Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

IAOIIIA Ieaenaiae? ?aaai?eiae/

OAeE 631.4:634.9+591.5+631.4:574

A?IAAIOeAIIOE*IA ?IEUe NNAAOe?A O A?OIOIOOAI?IEO

I?IOeANAO NOAIIAEO E?N?A OE?A?IE

03.00.16 — aeieia?y

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ciieia?? oa aeieia?? Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?
a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? O?aae??a Aiaoie?e Iaaeiae/,
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a aaiaioai?ee,
a?oioiciaanoaa oa aeieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aiinoieia Eaii?ae Aai?a?eiae/,
N?ioa?iiieuenueeee aea?aeoi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a aeieia?? oa
?aoe?iiaeueiiai i?e?iaei-ei?enooaaiiy, caa?aeoaa/.

Aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Aae/aiei A?oae?e
Aiae??eiae/, ?inoeooo ciieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e iii?oi?eiao oa
ioi?iie oaa?eiiiai na?oo, caa?aeoaa/.

Aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Niaoaia Ieeiea
A?eai?iae/, E?eai??cueeee aioai?/iee naae IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

?inoeooo aeieia?? Ea?iao IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e iiioeyoe?eii? aeieia??,
i.Euea?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “21”ea?oiy1999 ?. i 1000 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.051.04, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, 320625,
i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?iaoeie Iaoeiaee, 13, ei?i. 17, aoae. 611.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, 320625, i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?ia. Iaoeiaee,
13.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “16” aa?aciy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,
eaiae.a?ie.iaoe_______________________Aeoaeia A.I.

4

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?ic?iaea oa ?aae?caoe?y caoiae?a iioei?caoe??
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua a oiiaao aio?iiiaaiiiai oeneo aaaaea?oueny
iaei??th c aeooaeueieo i?iaeai no/aniino?. Oey i?iaeaia ia?
ae??ooaaoenue o aeaio iai?yieao: o ?ic?iaoe? uaaeii? oaoiieia??, yea a
ciaiooaaea nooi?iue o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeinenoaie (iai?yiie oaoii-eia?/ieo
i?iaeai ioi?iie i?e?iaee) oa o aeei?enoaii? i?e?iaeieo iaoai?ci?a, ui
oi?iothoue aeieia?/io no?ee?noue a?iaaioeaiieia?/ieo nenoai i?ioe aieeao
aio?iiiaai-ieo, iniaeeai oaoiiaaiieo, /eiiee?a. Ae?oaee iai?yiie ia?
aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy, in-e?eueee i?noeoue o nia? iiaeeeaino? ni?yiiaaii
aieeaaoe ia ooieoe?? ie?aieo eiiii-iaio?a oa no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a
a?iaaioeaiioe/ieo aeinenoai.

A?aeiii, ui na?aae ??ciiiai?oieo aeie?a iacaiieo e?niaeo oa?oiiaaiue
aaceniei ? aaeaoioii, yeee ciaoiaeeoueny a o?ni?e ooieoe?iiaeuei?e
aca?iiae?? c a?ioeaiicii. Oiio aea/aiiy a?ioe/ieo oaeoi??a, ui
iaoiiaeththoue no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueio iniaee-a?noue aaeaoioiio, ia?
oai?aoe/ia ? i?eeeaaeia cia/aiiy. Na?aae aaaeeeaeo a?ioe/ieo oaeoi??a
cia/ia i?noea caeia? ??ciiiai?oia ae?yeuei?noue nnaoe?a, iaeaaaeeea?oith
ooie-oe??th yeeo ? o/anoue o a?oioiooai?aii? (Eaaaeianeee, 1871;
Aeieo/aaa, 1883; Eo/a?oe, 1963; Aaaoo?ia, 1984; Aoeaoia, 1997; Iaoiiia,
1998). C o?aooaaiiyi aaaeeeai? ?ie? nnaaoe?a o i?ioeanao a?oioioai?aiiy
oa a oi?ioaaii? aeieia?/ii? no?eeino? nenoai
na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue ?o ia?aia iaie ye ia’?eo
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aei oeueiai /ano aaaaoi aeine?aeiee?a caa?oaei oaaao ia
a?oioiooai?thaaeueio ?iaioo nnaaoe?a, aea/aiiy aieeao ?oiuei? ?eth/i?
ae?yeueiino? ia oi?ioaaiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo iniaeeainoae a?oio?a
(Aaaoo?ia, 1968, 1979, 1984; Eo/a?oe, 1963; Aoeaoia, 1973, 1975, 1996;
Aaeiaa, 1997; Iaoiiia, 1998). Aoee anoaiiaeai? ye?ni? e aeaye?
e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee oeueiai aieeao. Aea iica iaaeith oaaae aaoi??a
caeeoeeinue aeine?aeaeaiiy nooiaiy aoaeoeaiino? oeueiai aieeao, a oaeiae
aieeao aeacaii? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a ia a?ieia?/io aeoeai?noue a?oio?a,
yea ? ooieoe?iiaeueiith iniiaith a?oioioai?aiiy. Iaeaea ia aeyaeaia
o?io?/ia ooieoe?y nnaaoe?a o oeueiio aaaeeeaiio i?ioean?. Aeiyoeii
noaiiaeyoue ?iaioe i?enay/ai? aea/aiith aieeao aene?aoe?e ia a?ieia?/io
aeano?oeoe?th oa caaaa/aiiy a?oioo ia i?aai?/i? ?a/iaeie (Oiaeaoiaa,
1970; Ceioei, Oiaeaoiaa, 1974; Aaaoo?ia, 1979, 1984; Aoeaoia, Aeoaeia,
?aaa, 1989; *a?iyaneee, Aeiiie/, 1989; Ieeeiei, 1998; Aoeaoia, Iaoiiia,
1998).

Cian?i iica oaaaith aeine?aeiee?a (e??i aeine?aeaeaiue, ye?
i?iaiaeyoueny ia I?enaia?nueeiio noaoe?iia?? (Reva et. all., 1996;
I?o??a, 1996; Aoeaoia, Iaoiiia e ae?., 1997; Aoeaoia, Iaoiiia, 1998;
Pakhomov, 1998) caeeoeeany ?ieue nnaaoe?a o oi?ioaaii? aeieia?/ii?
no?eeino? a?oio?a a oiiaao oaoiiaaiiiai caa?oaeiaiiy.

Ana oea coiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue ii aea/aiith
?ie? nnaaoe?a o ??cieo i?ioeanao a?oioioai?aiiy, a iioei?caoe??
a?iaaioeaiioe/iiai aiiainoaco ye a aaeaoioii?, oae ? a a?iaaioeaiic? a
oe?eiio.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiio-aaeany ia i?aenoaa? ae?th/i? iaoeiai? i?ia?aie A?ieia?/i?
?ano?ne; ?o ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy, a?aeoai?aiiy oa ioi?iia (?icae?e
Oaa?eiiee na?o, ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy oa ioi?iia) ?
eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai ieaio Iaoai?cie ?icaeoeo oa noa??iiy a?ieia?/ieo
nenoai. Ca?aeii c oe??th i?ia?aiith oa eii?aeeiaoe?eiei ieaiii
i?i-aiaeeeeny aeine?aee a iaaeao aea?aeathaeaeaoieo ieaiiaeo oai
Eiiieaenii? aeniaaeeoe?? ? eaoaae?e ciieia?? oa aeieia??
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (?? aea?ae-?a?no?aoe??:
76032451 (1976 — 1990 ??.), 81077800 (1981-1985 ??.), 01860011889
(1986-1990 ??.), 01900059450 (1990-1993 ??.), 0296V006370 (1994-1996
??.), 0196V000264 (1996?.), 0197V000680 (c 1997?. ii ianooiiee /an).
Cacia/aia oaiaoeea eii?aee-ioaaeany Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith ?aaeith c iaoee ?
oaoi?ee N?N?, i?iaeaiiith ?aaeith c a?iaaioeaiieia?? oa ioi?ii? i?e?iaee
AI N?N?, I?i?noa?noaa aeui? ? na?aaeiuei? ina?oe N?N?, a c 1991?ieo
eii?aeeio?oueny I?i?noa?noaii ina?oe Oe?a?ie, Iaoeiaith ?aaeith c
i?iaeai a?oioiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ?iaioe oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ca?aeii c iaoeiaeie i?eioeeiaie
a/aiiy i?i a?inoa?o oa a?iaaioeaiic, ?c aeei?enoaiiyi ?aea? i?i
na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/o ooieoe?th a?ioe, ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiy
iniaenoeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?ia?o — anoaiiaeoe ?ieue nnaaoe?a o
a?oioiooai?ieo i?ioeanao noaiiaeo e?n?a oa a ooai?aii? a?ioe/ieo
iaoai?ci?a aiiainoaco ? oi?ioaaii? i?ioean?a naiii/euaiiy a oiiaao
?nioaaiiy e?niaeo nenoai o noaiiaiio ciiaeueiiio ioi/aii? ? cia/iiai
aieeao oaoiiaaiaco. Ia i?aenoaa? anoaiiaeaieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?iya?a
nnaaoe?a ?ic?iaeoe a?ioaoiieia?/i? caoiaee i?aeaeuaiiy aeieia?/ii?
no?eeino? noaiiaeo e?n?a, eiino?othaaiiy ooo/ieo iae?i?aoeaieo oa
iieacaoenieo e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiue, noai?aiiy ooo/ieo a?oio?a i?e e?nia?e
?aeoeueoeaaoe?? oaooieo a?aeaae?a, ciaioaiiy ?ia?aoth/iai aieeao
aio?iiiaaiieo oaeoi??a ia a?iaaioeaiice. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaii?
iaoe aoee aecia/ai? oae? aieiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

· aecia/aiiy ianyao oa ianooaao iaoai?/iiai aieeao nnaaoe?a ia a?oioiaee
iie?ea o e?niaeo a?iaaioeaiicao noaiiai? ciie;

· anoaiiaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o iaoai?/iiai aieeao nnaaoe?a ia oi?ioaaiiy
a?ae?i-aa?ioa?i?/iiai ?aaeeio oa o?i?/ieo i?ioean?a o a?oioao oa
aecia/aiiy ?oiuei? aoaeoeaiino?;

· aea/aiiy ianyao ? ianooaa?a o?io?/ii? ae?yeueiino? oa aene?aoi?iiai
iiaaeo nnaaoe?a o noaiiaeo e?nao;

· ioe?iea ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino?, o?io?ee oa aene?aoi?iiai iiaaeo nnaaoe?a
ye a?ieia?/ieo eaoae?caoi??a i?aeaeuaiiy aeieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? a?oio?a
oa ?ioaineo?eaoe?? a?oioiaeo i?ioean?a;

· aecia/aiiy aoceiaeo iiiaio?a uiaei o/ano? nnaaoe?a a ooai?aii?
iaoai?ci?a aaeaoioiiiiai aiiainoaco oa a i?ioean? naiii/euaiiy a?oio?a a
oiiaao ?oiueiai oaoiiaaiiiai caa?oaeiaiiy;

· ?ic?iaea caoiae?a c iioei?caoe?? a?oioiaeo i?ioean?a, c ioi?iie
a?oio?a ? aeiae?eey a oiiaao ?oiuei? oaoiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??;

· iiaeeea?noue eiaeeeaoe?? oa ae?aaiinoeee aaiaceno a?oioioai?ieo
i?ioean?a o noaiiaeo e?nao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa aeey noaiiai? ciie
Oe?a?ie ocaaaeueiai? oa iaa?oioiaai? iniiai? aeaee
na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/i? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a, ye? iaoiiaeththoue
i?ioeane a a?oioiooai?aii?; iaea?aeaee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ?aea? i?i
?eth/o ae?yeuei?noue nnaaoe?a ye cia/io na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/o neeo,
ni?yiiaaio ia oi?ioaaiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo yeinoae a?oioiaiai iie?eao
noaiiaeo e?n?a. I?e oeueiio e??i ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee anoaiiaeaia
e?euee?nia ioe?iea aoae-oeaiino? oeueiai aieeao ia anth e?niao
aeinenoaio. Aia?oa ioa?aeoa?eciaaii e ioe?iaii aeoiiooaaeueiee oa
eiino?oeoeaiee aeaee ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a, ui ni?eyei aecia/aiith
?ioaa?aeueii? ioe?iee anueiai eiiieaeno iaoai?/iiai aieeao nnaaoe?a ia
oi?ioaaiiy a?ae?iaa?ioa?i?/iiai ?aaeeio oa o?i?/ieo iniaeeainoae
a?oio?a.

Aia?oa iiaeaia ye?nia oa e?euee?nia ioe?iea o?ioiiaoaaie?/iiai aieeao
nnaaoe?a ia neeaaei? a?oioia? i?ioeane: a oi?ioaaii? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
iniaeeainoae a?oio?a (oaa?-ae?noue, ii?eno?noue, aieia?noue,
aoi?o?eaoe?y, pH, iaeiie/aiiy i?aai?/ieo oa i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei),
aeoea?caoe?? iioaioe?aeueii? oa aeooaeueii? a?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino?
a?oio?a (i?e?ia?ieia?/ii?, oa?iaioaoeaii?, o iaeiie/aii? noia?ii?
e?eueeino? ai?iieeneio, a?oioiaiio aeeoaii? oa ?icaeoeo iaaeiciioe ye a
ye?nii-e?euee?niiio, oae ? a ooieoe?iiaeueiiio neeaae?). Iaea?aeaee
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ?aea? i?i ?ieue o?io?/iiai oa aene?aoi?iiai aieeao
nnaaoe?a ia a?iaeano?oeoe?th i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei.

Aia?oa anoaiiaeaia ?ieue ??cieo aeae?a na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/i?
ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a ye a?ioe/iiai aioei?aneiaiaiai oaeoi?o uiaei
oaoiiaaiiiai aieeao, ianaiia?aae o i?ioean? naiii/euaiiy a?oio?a a?ae
i?iieneiaiai oa ?aae?aoe?eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy, o a?aeiiaeaii?
iaeaaaeeea?oeo no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?ioe/ieo aeaiaio?a
a?oioiooai?aiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino?
ooieoe?iiaeueii? ?ie? nnaaoe?a o i?ioeanao a?oioioai?aiiy oa a ooai?aii?
iaoai?ci?a aiiainoaco aaeaoioiio ? anueiai a?iaaioeaiico iathoue noaoe
iaoeiaith iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee i?aeoe/ieo ae?e a nenoai? caoiae?a,
ni?yiiaaieo ia iie?ioaiiy e?ni?ineeiieo oiia i?e?iaeieo oa ooo/ieo
e?niaeo a?iaaioeaiic?a aeey noaiiai? ciie. I?aeoe/i? ?ic?iaee uiaei
noai?aiiy ae?eyiie e?niai? ?aeoeueoeaaoe?? ciaeoee ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a
caoiaeao oi?aae?iiy ioi?iie i?e?iaee o?anoo Iaaeia?aaeaoa?eey.
?o?iaeoeoe?y oa i?eaaaethaaiiy aeoeaieo a?oioiooai?iee?a – nnaaoe?a
aeiiiiiaee o a?eueo nei?i/ai? oa?i?ie i?e?iaeii naaeainoaaoe ooo/i?
aaeaoioiie, ui iicia/eeiny ia oni?oiiio ?icaeoeo ?aeoeueoeaaoe?eiiai
aea?aainoith. ?ic?iaeai? iieiaeaiiy aeicai-eythoue aeaui ci?ieoe iao?
oyaeaiiy i?i ?ieue oaa?ei a aeinenoaiao (1976 – 1986 ??.).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei aieeao na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/i? ae??
nnaaoe?a ia i?ioeane naiii/euaiiy a?oio?a a?ae oaoiiaaiiiai caa?oaeiaiiy
ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy i?e neeaaeaii? oa aeeiiaii? oaiaoe/ieo
ieai?a IAe? a?ieia?? Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neaoo (1995 — 1997
??.), o ieaioaaii? oa i?aai?caoe?? i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e
I?eaei?i?ia`y a Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio iaeaniiio oi?aa-e?ii? c aeieia?/ii?
aaciaee (1997, 1998 ??).

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e aeeeaaeaii? caaaeueieo
eo?n?a A?oioiciaanoai ? Ciieia?y o?aaaoieo, Iniiae aeieia?? oa ?yaeo
niaoeeo?n?a: Oa??ieia?y, Aeieia?y oaa?ei, Ooieoe?iiaeueia ciiaeieia?y,
Iaoiaeeea iieueiaeo aeieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue AeAeO ? ai?iaaaeaeai? a
iaa/aeueiee i?ioean aaaaoueio aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie oa
NIAe. On? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeai? aeieoiaioaeueii.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?y ? iniaenoith iaoeiaith
i?aoeath, yea aeeiioaaeanue aaoi?ii i?ioyaii 20 ?ie?a o neeaae?
Eiiieaenii? aeniaaeeoe?? AeAeO c aea/aiiy e?n?a noaiiai? ciie. Aaoi?, ye
a?aeiia?aeaeueiee aeeiiaaaoeue oaie ? iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeayeeo oai
(?0196V000264), iniaenoi ?ic?iaea i?ia?aio oa iaoiaee/i? i?ae-oiaee
aeine?aeaeaiue na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/i? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a o
a?oioiooai?aii? a i?e?iaeieo, ooo/ieo oa o?ainoi?iiaaieo e?niaeo
aeinenoaiao I?eaei?i?ianueeiai ?aa?iio, a?aa iniaenoo o/anoue o
cae?aii?, ia?iaoe?, aiae?c? oa a ocaaaeueiaii? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai oa
iieueiaiai iaoa??aeo, a ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? e i?aeaioiaoe? iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?e.

Aaoi?ii i?aeaioiaeaii 39 naiino?eieo ioae?eaoe?e, a a ?iaioao, ui
iioae?eiaai? a ni?aaaoi?noa?, /anoea iniaenoi? o/ano? noaiiaeoue 30-80%.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? ai?iaiaai?
ia iaoeiaeo oi?oiao, i?enay/aieo ieoaiiyi aeieia??, oa??ieia??,
a?oioiciaanoaa, aeioieneeieia?? oa a?i?iaeeeaoe??, no?eeiio ?icaeoeo
aeinenoai: ia 31 i?aeia?iaeiiio (Iineaa (N?N?), 1985; Neeoeaea? (N?N?),
1990; Oaeiaiue, Oaeaaiue (EI?), 1993; Ii?aaea-Eicoaiee (Iieueua), 1993;
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee (Oe?a?ia), 1993, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Ia?eae
(O?aioe?y), 1993, 1998; Iineaa (?in?y), 1995, 1997, 1998; Eeoeiao
(Iieaeiaa), 1985; Iain? (O?aioe?y), 1996; Naaanoiiieue (Oe?a?ia), 1996;
Eae?oi?i?y (NOA), 1997; Ainoa?aeai (I?aea?eaiaee), 1997; TH?iaea
(Eaoa?y), 1997; Caii??aeaey (Oe?a?ia), 1998; Aiiaeue (A?ea?onue), 1998;
Aneai?y-Iiaa (Oe?a?ia), 1998; Ai?aei (O?aioe?y), 1998; I?aaa (*anueea
?anioae?ea), 1998; A?eai?iae (?in?y), 1998; Naioueyai-aea-Eiiiinoaea
(?niai?y), 1998; Eai?? (?oae?y) 1998; Aioae?y (Oo?oe?y) 1998); ia 19
ananithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo oa ia?aaeao: V?? ciiaaia?ao?/i?e (Iineaa,
1980), ia V–V?? ia?aaeao uiaei a?ecoi?a (Na?aoia, 1980; Eai?ia?aae,
1984; Iaeue/ee, 1988), c i?iaeai a?oioiai? ciieia?? (Ee?a, 1981;
Aooaaaae, 1984; Oa?e?n?, 1987; Iiainea??nuee, 1991); ia ???-V c`?caeao
oa??ieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa AI N?N? (Iineaa, 1982, 1986, 1990); c i?iaeai
ooieoe?iiaeueii? ?ie? a?ioe/ieo eiiiiiaio?a o a?iaaioeaiicao
(E?aniiy?nuee, 1983; Oaaa?ianuee, 1987), c iiaaae?iee oaa?ei (Iineaa,
1984), c aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? eaiaeoaoo?a (Iineaa, 1987), uiaei
oooeai/ee?a N?N? oa ?oiuei? ?ie? a a?iaaioeaiic? (Ioeon, 1988), c
eaaeano?o oaa?eiiiai na?oo (Ooa, 1989), c e?niai? oeiieia??
(Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1991), c a?ieia?? eiiaoi?aeieo nnaaoe?a
(Iiainea??nuee, 1992); ia 8 ?anioae?eainueeeo oa ?aa?iiaeueieo ia?aaeao
?anioae?e N?N? oa e?a?i NIAe: ???-V iaeanieo ia?aaeao Oaa?eiiee na?o
A?ei?onueeiai Iie?nny oa eiai ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy (Aiiaeue, 1983,
1985, 1988); 6-e ciieia?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? A?ei?onueei? ?N? (A?oaanuee,
1989); Ana?in?enueeiio c`?cae? oa??ieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa ?AI (Iineaa,
1995); ia Ana?in?enuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c i?iaeai e?aeiaeo no?oeoo?
a?ioeaiic?a (Na?aoia, 1997); ia ??? Ana?in?enueeiio c`?cae? c
?aae?ia?ieia??, ?aae?iaeieia??, ?aae?aoe?eii? aaciaee (Iineaa, 1997); ia
Ana?in?enuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c aio?iiiaaiii? aeaa?aaeaoe?? a?oioiaiai
iie?eao (Iineaa, 1998); ia 10 Anaoe?a?inueeeo ia?aaeao oa eiioa?aioe?yo:
2-e oa 3-e ia?aaeao c a?iaaioeaiieia?? (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1978, Euea?a,
1984); c ?aeoeueoeaaoe?? ii?ooaieo caiaeue (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1992), c
aeooaeueieo ieoaiue aeieia?? Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeiai ?aa?iio oa
Na?aaecaiiiii?’y (sseoa, 1993); c ae??oaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai o
a??ie/iaeiaoaaii? oa iaoaeo?a?ei?e i?iieneiaino? (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1993); ia ia?aae? c aeieia?? oa ?iaeaia??? (Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee, 1996),
ia Iaoe?iiaeuei?e eiioa?aioe?? ii caa?aaeaiith a?i??ciiiai?ooy a Oe?a?i?
(Eai?a, 1997, 1998), c ioi?iie aeiae?eey (E?eaee ??a, 1997), c
aeieia?/ii? oieneeieia?? (Ee?a, 1997); i?aenoieiaeo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo AeAeO (1978-1998). O iiaiiio ianyc? ?iaioa aoea aeeeaaeaia
ia noi?niiio can?aeaii? eaoaae? ciieia?? oa aeieia??, aaiaioai?ee,
a?oioiciaanoaa oa aeieia??, Eiiieaenii? aeniaaeeoe??
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 120 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o.
Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeai? o 103 ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo, c
eio?eo 39 naiino?ei?, a oiio /ene? 2 iniaeno? iiiia?ao??, ? a i?aoeyo 49
i?aeia?iaeieo aeaeaiue.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee ?iaioe aeeeaaeai? ia 468 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieno, c ieo aeania oaeno caeia? 300 noi??iie. Aeena?oaoe?y
neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, 8 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e,
nienea aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoea. Oaeno ?ethno?iaaiee 91
oaaeeoeath, 30 iaethieaie. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 1293 iaeiaioaaiiy,
c yeeo 191 ?iicaiia.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

