiiai acioo aeua ca 1600 ia/ea, ie aaaaea?ii
ianooo?aei.

0,123).

Aeyaeaii ca’ycie i?ae e?euee?noth i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, ye? i?eeiathoue
o/anoue o ?iceeaaeaii? aoiao?a ? ai?noii acioo i?o?ao?a (r=0,705(0,151).
Ia iaoo aeoieo, i?e ?iceeaae? aoiao?a aea?eueiaiee acio i?o?eo?eo?oueny
aiane?aeie /iai a a?oio? c(yaeythoueny i?o?aoi? niieoee, ye? iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue ?ineeiaie, aai i?a?oaaoe ii i?io?eth a?oioo.

E?euee?noue iaaeio?ioieo i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ei?aethaaea c aaee/eiith
ieenii-a?aeiiaiiai iioaioe?aeo (r=0,601(0,170), ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?
caeaaei?noue /enaeueiino? iaaieo ooai?a i?e?ii?aai?ci?a o a?oio? a?ae
ieenii-a?aeiiaieo oiia.

Ca ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue i?i?iaeueiee ia?ia?oie coiiaea i?aeaeuaiiy
o?iaeath ca?ia iceii? ioaieoe? ia 0,6-2,7 oe/aa (oaae.4). Iaeaeu?
i?e?inoe iaee i?noea ia aa??aioao: eiio?ieue (2,7 oe/aa) ? oii+N30 (2,4
oe/aa).

Aeia?eaa i?aeaeuoaaee o?iaeaei?noue iceii? ioaieoe? iacaeaaeii a?ae
niiniao ia?ia?oeo a?oioo. I?e i?aioe?, aianaiiy 12 o aiith+?45E45 ia
aaeoa? n?aici?iii? ieiu? i?aeaeueee o?iaeaei?noue ia 31%, a i?e
i?i?iaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo ia 25%. Aianaiiy ia oii? aiith N30, i?aeaeuoaaei
a?iaeaei?noue ia 46% a?aeiinii eiio?ieth oa 12% a?aeiinii oiio i?e
i?aioe? ? a?aeiia?aeii ia 41 oa 16% i?e canoinoaaii? a?oioicaoeniiai
ia?ia?oeo. Ia aa??aio? oii+N60 i?e??no ca?ia i?e canoinoaaii? i?aiee
i?aeaeuoaaany ia 74 a?aeiinii eiio?ieth, 36 — oiio oa 19%- oii+N30, ia
i?i?iaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo i?aeaeuaiiy aoei 59, 27 ? 13% a?aeiia?aeii.

Ioaea, canoinoaaiiy i?i?iaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo i?e ae?iuoaaii? iceii?
ioaieoe? coiiaeth? i?aeaeuaiiy a?iaeath ca?ia ia 0,6-2,7 oe/aa, a oie
/an i?eaaaee a?ae aeia?ea a?aeiinii eiio?ieth ia i?aioe? aoee ia 6-15%
a?eueoeie.

O?iaeaei?noue oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a (aeea. oaae. 4) ci?ithaaeanue a a?eueo?e
i??? i?ae aieeaii iaoai?ieia?/ieo oiia ?ieo oa e?eueeino? aianaieo
aeia?ea ? a iaio?e i??? niiniao ia?ia?oeo a?oioo. Iaeaeua o?iaeaei?noue
oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a iaea i?noea o 1998, iaeiaioa — o 1996 ?., ui coiiaeaii
nooei ? aea?eei o?aaiai, caaaeyee /iio noiaee c(yaeeenue eeoa o ia?o?e
aeaeaae? /a?aiy.

Oaaeeoey 4 -O?iaeaei?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? o
noaoe?iia?iiio aeine?ae? IAO a ENI “Nie?eue/a”, 1996-98 ??.