1.INIAEEAINO? A?OIOIOAI?AIIss OA A?OIOIAEE IIE?EA NOAIIAEO E?N?A

A?oio, ca aecia/aiiyi A.A.Aeieo/a?aa (1883), yaey? niaith ?acoeueoao
ae?yeueiino? ??cieo i?aai?ci?a, ee?iaoo, ?noi??? oi?ioaaiiy i?e?iaeieo
oiia ? ?aeue?oo. Oea aecia/aiiy iaea?aeaei na?e ?icaeoie o a/aiiyo
A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai i?i a?inoa?o (1926) oa A.I.Noea/iaa i?i a?iaaioeaiice
(1947,1964,1966). Aeey i?ciaiiy oeueiai aaaeeeaiai eiiiiiaioa
a?iaaioeaiico iaiao?aeiee eiieaeniee i?aeo?ae, aea eeth/iaei iiiaioii
ia? aooe a?oioiooai?aiiy. Inoaii?i /anii ia?aeiieeai aeiaaaeaii, ui
a?oioe i?ae e?nii ia aeaa?aaeothoue a ii?aecieaiee /i?iicai, ye
na?ae/aoue N.?.Ei?aeeinueeee (1887), I.?.Onia (1938), a iaaiaee
i?ia?anothoue ? ia?aoai?ththoueny a e?nia? oa e?niiie?ioai? /i?iicaie
(Ciii, Ieia, 1951; O?aaeaaa, *aaai, 1972; O?aaeaaa, 1977, 1978;
Aaeueaa?ae, O?aaeaaa, 1973, 1995; Aaea?eoei, Aaeueaa?ae, Ciii,
E?oiaieeia, O?aaeaaa, 1983).

Iiceoeaia na?aaeiaeuaooai?thth/a ?ieue e?n?a o oi?ioaaii? /i?iicai?a
?ioaa?o?oueny c iiae?aiith ooieoe?iiaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth ??cieo
a?oioiaeo oa?oiiaaiue — /eiieeaie a?oioioai?aiiy. A i?ioean? aiae?co
?ia?o ye caaaeueiiai ieaio, oae ? ?aa?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o (i?ae?icae?e
1.2.1) caa?iaii oaaao ia aieiai? oaeoi?e a?oioioai?aiiy a oiiaao noaio,
aea e?nia? a?iaaioeaiice ciaoiaeyoueny a aaia?ao?/iiio, a /anoi ? a
aeieia?/i?e iaa?aeiia?aeiino? noaiiaiio ioi/aiith. ?icaeyaeathoueny
ee?iaoe/i? (1.2.1), aaieia?/i?, aaiii?oieia?/i? (1.2.2),
a?ae?iaaieia?/i? (1.2.3) oa a?ioe/i? (1.2.4) /eiieee. Na?aae a?ioe/ieo
/eiiee?a, ye? iaoiiaeththoue aieiaiee i?ioean a?oioioai?aiiy, aaeeeo
?ieue a?ae?a?athoue o?oioeaiioe/i? (Iie/aiia, 1970; Aaeueaa?ae, 1971;
O?aaeaaa, 1972), ciioeaiioe/i? (Aeey?ia, 1970; Aaaoo?ia, 1979, 1984;
Lidicker, 1989; Nakamyra, 1987; Martinsen et. all., 1990; *a?iiaa, 1991;
No?eaaiiaa, 1994) oa i?e?ia?ieia?/i? (Ieoonoei, 1972; Aeia?iaieueneee,
Ieeeoei, 1990; Cayaeioeaa, 1978, 1988; Aiae?ethe, 1981; Myrold at. all.,
1989, 1990; Eoeee, 1991; Cayaeioeaa oa ?i., 1992; Noaoo?ae, 1997). O
caeeth/iiio i?ae?icae?e? (1.3; 1.4) oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?oioiaee iie?ea
oa i?iai? ieiu? I?eaei?i?ia’y, ia yeeo aeeiioaaeenue aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aiae?c iaoeiaeo aeaea?ae na?ae/eoue, ui na?aae no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a
a?oioioai?ai-iy iaeiaio aea/aieie ? aeu? aaoa?io?ioe, iii?ae yeeo cia/ia
i?noea caeiathoue nnaaoe?.

2.IA’?EOE OA IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue yaey?oueny a/aiiy
A.I.Noea/iaa (1947, 1964) i?i a?iaaioeaiice. Iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei
aea/aiiy neeaaeieo aca?ii-ca’yce?a, ye? iaoiiaeththoue i?ioean
a?oioiooai?aiiy, aoaeoaaeenue ia caaaeueieo i?i-a?aiieo
a?iaaioeaiieia?/ieo i?eioeeiao oeiieia?? ooo/ieo ? i?e?iaeieo noaiiaeo
e?n?a oa ia caeiiii??iinoyo a?oioiooai?aiiy i?ae noaiiaeie e?naie (Ciii,
1964, 1982; Aeeianiai, 1966; Aaeueaa?ae, 1971; Aieinoaaineee, 1972;
O?aaeaaa, 1972, 1973; Aaeue-aa?ae, O?aaeaaa, 1980; Aeieei, 1982 oa ?i.).
Eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa? aeine?aeaeaiue aeiaaaa oe?ieiai iaai?o iaoiaee/ieo
caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia aea/aiiy ??cieo noi??i
na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/i? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aoee nnaaoe? oa ?oiy ??ciiiai?oia
na?aaeiaeua-ia?aoo-ai?thth/a ae?yeuei?noue a oiiaao noaiiaeo e?n?a
I?eaei?i?ia’y. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? cae?aeenue aaoi?ii oi?iaeiaae 1978
— 1998 ??. ca o/anoth o neeaae? Eiiieaenii? aeniaaeeoe??
Aei?i?i-iao?ianueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo ia I?aeia?iaeiiio
I?enaia?nueeiio a?inoa?iiio noaoe?iia??, eiai o?e?yo (Cao?aeiee
Aeiiaan), oa a ?ioeo ooo/ieo, i?e?iaeieo oa o?ainoi?iiaaieo e?niaeo
a?iaaioeaiicao ?aa?iio.

Aeey aea/aiiy nooiaiy aieeao nnaaoe?a ia ??ci? a?oioia? i?ioeane oa
iieacieee caaaeueiei iaoiaee/iei i?eeiiii aoei ia?aii ii??aiyeueiee
iaoiae, yeee iieyaaa o cae?aii? i?ia oa i?iaaaeaii? aei???a a iaeei ?
oie aea /an, a ?aeaioe/ieo oiiaao ye a i?noeyo aaciina?aaeiuei? ae??
nnaaoe?a aai ia aenia?eiaioaeueieo ae?eyieao, oae ? a i?noeyo, ye? oaei?
ae?? ia caciaaaee (eiio?ieue).

Aeey ioe?iee ianooaa?a oa ianyao na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/i? ?ie?
nnaaoe?a aecia/aany e?euee?niee neeaae oaa?ei oa aaee/eia ii?ooaii? ieie
ieiu?. O aecia/aii? e?euee?niiai neeaaeo nnaaoe?a aeei?enoiaoaaeeny
aei?aaaeai? /anii iaoiaeeee, aeai? yeeo iaeaeeae/a a?aeiia?aeaee
aaniethoiei cia/aiiyi (Iiiia, Oaeueeaiooaei, 1939; Iiaeeia, 1953;
Aeoeueeaeo, 1962; Aoaa?ue, 1976; Ioca/aiei, 1994; Ea?anaaa, Oaieeoeeia,
1996). Ca?aeii c ia?oeaey?iith no?oeoo?ith a?iaaioeaiico
?ic?aoiaoaaeanue e?euee?noue oaa?ei, ui i?eoiaeeeanue ia ia’?aeiaiee
a?iaaioeaiic (Aoeaoia, 1980). Iaoiaeeea aea-/aiiy ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino?
oa ioe?iee ?? ianya?a iieyaaee o i?yiiio i?ae?aooieo e?eueeino? oa ieiu?
ii?e?a (Eo/a?oe, 1952; Ai?iiia, 1964) oa caeeaaeaii? iae?eiaeo
iaeaeai/ee?a, aea nenoaiaoe/ii cacia/aeenue e?euee?noue ii?e?a, ?oiy
e?euee?nia aeeiai?ea oa /an ae??. Ianya oa ieiua aeeeae?a aecia/aeenue
ca ?ic?iaeaiith iaie iaoiaeeeith (Iaoiiia, 1986).

O?ceei-o?i?/i? iniaeeaino? a?oio?a iaie aecia/aeenue ca
caaaeueiia?aeiieie iaoiaeeeaie (Aaaoo?ia, 1963, 1984; Cu?eia, I?eia,
1964, 1980; Aaeue/eeiaa, 1965; ?aaoo, ?iaea, 1969; Aaaethieia,
Ei?/aaeia, 1973; E.O?aaeaaa, A. O?aaeaaa, 1979; Eao?e/aa, 1980; Ieiaaa,
1989). Ai?no aeaiaio?a, niieoe aecia/aany ca aeiiiiiaith
aoiiii-aani?aoe?eiiai niaeo?ioioiiao?a (AAS-30).

Ioe?ithaaiiy aaee/ei oa ianyao o?ioiiaoaaie?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
i?iaiaeeeiny oeyoii i?yieo i?ae?aooie?a ia i?iaieo ae?eyieao oa
?ic?aooieo aeaieo uiaei niiaeeaaiiy e aeae?eaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith ??aiyiiy
o?ioiaeeiai?/iiai aaeaino (Bertalanffu, 1957; Mc Nab Brian, 1963;
Golley, 1967). Aeey aecia/aiiy caaaeueiiai iai?io aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
eiao?oe??ioe aeoeaiino? ??cieo a?oii nnaaoe?a (Hemmison, 1960; Aeneiaa,
1970; Iaaeaea?ei, 1974). O/anoue nnaaoe?a o aeano?oeoe?eieo i?ioeanao
aea/aeanue a oiae? aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?ia?o (Ceioei, Oiaeaoiaa, 1974).

Aea/aiiy iieaciee?a a?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? a?oio?a (i?e?ia?ieia?/ii?,
oa?iaioa-oeaii?, ai?iieeneioii?, uiaei aeae?eaiiy NI2, a?oioiai?
ciia?ioe) i?iaiaeeeinue ia iniia? ii?aoeueiaaieo oa ca?aeiiaiaeiaaieo
iaoiaeee (Ieoonoei, Iao?iaa, 1961; E?aneeueieeia, 1966; Oanoeaoe, 1971;
Eoi?aae/, 1974; Aeey?ia, 1975; Ei?aaiiaa, 1975; No?eaaiiaa, 1975;
Aaeueoea?, Ei?aaiiaa, 1976; Aaeueoea?, Eaiia-ieeiaa, 1979; Aaeueoea?,
1980; Cayaeioeaa oa ?i., 1980; Ieiaaa, 1989).

Ca a?eueo?noth iieaciee?a, ye? caciaaaee ci?i i?ae aieeaii ae??
nnaaoe?a, ?ic?aoiao-aaeenue oaeoe/ia oa ii??aiyeueia aoaeoeai?noue ye
aaciina?aaeiuei ia i?noeyo aieeao, oae ? aeey an??? nenoaie ia eiie?aoio
ieiuo a?aeiia?aeii ca oi?ioeaie, ui aeaaaeai? iaie:

Aoa = a-a; Aia = Aoa *100 / a; Aoc = ((A*a- A*a)/100) — a;

Aic = (Aoc* 100) / a, aea:

Aoa — oaeoe/ia aoaeoeai?noue aieeao nnaaoe?a ia iieacieee a?oioo a
i?noeyo ?oiuei? ae??;

Aia — ii??aiyeueia aoaeoeai?noue o oeo aea i?noeyo; Aoc — caaaeueia
aoaeoeai?noue aieeao nnaaoe?a ia iieacieee a?oio?a o nenoai? ?ic?aooieo
ia 1 aa ieiu?; Aic — caaaeueia ii??a-iyeueia aoaeoeai?noue aieeao
nnaaoe?a o nenoai?; a — iieaciee ia?aiao?a eiio?ieth; a — iieaciee
ia?aiao?a a i?noeyo ae?? nnaaoe?a; A — ieiua oa?eoi??? (%), yea ia
ciaoiaeeeanue i?ae aieeaii nnaaoe?a; A — ieiua oa?eoi??? (%), yea
ciaoiaeeeanue i?ae aieeaii nnaaoe?a. Oaeoe/ia aoaeoeai?noue
?ic?aoiao?oueny a iaeeieoeyo aei??o ia?aiao?a, ii??aiyeueia a
i?ioeaioao aei eiio?ieth.

Ia?iaea io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a cae?enithaaeanue iaoiaeii aa??aoe?eii?
noaoenoeee (Aaeee, 1963; Eaeei, 1990) c aeei?enoaiiyi ia?niiaeueiiai
eiiiuethoa?a IBM-486 ?c no/aniei iaai?ii i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy.
Aeai?ea i?ia oa aei??thaaiue i?iaiaee-eanue ia iaio ye a oanoee?aoi?e
iiaoi?thaaiino?.

3. EEANEO?EAOe?ss NA?AAeIAEUAIA?AOOAI?THTH*I? Ae?ssEUeIINO? NNAAOe?A O
A?OIOIOAI?IIIO I?IOeAN?

Ia?o? ni?iae eeaneo?eaoe?? iaeiiai c i?iya?a na?aaeiaeuaooai?thaaeueii?
ae?yeue-iino? nnaaoe?a aoee ?icii/ao? A.A.I?aoe?iei (1946), yeee
aeae?eea 7 oei?a ?oiuei? ?eth/i? ae??. Cia/ia oaaaa a i?e i?eae?eyeanue
ii?oino?oeoo?? i?? oa ii?e?a. O ooieoe?iiaeueiiio ieai? aeacoaaeinue
eeoa ia aeaye? oa?aeoa?enoeee oeeo oei?a o a?oioiaeo i?ioeanao. Cia/iee
aeeaae a ocaaaeueiaiiy ae?yeueiino? oaa?ei aoei aianaii E.A.Aeeianiaiii
(1968), A.Ae.Aaaoo?iaei (1966, 1979, 1984) oa ?i. C 10 aeae?a
ae?yeueiino? 8 — a?aeianaii aei a?oioiooai?thaaeueii?. Iaea?eueo iiaia
eeaneo?eaoe?y an?o aeae?a ae?yeueiino? anueiai eiiieaeno o?aaaoieo, aea
iniiao noaiiaeyoue nnaaoe? c i?iyaeaiiyi a?oioiooai-?thaaeueii? ?ie?,
?ic?iaeaia A.E.Aoeaoiaei (1973). A ?ioeo /eneaiieo i?aoeyo ?icaeyaeaeany
eeoa ii?oino?oeoo?a ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a. O an?o cacia/aieo
eeaneo?eaoe?yo ia aoei ia’?aeiaiiy ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a ca
ooieoe?iiaeueiei i??i?eoaoii.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy iiia?aaei?o ?ic?iaie oa aiae?c i?iaaaeaieo iaie
aeine?aeaeaiue (Ia-oiiia, 1998) aeathoue ciiao cai?iiiioaaoe oaeo
eeaneo?eaoe?th. Iaie aeae?ey?oueny 3 oeie na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/i?
ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a o a?oioiaeo i?ioeanao: iaoai?/-iee, o?io?/iee (aai
o?ioiiaoaaie?/iee) oa eiino?oeoeaiee. Iaea?eueo ianooaaiei ? aoaeoeaiei
? iaoai?/iee oei ae??. Oeae oei neeaaea?oueny c aeaio iniiaieo eean?a
ae?yeue-iino? — ?eth/i? oa aeoiiooaaeueii?, ye?, a naith /a?ao, a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?aeoa?o aieeao ia a?oioe, ?iciiae?eythoueny
a?aeiia?aeii ca aeaeaie: i?iiecoth/ee (aonoa ii?ia n?oea), aeiiniee, aai
ia?aa?aeeeaaeiee (aeeeaee a?oioo ia iiaa?oith), ?ic?eoethth/ee
(iiaa?o-iaa? oiaee oa ii?e? nnaaoe?a) oa noaaeeiaee,
noaaeii-ia?ai?uoaaeueiee, e?aai-eaaeiaaee, ye? iia’ycai? c i?ieeaaeaiiyi
oaa?eiaie ??cieo oei?a oeyo?a oa aeaoooaaiiyi i?noeue a?aeii/eieo.

O?io?/iee oei ae?yeueiino? ? iaea?eueo caaaeueiei aeey on?o aeieia?/ieo
a?oi nnaaoe?a. Iaea?eueo aeioe?eueii ooo aeae?eeoe aeaa eeane ae??:
niiaeea/a ae?yeuei?noue, a i?ioean? yei? aeeo/a?oueny cia/ia e?euee?noue
a?iiane c nenoaie (aei 20-80%, ui a ??ciiio aeaeyae? aeeth/a?oueny a
aeano?oeoe?th), oa iaoaaie?/ia ae?yeuei?noue c aeaeaie aene?aoi?ii?,
na/i- ? aaciaeae?eueii?. Ca ?aooiie iaoaaie?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a?oioe
caaaa/othoueny ia i?aaii-i?ia?aeuei? ?a/iaeie, aoaeaeeneee aac, iaoai,
n??eiaiaeaiue. Ii eiaeiiio aeaeo a?oioiooai?thaaeueii? ae?? nnaaoe?a
c?iaeaii aiae?c noaio aea/aiiy oa iiaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo eiie?aoii?
o/ano? ?o o i?ioean? a?oioiooai?aiiy.

4.CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ? IOe?IEA IANOOAA?A IAOAI?*IIAI AIEEAO
NNAAOe?A IA A?OIOIAEE IIE?EA

No?oeoo?ii oeae ?icae?e ?iciiae?ey?oueny ia i?ae?icae?ee, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue oeie ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino?, ianooaae oa ianyae ii?ooaiiy
a?oioiaiai iie?eao a ?ac? i?iyao ??cieo oei?a ?eth/i? oa aeoiiooaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? oa cia/aiiy iaoai?/iiai aieeao nnaaoe?a ia oi?ioaaiiy
iaiicii?aeue?oo. A eiaeiiio i?ae?icae?e? aea?oueny aiae?c noaio iaoeiaeo
?ic?iaie c aea/aieo ieoaiue.

4.1. Oeie oa oa?aeoa? ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a. O oeueiio
i?ae?icae?e? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ii?ia? oa iiaa?oiaa? oeie ?eth/i?
ae?yeueiino? ??cieo aeae?a nnaaoe?a, ye? iathoue iaea?eueoee aieea ia
a?oioia? i?ioeane. I?eaiaeyoueny ?ici??e i??, ai?caeiaeo eaia?,
ioa?aeoa?eciaaia ii?iaa nenoaia e?ioa, ne?iaea, ieoiiiae?aieo a?ecoi?a
oa ?oi? a?oioia? aeeeaee. Iiaea?oueny ?oi? i?inoi?iaa ?ici?uaiiy — ye ii
ai?eciioaeuei?e, oae ? ii aa?oeeaeuei?e ieiuei?. Iieacaii
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy caeyaaiiy ii?iai? nenoaie nnaaoe?a ii a?oioiaeo
ai?eciioao. Oae, aieiaia iana e?ioiaeo oiae?a caeyaa? o ai?eciio? aei 20
ni (87,7-93,0 % a?ae on??? e?eueeino?), o ne?iaea — 56,4-60,8 %, o
ieoiiiae?aieo a?ecoi?a aieiaia iana i?? neiioeaio?iaaia ia aeeaei? aei
10 ni (84,7-89,4 %), iio?i o ai?eciio? 10-20 ni (10,5-15,2 %), aeeaoa 20
ni — eeoa 0,07-0,13 %.

I?e i?ieeaaeaii? a?oioiaeo oiae?a nnaaoe? aeiinyoue ia iiaa?oith cia/io
e?euee?noue a?oioo. Oae, o e?io?a o na?aaeiueiio, ca aaaaoi??/ieie
niinoa?aaeaiiyie, ia iaeei a?oioiaee aeeeae i?eiaaea? a ??cieo
aeinenoaiao 139-150 ni a?oioiaiai oiaeo ae?aiao?ii 3-5 ni, o ne?iaea
a?aeiia?aeii 134-147 ni ? 7-8 ni. Iiaa?oiaa? ii?e oa /eneaii? ii?eoino?
eaaai?a ? oeaeeo nnaaoe?a (ei?iia? ii?e?) ?ic?eoeythoue iiaa?oith a?oioo
ia aeeaeio 2-2,5 ni ia ieiu? a?ae 100 aei 4000 i ia 1 aa.

4.2. Ianooaae ii?ooaiiy a?oioiaiai iie?eao. A i?ae?icae?e? iaaiaeyoueny
na?aaei? oaeoe/i? aeai?, iaea?aeai? oi?iaeiaae 20 ?ie?a aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue /enaeuei?noue aeeeae?a, ?ici??i? ?oi? ia?aiao?e,
ieiuo aieiai? iiaa?oi? aeeeae?a oa ianyae aeianaiiai a?oioi?eyie ia
iiaa?oith a?oioo. Oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeeiai?ea ?ici??ieo ia?aiao??a
aeeeae?a ca /an ?oiueiai ?nioaaiiy. Ia iniia? ?ici??ieo ia?aiao??a
??cieo aeae?a ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? iiaea?oueny ioe?iea ianooaa?a
ii?ooaiiy a?oioiaiai iie?eao a ??cieo e?niaeo a?iaaioeaiicao i?ae
aieeaii nnaaoe?a. ?ioaa?aeueia ae?yeuei?noue a?oioi?e?a-nnaaoe?a ni?ey?
ii?ooaiith a?oioiaiai iie?eao ia 3-13 % ieiu?, aeianaiith ia iiaa?oith
1,5-24,4 i3/aa a?oioo, ca?eueoaiith iiaa?oi? iie?eao ia 64,2-801,0
i2/aa. Iaea?aeai? ioe?iee ianooaa?a ii?ooaiiy a?oioiaiai iie?eao ?
aeo?aeieie aeaieie aeey ?ic?aooieo aoaeoeaiino? aieeao nnaaoe?a ia
a?oioia? i?ioeane.

4.3. Aeoiiooaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue nnaaoe?a ? ioe?iea ?? ianooaa?a. A
?noi?e/iiio ieai? o aeaiiio ?aa?ii? cacia/aia ae?y aoea iaeaieiai?oith a
aeano?oeoe?? o?aa’yiiai iie?eao a noaiao oa ia?ae?neao. O oaia??oi?e /an
oey ae?y ia? cia/ii iaio? ianyae. A ?iaio? iaaiaeyoueny ia?aiao?e ?
e?euee?noue noaaeie ? e?aa oaa?ei. Ianooaae ii?ooaiiy ieie a?oioiaiai
iie?eao a e?niaeo aeinenoaiao aeineoue iacia/i?, ? ?oi?e aieea ia? eeoa
o?aaiaioa?iee oa?aeoa?. O aae?a/ieo ae?a?iaao nooi?iue oeueiai ii?ooaiiy
neeaaea? anueiai 0,13 % oa?eoi???, a ooo/ieo ianaaeaeaiiyo ia ieaei?? —
0,10%, o caieaaieo ae?a?iaao — 0,38 %, o ai?ao ia a?ai? — 0,51 %.

4.4. Oi?ioaaiiy ciiiaii?aeue?oo. Iaaiaeyoueny oaeoe/i? aeai? uiaei ci?i
iiaa?oi? ?aeue?oo a ??cieo nenoaiao i?ae aieeaii iaoai?/ii? ae??
nnaaoe?a. I?iiecoth/ee aeae ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? ni?eya ooai?aiith
iiieaeaiue, a aeiiniee aeae — iiya? iacia/ieo i?aeaeuaiue. O aae?a/ieo
ae?a?iaao, ui ciaoiaeyoueny i?ae aieeaii ae?? a?oioi?e?a,
na?aaeiuei??/iee ianya aeianaiiai a?oioo noaiiaeoue a?eueo ye 23 i3/aa.
Aiie ca?eueoothoue ieiuo iiaa?oi? a?oioo a?eueo ye ia 800 i2, ui icia/a?
c?inoaiiy ieiu? ca ?aooiie ooai?aiiy ??cieo i?aeaeuaiue ia 8 %. A ?iee
ianiai? /enaeueiino? oe? aaee/eie iiaeooue ca?eueooaaoeny a 2-3 ?ace. A
ooo/ieo ieaei?ieo ianaaeaeaiiyo — a?aeiia?aeii 13,8 i2/aa (3,5 %),
caieaaieo ae?a?iaao — 11,4 i2/aa (5,2 %), a ai?ao — 1,4 i2/aa (0,6 %). O
aae?a/ieo ae?a?iaao a ?acoeueoao? cieao c? noee?a a?oioiaeo aeeeae?a
a?aeaoaa?oueny iinooiiaa ?oi? iai?e?iiy — ia 3-7 ii ca ??e.

5.AIEEA IAOAI?*II? Ae?? NNAAOe?A IA OI?IOAAIIss O?CEEI-O?I?*IEO
AEANOEAINOAE A?OIO?A

5.1. Aieea ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a ia o?ce/iee ?aaeei a?oio?a.
Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?eth/a ae?yeuei?noue nnaaoe?a i?iyaey? cia/iee aieea ia
oaa?ae?noue, u?euei?noue, ii?ici?noue, oa?i?eo, aiaeii?iieei?noue ?
aieia?noue a?oio?a. O noaiiaeo e?nao ciaioaiiy oaa?aeino? a?oio?a ?
aaaeeeaith oiiaith aeey o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa a?ioe/ieo i?ioean?a. O
aeianaiiio a?oioi?eyie ia iiaa?oith a?oio? ciaioo?oueny eiai oaa?ae?noue
ca ??cieo ianoaaei o 4,2-17,2 ?aca o ii??aiyii? c iiaa?oiaaei oa?ii. C
/anii aeianai? a?oioe ou?eueiththoueny, aea caeeoathoueny iaio
oaa?aeeie, i?ae o eiio?ie?. A i?noeyo aeeeae?a oaa?ae?noue a?oioo
cieaeo?oueny ii aa?oeeae? ia 27-34 %. Iiaa?oiaa? ii?e? ni?eythoue
ciaioaiith oaa?aeino? iiaa?oi? oa??a a?oioo ia 12,5-35,7 %.

Iioei?cothoueny iieacieee u?eueiino? a?oioo, ye? iaoiiaeththoue
a?ieia?/io aeoeai?noue, aeinooii?noue iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei oa eiai
aa?aoe?ei? aeanoeaino?. A aae?a/ieo ae?a?iaao i?ae aieeaii ?eth/i?
ae?yeueiino? ne?iae?a u?euei?noue ciaioo?oueny ia 7-11 %, o ooo/ieo
ianaaeaeaiiyo — ia 7-9 %, o caieaaieo ae?a?iaao o e?ioiaeiao — ia 4-5 %,
ieoiaeiao — ia 6-9 %. Iaeiaioee aoaeo niinoa??aa?oueny a i?uaieo a?oioao
— onueiai ia 1-3 %. C? noa??iiyi ii?e?a u?euei?noue a?oioo
i?aeaeuo?oueny.

??ci? aeaee ii?e?a nnaaoe?a iaoiiaeththoue c?inoaiiy iieaciee?a
ii?iciino? oa aa?aoe?? a?oio?a o aae?a/ieo ae?a?iaao ia 3,2-23,6 %, o
ieaei?ieo ianaaeaeaiiyo — ia 6,6-17,2 %, o caieaaieo ae?a?iaao — ia
5,4-39,0 %, a a?aiieo e?nao — ia 2,8-13,3 %. I?iieceeaa ii?ia nenoaia
ooai?th? a a?oio? cia/i? ca ianyaii iia?o?yi? ii?iaeieie. A aae?a/ieo
ae?a?iaao caaaeyee ii?eyi nnaaoe?a oaeeo ii?iaeiei ooai?th?oueny aei
25i3/aa, ui a ia?a?aooieo ia aeoeaio ciio aaeaoioiio (aac o?aooaaiiy i??
oeaeae?a) noaiiaeoue aei 0,8 % ianyao a?oioo, a ooo/ieo ianaaeaeaiiyo —
a?aeiia?aeii 6,5 i3 oa 0,2%, o caieaaieo ae?a?iaao — aei 13,2 i2 oa 0,7
%, a a?aiiiio ai?o — 1,7 i3 oa 0,1 %.

Iniaeeai oe?iiei iaaeaaiiyi a oiiaao aeao?oeeoo aieiae a noaiia?e cii? ?
cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy iieueiai? aieiaino? a?oio?a i?ae ae??th nnaaoe?a.
I?ae aeeeaeaie ne?iae?a o ??cieo oa?ao aieia?noue a?oio?a ii??aiyii c
eiio?ieai ca?eueoo?oueny a aae?a/ieo ae?a?iaao ia 4-12 %, a ooo/ieo
ianaaeaeaiiyo — ia 16-21 %. I?ae ieoiaeiaie aieia?noue a?oioo a
aae?a/ieo ae?a?iaao i?aeaeuo?oueny ia 6-11 %, o caieaaieo ae?a?iaao ia
19-23%. A a?oioao caieaaieo ae?a?ia c i?aeaeuaiith aieia?noth i?ae
ii?eyie e?ioa aieia?noue aeaui ciaioo?oueny (ia 3,3 %). Caaaeueiith
caeiiii??i?noth ? i?aeaeuaiiy aieiaino? a?oioo c? noa??iiyi ii?e?a
nnaaoe?a, a oaeiae c?inoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? a i?noeyo c a?eueo iinooeeaeie
oiiaaie. Iiaa?oiaa? ii?e? oaeiae ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaiith iieueiai?
aiei-aino? a?oioo. A ??cieo noaiiaeo e?nao ii?e? eaaai?a i?aeaeuothoue
aieia?noue ia 20-25 % ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai. Ii i??? noa??iiy aieia?noue
a?oioo cieaeo?oueny, aea caeeoa?oueny aeuith ca eiio?ieue ia 6-12 %.

I?iieceeaa ii?iaa nenoaia nnaaoe?a oa iiaa?oiaa? ii?e e?io?a nooo?ai
ni?eythoue caaaa/aiith a?oioo ia aieiao (?en. 1).

Iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii o noaiiaeo e?nao ? oa?i?/iee ?aaeei
a?oio?a. Aieea ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a ia oa?i?eo a?oio?a
iaiaeiicia/iee. Ii?e? nnaaoe?a ni?eythoue i?iyao oaiia?aoo?ieo ?iaa?n?e,
ui iia’ycaii c? ciaioaiiyi u?eueiino? a?oio?a. A?oioia? aeeeaee
ooai?ththoue eieaeuei? aooa?i? ciie. O aeeeaeao ne?iae?a a oiiaao
ieaei?ieo ? aae?a/ieo e?n?a oaiia?aoo?a a?oio?a ciaioo?oueny ia 1,4-5,2
%, a ?ioeo aeeeaeao i?aeaeuo?oueny ia 4,9-7,5 %. I?ae aeeeaeaie an?o
aea/aieo nnaaoe?a oaiia?aoo?a a?oioo, cae/aeii, cieaeo?oueny. Caaaeueia
?ioaa?aeueia aoaeoeai?noue c o?aooaaiiyi ieiu? ii?ooaiiai a?oioiaiai
iie?eao ca aeacaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ia 1 aa ieiu? nenoaie noaiiaeoue:
oaa?ae?noue a?oioo a 40-ni oa?? ca ??cieo oiia ci?-ith?oueny ia 0,2-1,6
% c iaeiaioeie iieacieeaie a a?aiieo e?nao, u?euei?noue a?oioo — ia
0,1-0,3 %, caaacia/ai?noue iia?o?yi — ia 0,1-0,8 %, aieia?noue — ia
0,5-2,6 %.

5.2. Aieea aeoiiooaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a ia o?ce/i? aeanoeaino?
a?oio?a. A oiiaao noaiiaeo e?n?a aeoiiooaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue nnaaoe?a
i?iyaey?oueny neaaei. Aieea ?? ia oae? o?ce/i? ia?aiao?e, ye
oaa?ae?noue, u?euei?noue oa ii?eno?noue a?oio?a caeaa?eueoiai iaaaoeaia
— on? ia?aiao?e i?aeaeuothoueny. Ia i?noeyo eaaeaiue eiieoieo aiie
i?aeaeuothoueny ia 4,7-9,8 % a?aeiinii eiio?ieth, ia noaaeeao oeaeae?a —
ia 3,1-6,2 %, eiieoieo — 6,1-14,2%. O oie aea /an caaaeueia a?aeiinia
aoaeoeai?noue on?o aeae?a aeoiiooaaeueii? ae?? i?aeaeuo? oaa?ae?noue
a?oioo anueiai ia 0,002-0,14 %. U?euei?noue a?oioo a?aeiia?aeii
i?aeaeuo?oueny ia 0,7-5,0 %, 1,5-3,4 % ? 2,9-7,6 % ?c caaaeueiith
aoaeoeai?noth 0,001-0,008%, ii?eno?noue a?oioo — ia 2,5-9,2 %, 1,2-7,6
%, oa 4,7-11,7 % ?c caaaeueiith aoaeoeai?noth anueiai 0,001-0,011 %. O
oie aea /an aeoiiooaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia
i?aeaeuaiiy aieiaino? a?oioo. Ou?eueiaiiy a?oioo aaaea aei nei?i/aiiy
ao?aoe aieiae. A i?noeyo eaaeaiue aieia?noue a?aeiia?aeii ca?eueoo?oueny
ia 3,5-6,4 %, ia noaaeeao oeaeae?a — ia 1,6-1,7 %, eiieoieo — ia 3,1-5,8
%. A?aeiinia caaaeueia aoaeoeai?noue c?inoaiiy aieeao ii an?e nenoai?
noaiiaeoue 0,001-0,007 %.

5.3. Aieea ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a ia o?i?/i? aeanoeaino?
a?oio?a. Ci?ie o?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a a?oio?a aeeeeeathoue cia/io
ia?aaoaeiao ?oi?o o?i?/ieo aeanoeain-oae. Oe? ci?ie a?aeaoaathoueny
caaaeyee ia?aa?aeeeaaeaiith a?oioiaiai iaoa??aeo ? iieyaathoue o
ia?ai?uaii? o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a, ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ia?ae?caoe??
i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei.

Ia e?euee?noue aeianaieo ia iiaa?oith i?e?iaeaiaio?a cia/iee aieea ia?
niaoeeo?/i?noue ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a oa ?oi? i?noeaia?aaoaaiiy.
Aaee/eia aeiino

a?oioo a?oioi?eyie ia eiie?aoi?e ieiu? na?ae/eoue, ui ca ??e aiie
aeiinyoue cia/io e?euee?noue i?e?iaeaiaio?a (oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 1

E?euee?nia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?e?iaeaiaio?a, aeianaieo nnaaoeyie ia
iiaa?oith a?oioo

E?niaeeAeaeEa/aaa?iaaioeaiica?oioi?eyCuFeMnMgZnNa?aeoaaoaNe?iae0,06425,0
322,60812,3950,089aae?a/ia eeii-ynaiaaaIeoiiiae?ai?
a?ecoie0,03718,3791,402 9,5490,065ae?a?iaaOn?
nnaaoe?0,10143,4114,01021,9440,154Na?aea caieaaiaE??o0,024
6,4980,2584,0530,046eeii-ynaiaaa ae?a?iaaIeoiiiae?ai? a?ecoie0,020
9,0201,2784,7970,065On? nnaaoe?0,04415,5181,536 8,8500,111Cia/iee
i?e??no i?e?iaeaiaio?a na?ae/eoue i?i i?aeaeuaiiy a a?oio? aeaeo?e/iiai
iioaioe?aeo a?oioiaeo eiei?ae?a, ciaioaiiy aeenia?niino? a?oioo,
ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo ?ic/eiiiai aoiono oa aeoeaiiai eiaaoeyoi?a a?oioiaeo
eiei?ae?a — eaeueoe?th, a oaeiae i?i caaaa/aiiy a?oioo ia iiaeeai?
i?ia?aeuei? ?a/iaeie.

O ii?eyo ne?iaea oa e?io?a a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?a?iciiae?e aoiono. C
aa?oi?o ai?ecii-o?a a?i ia?ai?uo?oueny a a?eueo aeeaeii?, ni?eyth/e
caaaa/aiith ieaei?o oa??a a?oioo. Aa?oi? ai?eciioe a?oioo nii/aoeo
ca?aeiththoueny ia aoion, aea c /anii ca ?aooiie aeoea?caoe??
i?ia?ae?caoe?eiiai i?ioeano ai?no aoiono iinooiiai c?inoa?. Oaeiae /a?ac
2-3 ?iee ?oi?e ai?no cia/ii caaaa/o?oueny o aeeeaeao (oaae.2).

O ii?eyo ieoiiiae?aieo a?ecoi?a, aea aeianaiiy a?oioo a?aeaoaa?oueny c
iacia/ieo aeeaei ? a?oio ?ioaineaii ia?ai?oo?oueny c i?aenoeeeith,
i?ioeane ooai?aiiy aoiono a aa?oi?o oa?ao a?oioo cia/ii c?inoathoue
(oaae. 2).

6.IAOAI?*IEE AIEEA NNAAOe?A IA OI?IOAAIIss A?IEIA?*II? AEOEAIINO?
A?OIO?A

Iiaeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoai?/iiai aieeao ianiaeo
a?oioi?e?a-i?e?iiaiae?e ia ye?ni? oa e?euee?ni? iieacieee i?e?ioei?e,
oa?iaioaoeaio aeoeai?noue, iaeiie/aiiy ai?iieeneio, aeae?eaiiy a?oioii
NI2, ia ?ineeiiee iie?ea oa iaaeiciioo.

6.1. Aieea iaoai?/ii? ae?? a?oioi?e?a ia ?icaeoie i?e?ioei?e a?oio?a. O
i?noeyo ii?e?a nnaaoe?a cia/ii ca?eueoo?oueny caaaeueia e?euee?noue
a?oioiai? i?e?ioei?e. C /anii ?nioaaiiy ii?e?a ? ?oiueiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ? ?icoaooaaiiy a aae?a/ieo ae?a?iaao a 20 ni oa?? a?oioo
/enaeuei?noue i?e?ioei?e c?inoa? ia 231,2 % (o oiio /ene? ca ?aooiie
ne?iae?a ia 184,1 % ? ieoiiiae?aieo a?ecoi?a — ia 47,1 %), a ooo/ieo
aeoaiyeao ia ieaei?? (ne?iae?a) — ia 53,5 %, caieaaieo ae?a?iaao — ia
30,0 % (o oiio /ene? ca ?aooiie e?io?a — ia 4,5 %, a?ecoi?a — ia 25,5
%), a a?aiieo ai?ao (e?ioe) — ia 61,5 %. O iaea?eueo?e i??? a ??cieo
noaiiaeo e?nao c?inoa? /enaeuei?noue aiii?o?eaoi??a — ia 183,9 — 651,6
%, aeoeiii?oeao?a — ia 109,3 — 456,6 %, ie?aii?o?io?e?a — ia 137,1 —
355,7%, ie?niyaeo a?ea?a — ia 123,8 — 292,6 %, aaoa?io?io?a — ia 167,1 —
255,4, ai?eie?oee?a — ia 168,8 — 211,1 %, ae??aeaeae?a — ia 107,6 —
193,3 %, nii?iaeo aaeoa??e — ia 105,2 — 136,9 %.