Ia?ia?oie Aa??aio Iceia ioaieoey, oe/aa Oeoe?ia? ao?yee, oe/aa

a?oioo oaeia?aiiy 1996 1997 1998 na?aaei? 1996 1997 1998 na?aaei?

I?aiea: eiio?ieue 24,7 26,4 24,6 25,2 210 210 352 257

iceia ioaieoey 23-25ni oii 28,0 32,7 38,1 32,9 307 300 388 332

oeoe?ia? ao?yee 28-30ni oii+N30 30,3 36,4 44,9 36,9 337 358 400 365

oii+N60 37,0 43,4 51,2 43,9 360 356 430 382

eiio?ieue 27,0 28,6 28,1 27,9 219 211 353 261

I?i?iaeueiee ia?ia?oie oii 29,3 35,0 40,7 35,0 303 311 390 335

ia 10-12 ni oii+N30 32,6 37,8 47,4 39,3 335 350 406 364

oii+N60 35,7 44,0 53,7 44,5 361 360 426 382

I?? 05 oe/aa ia?ia?oie 2,1 1,0 1,5

21,3 22,4 15,2

oaeia?aiiy 1,3 0,8 1,3

27,5 30,4 21,9

Aeia?eaa i?aeaeuoaaee o?iaeaei?noue oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a iacaeaaeii a?ae
niiniao ia?ia?oeo. I?e ?o canoinoaaii? ia i?aioe? i?aeaeuaiiy
a?iaeaeiino? noaiiaeei 29 (oii), 42 (oii+N30) oa 49% (oii+N60) ? i?e
i?i?iaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo ia 28, 39 oa 46% a?aeiia?aeii.

Aianaiiy N30 ia oii? aiith+?E i?aeaeuo? ca?? ei?aiaieiae?a a?aeiinii
oiio ia 11-13%. I?aeaeuaiiy aeice acioo aei N60 coiiaeth? i?aeaeuaiiy ia
18-20 a?aeiinii oiio ? 7% a?aeiinii oiio +N30.

I?ioyaii 1996-98 ??. a?oioicaoenia oaoiieia?y, yea aaco?oueny ia
i?i?iaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo ia coiiaeea nooo?aiai cieaeaiiy aai i?aeaeuaiiy
cai?o ei?aiaieiae?a ii??aiyii c oaoiieia??th ia iieeoeaa?e i?aioe?.

Aeiiii?/iee aiae?c iieacaa, ui a?oioicaoeni? oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy
iceii? ioaieoe? oa oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a, ye? aacothoueny ia i?i?iaeueiiio
ia?ia?oeo, a ia?o? ?iee ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiio a?oio?
aeyaeee oaiaeaioe?th aei i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?aioaaaeueiino? oa cieaeaiiy
nia?aa?oino? iniiaii? i?iaeoeoe??. Aeia?eaa coiiaethaaee i?aeaeuaiiy
nia?aa?oino?, aea, ia iaoo aeoieo, oea coiiaeaii ii?ooaiiyi ia??oaoo
oe?i ia aeia?eaa oa i?iaeoeoe?th ?ineeiieoeoaa.

AENIIAEE

1.Oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, ye?
aacothoueny ia i?i?iaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, aeoea?cothoue a?ieia?/i?
i?ioeane a eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiio aeeoaoaaiiio a?oio?, ui i?iyaey?oueny o
i?aeaeuaii? oeaetheicie?oe/ii? oa oa?iaioaoeaii? aeoeaiino? a 0-15 ni
oa??, ca?eueoaii? e?eueeino? aeayeeo ooai?a i?e?ii?aai?ci?a,
iaeneiaeueia e?euee?noue yeeo ?ici?uo?oueny o aa?oi?e /anoei? i?iiai
oa?o, c aeeaeiith ?o /enaeuei?noue cieaeo?oueny.