Oaaeeoey 2

Aieea ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a ia ?iciiae?e oa caaaa/aiiy a?oioo
aoionii

E?niaee Aeae A?eAoaeoeai?noue caaaa/aiiy a?oiooaoionii,
a?iaaioeaiica?oioi?eyii?e?a % aei eiio?iethA?oioiaee ai?eciio,
niAeeeae0-1010-2020-3030-400-40Aae?a/iaNe?iaeNa?ae?-18,0-1,5-10,9-4,9+23
,6-0,6eeii-??/i?-1,3-5,0-1,1-7,5+14,3-1,1ynaiaaaNoa??+30,9-1,2+3,3+2,1+8
,8+2,5ae?a?iaaIeoiii-Na?ae?+64,2+23,7-4,1+2,5-1,3+7,1ae?ai?Noa??+66,9+18
,1+4,1+1,4-1,6+7,4a?ecoieOoo/ieeNe?iaeNa?ae?-15,5-28,1-10,8+7,1-23,6-16,
2aeoaiye
ia??/i?-15,0-25,1-6,6+26,4+16,3-3,4ieaei??Noa??+8,5-19,5+5,8+6,8+16,6-1,
5CaieaaiaE??oNa?ae?+19,9-8,3-10,7+7,1-23,6-16,2eeii-??/i?-15,0-25,1-6,6+
26,4+16,3-3,4ynaiaaaNoa??+8,5-19,5+5,8+6,8+16,6-1,5ae?a?iaaIeoiii-Na?ae?
+58,9+15,1+3,8-3,9-2,1+5,7ae?ai?Noa??+51,1+21,2+6,5+6,6+1,3+11,0a?ecoieN
ooiaaoeeE??oNa?ae?+6,9-3,4-11,8+12,2+3,3-2,9a??
ia??/i?+40,8-1,6-10,2+8,9+23,1+0,3a?ai?Noa??+21,5-9,0+6,0+10,5+37,9+5,2A
?aeiia?aeii aei a?ae?ioa?i?/iiai ?aaeeio a ??cieo oeiao noaiiaeo e?n?a ?
aeaeiai? niaoeeo?ee ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a ?c noa??iiyi ii?e?a
aoaeoeai?noue c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? i?e?ioei?e a a?oioao ciaioo?oueny
i?ae aieeaii ne?iae?a (o aae?a/ieo ae?a?iaao oa a ooo/ieo aeoaiyeao),
ieoiiiae?aieo a?ecoi?a ? e?io?a (caieaai? ae?a?iae), ca?eueoo?oueny i?ae
aieeaii ieoiiiae?aieo a?ecoi?a (aae?a/ia ae?a?iaa) ? c?inoa? a?ae
na?aeeo aei ??/ieo ? cieaeo?oueny a noa?eo ii?eyo o e?io?a a a?aiieo
ai?ao.

Caaaeueia ?ioaa?aeueia aoaeoeai?noue uiaei c?inoaiiy i?e?ioei?iiai
?aaeooeaioiiai aeieo o an?e nenoai? c o?aooaaiiyi ii?ooaii? ieiu?
neeaaea? a aae?a/ieo ae?a?iaao 7,7%, o aeoaiyeao — 1,1 %, o caieaaieo
ae?a?iaao — 0,6 %, a?aiieo ai?ao — 0,25 %.

6.2. Aieea iaoai?/ii? ae?? nnaaoe?a ia oa?iaioaoeaio aeoeai?noue
a?oio?a. Iaoai?/iee aieea nnaaoe?a ni?ey? c?inoaiith oa?iaioaoeaii?
aeoeaiino? a?oio?a, yea iaoiiaeth?oueny /enaeuei?noth i?e?ioei?e. A
??cieo noaiiaeo e?nao ia i?noeyo aieeao a?oioi?e?a aeoeai?noue o?aace
c?inoa? ia 44,6-138,2 %, ?iaa?oace — ia 24,3-87,5 %, eaoaeace — ia
31,0-88,3 %. Aoaeoeai?noue aieeao, ye i?aaeei, oei a?eueoa, /ei a?eueo
aei?noe? oiiae. Caaaeueia ?ioaa?aeueia aoaeoeai?noue aieeao a?oioi?e?a
ia c?inoaiiy oa?iaioaoeaii? aeoeaiino? ii an?e nenoai? neeaaea? a
aae?a/ieo ae?a?iaao 1,18 %, o ooo/ieo aeoaiyeao — 0,65 %, o caieaaieo
ae?a?iaao — 1,01 %, a a?aiieo ai?ao — 0,32 %.

6.3. Aieea a?oioi?e?a-nnaaoe?a ia ai?no noia?ii? e?eueeino? a?eueieo
ai?ii-eeneio. ?eth/a ae?yeuei?noue nnaaoe?a ni?ey? c?inoaiith
iaeiie/aiiy ai?noo noia?ii? e?eueeino? a?eueieo ai?iieeneio a i?noeyo
?oiueiai aieeao: a aae?a/ieo ae?a?iaao ia 41,9%, o aeoaiyeao — ia 110,6
%, o caieaaieo ae?a?iaao — ia 31,6 %, a a?aiieo ai?ao — ia 15,9 %.
Caaaeueia ?ioaa?aeueia aoaeoeai?noue ii an?e nenoai? a?aeiia?aeii
noaiiaeoue: 1,42; 0,7; 2,32; 0,06 %.

6.4. ?ieue iaoai?/iiai aieeao nnaaoe?a ia ?ioaineo?eaoe?th a?oioiaiai
aeeoaiiy. Iaoai?/ia ae?yeuei?noue nnaaoe?a — ?eth/a ? aeoiiooaaeueia —
aeeeeea?, ye i?a-aeei, ?ioaineo?eaoe?th aeae?eaiiy a?oioii NI2. I?ae
aieeaii ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? ne?iae?a a e?niaeo aeinenoaiao aeeoaiiy
a?oio?a, a caeaaeiino? a?ae iiaiaeieo oiia oa /ano ae?? ??cieo ii?e?a,
aeoea?co?oueny ia 33,6-142,3 %, ieoiiiae?aieo a?ecoi?a — ia 90,4-199,6%,
e?io?a — ia 33,2-124,6 %, oeaeae?a — ia 35,1-170,7 %, eaaai?a — ia
38,4-107,7 %

I?ae aieeaii aeoiiooaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? ?ioaineai?noue aeae?eaiiy
a?oioii NI2 ca?eueoo?oueny ia i?noeyo e?aa eicoe? oa eaaaia a aae?a/ieo
ae?a?iaao (a?aeiia?aeii ia 58,6-204,2 %), eaaaia a ooo/ieo aeoaiyeao,
caieaaieo ae?a?iaao ? a?aiieo ai?ao (a?aeiia?aeii ia 55,1 %, 97,2 % ?
52,2 %), einy a ai?o (ia 11,2 %); ia noaaeeao eiieoieo o ??cieo e?niaeo
aeinenoaiao ia 8,1-16,4 %. O oie aea /an e?euee?noue aeae?eaiiy a?oioii
NI2 cieaeo?oueny a i?noeyo eaaeaiue eicoe? a oiiaao aeoaiye?a oa
caieaaieo ae?a?iaao ia 9,6 ? 32,7 % ? ia noaaeeao oeaeae?a — ia 4,5-10,6
%.

Caaaeueia ?ioaa?aeueia aoaeoeai?noue iaoai?/iiai aieeao nnaaoe?a ia
a?oioiaa aeeoaiiy ii an?e nenoai? neeaaea? a aae?a/i?e ae?a?ia? 11,3 %,
caieaai?e ae?a?ia? — 12,3%, o ooo/ieo aeoaiyeao — 3,4 %, a a?aiiiio ai?o
— 1,6 %.

6.5. Aieea ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a ia ?ineeiiee iie?ea. Ci?ie
a?ae?iaa?ioa?i?/iiai ?aaeeio, o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae oa a?ieia?/ii?
aeoeaiino? a?oio?a i?ae aieeaii ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a
iaoiiaeththoue ciiaaiio aeeiai?eo ?ineeiiiai iie?eao. C?aco i?ney iiyae
ii?e?a ?ineeii?noue cieea?. Aea aaea /a?ac 3-10 i?nyoe?a ia ii?eyo
ne?iae?a o ooo/ieo aeoaiyeao aeaeiaa ??ciiiai?oi?noue ?ineeiiino? a
ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai iinooia?oueny o?eueee a 1,4 ?aca, /a?ac ??e
iaa?oue c?inoa? a 1,5 ?aca, a /a?ac 2-5 ?ie?a a 1,7-2,3 ?aca. A na?aeeo
ii?eyo e?euee?niee neeaae o?aainoith ciaioo?oueny a 4,6, a o?oiiana — a
3,4 ?aca. Iiai?noth aeiaaeathoue eo/i?, e?euee?nii ca?aeiththoueny
noaiia? oa e?nia? aeaee, aea cia/ii c?inoa? e?euee?noue ?oaea?aio?a. O
na?aaeiueia?eiaeo ii?eyo (??/ieo) caaaeueia /enaeuei?noue ? o?oiiana
iaeaea a?aeiiaeththoueny ?c ca?eueoaiiyi iaeiie?oiee?a oa aeaie?oiee?a,
a a noa?eo ii?eyo e?euee?noue ? o?oiiana ca?eueoothoueny a?aeiia?aeii a
1,5-2,2 ?aca. A ii?eyo eaaaia c naiiai ii/aoeo o?oiiana ciaioo?oueny ia
23,9 %. O na?aaeiueia?eiaeo ii?eyo aeaeiaa ??ciiiai?ooy o?aainoith
ca?eueoo?oueny ia 13,3 %. Aeii?iothoue e?ni?oaea?aioe ? iinooiiai
a?aeiiaeththoueny e?ni-eo/i? aeaee. Ca-aaeueia o?oiiana c?inoa? ia 9,0
%. O noa?eo ii?eyo ??ciiiai?oi?noue c?inoa? a 1,7 ?aca, oeaiiii?oia
no?oeoo?a iaeaea a?aeiiaeth?oueny, caaaeueia a?iiana a ii??aiyii? c
eiio-?ieai ca?eueoo?oueny a 1,2 ?aca (iniaeeai o?oiiana iaaecaiiiai
o?aainoith oa ?? ?ecinoa-?e — a 1,8 ?aca). A i?noeyo ii?e?a
iie?auothoueny oiiae aeey e?niaiai iiiiaeaiiy.

6.6. Aieea iaoai?/ii? ae?? nnaaoe?a ia a?oioiao oaoio. A?oio,
ia?a?iaeaiee ??ciiiai?oieie nnaaoeyie-a?oioi?eyie, caaacia/o? ni?eyoeea?
oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo aaaaoueio a?oi oaa?ei. Ia?o ca ana ?eth/a
ae?yeuei?noue a?aeaoaa?oueny ia ?icaeoeo oanoaoeeae. O i?noeyo ii?e?a
??cieo aeae?a nnaaoe?a /enaeuei?noue oanoaoeeae o aae?a/ieo ae?a?iaao
ca?eueoo?oueny ia 19,0-26,6 %, a caieaai?e ae?a?ia? — ia 11,8-16,8 %, o
aeoaiyeao ia ieaei?? — ia 11,5 %, a a?aiieo ai?ao — ia 1,8 %. I?e
oeueiio cia/ii c?inoa? ?oiy aeaeiaa ??ciiiai?oi?noue, aea ??cieoey i?ae
eiio?ieai ? ii?eyie noaiiaeoue 40,0-94,4 %. E?euee?noue i?eaao?ae o oeeo
aea aeinenoaiao a?aeiia?aeii ca?eueoo?oueny ia 29,2-93,1 %, 13,2-114,4
%, 177,8 % oa 10,3-121,3 %; aaiaciaeo ee?u?a — ia 23,2-217,1 %,
26,8-291,7%, 187,6 % oa 86,0-124,6 %; eieaiaie — ia 51,0-204,0 %,
20,0-245,1 %, 101,2 oa 20,0-95,4 %. Caaaeueia ?ioaa?aeueia aoaeoeai?noue
?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a o ca?eueoaii? oanoaoeeae o ??cieo nenoaiao
(ia anth ?oith ieiuo) noaiiaeoue 0,01-1,55 %, i?eaao?ae — 0,69-6,96 %,
aaiaceae — 2,17-11,04 %, eieaiaie — 0,77-11,60 %.

Cia/i? ci?ie i?ae aieeaii ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a a?aeaoaathoueny
a oi?ioaaii? ??ciiiai?ooy, e?euee?niiai neeaaeo, a?iiane oa
ooieoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e a?oioiai? iacioaoie. Aeaeiaa caaaeueia
??ciiiai?ooy a ii?eyo ??cieo aeae?a nnaaoe?a c?inoa? a ??cieo e?niaeo
aeinenoaiao ia 52,0-85,7 %. E?euee?niee neeaae a?oioiai? iacioaoie a
aae?a/ieo ae?a?iaao (o i?noeyo ii?e?a ??cieo aeae?a nnaaoe?a)
ca?eueoo?oueny ia 28,8-127,0%, a ooo/ieo aeoaiyeao ia ieaei?? — ia 62,7
%, a caieaaieo ae?a?iaao — ia 27,9-190,1 %, a noae?a?iaao — ia
21,3-230,1 %. Ca?eueoaiiy ciiiane a?oioiai? iacioaoie a oeeo aeinenoaiao
i?ae aieeaii ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a noaiiaeoue a?aeiia?aeii
46,1-98,7%, 56,8 %, 83,7-141,3 % oa 29,8-123,0 %. A oie aea /an
aeoiiooaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue ? iaaaoeaiei /eiieeii o oi?ioaaii?
a?oioiai? iacioaoie. Ia i?noeyo eaaeaiue eiieoieo e?euee?niee neeaae
iacioaoie a ??cieo noaiiaeo e?nao cieaeo?oueny ia 9,1-67,7 %, ia
noaaeeao — ia 41,5-77,9 %. Aea caaaeath/e ia ?oi? cia/ia e?euee?nia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a nenoai?, aeoiiooaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue ia aieeaa? ia
caaaeueio aoaeoeai?noue c?inoaiiy iacioaoie.

sse caaaeueia caeiiii??i?noue aeyaey?oueny ca?eueoaiiy /enaeueiino?
aeieo nai?ioaa?a oa ciioaa?a ? ciaioaiiy o?oioaa?a, ui ni?ey?
iioei?caoe?? ooieoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e a?oioiaiai ciioeaiico, a?eueo
ni?yiiaaiiai ia ooai?aiiy a?oioiooai?thaaeueiiai ciiaeieo ? i?aeaeuaiiy
aeieia?/ii? no?eeino? aaeaoioiio.

Caaaeueiee ?ioaa?aeueiee aoaeo aieeao an??? iaoai?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
nnaaoe?a ia c?in-oaiiy cia/aiiy iacioaoie ii an?e ieiu? nenoaie
noaiiaeoue a aae?a/ieo ae?a?iaao — ca e?euee?niei neeaaeii — 5,4 %, ca
ciiianith — 4,9 %, a ieaei?ieo aeoaiyeao a?aeiia?aeii — 1,3 ? 1,2 %, a
caieaaieo ae?a?iaao — 6,4 ? 7,4 %, a noae?a?iaao — 1,1 ? 2,5 %.

Oaeei /eiii, oeyoii ia?aaoaeiae o?ceei-o?i?/iiai ?aaeeio e?niaeo a?oio?a
nnaaoe? i?eeiathoue aeoeaio o/anoue a ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?e?iaioe/ii? oa
ciioe/ii? aeano?oeoe?? i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei, o eaoae?caoe?? a?io?i?/ieo
i?ioean?a, o oa?iaioaoeai?e aeoeaiino?, ca?eueoaii? ??aiy noia?iiai
iaeiie/aiiy a?eueieo ai?iieeneio, o ?icoe?aii? a?i??ciiiai?oiino?, a
ooai?aii? iaoai?ci?a aiiainoaco a nenoai?.

7.O?IO?*IEE AIEEA NNAAOe?A IA A?OIOIA? I?IOeANE

Iaoai?ci o?io?/iiai aieeao oaa?ei ia a?oioiooai?thaaeuei? i?ioeane
a?aeaoaa?oueny aaciina?aaeiuei /a?ac i?yia niiaeeaaiiy a?ieia?/ii?
i?iaeoeoe??, aea iniiao noaiiaeoue o?-oiiana, ?? aeano?oeoe?th /a?ac
o?aaeaiiy oa iiaa?iaiiy /anoeie niiaeeaaii? i?iaeoeoe?? o aeaeyae?
iaia?ao?aaeaieo ?aooie ? iaoaaie?o?a. Cacia/ai? iniaeeaino?
i?enei?ththoue e?oaiia?a o nenoai? a?ieia?/ia i?iaeoeoe?y — a?oio oa
aenooiathoue ye eaoae?caoi?e ?aaeoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano.

7.1. E?euee?nia ioe?iea o?io?/ii? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a. I?yia
niiaeeaaiiy nnaaoeyie ei?iiaeo ia’?eo?a ni?ey? caeo/aiith aeineoue
cia/ii? e?eueeino? a?iiane. A aae?a/ieo ae?a?iaao i?ioyaii ?ieo a
o?io?oe? nnaaoe?a aeei?enoiao?oueny 475,5 ea/aa a?iiane (aaniethoii nooa
aaaa), a caieaaieo ae?a?iaao — 484,9 ea, o ooo/ieo aeoaiyeao ia ieaei??
— 267,0 ea, a a?aiieo ai?ao — 169,8 ea. A?aeiioaiiy o?oiiane aei ciiiane
noaiiaeoue a?aeiia?aeii a oeacaieo nenoaiao 5:1, 1,5:1, 12:1 ? 2,8:1.
Oe? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy coiiaeai? oeiii e?oaiia?ao ?a/iaei o nenoaiao. I?yia
niiaeeaaiiy, ye i?aaeei, noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cia/ieie oae caaieie
iia?/ieie ao?aoaie a?iiane (a?ae 20 aei 80 % a?ae caaaeueiiai ??aiy
niiaeeaaii? o?oiiane oa 20-50 % ciiiane). Oaeei /eiii, aiane?aeie
o?io?/ii? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a caeo/a?oueny aei i?enei?aii?
aeano?oeoe?? a ??cieo noaiiaeo e?nao 270-850 ea/aa i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei.

Iaoaaie?/iee iiaae nnaaoe?a o aae?a/ieo ae?a?iaao ca ??e noaiiaeoue
120,8, a caieaaieo ae?a?iaao — 112,1, a aeoaiyeao — 67,0 oa a a?aiieo
ai?ao — 43,2 ea/aa. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aene?aoi?iei iiaaeii oa iiaaeii
a?ae i?ioeano aeae?eaiiy a ??cieo aeinenoaiao iaeaea iaeiaeiaa:
4,9-5,4:1. Ca ?aooiie o?oiiane iaoaaie?/iee iiaae a oeacaieo noaiiaeo
e?nao noaiiaeoue 84,5; 61,3; 93,1 ? 76,9 %.

7.2. Aieea aene?aoi?iiai iiaaeo ia oaeaee?noue aeano?oeoe?? ?ineeiieo
caeeoe?a. Aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui a i?noeyo ae?? aene?aoe?e
??cieo nnaaoe?a aaea /a?ac ??e aeano?oeoe?y e?niai? i?aenoeeee a
ae?a?iaao i?enei?th?oueny ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai a 1,4-1,5 ?aca, o
aeoaiyeao — a 1,6, a a?aiieo ai?ao — a 1,5-1,8 ?aca (?en.2).

7.3. Aieea aene?aoe?e nnaaoe?a ia o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? a?oio?a.
Aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui i?ae aieeaii aene?aoe?e ??cieo nnaaoe?a
i?e ??ciiio /an? ?oiuei? aeniiceoe?? oaa?ae?noue a?oioo ciaioo?oueny a
caieaaieo ae?a?iaao ia 8,3-29,1 %, a a?aiieo ai?ao — ia 8,7-18,5 %,
ca?eueoo?oueny ii?eno?noue a?oioo a?aeiia?aeii ia 1,6-14,1 % ? ia
6,0-14,3 %, iieueiaa aieia?noue a?oioo ia 3,2-11,0 % ? ia 1,7-10,0 %.
Oaeei /eiii, aene?aoe?? nnaaoe?a ? aaaeeeaei aeieia?/iei /eiieeii o
oi?ioaaii? o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae a?oio?a, ye? iaoiiaeththoue
a?oioiooai?aiiy.

7.4. Aieea iaoaaie?o?a nnaaoe?a ia o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? a?oioo. Aieea
aene?aoe?e nnaaoe?a ia o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? a?oio?a cae?enith?oueny o
aeaio i?iyaao — o aeiaeaoeiaiio iaaeoiaeaeaii? i?aai?/ieo ? i?ia?aeueieo
?a/iaei oa ye ae?y o?i?/ieo eaoae?caoi??a, ui i?enei?ththoue
aeano?oeoe?eiee i?ioean iaeiie/aiiy caiano i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie. A
?acoeueoao? oeueiai aieeao ca?eueoo?oueny ai?no aoiono a aa?oi?o oa?ao
a?oioo a caieaaieo ae?a?iaao i?e ??cieo aeniiceoe?yo a 1,12-1,36 ?aca
ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai, a a?aiieo ai?ao — a 1,1-1,32 ?aca. Iieacieee ?I
a?aeiia?aeii c?inoathoue a 1,06-1,14 ? a 1,04-1,17 ?aca. Ca?eueoaiiy
oeeo iieaciee?a, ye aoaea iieacaii a iiaeaeue-oiio, iaoiiaeththoue
ciaoeiaeaeaiiy ??cieo oaoiiaaiieo caa?oaeithaa/?a o a?oioao.