2.Ni?eyoeeai aieeaathoue ia oa?iaioaoeaio aeoeai?noue oa a?ioo a?oioo
i?aai?/i? aeia?eaa, ca ?aooiie yeeo aeoeai?noue i?ioaac i?aeaeuo?oueny
ia 14-28, o?aace ia 5-8, i?o?eo?eaoe?eia caeaoi?noue ia 5-31% oa nooo?ai
ci?ith?oueny e?euee?noue i?e?ii?aai?ci?a.

3.Canoinoaaiiy i?i?iaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo ni?ey? cieaeaiith ia 23-42%
i?o?eo?eaoe?eii? caeaoiino? a i?iiio oa?? eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo.

4.Aieea nenoai ia?ia?oeo ia i?e?ioei?o a?oioo iaiaeiicia/iee: i?aiea
iaoiiaeth? ?icaeoie i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, ye? neioacothoue iaeai?ie, a
i?i?iaeueiee — iaaeio?ioieo i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, oa oeo, ui neioacothoue
iie?naoa?eaee. O aa??aio? aac aeia?ea e?euee?noue i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, ye?
?iceeaaeathoue aoiaoe i?aeaeuoaaeanue ia i?aioe?, a c aeia?eaaie – ia
i?i?iaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo.

5.O neeaae? acioiiai oiiaeo eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai aeeoaoaaiiai a?oioo
ia?aaaaeathoue iaaecae/aeii no?ee? o?aeoe?? ui ia i?eeiathoue o/ano? o
aeeaeaii? ?ineei: niieoee, ye? aaaeei- oa iaa?ae?ie?cothoueny — aei
95,6% . I?ia?aeueiee acio oa acio niieoe, ye? eaaeia?ae?ie?cothoueny
a?aeiia?aeii noaiiaeyoue 1,-1,5 oa 3,4-3.9%.

6.I?i?iaeueiee ia?ia?oie ii??aiyii c i?aieith, coiiaeth? cieaeaiiy
e?eueeino? i?o?aoiiai acioo ia 25 oa ia 8% niieoe acioo, ye?
eaaeia?ae?ie?cothoueny. Aieea ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ia ai?no oa?a?aiiai
aiii?th caeaaeaa a?ae e?eueeino? aianaieo aeia?ea.

7.A?oioicaoeni? oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eoeueoo?, ye? aacothoueny ia i?i?iaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo, coiiaeththoue
a?eueo ae?aaeaio aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th ia?iaethaaiiai oa?o a?oioo ca ai?noii
i?ia?aeueieo niieoe acioo, a oaeiae niieoe, ye? eaaei- oa
aaaeeia?ae?ie?cothoueny, ? aeoeai?noth oa?iaio?a, c i?aeaeuaiiyi
iieaciee?a a oa?? 0-15 ? cieaeaiiyi a 15-30 ni.

8.Niinoa??aaeanue naciiia aeeiai?ea ai?noo niieoe acioo, aeoeaiino?
oa?iaio?a oa o?ceei-o?i?/ieo iieaciee?a (ie??i caaaeueiiai acioo).
Aeoeai?noue i?ioaac, o?aace, aaee/eia IAI, e?euee?noue oa?a?aiiai
aiii?th oa niieoe acioo, ye? eaaeia?ae?ie?cothoueny, i?aeaeuoaaeanue
ae?oeo ? cieaeoaaeanue ainaie. I?o?eo?eaoe?eia caeaoi?noue, ?aaeoe?y
a?oioo ? ai?no i?o?aoiiai acioo iaee iaeieae/? iieacieee ae?oeo.

9.Aeyaeaii ca(ycie i?ae aeoeai?noth i?ioaac ? ai?noii niieoe acioo, ye?
eaaeia?ae?ie?cothoueny (r=0,61), aeoeai?noth o?aace, c e?euee?noth
oa?a?aiiai aiii?th (r=0,67), i?o?eo?eaoe?eii? caeaoiino? oa e?euee?noth
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, ye? ?iceeaaeathoue aoiaoe ?c ai?noii acioo i?o?ao?a
(r=0,82 oa 0,70), a oaeiae aaee/eie ieenii-a?aeiiaiiai iioaioe?aeo ?
e?euee?noth iaaeio?ioieo i?e?ii?aai?ci?a. Aeaaaeai? a?aeiia?aei?
??aiyiiy ?aa?an??.