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aene?aoe?e nnaaoe?a ia oaeaee?noue aeano?oeoe?? i?aenoeeee a e?niaeo
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?iceeaaeaii? i?aenoeeee a /a?ai? 1981?.; b — % ?iceeaaeaii? i?aenoeeee
a eenoiiaae? 1981?.)

eiio?ieue i?ae
aene?aoe?yie eicoe?

i?ae aene?aoe?yie i?ae
aene?aoe?yie einy

ieoiiiae?aieo a?ecoi?a

C iaoaaie?/iei iiaaeii nnaaoe?a o a?oio aeiaeaoeiai iaaeoiaeeoue ia 1 aa
o aae?a/ieo ae?a?iaao aei 10,4 ea i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei oa 16,4 ea cieueieo
aeaiaio?a, o caieaaieo ae?a?iaao — a?aeiia?aeii 10,6 ? 14,1 ea, ooo/ieo
aeoaiyeao ia ieaei?? — 5,5 ? 9,2 ea, a a?aiieo ai?ao — 3,9 ? 5,3 ea (a
aaniethoii noo?e aac?). Aaciina?aaeiuei c iiaaeii iaaeoiaeeoue a a?oio
iacia/ia e?euee?noue eiiieaeno NPK (N — 0,41-1,01 ea/aa, P — 0,22-0,73
ea/aa, K — 0,11-0,27 ea/aa). I?enei?aiiy aeano?oeoe?eiiai i?ioeano i?ae
aieeaii aene?aoe?e nnaaoe?a a?aeaoaa?oueny ia 1-2 ii?yaeee aoaeoeai?oa a
iaeiie/aii? oeueiai aaaeeeaiai eiiieaeno, i?ae a ?ac? i?yiiai ?o
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy. Aeeiai?ea aoaeoeaiino? oeueiai iaaeoiaeaeaiiy iieacaia a
oaae.3.

Oaaeeoey 3

Aeeiai?ea aoaeoeaiino? iaeiie/aiiy N,P,K o a?oioao noaiiaeo aeieeiieo
e?n?a i?ae aieeaii aene?aoe?e nnaaoe?a

(a ?iaeaenao aoaeoeaiino?: aenia?eiaio/eiio?ieue)

OeiA?oia*ane?niaiainnaaoe?aaeniiceoe??NPKa?iaaioeaiico(?iee)Na?aeaIeoiii
ae?ai?0,51,80,42,10,61,70,3caieaaiaa?ecoie1,01,30,21,90,51,20,1eeii-ynai
aaa0,51,90,41,70,51,60,2ae?a?iaaEiieoi?1,01,60,42,31,01,50,22,01,30,22,0
0,31,30,2Ieoiiiae?ai?0,57,83,42,41,11,90,5Noooaaoeea?ecoie1,01,80,32,81,
31,30,2a??
ia0,59,23,92,30,81,80,7a?ai?Eiieoi?1,03,30,52,70,91,30,12,02,20,21,20,11
,10,17.5. Aieea aene?aoe?e nnaaoe?a ia a?ieia?/io aeoeai?noue a?oio?a.
Ua a i?ioean? ia?aeiii? aeano?oeoe?? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie i?ae /an
o?aaeaiiy oi?iothoueny eiiiiiaioe i?e?ia?ieia?/ii? aeano?oeoe??. A
aaeoa??ioei?? o?aaiiai o?aeoo iae?/o?oueny 2,23 iei ee?oei ia 1 a
o?aaii? iane, a oiio /ene? ae??aeaeae? — 800 oen., nii?ia? aaeoa??? —
6,0 oen. oa ai?eie?oeee — 9,0 oen. (aiie a cia/i?e i??? ooai?ththoue
noa?oiaee aoai aeey iaeaooiueiai ?icaeoeo a?oioiai? i?e?ioei?e). I?ae
aene?aoe?yie ??cieo o?io?/ieo a?oi nnaaoe?a oaea /a?ac i?nyoeue ?icaeoie
i?e?ioei?e ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai o caieaaieo ae?a?iaao ?ioaineo?eo?oueny
ia 43-179 %, a aeoaiyeao ia ieaei?? — ia 39-83 %, a a?aiieo ai?ao — ia
42-206 %.

O na?aaeiueiio ia ia’?aeiaiee e?niaee a?iaaioeaiic oa ia ocaaaeueiaiee
aeae nnaaoe?a ia ia?oeo aoaiao aieeao (aania — e?oi) cia/aiiy i?e?ioei?e
a?oioo c?inoa? a?eueo i?ae oaea?/? (ia 108,7 %). *a?ac i?a?ieo (c
ianoaiiyi i?ciueiin?iiueiai oa ceiiaiai ia??-iae?a) ?icaeoie i?e?ioei?e
iaaoaa? iaaaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o (ciaioo?oueny ia 26,3 %), a /a?ac ??e
(aania, ii/aoie e?oa) i?e?ioei?a i?ae aene?aoe?yie ciiao aeoea?co?oueny
(ia 41,0 %).

Iiaea?oueny aeaoaeueiee aiae?c aieeao aene?aoe?e ie?aieo aeae?a oaa?ei o
??cieo aeinenoaiao i?e ??ciiio /an? ?oiuei? aeniiceoe??.

Aene?aoe?? nnaaoe?a, o oie aea /an, ni?eythoue cia/iiio c?inoaiith
i?ioaie?oe/ii? aeoeaiino? a?oio?a, yea a iaea?eueo?e i??? a?aeia?aaea?
caaaeueio a?ieia?/io aeoeai?noue, aeeth/ath/e an? o?i?/i? oa a?ieia?/i?
i?ioeane. Aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae aene?aoe?yie ??cieo aeae?a nnaaoe?a o
??cieo oa?ao a?oioo oa a ??ciee ia??iae ?oiuei? aeniiceoe?? a aae?a/ieo
ae?a?iaao i?ioaie?oe/ia aeoeai?noue a?oioo c?inoa? a 1,1-5,0 ?ac?a, o
aeoaiyeao ia iea-ei?? a 1,1-1,6 ?aca, a caieaaieo ae?a?iaao a 1,1-2,5
?aca. I?e oeueiio aene?aoe?? aieeaathoue ia aeoea?caoe?th i?ioaie?oe/ii?
aeoeaiino? aeaeaei ca iaaeaie ?oiueiai ciaoiaeaeaiiy (?en. 3), ui cia/ii
ca?eueoo? caaaeueio aoaeoeai?noue ?oiueiai aieeao a aeinenoai? a
oe?eiio.

I?ae aene?aoe?yie nnaaoe?a cia/ii ca?eueoo?oueny iaeiie/aiiy noia?ii?
e?eueeino? a?-eueieo ai?iieeneio. O aae?a/i?e ae?a?ia? ?oiy e?euee?noue
ca?eueoo?oueny i?ney ia?oiai i?-nyoey aeniiceoe?? ia 73,1 %, a aeoaiyeao
ia ieaei?? ia 15,8-147,6 %, a caieaai?e ae?a?ia? — ia 20,9-84,9 %, a
a?aiieo ai?ao — ia 22,2-75,2 %. Aeoeai?noue aene?aoe?e o?oioaa?a cia/ii
aeua, i?ae ciioaa?a (o 3,9-5,4 ?aca). *a?ac i?a?ieo aeniiceoe??
aoaeoeai?noue aieeao aene?aoe?e ciaioo?oueny, aea caeeoa?oueny ca
iieacieeaie aeuith, i?ae eiio?ieuei? aeai? (ia 3,9-86,6 %). sse ? a
aeiaaeeo c i?ioaie?oe/iith aeoeai?noth, aoaeo ae?? ?o ca?eueoo?oueny ca
?aooiie ?icoe?aiiy ieiu? aieeao.

Aene?aoe?? nnaaoe?a ? aaaeeeaeie /eiieeaie a?oioiaiai aeeoaiiy. A
aenia-?eiaioaeueieo ae?eyieao oa a i?noeyo i?e?iaeiiai iaaeoiaeaeaiiy
aene?aoe?e aoaeoeai?noue ?oiuei? ae?? ia aeae?eaiiy a?oioii NI2 iaeaea
iaeiaeiaa ? ca?eueoo?oueny a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai a?aeiia?aeii a 1,73
? 1,72 ?aca. A ??ci? i?nyoe? aeniiceoe?? a ??cieo noaiiaeo e?nao oeae
?iaeaen aoaeoeaiino? aieeao eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao 1,3-2,3.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui i?ae aene?aoe?yie c?inoathoue aeaeiaa
??ciiiai?ooy, caaaeueia e?euee?noue oa a?iiana a?oioiai? iacioaoie. A
caieaaieo ae?a?iaao a?aeiia?aeii c iieacieeaie iacioaoia ii??aiyii c
eiio?ieai ca?eueoo?oueny i?ae aene?aoe?yie ieoiiiae?aieo a?ecoi?a ia
38,2-81,9 %, 23,6-211,9 %, 15,1-189,4 %, a a?aiieo ai?ao ia 45,2-67,3 %,
4,6-54,2 %, 6,5-38,1 %. I?e oeueiio ci?ith?oueny ooieoe?iiaeueia
no?oeoo?a iacioaoie ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy e?euee?niiai neeaaeo ? a?iiane
o?oioaa?a oa c?inoaiiy nai?ioaa?a ? ciioaa?a. O ?iaio? iaaiaeeoueny
aeaoaeueiee aiae?c ci?i ooieoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e iacioaoie i?ae
aieeaii aene?aoe?e ieoiiiae?aieo a?ecoi?a ? einy a ??cieo e?niaeo
nenoaiao. Oaeei /eiii, aene?aoi?iee iiaae nnaaoe?a ? iaa?ae’?iiith
aeiei-a?/iith eaieith a oi?ioaaii? o?ceei-o?i?/iiai ?aaeeio, a ooai?aii?
i?e?ia?ieia?/iiai e ciioe/iiai aeano?oeoe?eiiai aeieo, a i?aeaeuaii?
a?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? a?oio?a, ye? iaoiiaeththoue i?ioeane
a?oioiooai?aiiy. ?ioaa?iaaiee noi?niee aieea on?o aeae?a
na?aaeiaeuiooai?thaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a ia a?oio oa?aeoa?eco?
?o a oe?eiio ye aeoeai? aeaiaioe a?ioe a a?oioiooai?thaaeueieo
i?ioeanao.

8.NNAAOe? ssE AEAIAIO A?IOAOI?*IIAI I?IOeANO A NENOAI? OOAI?AIIss
AEIEIA?*II? NO?EEINO? AAeAOIOIIO A OIIAAO IINEEAIIAI OENEO OAOIIAAIIEO
*EIIEE?A

Caaaeuei? aeieia?/i? ianoaaeie I?eaei?i?ianueeiai ?aa?iio ioe?iththoueny
ye neeueii iai?oaeai? c ia?aoiaeii aei e?eoe/ieo. A oiiaao, ui neeaeeny,
niinoa??aa?oueny ?ioaineaiee i?ioean o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeinenoai. A
?acoeueoao? neia?aaoe/iiai aieeao eiiieaeno aio?iiiaaiieo /eiiee?a aei
oeueiai /ano caa?aaeinue eeoa 0,3 % i?e?iaeieo iao?ainoi?iiaaieo
aeinenoai, 18,2 % — iiaeeo?eiaaieo ? 81,5 %, ui ciaoiaeyoueny ia

??cieo ??aiyo o?ainoi?iaoe?? (Aoeaoia oa ?i., 1996). Iaeiai?oaeai?o?
o?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane neeaeeny a aaeaoioiiao, oiio aiie a ia?oo
/a?ao iiaeii? aeine?aeaeoaaoeny c iaoith iiia?aaeaeaiiy ?oiuei?
aeaa?aaeaoe?? oa caa?aaeaiiy aeey caaaeueii? iioei?caoe?? aeiae?eey.

Caaaeueiei i?iyaii aeieia?/ii? no?eeino? nenoaie ? ?? neeaaei?noue ?
??ciiiai?oi?noue a?iaaioeaiioe/ii? no?oeoo?e, yea ooai?th? i?aenenoaie
oa aeiee — ye naiii?aai?caoe?ei?, oae ? naii?aaoeyoe?ei?, caeaoi?
i?ioenoiyoe aei?noeiio aieeaia? aio?iiiaaiieo /eiiee?a. Noaa?e?caoe?th
an?o a?oioiaeo i?ioean?a caaacia/o? iiiaeeii?noue aeae?a aeey an?o
i?iya?a a?oioiooai?aiiy. Na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/o ae?yeuei?noue
nnaaoe?a o caaaeueiiio i?ioean? aiiainoaco i?e ?ioaineaiiio caa?oaeiaii?
a?oioiaiai iie?eao ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye iiina?aaeeiaaiee oaeoi?, ui
aieeaa? ia aieiai? eaiee o?ce/ieo, o?i?/ieo oa a?ioe/ieo i?ioean?a.

8.1. Na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/a ae?yeuei?noue nnaaoe?a ye a?ioe/iee
oaeoi? o i?ioean? naiii/euaiiy a?oio?a a?ae caa?oaeaiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy
aeieia?/ii? no?eeino? e?niaeo aeinenoai. Na?aae ??cieo oei?a
na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a cia/ia i?noea, ye
aoei iieacaii a iiia?aaei?o ?icae?eao, caeia? ?eth/a. Ci?ie o?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae a?oio?a ni?eythoue ca?eueoaiith i?iieeii? i?a?aoe??
?ia?aae??io?a caa?oaeiaiiy ? ciaioaiith aeinooiiino? caeo/aiiy ?o o
a?ieia?/iee e?oaiia?a. Aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui i?ae aieeaii
?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? ieoiiiae?aieo a?ecoi?a ca?eueoo?oueny nooi?iue
i?iieeiaiiy eaaei?th o a?eueo aeeaeii? oa?e a?oioo. *a?ac 8 i?nyoe?a
eaaei?e c i?aenoeeee ia?aoiaeeoue o aa?oi? oa na?aaei? oa?e a?oioo, a
/a?ac 14 i?nyoe?a o a?eueo aeeaie? oa?e (20-30 ni). I?e oeueiio
ciaioo?oueny eiai o/anoue a a?ioe/iiio e?oaiia?ao a 1,3-1,5 ?aca.

Ci?ia o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae a ii?eyo a?ecoi?a i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy
caa?i-ceeai ?ooeeaeo oi?i eaaei?th. Ca oeeo oiia a?eueo caa?oaeiai?
a?oioe aoaeoeai?oa ca?-eueiythoueny a?ae oeeo oi?i. I?e caa?oaeiaii?
a?oioo eaaei??i aei 10 ia/i2 /a?ac 2 i?nyoe? ae?? ii?e?a ciaioo?oueny
caaaeueia e?euee?noue ?ooeeaeo oi?i eaaei?th a oiau? a?oioo ia 15,2 %,
/a?ac 8 i?nyoe?a — ia 19,7 %, /a?ac 14 i?nyoe?a — ia 38,3 %. I?e
aeanyoee?aoiiio caa?oaeiaii? a?oioo eaaei??i ?ooeea? oi?ie eiai
ciaioothoueny ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai o 2,1; 1,7 ? 1,4 ?aca. Iaeii/anii
a?aeiia?aeii ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue ia?ooeeaeo oi?i eaaei?th.

Iaoai?ci aieeao aene?aoi?ii? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a ia ai?no aaaeeeo
iaoae?a iaa?oioiaaii ia cia/iiio ca?eueoaii? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie, aoiono
oa ?inoo iieacieea ?I. Oe? o?i?/i? iieacieee iaoiiaeththoue ca’ycoaaiiy
eaaei?th oa ?ioeo iaoae?a a iaio aeinooii? aeey ?ineei oi?ie. Ia iniia?
i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaio?a iieacaii, ui a a?oioiaiio oa?? (0-50 ni) i?ae
aieeaii aene?aoe?e a?ecoi?a /a?ac 8 i?nyoe?a ?oiuei? aeniiceoe?? i?e
neaaeiio caa?oaeiaii? ai?no ?ooeeaeo oi?i eaaei?th ciaioo?oueny ia 27,8
%, /a?ac 14 i?nyoe?a — ia 62,8 % ? iaa?oue i?ney 20 i?nyoe?a — ia 8,9 %.
Ca oiia neeueiiai caa?oaeiaiiy aoaeo cieaeaiiy ?ooeeaeo oi?i eaaei?th
niinoa??aa?oueny /a?ac 2 i?nyoe? ia 36,0-46,6 %, /a?ac 8 i?nyoe?a — ia
43,8-48,9 %, /a?ac 14 — ia 15,1-25,1 %, /a?ac 20 — ia 9,7-24,1 %. C
iineeaiiyi caa?oaeiaiiy (aei 500 ia eaaei?th/i2) cacia/aia aoaeoeai?noue
nooo?ai aeua (a?aeiia?aeii aiia c?inoa? a 4,0; 2,0; 2,0; 1,5 ?aca).

Oaeei /eiii, ?eth/a eaene?aoi?ia ae?yeuei?noue ? aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii a
ooai?aii? iaoai?cio naiii/euaiiy a?oio?a a?ae oaoiiaaiieo
caa?oaeithaa/?a.

8.2. ?eth/a oa aene?aoi?ia ae?yeuei?noue nnaaoe?a ye a?ioe/iee oaeoi? o
a?aeiiaeaii? ooieoe?e a?oioioai?aiiy oa iioei?caoe?? nenoaie. A?aeiii,
ui oaoiiaaiia caa?oaeiaiiy a?oio?a iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ?icaeoie ??cieo
aeaiaio?a a?oioiooai?thaa/?a ? cieaeo? aeoeai?noue a?oioo.
Na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/a ae?yeuei?noue nnaaoe?a cia/iith i??ith ni?ey?
i?aeo?eioe? ooieoe?e ??cieo a?oioiooai?thaa/?a /a?ac ciaioaiiy
?ia?aoth/i? neee caa?oaeithaa/?a. Ia?o ca ana oey i?aeo?eiea
niinoa??aa?oueny o a?aeiiaeaii? ooieoe?e i?e?iaiaeano?oeoi??a — aieiaieo
a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ca a?iaeano?oe-oe?eiee i?ioean. I?e caa?oaeiaii?
a?oioo eaaei??i (100 ia/i2) aaea /a?ac i?nyoeue /enaeuei?noue i?e?ioei?e
cieaeo?oueny ia 35,8 %, /a?ac 3 i?nyoe? — ia 37,6 % (e??i ie?niyaeo
a?ea?a). Aene?aoe?? ieoiiiae?aieo a?ecoi?a iaoiiaeththoue cia/ia
a?aeiiaeaiiy i?e?ioei?e. *a?ac i?nyoeue caaaeueia e?euee?noue i?e?ioei?e
ii??aiyii ?c caa?oaeiaieie i?noeyie aac aene?aoe?e ca?eueoo?oueny ia
41,8 %, /a?ac 3 i?nyoe? — ia 33,2%. Iniaeeai c?inoa? /enaeuei?noue aei
eiio?ieueiiai ??aiy, ? iaa?oue a?eueoa o nai?io?oieo aaeoa??e. Ii?e?
ieoiiiae?aieo a?ecoi?a /a?ac i?nyoeue iaeaea ae??aiththoue caaaeueio
e?euee?noue i?e?ioei?e aei eiio?ieueiiai ??aiy ? cia/ii ca?eueoothoue ??
ii??aiyii ?c caa?oaeiaieie i?noeyie — ia 58,7 %. Iiae?aio ?ieue
a?ae?a?athoue aene?aoe?? nnaaoe?a ? uiaei a?aeiiaeaiiy i?e?ioei?e ca
oiiae ?? ?ia?aoaaiiy aeoeiiieie aacaie aaoio?ainii?oo.

Cia/io ?ieue a?ae?a?a? ?eth/a oa aene?aoi?ia ae?yeuei?noue nnaaoe?a o
ciaioaii? ?ia?aoth/iai aieeao oaoiiaaiieo caa?oaeithaa/?a, o
a?aeiiaeaii? a?oioiooai?thaaeueii? ooieoe?? ciiaeano?oeoi??a. Aieiaieie
oaeoi?aie, ye? aeicaieythoue ooai?thaaoe iaaiee caoeno a?oioiai? oaoie,
? ca?eueoaiiy a a?oio? aoiono, cieaeaiiy eeneioiino? oa caaaa/aiiy
a?oioo ia i?aai?/i? e i?ia?aeuei? ?a/iaeie, ye? ciaoeiaeaeothoue
iiethoaioe. I?e caa?oaeiaii? a?oioo eaaei??i ca?aeith?oueny a?oioiaa
cii??ciiiai?oi?noue ia 21,1-33,3%, e?euee?niee neeaae — ia 26,3-44,3 %,
a?iiana — ia 30,4-33,8 %. Iaea?eueo a?acee-aei aeyaeany aeie nai?ioaa?a,
e?euee?niee neeaae yeeo nei?ioeany ia 28,3-52,4 %, a a?iiana — ia
31,0-35,2 %. Ii?e? ieoiiiae?aieo a?ecoi?a ? ?oi?e aene?aoi?iee iiaae
cia/ii ciaioothoue ?ia?aoth/ee aieea caa?oaeiaiiy. A i?noeyo ae?? oeeo
aieea?a aaea /a?ac i?nyoeue cii??ciiiai?oi?noue, e?euee?niee neeaae oa
a?iiana anueiai eiiieaeno iacioaoie ii??aiyii ?c caa?oaeiaieie
ae?eyieaie c?inoa? a?aeiia?aeii ia 33,3 ? 41,6 %; ia 32,9 ? 47,2 %; ia
8,6 ? 22,6 %. *a?ac 3 i?nyoe? iieacieee iaeaea iaaeeaeathoueny aei
eiio?ieueieo.