10.Ia eo/ii-/i?iicaiieo a?oioao iceia ioaieoey iiceoeaii ?aaao? ia
i?i?iaeueiee ia?ia?oie, i?e?inoe a?iaeath noaiiaeee 0,6-2,7 oe/aa. ??ci?
niiniae ia?ia?oeo nooo?ai ia aieeaaee ia a?iaeaei?noue oeoe?iaeo
ao?ye?a: i?i?iaeueiee ia?ia?oie coiiaethaaa oaiaeaioe?? aei i?aeaeuaiiy
oa cieaeaiiy a?iaeath ei?aiaieiae?a a?aeiinii i?aiee, iaeiae eieeaaiiy
aoee a iaaeao iaeiaioi? ?noioii? ??cieoe?.

11.Aeiiii?/iee aiae?c oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy, ye? aacothoueny ia
i?i?iaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo a?oioo iieaco?, ui ?o canoinoaaiiy aeicaiey?
cieceoe nia?aa?o?noue i?iaeoeoe??. I?e oeueiio ia cieaeo?oueny
?aioaaaeuei?noue ae?iuoaaiiy oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a, a ?aioaaaeuei?noue
iceii? ioaieoe? c?inoa? (12-63%).

12.O ainiiaea?noaao Aiae?oo?anueeiai
i?e?iaeii-n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?aeiio ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
canoiniaoaaoe oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy iceii? ioaieoe? oa oeoe?iaeo
ao?ye?a ia iniia? i?i?iaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo. Aiie caaacia/othoue
i?e??no o?iaeath ca?ia ia 0,6-2,7 oe/aa, ia cieaeothoue o?iaeaeiino?
oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ?, ?acii c oei, caaacia/othoue ciaioaiiy nia?aa?oino?
i?iaeoeoe?? oa i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?aioaaaeueiino?.

IA?AE?E I?AOeUe, AEAeAIEO CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Ai?iaae ?.?., Iaea?/oe I.E., Eie?ni?/aiei I.I. Aieea aeieia?/ii /enoeo
aoaeaaiii?eieo aeia?ea ia aeanoeaino? eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo oa
a?iaeae ca?iiaeo eoeueoo?//Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Oiainueei?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aeaaeai??. — E.: Ii?a-i??io, 1997, — N.
117-119 (iieueia? oa eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy
?acoeueoao?a, i?aeaioiaea aei ae?oeo).

Oeeoea I.E., A?eyiianueea O.I., Iaeueiee E.E., Aieiaei A.A., Ai?iaae
?.?., Iaea?/oe I.E., Ai?aa/aiei A.I. I?i ia?niaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy
aoaeaaiii?eieo nieae o a?oioicaoeniiio caiea?ianoa?//Aa?io?i?y ?
a?oioiciaanoai. I?aea?aeii/ee iaoeiaee ca??iee. *anoeia o?aoy. Oa?e?a,
1998, — N. 42-44 (aeei?enoai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeena?oaioa,
i?aeaioiaea aei ae?oeo).

Aieiaei Y.A., Aeeyiianeay O.I., Ai?iaae E.E., Iaea?/oe I.E., e ae?.
Aeeaeiiaoey eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee a aniaeoa i?iaeai
aa?ioeoioeaiieiaee//Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey eoeueoo?iuo ?anoaiee, 1999. O.
31, ?2. — N. 103 – 114 (aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, i?aeaioiaea aei
ae?oeo).