Iai?oaeaia ?iaioa an?o eaiie a?iaeano?oeoi??a a?aeaeaa?oueny ia
caaaeuei?e a?ieia?/i?e aeoeaiino?, iieacieeii yei? iiaea aooe
i?ioaie?oe/ia aeoeai?noue. Aea/aiiy aieeao ?eth/i? oa aene?aoi?ii?
ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a a oiiaao caa?oaeiaiiy a?oioo eaaei??i ia
caaaeueiee iieaciee a?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? a?oioo na?ae/eoue, ui
cacia/ai? na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/? ae?? a?aeiiaeththoue aieiaio
ooieoe?th a?ioe a a?oioiooai?aii?. A i?noe? ?oiuei? ae?? caaaeueia
aeoeai?noue a?oio?a ia o?eueee a?aeiiaeth?oueny, a e cia/ii
?ioaineo?eo?oueny ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai a?aeiia?aeii ia 64,2-49,3 % ?
47,2-92,8 %, a ii??aiyii c i?nyoeyie caa?oaeiaiiy — ia 262,5-74,6 % ?
225,0-125,4 % (ia?o? oeeo?e — ae?y /a?ac i?nyoeue, ae?oa? — /a?ac 6
i?nyoe?a).

Ioaea, ?eth/a oa aene?aoi?ia ae?yeuei?noue nnaaoe?a a oiiaao
oaoiiaaiiiai caa?oaeiaiiy ? a?ioe/iei oaeoi?ii a?aeiiaeaiiy i?ioeano
a?oioioai?aiiy. Naia a?i aeeiio? cia/io ?ieue ? a ooai?aii? iaoai?cio
aiiainoaco a aaeaoioii?, ui a?aeaeaa?oueny ia aeieia?/i?e no?eeino?
an??? nenoaie. Ii-ia?oa, nenoaia noa? a?eueo no?eeith o ca’yceo c
?icoe?aiiyi /e a?aeiiaeaiiyi a?i??ciiiai?ooy, ui caaacia/o?
aaaaoieaiaeuei?noue ? aca?iicai?io aeaiaio?a nenoaie. Ii-ae?oaa,
a?aeiiaeth?oueny iiiaeeii?noue aeaiaio?a, ye? aeeiiothoue aanue eiiieaen
a?iaaioeaiioe/ii? ?iaioe a iaaeiaeioe? ? a on?e nenoai?. Ii-o?ao?,
oeyoii ia?aoi?ioaaiiy o?ceei-o?i?/iiai ?aaeeio a?oio?a i?aeaeuo?oueny
aeieia?/ia no?ee?noue e?niaeo nenoai a aei?noeeo oiiaao noaio i?e
aeao?oeeo? aieiae, ye? iineeththoueny i?ae aieeaii oaoiiaaiieo oaeoi??a.

8.3. Na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/a ae?yeuei?noue nnaaoe?a o nenoai?
iioei?caoe?? ?aae?aoe?eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy aaeaoioii?a. Aieea ?eth/i?
ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a ia -?aae?i-aeoeai?noue iaoiiaeaiee ?ioaineai?noth
ii??iiy, ?ici??ieie ia?aiao?aie i?? ? a?oioiaeo aeeeae?a oa /anii ae??
ii?e?a. *ei a?eueo? ia?aiao?e ii?e?a oa /an ?oiueiai ?nioaaiiy, oei
a?eueo aoaeoeai? aiie a aeacaeoeaaoe?? a?oio?a. sse caaaeueia
caeiiii??i?noue i?iyaey?oueny oaea oaiaeaioe?y. O aeeeaeao, ye? uieii
c’yaeeeny, ?aae?iaeoeai?noue aai ia ci?ith?oueny, aai ci?ith?oueny
iacia/ii (ia -7,8-0,6 %). I?ioyaii ?ieo aiia i?aeaeuo?oueny ca ?aooiie
iaeiie/aiiy ?aae?iaeoeaiino? c aoiinoa?e (ia 6,0-18,9 %) a ?acoeueoao?
cieaeaiiy u?eueiino? oa i?aeaeuaiiy ii?enoino? a?oioo. A i?ioean?
noa??iiy ?aae?iaeoeai?noue ciaioo?oueny (ia 2,4-4,3 %). A?aoiaoth/e
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??cieo a?eiaeo aeeeae?a oa aa?o/e aei oaaae ia?aaaaeaiiy
noa?eo aeeeae?a, ie cacia/a?ii, ui oey ae?yeuei?noue aei iaaiiai ??aiy
ciaioo? -?aae?iaeoeai?noue a aaeaoioii?. A oa?ao a?oioo i?ae aieeaii
ii?e?a niinoa??aa?oueny iiae?aia oaiaeaioe?y c a?eueoei eieeaaiiyi
iieaciee?a ? aoaeoeai?oei ciaioaiiyi -?aae?iaeoeaiino? i?e noa??ii?
ii?e?a. O i?noeyo ii?e?a niinoa??aa?oueny i?a?aoe?y ?aae?iioee?ae?a c
aa?oi?o oa??a o ieae/?, ui ni?ey? ciaioaiith caaaeueiiai oiio
?aae?iaeoeaiino? ia iiaa?oi? a?oioo (?en. 4).

I?e caa?oaeiaii? a?oioo eaaei??i /a?ac i?nyoeue o aa?oi?o oa?ao a?oioo
(0-20 ni) -?aae?iaeoeai?noue ciaioo?oueny ia 10,0-15,6 %, /a?ac 3
i?nyoe? oeae i?ioean ioiieth? e a?eueo aeeaeii? oa?e a?oioo (20-30 ni).
Ii?ooaiiy a?oioo ii?eyie nnaaoe?a nii/aoeo i?aeaeuo? nooi?iue
?aae?iaeoeaiino? ia 10,2 %, iio?i cieaeo? ia 7,2 %, iniaeeai a 10-40ni
oa?? ia 11,6-17,7 %. Aene?aoe??, iaaiaee, aeeiiothoue ?ieue ianoie. O
ia?oee i?nyoeue ia i?noeyo aene?aoe?e o caa?oaeiaieo ae?eyieao
-?aae?iaeoeai?noue i?aeaeuo?oueny ia 8,7 %. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aene?aoe??
caeaoi? iiaeeiaoe ?aae?iioee?aee c noi?aeieo ae?eyiie a?oioo ? ?ineei, a
yeeo caaaeueiee oii ?aae?iaeoeaiino? ieae/a iaeaea a 2 ?ace. A oeeo
i?noeyo ooai?ththoueny eieaeuei? iica?/i? ae?eyiee c a?eueo aenieith
-?aae?iaeoeai?noth, c

ineaaeaiiyi ?? ia a?eueo?e /anoei? ieiu?. *a?ac 3 i?nyoe?
?aae?iaeoeai?noue i?ae aene?a-oe?yie cieaeo?oueny. Oaeei /eiii, nnaaoe?
ye aeaiaio ciioeaiico ? e?niaeo aeinenoai a oe?eiio yaeythoueny ia
o?eueee aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii a?oioiooai?aiiy, aea e i?eeiathoue o/anoue o
neeaaeieo iaoai?ciao aiiainoaco ye aaeaoioiio, oae ? an??? nenoaie. Oeth
?ieue iiaeia ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye aeaiaio iaeneeaaei?oiai
a?ioaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano a nenoai? noai?aiiy aeieia?/ii? no?eeino?
e?niaiai a?iaaioeaiico.

8.4. Aeei?enoaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii? ?ie? nnaaoe?a a iioei?caoe??
a?oioi-ooai?iiai i?ioeano a i?e?iaeieo oa ?aeoeueoeaaoe?eieo e?niaeo
aeinenoaiao. Ia iniia? anoaiiaeaii? ?ie? nnaaoe?a o ??ciiiai?oieo
a?oioiaeo i?ioeanao ?ic?iaeai? caoiaee uiaei aeei?enoaiiy ?o a
iioei?caoe?? a?oioiooai?thaaeueiiai i?ioeano ye a i?e?iaeieo e?niaeo
a?iaaioeaiicao, oae ? ia ae?eyieao e?niai? ?aeoeueoeaaoe?? oaoiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaoo?a. Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue: caaacia/aiiy ioi?iie aieiaieo
a?oioiooai?thaa/?a-nnaaoe?a; i?aai?caoe?y ?aca?aaio?a aeey caa?aaeaiiy
a?i??ciiiai?ooy, a oiio /ene? oa??i??ciiiai?ooy, c iaoith ?oiuei?
?io?iaeoeoe?? ? ?a?io?iaeoeoe?? o a?aeiiaethaaeuei? aai ooai?ai? e?nia?
aeinenoaie; iino?eiee iii?oi?eia ? i?aeo?eiea /enaeueiino?
a?oioiooai?thaa/?a-nnaaoe?a ia iioeiaeueiiio ??ai?; i?e noai?aii?
ooo/ieo e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiue oa i?iaaaeaii? ?ia?o uiaei e?niai?
?aeoeueoeaaoe?? oaoiiaaiieo eaiaeoaoo?a a?iaaioeaiioe/ia oi?ioaaiiy
a?aeiia?aeieo oiia aeey i?eaaaethaaiiy aaaeeeaeo o ooieoe?iiaeueiiio
a?aeiioaii? nnaaoe?a; aeey i?enei?aiiy oi?ioaaiiy e?niaiai oa?oiiaaiiy a
oaoiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooao ?io?iaeoeoe?y a?oioiooai?thaa/?a: ia ia?oeo
aoaiao — c i?e?iiaiae?e, ia caaa?oaeueieo aoaiao — c iae?iiaiae?e; a
e?niaeo aeinenoaiao, ye? ooieoe?iiothoue a oiiaao iineeaiiai oeneo
oaoiiaaiieo /eiiee?a, aeei?enoaiiy ooo/ieo ae?e, iiaeaeueii
a?aeiia?aeieo aei i?e?iaeieo oei?a na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/i?
ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a.

AIEIAI? AENIIAEE OA I?IIICEOe??

1. Nnaaoe? noaiiaeo e?n?a ? aaaeeeaei a?ioe/iei aeaiaioii. Aiie iathoue
nooo?aee aieea ia aanue o?ae a?iaaioeaiioe/ieo i?ioean?a a aaeaoioii?, a
a?oioiooai?aii?; na?aae ?oi?o ae?e iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeie yaeythoueny
?eth/a oa o?io?/ia, ye?, aoaeo/e o?nii iia’ycai? i?ae niaith,
iineeththoue o/anoue ??cieo aeaiaio?a a?ioe e ae?thoue ni?yiiaaii,
a?aeia?aaeath/e aaiethoe?eio nooi?noue ooieoe?iiaeueieo ca’yce?a o
nenoai?.

2. Ianooaae na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/iai aieeao nnaaoe?a ia a?oioiaee
iie?ea aeineoue cia/i?, ? a caaaeueiiio i?ioean? a?oioiooai?aiiy a?i
caeia? aaaeeeaa i?noea. ?ioaa?aeueia ae?yeuei?noue a?oioi?e?a-nnaaoe?a
ii?ooo? a?oioiaee iie?ea ia 3-13 % oa?eoi??? nenoaie, ?c ui??/iei
aeiinii ia iiaa?oith 1,5-24,4 i3/aa a?oioo, yeee ni?ey? ci?ithaaiith
iaii?aeue?oo ? ooai?th? iica?/i? iino?eii i?ieea? noaoe?aeuei?
aeieia?/i? oiiae, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai aaaaoueio aeaiaio?a a?ioe.
Aiie ui??/ii o?io?/ii ia?a?iaeththoue 170-485 ea/aa a?iiane ?
aeeth/athoue ?? a a?oioia? i?ioeane, a e?oaiia?a o aeaeyae? aeoeaii?
o?c?ieia?/ii? ?a/iaeie — aei 43-120 ea/aa (nooa aaaa).

3. I?ae aieeaii na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/i? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a
a?aeaoaa?oueny ciiaaiia ia?aaoaeiaa o?ce/iiai ?aaeeio a?oio?a. Aiie
iaoiiaeththoue cieaeaiiy oaa?aeino? a?oio?a (o ii?eyo a 4-17 ?ac?a, i?ae
ae??th aene?aoe?e — a 1,1-1,3 ?aca), c?inoaiiy nooiaiy ii?enoino? oa
aa?aoe?? (a?aeiia?aeii ia 5,4-39,0 % ? ia 6,0-14,3 %). Ii?ia? nenoaie
ooai?ththoue iia?o?yi? ii?iaeieie (1,7-25,0 i3/aa). I?aeaeuo?oueny
iieueiaa aieia?noue. O i?noeyo ii?e?a o ?acoeueoao? ?eoeaiiy nnaaoeyie
a?oioo ca?eueoo?oueny aieia?noue eiai ia 6-25 %. Ii?iaa ia?aaea nnaaoe?a
ni?ey? a?eueo ianooaaiiio ? aeeaeiiiio caieiaeaiith a?oioo c ioaaoii aei
60-70 ni, ui ni?ey? caaaeueiiio i?e?inoo aieiae a nenoai? ia 1,5-3,5%.
Oi?io?oueny iniaeeaee ciiiaiiee?iao. Ooai?ththoueny eieaeuei?
noaa?e?caoe?ei? oaiia?aoo?i? ae?eyiee o aa?oi?o oa?ao a?oioo, caaaeueiee
oa?i?/iee aaeain a?oio?a cieaeo?oueny ia 0,8-1,50N, ui ? iioei?coth/ei
oaeoi?ii. Aeoiiooaaeueia ae?y nnaaoe?a ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith oaa?aeino?
a?oioo, cieaeaiith ii?enoino? e c?inoaiith nooiaiy aieiaino? a?oioo.
?ioaa?aeueiee aieea on?o aeae?a ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a ni?ey? noai?aiith
aa?ia?ae?ioa?i?/iiai ?aaeeio a?oio?a, yeee iaoiiaeth? iioei?caoe?th
e?ni?ineeiieo oiia, ?icaeoie a?iaeano?oeoi??a ? ?ioaine-o?eaoe?th
o?i?ei-a?ieia?/ieo a?oioiaeo i?ioean?a.

4. Na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/a ae?yeuei?noue nnaaoe?a ? i?ia?aeiei
a?iaaioeaiioe/iei caniaii o oi?ioaaii? o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae a?oio?a.
Nnaaoe?-a?oioi?e? iaoiiaeththoue aa?oeeaeueio i?a?aoe?th aeaiaio?a ?
niieoe, ye? ?ioaineaii caeo/athoueny a a?ioe/iee e?oaiia?a. Ui??/ii
aeiaeaoeiai caeo/athoueny a ??/ieo a?iaaioeaiicao a e?oaiia?a i?aeue,
cae?ci, ia?aaiaoeue, iaai?e, oeeie (a?aeiia?aeii 0,04-0,1; 15,5-43,4;
1,54-4,01; 8,85-21,94; 0,11-0,15 ea/aa). A?aeaoaa?oueny ia?a?iciiae?e
aoiono ii ai?eciioao. Caiane aoiono a ea?aiiaoiiio oa?? c?inoathoue a
1,1-1,4 ?aca. A ?acoeueoao? ci?i a aa?ia?ae?ioa?i?/iiio ?aaeei?
?ioaineo?eo?oueny i?ioean aoioniooai?aiiy, ui ni?ey? i?e?inoo aoiono a
nenoai? ia 0,12-0,38 %. I?ae aene?aoe?yie nnaaoe?a c?inoa? ai?no aoiono
a 1,1-1,3 ?aca, a ?acii c ii?eyie aene?aoi?ia ae?yeuei?noue neia?aaoe/ii
iineeth? i?ioean aoioni-ooai?aiiy. Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aene?aoe?e a a?oio
ni?ey? cieaeaiith ?oiuei? eeneioiino? (a 1,03-1,16 ?aca).

5. O?io?/iee oei ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a ? aaaeeeaei a?ioe/iei oaeoi?ii
caaaa/aiiy a?oio?a ia i?ia?aeuei? oa i?aai?/i? ?a/iaeie. O aeaeyae?
iaoaaie?/iiai iiaaeo a a?oio iaaeoiaeeoue 3,4-10,6 i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei oa
2,2-16,4 ea/aa cieueieo aeaiaio?a. Ca ?aooiie iaoaaie?o?a o a?oio?
i?enei?th?oueny e?oaiia?a acioo, oinoi?o, eae?th, eaeueoe?th, iao??th oa
?ioeo aeaiaio?a. O oie aea /an i?ae aieeaii aene?aoe?e ?ioaineo?eo?oueny
i?ia?ae?caoe?eiee i?ioean (a 1,2-1,8 ?aca), ui ni?ey? aeiaeaoeiaiio
aeeth/aiith a e?oaiia?a o ??cieo e?niaeo nenoaiao 147-282 ea/aa cieueieo
aeaiaio?a oa 216-1287 ea/aa i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei, ui ia iaeei-aeaa
ii?yaeee ia?aaa?oo? i?yia iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ?o c aene?aoe?yie. A ae?a?iaao
oa a?aiieo ai?ao a?oio caaaa/o?oueny ia eiiieaen NPK. Ai?no acioo
ca?eueoo?oueny a?aeiia?aeii ii nenoaiao a 1,3-1,9 ? a 1,8-9,2 ?aca;
oinoi?o a 1,7-2,3 ? 1,2-2,8 ?aca; eae?th a 1,2-1,7 ? 1,1-1,8 ?aca.

6. Ci?ie aa?ia?ae?ioa?i?/iiai ?aaeeio a?oio?a, cia/ia iaaeoiaeaeaiiy
i?aai?/ieo ? i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei, i?enei?aiiy aeano?oeoe?eiiai i?ioeano
i?ae aieeaii na?aaeiaeua-ia?aooai?thth/i? ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a
ni?eythoue cia/iiio c?inoaiith a?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? a?oio?a ye
?ioaa?aeueiiai iieacieea iai?oaeaiino? a?oioiooai?thaaeueiiai i?ioeano.

7. ?eth/ee oa o?io?/iee oeie ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a ni?eythoue
c?inoaiith ?ioai-neaiino? ?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?oioiai?
i?e?ioei?e. A i?noeyo ii?e?a e?euee?niee ?icaeoie i?e?ioei?e
ca?eueoo?oueny a 1,3-3,3 ?aca i?e caaaeueiiio i?e?ino? o an?e nenoai? ia
0,25-7,73 %. Aene?aoi?iee iiaae aeeiio? ooieoe?th aeieia?/iiai
eaoae?caoi?a ?icaeoeo i?e?iaioeaiico, a ?acoeueoao? /iai caaaeueia
e?euee?noue i?e?ioei?e c?inoa? a 1,2-3,2 ?aca.

8. C?inoaiiy i?e?ia?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
?ioaineo?eaoe??th oa?iaioaoeaii? aeoeaiino? a?oio?a. I?ae aieeaii
?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? a a?oioao noaiiaeo e?n?a aeoeai?noue o?aace
ca?eueoo?oueny ia 44,6-138,2 %, ?iaa?oace — ia 24,3-87,5%, eaoaeace — ia
31,0-88,3 % i?e caaaeuei?e aoaeoeaiino? ii an?e nenoai? — ia 0,9-3,1%.
Aene?aoe?? aeeeeeathoue c?inoaiiy oa?iaioaoeaii? aeoeaiino? a 1,1-5,0
?aca, cia/ii ?icoe?th?oueny ?aeii ioiiethaaiiy aieeaii (o 40-50 ?ac?a).

9. Aeoea?caoe?y o?i?/ieo ? a?ieia?/ieo i?ioean?a i?ae aieeaii
na?aaeiaeua-ia?aooai?thth/i? ae?? nnaaoe?a aeeeeea? ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy
ai?noo noia?ii? e?eueeino? a?eueieo ai?iieeneio oa ?ioaa?aeueiiai
iieacieea a?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? — a?oioiaiai aeeoaiiy. A i?noeyo
?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? e?euee?noue ai?iieeneio ca?eueoo?oueny a ??cieo
nenoaiao a 1,2-2,1 ?aca i?e caaaeueiiio i?e?ino? a nenoai? ia 0,1-2,3 %.
I?ae aene?a-oe?yie oe? iieacieee c?inoathoue ia 14,1-99,2 % c
?icoe?aiiyi ciie aieeao ca iaaeaie ?oiueiai ciaoiaeaeaiiy a 16 ?ac?a.
I?e iaoai?/iiio aieea? nnaaoe?a ia a?oio o ??cieo aeinenoaiao aeeoaiiy
a?oioo ?ioaineo?eo?oueny a 1,3-3,0 ?ace ii?yae ?c caaaeueiei i?e?inoii
NI2 a nenoai? ia 1,6-12,3 %. Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aene?aoe?e ca?eueoo?
aeae?eaiiy NI2 ia 21,2-128,0 %.

10. Na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/a ae?yeuei?noue nnaaoe?a noeioeth?
?icaeoie aaaeeeaiai aeieo-ciia?ioe. C?inoathoue nooi?iue aeaeiaiai
??ciiiai?ooy, e?euee?niee neeaae ? ciiiana a?oioiaeo aaco?aaaoieo. I?ae
aieeaii ?eth/i? ae?yeueiino? aeaeiaa ??ciiiai?ooy i?e?iciiaeano?oeoi??a
— oanoaoeeae cia/ii i?aeaeuo?oueny (a 1,3-3,75 ?aca). E?euee?niee
/anoeiaee ? caaaeueiee i?e??no ?o noaiiaeoue 11,5-45,6 % ? 0,24-1,55 %.
I?e??no i?e?i-a?o?iiiae 4,6-144,0 oen. aec/i2 ?c caaaeueiith nenoaiiith
aoaeoeai?noth 3,6-28,7 %. ??ciiiai?ooy a?oioiai? iacioaoie a ii?eyo
c?inoa? a 1,5-3,8 ?aca, e?euee?noue nai?ioa-a?a — a 2,2-5,0; ciioaa?a —
a 1,1-1,6; o?oioaa?a — a 1,1-2,0 ?aca. Cia/ii ca?eueoothoueny
??ciiiai?ooy ? aia?aaoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?o i?ae ae??th aene?aoe?e.
Caaaeueiee i?e??no e?eue-e?niiai neeaaeo ? ciiiane ?o o nenoai?
noaiiaeoue 1,1-6,4 ? 1,2-7,4 %. Oe? ci?ie noi?iaiae-aeothoueny
ia?aaoaeiaith ?oiuei? ooieoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e, ni?yiiaaii? ia
?ioaineo?-eaoe?th a?oioiooai?thaaeueieo i?ioean?a ? i?aeaeuaiiy
aeieia?/ii? no?eeino? aeinenoai.