Oeeoea I.E., Ai?iaae ?.?., Iaea?/oe I.E., A?oa?oeueeee N.A., oa ?i.
Acioiee oiiae eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo I?aaiaa?aaeiiai E?ninoaio
Oe?a?ie a oiiaao a?oioicaoenieo oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?//Aa?a?iee a?niee i?e/i?iiii?’y.
Aeione ?3 (6). *anoeia ?: Aa?iiii?y. Iaeana, 1999. – N. 74-78 (iieueia?
oa eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, noaoenoe/iee ia?ia?oie ?acoeueoao?a,
ocaaaeueiaiiy oa aeeeaaeaiiy iaoa??aeo).

?ooeinueea A.I., A?eyiianueea O.I., Iaea?/oe I.E., Ai?iaae ?.?. Aieea
AAN ia aoioniooai?aiiy a a?oioicaoeniiio caiea?ianoa?//A?aeoai?aiiy
?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a o a?oioicaoeniiio caiea?ianoa?. E.: IO“I?aioa”,
1998. — N. 418-431 (i?iaaaeaiiy iueieueiaeo oa eaai?aoi?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?aeaioiaea aei ae?oeo).

Ai?iaae ?.?., Iaea?/oe I.E., A?eyiianueea O.I., Ai?aa/aiei A.I.,
Eie?ni?/aiei I.I. Aieea aoaeaaiii?eieo nieae ia a?iaeaei?noue eoeueoo? a
a?oioicaoeniiio caiea?ianoa?. Oai aea, — N. 444-447 (i?iaaaeaiiy
iieueiaeo oa eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ocaaaeueiaiiy oa aeeeaaeaiiy
iaoa??aeo).

Oeeoea I.E., Eicaiei ?.I., Ai?iaae ?.?., Iaea?/oe I.E., Ai?aa/aiei A.I.,
Eie?ni?/aiei I.I. Aeina?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a?oioicaoenii? nenoaie
caiea?ianoaa a ENI “Nie?eue/a” Iii?eueiyinueeiai ?aeiio, AEeoiie?nueei?
iaeano?. Oai aea, N. 597-606 (ca?? iaoa??ae?a, i?aeaioiaea aei ae?oeo).

Ai?iaae ?.?. A?ieia?/ia aeoeai?noue ? acioiee oiiae eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai
a?oioo Aiae?oo?anueeiai i?e?iaeii-n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?aeiio oa
?o ci?ie i?ae aieeaii a?oioicaoenieo oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy eoeueoo? –
?oeiien

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiaiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.01.03. –
aa?ia?oioiciaanoai ? aa?io?ceea.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith aieeao a?oioicaoenieo oaoiieia?e
ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, ye? aacothoueny ia
i?i?iaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, ia a?ieia?/i? i?ioeane oa ai?no niieoe
acioo a eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiio aeeoaoaaiiio a?oio?. I?i?iaeueiee ia?ia?oie
i?aeaeuo? a?ieia?/io aeoeai?noue, ai?no i?ia?aeueiiai acioo oa acioo
niieoe, ye? eaaeia?ae?ie?cothoueny, a oa?? a?oioo 0-15 ni ? cieaeo? a
oa?? 15-30 ni. A oa?? a?oioo 0-30 ni – i?aeaeuo?oueny oeaetheicie?oe/ia
aeoeai?noue, e?euee?noue iaaeio?io?a, oa i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ye?
neioacothoue iie?naoa?eaee, a oie aea /an i?eai?/o?oueny ?icaeoie
iaeai?ineioacoth/eo i?e?ii?aai?ci?a oa i?o?eo?eaoe?eia caeaoi?noue. A
ia?o? ?iee cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a?oioicaoenieo oaoiieia?e, ye? aacothoueny ia
i?i?iaeueiiio ia?ia?oeo, a i?iiio oa?? eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo
ciaioo?oueny e?euee?noue aeinooiieo niieoe acioo, aea cieaeaiiy
a?iaeaeiino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo eoeueoo? ia cao?eniaaii, a ia icei?e
ioaieoe? iaei i?noea i?aeaeuaiiy ?? a?aeiinii i?aiee. Canoinoaaiiy
i?i?iaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo cieaeo? nia?aa?o?noue oa i?aeaeuo? ??aaiue
?aioaaaeueiino? ae?iuoaaiiy iceii? ioaieoe?, a oaeiae ia cieaeo? ??aaiue
?aioaaaeueiino? ae?iuoaaiiy oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ? ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeey
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o Aiae?oo?anueeiio i?e?iaeii-n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio
?aeii?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ia?ia?oie a?oioo, oa?iaioaoeaia aeoeai?noue,
i?o?eo?eaoe?eia caeaoi?noue, a?oioia? i?e?ii?aai?cie, niieoee acioo,
o?iaeaei?noue.