11. Ia?aaoaeiaa aa?ia?ae?ioa?i?/iiai ?aaeeio, caaaa/aiiy a?oio?a ia
ai?no i?aai?/ieo ? i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei, aoiono, c?inoaiiy iieacieea ?I,
aeoea?caoe?y o?i?ei-a?ieia?/ieo i?ioean?a o a?oioao, ye?
na?aaeiaeuaooai?thaaeueiith ae??th nnaaoe?a iaoiiaeththoue ooai?aiiy
iaoai?ci?a naiicaoenoo aaeaoioiio a?ae caa?oaeiaiiy oeyoii ?oeioaaiiy
oe?aeeeaeo niieo/aiue aai ia?aaaaeaiith ?o o ia?ooii? oi?ie. A ii?eyo ?
i?noeyo iaoaaie?/iiai iiaaeo a caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaiy oaoiiaaiiiai
caa?oaeiaiiy (neaa-eiai, na?aaeiueiai, neeueiiai) cieaeo?oueny ai?no
?ooiieo oi?i aaaeeeo iaoae?a (eaaei?th) a?aeiia?aeii ia 4,3-38,3 %;
10,7-53,8 %; 14,7-24,1 % ? ia 4,2-46,2; 10,8-48,3; 8,6-7,4 %.

12. ?eth/a oa aene?aoi?ia ae?yeuei?noue nnaaoe?a ? ae?eiaeie
icaei?ia/eie oaeoi?aie, ye? ni?eythoue a?aeiiaeaiith a?i??ciiiai?oiino?
e e?euee?niiai iioaioe?aeo a?iaeano-?oeoi??a a oiiaao oaoiiaaiiiai
caa?oaeiaiiy, ui coiiaeth? i?aeaeuaiiy aeieia?/ii? no?eeino? an???
aeinenoaie. A caa?oaeiaiiio eaaei??i a?oio? na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/a
?ieue nnaaoe?a iia’ycaia c a?aeiiaeaiiyi, a /anii ? ca?eueoaiiyi
/enaeueiino? i?e?ioei?e (ia 15,1-33,2 %). O a?oioia?e iacioaoi? a ii?eyo
caa?oaeiaieo a?oio?a a?i??ciiiai?oi?noue c?inoa? a 1,5 ?aca, a i?ae
aieeaii aene?aoi?iiai iiaaeo a?aeiia-eth?oueny iiai?noth. E?euee?niee
neeaae oa aia?aaoe/ia cia/ei?noue c?inoa? a?aeiia?aeii ia 49,3-64,2 ?
47,2-92,8 %.

13. Na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thaaeueia ?ieue nnaaoe?a iaaiith i??ith
caaacia/o? aeacaeoeaaoe?th a?oioiaiai iie?eao ? iioei?co? ?aae?aoe?ei?
iieacieee a?oio?a. A?oioi?e? ni?eythoue i?iieeiaiith ?aae?aoe?eiiai
caa?oaeiaiiy a a?eueo aeeaeii? ai?eciioe, a aeeeaee a?oioo ? nai???aeiei
oaeoi?ii iioiaaiiy ?aae?iaeoeaiiai a?oioo. Aeeeaee oa aene?aoe??
ni?iiiaei? eiioeaio?oaaoe ?aae?iioee?aee ? ni?eyoe i/euaiith iaaeiaeo
ae?ey-iie. A oiiaao oaoiiaaiiiai caa?oaeiaiiy a?oioi?e? ni?iiiaei?
ciaioeoe -?aae?i-aeoeai?noue o a?oioiaiio oa?? (0-40 ni) ia 7,2 %, a a
ie?aieo oa?ao — ia 7,0-17,7%.

14. Ooieoe?iiaeuei? i?iyae nnaaoe?a ? iaiao?aeiith eaieith a
caaaeueiiio eaioethao noai?aiiy aiiainoaco e aeieia?/ii? no?eeino?
nenoaie. Aiie i?aeaeuothoue aeieia?/io no?ee?noue nenoaie /a?ac
i?aeo?eieo oa iiiiaeaiiy a?i??ciiiai?oiino? anueiai eiiieaeno a?ioe,
caaacia/othoue aaaaoieaiaeuei?noue eiini?oeaieo oa a?iaaioeaiioe/ieo
ca’yce?a, ni?iiiaeieo aei aca?iicai?ithaaiino? oa eiiieaiaioa?iino? an?o
aeaiaio?a.

15. Na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/a ae?yeuei?noue nnaaoe?a ? cia/iei
aeiaeaoeii aei a?ioe/ieo /eiiee?a o i?ia?aneaiiio a?oioiooai?thaaeueiiio
i?ioean? a noaiiaeo e?nao ? ua iaeiei ?c aeieac?a aaci?aenoaaiino?
oai??? aeaa?aaeaoe?? a?oio?a.

16. Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/i? ?ie?
nnaaoe?a o a?oioiooai?aii?, a ooai?aii? iaoai?ci?a a?ioaoiieia?/iiai
i?ioeano, ni?yiiaaieo ia aiiainoac ? i?aeaeuaiiy aeieia?/ii? no?eeino?
nenoaie, ia i?ioeane naiii/euaiiy oa a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?e a?ioe,
iiaeooue aooe i?aeoe/iith iniiaith a ?ic?iaoe? caoiae?a uiaei ioi?iie oa
iioei?caoe?? aeinenoai a oiiaao oaoiiaaiaco oa a ?icaoaeia? aeieia?/ieo
iiaeaeae noaiiaeo ? ?aeoeueoeaaoe?eieo e?niaeo nenoai.

Nienie aieiaieo i?aoeue, ui iioae?eiaai? ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Iaoiiia A.A. Aeiaaioeaiioe/aneay ?ieue ieaeiieoathueo a
ii/aiia?aciaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannao noaiiuo eania Oe?aeiu: A 2 ei. — Ei. 1:
Iaoaie/aneee oei aicaeaenoaey. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: Ecae-ai Aeiai?iiao?.
oi-oa, 1998. — 232 n.

2. Iaoiiia A.A. Aeiaaioeaiioe/aneay ?ieue ieaeiieoathueo a
ii/aiia?aciaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannao noaiiuo eania Oe?aeiu: A 2 ei. — Ei. 2:
O?ioe/aneee oei aicaeaenoaey. Aeioaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann noaiiaeaiey
yeieiae/aneie onoie/eainoe yaeaoioiia. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: Ecae-ai
Aeiai?iiao?. oi-oa, 1998. — 216 n.

3. Iaoiiia A.A. Aeeyiea ?ithuae aeayoaeueiinoe neaiuoa ia ninoaa
ii/aaiiuo aeeaioiuo a aae?a/iuo eanao e eneonnoaaiiuo ieaei?iuo
ianaaeaeaieyo I?enaia?uey // Aii?. noaiiiai eaniaaaeaiey,
aeiaaioeaiieiaee e io?aiu i?e?iaeu: Na. iao/. o?. — Aeiai?iiao?iane:
AeAO, 1979. — Aui. 9. — N. 79-85.

4. Iaoiiia A.A. Aeeyiea ?ithuae aeayoaeueiinoe iuoaaeaeiuo a?ucoiia ia
oeceei-oeie/aneea e aeioeaiioe/aneea naienoaa ii/a noaiiuo eania
thai-ainoiea ONN? // A?ucoiu: Iaoa?eaeu 5-ai Ananithc. niaau., Na?aoia,
3-5 aeae. 1980 a. — I.: Iaoea, 1980. — N. 365-366.

5. Iaoiiia A.A. ?ithuay aeayoaeueiinoue a?ucoiia eae n?aaeiia?acothuee
oaeoi? a noaiiuo eanao // A?ucoiu: Iaoa?eaeu 6-ai Ananithc. niaau.,
Eaieia?aae, 25-28 yia. 1983 a. — E.: Iaoea. Eaieia?. ioae-iea, 1983. —
N. 495-496.

6. Iaoiiia A.A., Aoeaoia A.E. Naycue iniaaiiinoae ?ithuae
aeayoaeueiinoe e?ioa n aeioe/aneie no?oeoo?ie ae?aainoiy // Iaoaieciu
iiaaaeaiey: Iaoa?eaeu 3-e Ananithc. eiio. ii iiaaaeaieth aeeaioiuo. —
I.: Iaoea, 1983. — O. 1. — N. 234-235.

7. Aoeaoia A.E., Iiainae A.I., Iaoiiia A.A. Aeeyiea ?ithuae
aeayoaeueiinoe iuoaaeaeiuo a?ucoiia ia eioaineaiinoue aeuoaiey ii/a a
eaniuo aeiaaioeaiicao noaiiie ciiu Oe?aeiu // A?ucoiu: Iaoa?eaeu 4-ai
Ananithc. niaau., Eaieia?aae, 25-28 yia. 1984 a. — E.: Iaoea. Eaieia?.
ioae-iea, 1983. — N. 479-480.

8. Iaoiiia A.A. Aeeyiea ?ithuae aeayoaeueiinoe ieaeiieoathueo ia
aieiieeneioiue ninoaa ii/a aae?a/iuo aeoa?aa noaiiie Oe?aeiu // Aii?.
noaiiiai eaniaaaeaiey e iao/iua iniiaiu eaniie ?aeoeueoeaaoeee caiaeue:
Na. iao/. o?. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeAO, 1985. — N. 80-86.

9. Iaoiiia A.A. E iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey ?acia?iuo ia?aiao?ia ii/aaiiuo
aua?inia ii/ai?iaa-ieaeiieoathueo // Aii?. noaiiiai eaniaaaeaiey e
eaniie ?aeoeueoeaaoeee caiaeue: Na. iao/. o?. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeAO,
1986. — N. 152-154.

10. Aoeaoia A.E., Iaoiiia A.A. ?ithuay aeayoaeueiinoue ieaeiieoathueo
eae yeieiae/aneee oaeoi? ii/aaiiuo i?ioeannia a noaiiuo eanao Oe?aeiu //
Ii/aaiiay oaoia e ii/aaiiia ieiaei?iaeea: O?. 9-ai Iaaeaeoia?.
eieeieaeoia ii ii/aaiiie ciieiaee. — I.: Iaoea, 1987. — N. 287-289.

11. Aoeee E.E., Iaoiiia A.A. ?aeiaeiiua aiaau eae iieacaoaeue eciaiaiey
ii/aaiiuo naienoa iiae aicaeaenoaeai ?ithuae aeayoaeueiinoe e?ioa a
aeieeiiuo eanao noaiiie ciiu Oe?aeiu // I?iae. ii/aaiiie ciieiaee:
Iaoa?eaeu aeiee 9-ai Ananithc. niaau. — Oaeeene: Ieoeiea?aaa, 1987. — N.
48-49.

12. Iaoiiia A.A., Aoeaoia A.E., O?ioeia A.A. ?ithuay aeayoaeueiinoue
neaiuoa eae ciiaaiiue oaeoi? a ?ani?aaeaeaiee e aeeiaieea ii/aaiiie
iacioaoiu aae?a/iuo noaiiuo eania ONN? // I?iae. ii/aaiiie ciieiaee:
Iaoa?eaeu aeiee. 9-ai Ananithc. niaau. — Oaeeene: Ieoeiea?aaa, 1987. —
N. 215-216.

13. Iaoiiia A.A., Aoeaoia A.E., Aiaueaa TH.I. Oa?aeoa?, aaee/eia e
ianooaau ?ithuae aeayoaeueiinoe e?ioa a aeieeiiuo eanao noaiiie Oe?aeiu
// Io?aia e ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea caueoiuo eania noaiiie ciiu. —
Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeAO, 1987. — N. 106-114.

14. Iaoiiia A.A. Acaeiinaycue ?ithuae aeayoaeueiinoe iaeeeo
ieaeiieoathueo n iniaaiiinoyie aeieeiiuo eania Oe?aeiu // Iiieoi?eiaiaua
enneaaeiaaiey eaniuo yeinenoai noaiiie ciiu, eo io?aia e ?aoeeiiaeueiia
eniieueciaaiea. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeAO, 1988. — N. 125-129.

15. Iaoiiia A.A., Ieeeiaiei A.O., Aoeaoia A.E. I aiciiaeiinoe
eniieueciaaiey ?ithuae aeayoaeueiinoe ieaeiieoathueo aeey
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai oi?ie?iaaiey ii/aaiiie iacioaoiu ia o/anoeao eaniie
?aeoeueoeaaoeee caiaeue // Aeiaaioeaiieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey eania
oaoiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia noaiiie Oe?aeiu. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeAO, 1989.
— N. 167.

16. Aoeaoia A.E., Iaoiiia A.A. Aeeyiea yene?aoi?iie aeayoaeueiinoe
eiiuoiuo ia eioaineaiinoue auaeaeaiey ii/aie NI2 a eaniuo aeiaaioeaiicao
I?enaia?uey // Aio?iiiaaiiua aicaeaenoaey ia eaniua yeinenoaiu noaiiie
ciiu. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeAO, 1990. — N. 119-127.

17. ?ieue eiiuoiuo a i?iaeoeoeeiiiuo e ii/aiia?aciaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannao
noaiiuo eania ONN? /A.E.Aoeaoia, A.A.Aoaeei, A.A.Iaoiiia, I.I.Aieea/aaa,
TH.Ae.Aa?auaiei// 5-e nuacae Ananithc. oa?eie. i-aa AI NNN?, Iineaa, 29
yia.-2 oaa?. 1990 a. — I., 1990. — O. 2. — N. 267-268.

18. Iaoiiia A.A. Aaee/eia ?ithuae aeayoaeueiinoe iaeeeo ieaeiieoathueo
a eanao noaiiie ciiu Oe?aeiu // 5-e nuacae Ananithc. oa?eie. i-aa AI
NNN?, Iineaa, 29 yia.-2 oaa?. 1990 a. — I., 1990. — O. 2. — N. 296-297.

19. Iaoiiia A.A. Aeeyiea auoaiouaathuae aeayoaeueiinoe eiiuoiuo ia
ii/aaiioth iacioaoio a?aiiuo eania oeaio?aeueii-noaiiiai I?eaeiai?iauey
// I?iae. ii/aaiiie ciieiaee: Iaoa?eaeu aeiee. 10-ai Ananithc. niaau. —
Iiaineae?ne, 1991. — N. 138.

20. O?aaaoi? ye aeinioe?aeueiee oaeoi? a ioi?ii? iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua ?iaeono??aeueieo ?aa?ii?a /A.E.Aoeaoia, A.A.Aoae?i,
I.?.Iaoiiia, I.A.?aaa // 4-a I?aeia?. eiio. O?aioe?y oa Oe?a?ia:
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae o eiioaeno? ae?aeiao iaoe?iiaeueieo
eoeueoo?: Iaoa??aee. — O. 2, /. 2. Aeieia?/ia eoeueoo?a oa i?iaeaie
ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Iie?a?ao?no,
1997. — N. 18.

21. Iaoiiia A.A. Aeeyiea ?ithuae aeayoaeueiinoe e?ioa ia
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea iee?iyeaiaioia a iieiaiiuo eaniuo aeiaaioeaiicao
noaiiiai I?eaeiai?iauey // Ananithc. niaau. ii aeieiaee ianaeiiiyaeiuo
ieaeiieoathueo, Iiaineae?ne., 4-7 oaa?. 1992 a. — I., 1992. — N.
133-134.

22. Ninoiyiea aeaeiaiai ?aciiia?acey iicaiii/iuo noaiiuo eania
I?eaeiai?iauey a oneiaeyo oaoiiaaiiiai caa?yciaiey /A.E.Aoeaoia,
A.A.Aoaeei, A.A.Iaoiiia, A.A.?aaa // Ieoaiiy a?i?iaeeeaoe??: Oac.
i?aeia?. eiio. — Caii??aeaey, 1998. — N. 133.

23. Ciiyeieiae/aneea iniiau eaniie ?aeoeueoeaaoeee oaooiuo ioaaeia
/A.E.Aoeaoia, A.A.Aoaeei, A.A.Iaoiiia, A.A.?aaa, E.A.Eaiiiaa //
Aeieiae/aneea e ai?iioaoie/aneea i?iaeaiu ?aeoeueoeaaoeee ia?ooaiiuo
caiaeue e iiauoaiey eo i?iaeoeoeaiinoe: Iaoa?eaeu iaae?aaeiiae.
iao/.-i?aeo. eiio. Yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu aa?a?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa. —
Aeiai?iiao?iane: Aeiai?iiao?. ain. aa?a?. oi-o, 1992. — N. 77.

24. Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea e ia?niaeoeau ?aoaiey i?iaeai ciieiaeeeaoeee
e yeioieneeieiaee /TH.I.Aiaueaa, A.E.Aoeaoia, A.A.Aoaeei, A.A.Iaoiiia //
Aanoi. Aeiai?iiao?. oi-oa. Aeieiaey e yeieiaey. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeAO,
1993. — Aui. 1. — N.83-90.

25. Iaoiiia A.A. Aeeyiea caa?yciaiey eaniuo aeiaaioeaiicia I?enaia?uey
oaoo-iuie ii?iaeaie ia eioaineaiinoue ?ithuae aeayoaeueiinoe e?ioa //
Aanoi. Aeiai?iiao?. oi-oa. Aeieiaey e yeieiaey. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeAO,
1993. — Aui. 1. — N. 153.

26. Iaoiiia A.A., Eaiiiaa E.A. ?ithuay e yene?aoi?iay aeayoaeueiinoue
ieaeiieoathueo eae iaeei?aoeaiue e aioei?anneiaiaue oaeoi? a oneiaeyo
eioaineaiiai caa?yciaiey ii/a // Aanoi. Aeiai?iiao?. oi-oa. Aeieiaey e
yeieiaey. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeAO, 1993. — Aui. 1. — N. 154.

27. Pakhomov A.Ye. Mammalia — soil burrowers influence on copper
transformation in soil-plant system in the steppe forests // Second
international symposium ISMOM 96. Effect of
mineral-organic-microorganism Interactions on Soil and Freshwater
Environments. Nancy-France. 1996. — P. 101.

28. Mammalia excrete and burrowing activity as ecological factor in the
system of soil protective responses under cadmium pollution /A.A.Reva,
V.L.Bulakhov, A.V.Micheyev, A.Ye.Pakhomov // Second International
symposium ISMOM 96. Effect of mineral-organic-microorganism Interactions
on Soil and Freshwater Environments. Nancy-France. 1996. — P.103.

29. Aoeaoia A.E., Iaoiiia A.A., ?aaa A.A. Ninoiyiea e ia?niaeoeau
io?aiu ieaeiieoathueo a oneiaeyo oneeaiiiai i?anna oaoiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia
// Aeieia?y oa ?iaeaia??y. Noai, iane?aeee, oeyoe ooai?aiiy aeieia?/ii
/enoeo oaoiieia?e: Anaoe?. iaoe.-iaoiae. eiio., 14-16 aeiaoiy 1996 ?.:
Ca. aeii. — Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee, 1996. — N. 47-48.

30. No?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey iacaiiuo iicaiii/iuo
aeieei ia-euo ?ae noaiiiai I?eaeiai?iauey a oneiaeyo oneeaiiiai
aio?iiiaaiiiai i?anna /A.E.Aoeaoia, TH.I.Aiaueaa, A.ss.Aanni,
A.A.Aoaeei, A.A.Iaoiiia, A.A.?aaa, N.I.Oa?a-naiei // Aanoi. Aeiai?iiao?.
oi-oa. Aeieiaey e yeieiaey. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeAO, 1996. — Aui. 2. —
N. 14-24.

31. Iaoiiia I.?. ?ieue i?e?iiaiae?e o oi?ioaaii? aaeaoioiiiiai aeieo a
e?niaeo a?iaaioeaiicao //O?aioe?y oa Oe?a?ia: iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee
aeina?ae o eiioaeno? ae?aeiao iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?: 4-a I?aeia?.
eiio.: Iaoa??aee. — O. 2, /. 2. Aeieia?/ia eoeueoo?a oa i?iaeaie ioi?iie
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Iie?a?ao?no, 1997. — N.
49-50.

32. O?aaaoi? ye aeinioe?aeueiee oaeoi? a ioi?ii? iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua ?iaeono??aeueieo ?aa?ii?a /A.E.Aoeaoia, A.A.Aoae?i,
I.?.Iaoiiia, I.A.?aaa //O?aioe?y oa Oe?a?ia: iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae
o eiioaeno? ae?aeiao iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?: 4-a I?aeia?. eiio.:
Iaoa??aee. — O. 2, /. 2. Aeieia?/ia eoeueoo?a oa i?iaeaie ioi?iie
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Iie?a?ao?no, 1997. — N.
18.