Ai?iaae E.E. Aeieiae/aneay aeoeaiinoue e acioiue oiiae
eoaiai-/a?iicaiiie ii/au Aiae?ooaaneiai i?e?iaeii-naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
?aeiia e eo eciaiaiea iiae aicaeaenoaeai ii/aicaueoiuo oaoiieiaee
au?aueaaiey eoeueoo? — ?oeiienue

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.03. —
aa?iii/aiaaaeaiea e aa?ioeceea.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth aeeyiey ii/aicaueoiuo oaoiieiaee
au?aueaaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo?, eioi?ua iniiauaathony ia
ieieiaeueiie ia?aaioea ii/au, ia aeieiae/aneea i?ioeannu e niaea?aeaiea
niaaeeiaiee acioa a eoaiai-/a?iicaiiie auuaei/aiiie ii/aa. Enneaaeiaaiey
i?iaiaeeeenue a ?aieao Ainoaea?noaaiiie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie i?ia?aiiu
“Eniieueciaaiea oaeaaiiiieeiuo nieae a naeueneii oicyenoaa Oe?aeiu” ia
aaca noaoeeiia?iiai iieaaiai iiuoa a ENI “Nieeeue/a” Iiiaeueiyineiai
?aeiia AEeoiie?neie iaeanoe. Ii/aaiiue iie?ia eieeaeoeaiiai
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey oeie/iue aeey ?aeiia i?iaaaeaiey
enneaaeiaaiee.

Ieieiaeueiay ia?aaioea iiauoaao aeieiae/aneoth aeoeaiinoue e
niaea?aeaiea ieia?aeueiiai acioa, a oaeaea acioa eaaeiaeae?ieecothueony
niaaeeiaiee a neia ii/au 0-15 ni e nieaeaao a neia 15-30 ni. A neia
ii/au 0-30 ni — iiauoaaony oeaeetheicieeoe/aneay aeoeaiinoue (ia 12%),
eiee/anoai iaaeio?ioia (ia 16-48), e iee?ii?aaieciia, eioi?ua
neioace?otho iieenaoa?eaeu (aei 20), a oi aea a?aiy oaiaoaaony ?acaeoea
iaeaieineioace?othueo iee?ii?aaieciia (aei 54) e ieo?eoeeaoeeiiiay
niiniaiinoue (ia 23-42%).

Acioiue oiiae eoaiai-/a?iicaiiie ii/au caaenae io niiniaa ia?aaioee, a
oaeaea oaeia?aiey e ninoiye ia 82-85% ec niaaeeiaiee, eioi?ua ia
aeae?ieecothony; 11-13 – oyaeaeiaeae?ieecothueony niaaeeiaiey; 3,4-3,9%
— /anoue niaaeeiaiee, eioi?ua eaaeiaeae?ieecothony, a niaea?aeeiia
ieia?aeueiiai acioa, eioi?ue iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeinooiai ?anoaieyi —
1-1,5%.

A ieanoa ii/au 0-30 ni i?e aniaoea au?aaeaaony oaiaeaioeey e oaaee/aieth
eiee/anoaa ieia?aeueiiai acioa (ia 0,1-0,3%), acioa niaaeeiaiee, eioi?ua
eaaeiaeae?ieecothony (ia 0,1-0,4), a oaeaea niaaeeiaiee, eioi?ua
oyaeaeiaeae?ieecothony (ia 0,4-1,6%) ioiineoaeueii ieieiaeueiie
ia?aaioee. Eieaaaiea niaea?aeaiey niaaeeiaiee acioa, eioi?ia ia
aeae?ieecothony ninoaaeei 0,6-1,9%.

Auyaeaia naycue iaaeaeo aeoeaiinoueth i?ioaac e niaea?aeaieai
eaaeiaeae?ieecoaiuo niaaeeiaiee acioa (r=0,61), aeoeaiinoueth o?aacu e
eiee/anoaii iiaeiuaiiiai aiiiiey (r=0,67), ieo?eoeeaoeeiiiie
niiniaiinoueth e eiee/anoaii aoiaoi?aceaaathueo iee?ii??aaieciia ec
niaea?aeaieai ieo?aoiiai acioa. Auaaaeaiu niioaaonoaothuea o?aaiaiey
?aa?annee.

A ia?aua aiaea aiaae?aiey ii/aicaueoiuo oaoiieiaee, iniiauaathueony ia
ieieiaeueiie ia?aaioea, a iaoioiii neia eoaiai-/a?iicaiiie ii/au
oiaiueoaaony eiee/anoai aeinooiiuo niaaeeiaiee acioa, ii oiaiueoaiea
o?iaeaeiinoe enneaaeoaiuo eoeueoo? ia caoeene?iaaii, a ia iceiie
ioaieoea eiaei ianoi iiauoaiea ioiineoaeueii aniaoee. I?eiaiaiea
ieieiaeueiie ia?aaioee oiaiueoaao naaanoieiinoue e iiauoaao o?iaaiue
?aioaaaeueiinoe au?aueaaiey iceiie ioaieoeu, a oaeaea ia nieaeaao
o?iaaiue ?aioaaaeueiinoe au?aueaaiey naoa?iie naaeeu e ?aeiiaiaeoaony
aeey aiaae?aiey a Aiae?ooaaneii i?e?iaeii-naeueneioicyenoaaiiii ?aeiia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?aaioea ii/au, oa?iaioaoeaiay aeoeaiinoue,
ieo?eoeeaoeeiiiay niiniaiinoue, ii/aaiiua iee?ii?aaieciu, niaaeeiaiey
acioa, o?iaeaeiinoue.

I.I.Vorobey. Biological activity and nitrogen pool of a
meadow-chernozemic soil from Andrushevsky natural & agricultural region
as effected by conservation crop production system. – A manuscript.

A Thesis investigates the effects of Agricultural Sciences in specialty
06.01.03-Agropedology and Soil Physics.

A thesis investigates the effects of conservation crop production
systems, based on minimum tillage, on biological processes and content
of nitrogen compounds in a leached meadow-chernozemic soil. Minimum
tillage increases soil biological activity and mineral and hydrolisable
nitrogen contents in 0-15 cm layer and reduces these parameters in 15-30
cm layer of soil. Conservation crop productions systems increase soil
cellulosolytic activity and the populations of pedotrophic and
polysacharide-synthesizing microorganisms, but suppress the development
of melanin-synthesizing microorganisms and nitrification activity in
0-30 cm layer of soil. In the first in owailable nitrogen content, which
however does not reduce crop yields and even increases the yields of
winter wheat as compared to conventional moldboard plowing. Minimum
tillage reduces production costs and profitability of winter wheat
production and does not change the profitability of sugar beet
production. Therefore, it is recommended for the practice of crop
production in Andrushevsky natural & agricultural region.

Key words: soil tillage, enzyme activity, energy of nitrification. Soil
microorganisms, nitrogen compounds, crop yields.

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