33. Pakhomov A.Ye. Rodentia — soil burrowers influence on ash content
in the “soil-plant” system in the steppe oak-groves of Ukraine //
Proceedings of Extended Asbstracts from the Fourth international
conference on the biogeochemistry of Trance elements. June 23-26, 1997/
Clarc Kerr Campus Berkeley, California, USA, 1997. — P. 65-66.

34. Iaoiiia I.?. Na?aaeiaeuaooai?thth/ee aieea nnaaoe?a ia
a?i??ciiiai?ooy aaeaoioii?a e?niaeo aeinenoai noaiiaiai I?eaei?i?ia’y //
Caa?aaeaiiy a?i??ciiiai?oiino? a Oe?a?i?: Ca. iaoe?iiaeueii? eiio. —
Ee?a: Aaai, 1997. — N. 46-47.

35. Iaoiiia A.A. Iicaiii/iua-ii/ai?ie eae yeieiae/aneee oaeoi? a
oi?ie?iaaiee yaeaoioiiiiai aeiea a eaniuo aeiaaioeaiicao noaiiie ciiu
Oe?aeiu // Ioi?iia aeiae?eey: aeieia?/i?, iaaee/i? ina?oyinuee? aniaeoe:
Iaoa??aee Anaoe?. eiio. — E?eaee ??a, 1997. — *. 1. — N. 68-69.

36. Aieea na?aaeiaeuaooai?thth/i? ?ie? nnaaoe?a ia ooai?aiiy iaoai?cio
naiii/euaiiy a?oio?a a?ae caa?oaeiaiiy ? ia?niaeoeae ?oiueiai
aeei?enoaiiy /A.E.Aoeaoia, I.?.Iaoiiia, I.A.I?oa?a, I.A.?aaa //
Aeieia?/ia oieneeieia?y ia ii?ic? XXI noie?ooy: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. —
Ee?a, 1997. — Aei. 1. — N. 27-29.

37. Iaoiiia A.A. E?io (Talpa europae L., Insectivora) eae ciiaaiiue
oaeoi?, aeeythuee ia oi?ie?iaaiea oaiia?aoo?u ii/au aeieeiiuo eania
noaiiie Oe?aeiu // Aii?. noaiiiai eaniaaaeaiey e eaniie ?aeoeueoeaaoeee
caiaeue: Iaaeaoc. na. iao/. o?. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeAO, 1997. — Aui. 1.
— N. 135-140.

38. Aoeaoia A.E., Iaoiiia A.A. ?ieue yene?aoi?iie aeayoaeueiinoe
ieaeiieoathueo a ?acaeoee iee?ioei?u ii/a iieiaiiuo aeoa?aa I?enaia?uey
// Aii?. noaiiiai eaniaaaeaiey: Iaaeaoc. na. iao/. o?. —
Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeAO, 1997. — Aui. 1. — N. 126-134.

39. Ooieoeeiiaeueiay ?ieue aunoeo aaoa?io?ioia a au?aaioea
yeieiae/aneie onoie/eainoe eaniuo aeiaaioeaiicia a oneiaeyo
aio?iiiaaiiiai i?anna a noaiiie ciia Oe?aeiu /A.E.Aoeaoia, A.A.Aoaeei,
A.A.Iaoiiia, TH.I.Aiaueaa, A.A.?aaa, A.ss.Aanni, A.A.Ieoaaa,
A.E.Iiiiia?aiei, A.A.Eiiiaieaoe // Aanoi. Aeiai?iiao?. oi-oa. Aeieiaey e
yeieiaey. — 1997. — Aui. 3. — N. 113-119.

40. Aoeaoia A.E., Iaoiiia A.A., Eiiiaieaoe A.A. N?aaeiia?acothuay
aeayoaeueiinoue iicaiii/iuo-oeoioaaia a nenoaia aiiainoaca
ii/aiia?aciaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna a oneiaeyo caa?yciaiey ii/a eaniuo
ianaaeaeaiee auoeiiiuie aua?inaie aaoi-o?ainii?oa // I?iae.
eiaeono?eaeueiuo ?aaeiiia: iaiaaeaeiaio e yeieiaey: Iaoa?eaeu 3-e
iaaeaeoia?. eiio. ii onoie/eaiio ?acaeoeth — Caii?iaeuea, 1998. — N.
114-116.

41. Iaoiiia A.A., A?a/aaa E.A., Caianiaa O.A. Yene?aoi?iue iiaae
ieaeiieoathueo a nenoaia aiiainoaca ii/aaiiuo i?ioeannia a oneiaeyo
caa?yciaiey ii/a eaaeieai // Yeieiaey e iieiaeaaeue: Iaoa?eaeu 1-e
Iaaeaeoia?. iao/.-i?aeo. eiio. — Aiiaeue, 1998. — O. 1, /. 2. — N.
119-120.

42. Iaoiiia A.A., Iiaeuey/aaa E.A., Aaeeei A.N. ?ithuay aeayoaeueiinoue
iee?iiaiiaeee eae oaeoi? a nieaeaiee noiia?iie -?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe ii/a
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86. Mouse-like rodent digging activity effect on cadmium accumulation
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93. Pakhomov A.Ye. Mammals role in selfpurification of soil from
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94. Bulakhov V.L., Pakhomov A. Ye., Reva A.A. Usage of vertebrate
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Eastern European Conference. 24-27 August 1997. Jurmala-Latvia. 1997. —
P. 198.

95. Iaoiiia A.A. ?ieue ii/ai?iaa-ieaeiieoathueo a ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiee
?aaeeiioeeeaeia oeacey-137 e no?iioeey-90 a yaeaoioiia noaiiuo eania
Oe?aeiu // 3-e nuacae ii ?aaeeaoeeiiiui enneaaeiaaieyi. ?aaeeiaeieiaey,
?aaeeiyeieiaey, ?aaeeaoeeiiiay aaciianiinoue, Iineaa, 14-17 ieo. 1997
a.: Oac. aeiee. — O. 2 (naeoeey 4-6). — Ioueii, 1997. — N. 410-411.

96. Iaoiiia A.A. N?aaeiia?acothuay aeayoaeueiinoue ieaeiieoathueo eae
eiaeeeaoi? o?ainoi?iaoeee eaniuo yeinenoai // Ieoaiiy a?i?iaeeeaoe??:
Oac. i?aeia?. eiio. — Caii??aeaey, 1998. — N. 63.

97. Ninoiyiea aeaeiaiai ?aciiia?acey iicaiii/iuo noaiiuo eania
I?eaeiai?iauey a oneiaeyo oaoiiaaiiiai caa?yciaiey /A.E.Aoeaoia,
A.A.Aoaeei, A.A.Iaoiiia, A.A.?aaa // Ieoaiiy a?i?iaeeeaoe??: Oac.
i?aeia?. eiio. — Caii??aeaey, 1998. — N. 133.

98. Pakhomov A.Ye. Microlandscape forming role of mammals burrowers in
Ukrainian steppe forests // Present and Historical Nature-Culture
Interactions in Landscapes (Experiences for the 3 rd millenium).
International conference. Abstract book. 1998. Prague, Czech Republic. —
P. 88.

99. Valley landscapes reckeational development influence on steppe
predneprovye vertebrates state /V.L.Bulakhov, A.A.Gubkin, A.Ye.Pakhomov,
A.A.Reva // Present and Historical Nature-Culture Interactiions in
Landscapes (Experiences for the 3 rd millenium). Internatiions
conference. Abstract book. 1998. Prague, Czech Republic. — P. 17.

100. Pakhomov Alexander E. Reducing of soil radioactivity by fossorial
activity of spalax microphthalmus in forests of steppe zone of Ukraine
// Abstracts. European Radiation Research’98. Capri. Itali. 1998. —
P.165.

101. Pakhomov A.Ye., Grachova L.V. Role of burrowing mammals in
increasing proteolotic activity of polluted soil // Abstracts
International Conference on Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety.
Antalya, Turkey. — 1998. — P.112.

102. Pakhomov A.Ye. Mouse (Muridae) burrowing activity as
airhydrothermic regime formation factor in steppe forests soils of
Ukraine //Abstracts Euro-American Mammal Congress. Universidad de
Santiago De Compostela. Spain. 1998. — P.37.

103. Bulakhov V., Pakhomov A., Reva A. Everybiontness degree and
rodents burrowing activity manifestation as factors of their infection
by ectoparasites (Gamasidae, Ixodidae, Siphonaptera) // Abstracts
Euro-American Mammal Congress. Universidad de Santiago De Compostella.
Spain. 1998. — P.394.

Iaoiiia A.A. Aeiaaioeaiioe/aneay ?ieue ieaeiieoathueo a
ii/aiia?aciaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannao noaiiuo eania Oe?aeiu: ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a aeieiae/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.16 — Yeieiaey. — Aeiai?iiao?ianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai onoaiiaeaiey ooieoeeiiaeueiie ?iee
ieaeiieoathueo a i?ioeannao ii/aiia?aciaaiey a eaniuo yeinenoaiao
noaiiie ciiu Oe?aeiu e a ia?aciaaiee iaoaiecia aiiainoaca e iiauoaiey
yeieiae/aneie onoie/eainoe yaeaoioiia a oneiaeyo oaoiiaaiaca. Iaiauai
yenia?eiaioaeueiue iaoa?eae, onoaiiaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe
n?aaeii?aia?acothuae ?iee ieaeiieoathueo a i?aia?aciaaiee
oeceei-oeie/aneeo e aeieiae/aneeo ?aaeeiia ii/a. Iieo/eee aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea eaeae i ?ithuae, a oaeaea auoaiouaathuae aeayoaeueiinoe
ieaeiieoathueo eae cia/eoaeueiiai yeieiae/aneiai oaeoi?a,
aicaeaenoaothuaai ia i?ioeannu oi?ie?iaaiey oaa?aeinoe e ieioiinoe ii/a,
aeae?iay?ioa?ie/aneiai ?aaeeia ii/aaiiiai iie?iaa e ia?aciaaiey
ciiiaiii?aeueaoa. Iieacaii, /oi iiae aicaeaenoaeai yoiai oaeoi?a
oiaiueoathony oaa?aeinoue e ieioiinoue ii/a, oaaee/eaaaony noaiaiue
oaeaaeiaiey, ii?enoinoue, oeo/oathony ay?aoeeiiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee,
iioeiece?oaony oaiia?aoo?iue ?aaeei. Eciaiythony oeie/aneea naienoaa
ii/au — nieaeaaony eeneioiinoue, oneeeaathony i?ioeannu aa?oeeaeueiie
iea?aoeee iae?i- e iee?i-yeaiaioia, eioi?ua aieaa eioaineaii
aeeth/athony a e?oaiai?io, cia/eoaeueii iaiaauathony aoionii aieaa
aeoaeiiua ai?eciiou ca n/ao aa?oeeaeueiiai ia?a?an-i?aaeaeaiey,
eioaineoeoee?othony i?ioeannu aoioniia?aciaaiey.

Aia?aua ii?aaeaeaii aeeyiea ?ithuae aeayoaeueiinoe ieaeiieoathueo ia
aeieiae/aneoth aeoeaiinoue ii/a. Cia/eoaeueii aic?anoaao eiee/anoaaiiia
?acaeoea ?aaeooeaioiie iee?ioei?u, iiauoaaony oa?iaioaoeaiay aeoeaiinoue
ii/a, oaaee-/eaaaony noiia?iia eiee/anoai aieiieeneio,
eioaineoeoee?oaony auaeaeaiea ii/aie NI2, iaiaauaaony ii/aaiiia
aei?aciiia?acea: oei?enoe/aneia, oaoienoe/aneia, iee?iaeieiae/aneia.
Ioia/aaony ia?ano?ieea ooieoeeiiaeueiuo no?oeoo? iaaeicii-aeiioia. E?iia
onoaiiaeaiiuo ea/anoaaiio oa?aeoa?enoee i?aia?aciaaoaeuei?o i?ioeannia,
aia?aua aeaia eiee/anoaai-iay ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe aicaeaenoaey eae a
ianoao aicaeaenoaey, oae e ai anae nenoaia.

Aia?aua i?aaenoaaeaia ea/anoaaiiay oa?aeoa?enoeea e aeaia eiee/anoaaiiay
ioeaiea o?ioiiaoaaiee/aneiai aeeyiey ieaeiieoathueo ia ii/aaiiua
i?ioeannu a noaiiuo eanao. Iieacaii iieiaeeoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea yoiai
oaeoi?a ia oaa?aeinoue, ii?iciinoue e aeaaeiinoue ii/au, ia
eioaineoeeaoeeth aeano?oeoeee ?anoeoaeueiuo inonoaeia, ia iinooieaiea a
ii/ao aeiiieieoaeueiiai eiee/anoaa i?aaie/aneeo e ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi eioaineoeeaoeey ?aaeooeaioiiai i?ioeanna niinianoaoao
oaaee/aieth eiee/anoaa i?aaie/aneeo e ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa ia 1-2
ii?yaeea ii n?aaiaieth n oaeiaui i?e i?yiii iinooieaiee eo n
yene?aoi?ii-iaoaaiee/aneei iiaaeii. Yene?aoi?iue iiaae yaeyaony aaaeiui
yeieiae/aneei oaeoi?ii a oi?ie?iaaiee aeieiae/aneiai ?aaeeia ii/a a
noaiiuo eanao. Yene?aoeee ieaeiieoathueo — yeieiae/aneee eaoaeecaoi?
?acaeoey iee?ioei?u, oneeaiey oa?iaioaoeaiie aeoeaiinoe, iaeiieaiey
noi-ia?iiai eiee/anoaa aieiieeneio e ii/aaiiiai aeuoaiey. A
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie i?aia?acoaony ii/aaiiay iacioaoia. Nouanoaaiii
eioaineoeoee?oaony aa eiee/ano-aaiiia ?acaeoea e ioia/aaony iioeiecaoeey
aa ooieoeeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?u.

Iieacaia ?ieue ?acee/iuo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo i?iyaeaiee ieaeiieoathueo a
ia?a-ciaaiee iaoaieciia aiiainoaca a yaeaoioiia e a i?ioeanna
naiii/enoee ii/a io oaoiiaaiiiai caa?yciaiey, a iioeiecaoeee
yeieiae/aneeo nenoai a oeaeii. Iaoaieci yoiai aicaeaenoaey caeeth/aaony
a eciaiaiee ay?iaeae?ioa?ie/aneiai ?aaeeia ii/a, iaiaauaiee ii/au
i?aaie/aneeie e ieia?aeueiuie aauanoaaie, oaaee/aiee aoiona e nieaeaiee
eeneioiinoe ii/a. Oeacaiiua eciaiaiey niinianoaotho ?ac?ooaieth
oaoiiaaiiuo oieneeaioia eee ia?aaiaeo eo a iaeiiiaeaeaeiua e
iaiiaeaeaeiua oi?iu. Aia?aua onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?ithuee e yene?aoi?iue
aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe neoaeao oaeaea oaeoi?ii ainnoaiiaeaiey
aei?aciiia?acey e ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iioaioeeaea aeiaeano?oeoi?ia a
oneiaeyo oaoiiaaiiiai caa?yciaiey ii/au, cia/eoaeueii nieaeay
eiaeae?othuaa aicaeaenoaea enaiiaeiioia ia aeioo. Iieacaia ?ieue
n?aaeiia?acothuae aeayoaeueiinoe ieaeiieoathueo a aeacaeoeaaoeeiiiii
i?ioeanna (ii -?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe). Ii?ie e ianoa iinooieaiey yene?aoeee
yaeythony naiaia?aciuie eiaooeaie aeey ?aaeeiioeeeaeia, eieaeecothueie e
ia?aiauathueie eo a aieaa aaciianiua ii/aaiiua ai?eciiou.
Neia?aaoe/aneia aeeyiea anao aeaeia aicaeaenoaey ieaeiieoathueo ii
yaeaoioiiai niinianoaoao iiauoaieth yeieiae/aneie onoie-/eainoe ii/au e
iioeiecaoeee anae yeinenoaiu iin?aaenoaii iaania/aiey iiiai-eaiaeueiuo
aeiaaioeaiioe/aneeo e eiini?oeaiuo naycae, oaaee/aiey noaiaie
eiiiea-iaioa?iinoe e iiiaeanoaaiiinoe anao aeioe/aneeo yeaiaioia,
ii?aaeaeythueo ?aaiiaanea a nenoaia, e ia?acoao naiaia?aciue aeioe/aneee
aioei?anneia ioiine-oaeueii iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oaeoi?ia, i?iyaeythueony i?e
yeieiae/aneii ianiioaao-noaee ianoiiaeoaieyi e oaoiiaaiaco. A oeaeii
n?aaeiia?acothuay aeayoaeueiinoue ieaeiieoathueo yaeyaony oaeaea
aeiiieieoaeueiui aeioe/aneei oaeoi?ii a i?i-a?anneaiii
ii/aiia?aciaaoaeueiii i?ioeanna a noaiiuo eanao e iiaeao neoaeeoue
iaeiei ec aeieacaoaeuenoa ianinoiyoaeueiinoe oai?ee aeaa?aaeaoeee ii/a.

?ac?aaioaiu ia?u ii eniieueciaaieth n?aaeiia?acothuae aeayoaeueiinoe
ieaei-ieoathueo i?e i?iaeoe?iaaiee e nicaeaiee eneonnoaaiiuo
iaeei?aoeaiuo ianaae-aeaiee a noaiiie ciia Oe?aeiu, i?e nicaeaiee
eneonnoaaiiuo ii/aia?oioia, o/anoeia ?aeoeueoeaaoeee oaoiiaaiiuo
eaiaeoaooia; ii io?aia aaaeiaeoeo ii/aiia?aciaaoaeae a oneiaeyo
oneeaiiiai aicaeaenoaey aio?iiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia; ii nio?aiaieth
aei?aciiia?acey e iioeiecaoeee yeieiae/aneie ianoaiiaee a
I?eaeiai?iauea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeinenoaia, n?aaeii?aia?acothuay aeayoaeueiinoue,
ieaeiieoath-uea-ii/ai?ie, ii/aiia?aciaaiea, oaoiiaaiiia aeeyiea,
o?ioiiaoaaiee/aneay aeay-oaeueiinoue, aeieiae/aneay aeoeaiinoue,
aiiainoac.

Iaoiiia I.?. A?iaaioeaiioe/ia ?ieue nnaaoe?a o a?oioioai?ieo i?ioeanao
noaiiaeo e?n?a Oe?a?ie: ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a a?ieia?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.16 — Aeieia?y. — Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi aeyaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii? ?ie?
nnaaoe?a o i?ioeanao a?oioioai?aiiy a e?niaeo aeinenoaiao noaiiai? ciie
Oe?a?ie oa a ooai?aii? iaoai?ci?a aiiainoaco ? i?aeaeuaii? aeieia?/ii?
no?eeino? nenoai a oiiaao oaoiiaaiaco. Ocaaaeueiaii aenia?eiaioaeueiee
iaoa??ae, iieacai? caeiiii??iino? na?aaeiaeua-ia?aooai?thth/i? ?ie?
nnaaoe?a: o ia?aaoaeia? o?ceei-o?i?/iiai ? a?ieia?/iiai ?aaeei?a
a?oio?a. Iieacaii ?ieue ??cieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?iya?a nnaaoe?a a
aeoea?caoe?? a?oioiaeo i?ioean?a, a ooai?aii? iaoai?ci?a naiii/euaiiy
a?oio?a a?ae oaoiiaaiiiai caa?oaeiaiiy e iioei?caoe?? nenoaie.
?ic?iaeai? caoiaee uiaei aeei?enoaiiy na?aaeiaeua-ia?aooai?thth/i?
ae?yeueiino? nnaaoe?a o a?ioaoiieia?/ieo i?eeiiao uiaei caa?aaeaiiy
a?i??ciiiai?ooy, ioi?iie aeiae?eey oa eiino?othaaiiy a?oio?a ? e?niaeo
ianaaeaeaiue a oiiaao noaiiai? ciie ? oaoiiaaiieo eaiaeoaoo?a. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe i?aoe? ciaeoee ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
aeieia?/ieo caoiaeao, iaoeiaiio ? iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeinenoaia, na?aaeiaeuaia?aooai?thth/a ae?yeuei?noue,
nnaaoe?-a?oioi?e?, a?oioioai?aiiy, o?ioiiaoaaie?/ia ae?yeuei?noue,
oaoiiaaiiee aieea, a?ieia?/ia aeoeai?noue, aiiainoac.

Pakhomov A.Ye. Biogeocenotic role of mammals in soil forming processes
in steppe forest of Ukraine. — Manuscript.

The dissertation to obtain the degree of Doctor of Science (Biology) in
speciality 03.00.16 — Ecology. — Dniapropetrovsk State University,
Dn?epropetrovsk, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the problems of functional role of
mammals in soiil formation processes in forest ecosystems of steppe zone
of Ukraine and in forming homeostasis mechanisms and increasing system
ecological stability under conditions of technogenesis. In the work the
experimental data are correlated, regularities of forming environment as
a result of mammals activity in transformation of physico-chemical and
biological soil regimes are determined. It is shown the role of various
functional manifestation of mammals in soil processes, in forming
mechanisms of soil selfcleaning from technogenic pollution and in
systems optimisation. Measures on using environment forming activity of
mammals in biotechnological methods of biodiversity conservation,
environmental protection and construction of soils and forests under
conditions of steppe zone and technogenic landscapes hane been
developed. Main results of the work are introduced in nature protection
and environmental organisation, scientific and educational processes.

Key words: ecosystem, environment formiing activity, fossorial mammals,
soiil formation, technogenic influence, biological activity,
homeostasis.

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