Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Aaeouaiei Ieaenaiae? Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 556.5: 556.512: 556.55

Aaeainiaa ioe?iea aiaeieo ?ano?n?a

??/ie aanaeio Aei?i?a,

?o aeei?enoaiiy oa ioi?iia

(a iaaeao Oe?a?ie)

11.00.07 — A?ae?ieia?y noo?, aiaei? ?ano?ne, a?ae?io?i?y

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?ao a?ae?ieia?? ? a?ae?io?i??

oa aeieia?? aaia?ao?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aieeeaiaeeaeao aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iaaeoi I.I.,

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e a?ae?ieia?? ? a?ae?io?i??

aaia?ao?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo. Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe,
n.i.n.

O?i/aiei A.I.,

?inoeooo a?ae?ia?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa.a?aeae?eii a?ae?ieia?? oa

oi?aae?iiy aiaeieie aeinenoaiaie;eaiaeeaeao aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

AIEIOEI ?.?.,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? Ae?aaiiaiiaa I.I., aeioeaio eaoaae?e o?ce/ii?

aaia?ao?? i?e?iaeie/i-aaia?ao?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo.I?ia?aeia
onoaiiaa:Iaeanueeee a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iee ?inoeooo

I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a a?ae?ieia?? noo?.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 8 ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.22 i?e Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252022 i.Ee?a-22,
aoe.Aaneeuee?anueea, 90.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252033 i.Ee?a-33,
aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea, 64.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 5 aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe

?iianue I.?.CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A Oe?a?i? aiane?aeie aeniei? eiioeaio?aoe??
i?iieneiaiai ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
aiaei? ?ano?ne aeinyaei aeoaea aenieiai ??aiy. Iniaeeai iai?oaeaia
aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y c aiaeieie ?ano?naie, ye? ? iaiaaeaiei ? iaea?eueo
a?aceeaei eiiiiiaioii i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, neeaeany o ?icaeiooeo a
aeiiii?/iiio a?aeiioaii? ?aa?iiao aanaeio Aei?i?a. O ca’yceo c oeei
i?iaeaia aea/aiiy oi?ioaaiiy aiaeieo ?ano?n?a, ?o ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy ? ioi?iie iaaoea ia?oi/a?aiaiai cia/aiiy.

Aea/aiiyi aiaeieo aaeain?a ? aiaeieo ?ano?n?a ??/eiaeo aiaeicai??a
Oe?a?ie, aeeth/ath/e aanaei Aei?i?a, caeiaeenue a ??ci? /ane
E.A.Iioo???iei, E.A.AEae?ciye, N.N.Eaae?anueeee, ss.I.Oiiaiei,
I.?.Ee?eethe, ?.I.Caiieuenueeee, ?.?.Aieioei, A.?.Oa?aoaanueeee,
?.Ae.Aii/aiei oa ?io? aeine?aeieee. Aea a oeeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aiaei?
?ano?ne, ye iaeei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo c i?aeoe/ii? oi/ee ci?o aeo?aoieo
aeaiaio?a aiaeiiai aaeaino, aeey ie?aieo aiaeicai??a ca naciii?,
i?a??/i? ? ??/i? ?ioa?aaee /ano, a oaeiae a?ae?ieia?/iee ??e ia
aecia/aeenue. Noia?ia aeia?iaoaaiiy ?ic?aoiaoaaeinue ye caeeoeiaee
aeaiaio ??aiyiiy aiaeiiai aaeaino, ui ia aeaaaei iiaeeeaino? ioe?ieoe
oi/i?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, aeaoe iacaeaaeio ? ia’?eoeaio
e?euee?nio oa?aeoa?enoeeo an?o eiai eiiiiiaio?a.

Aeeiiaia iaoeiaa ?iaioa i?enay/aia eiiieaeniiio aea/aiith oiia
oi?ioaaiiy noia?iiai, iiaa?oiaaiai ? i?aecaiiiai noieo ??/ie aanaeio
Aei?i?a, iiaeaeueoiio oaeineiiaeaiith iaoiaeeee neeaaeaiiy aiaeieo
aaeain?a, ?ic?aooieai ? ocaaaeueiaiiyi aeey ??/eiaeo aiaeicai??a,
o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo cii, aanaeio Aei?i?a a iaaeao Oe?a?ie ie?aieo
neeaaeiaeo aiaeiiai aaeaino ca naciii?, i?a??/i? ? ??/i? ?ioa?aaee /ano
aaaaoi??/iiai ia??iaeo ? oa?aeoa?i? ca aiaei?noth ?iee, ioe?ioe? aieeao
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ia na?aaei?e no?e ? no?e o iaeiaiaei? ?iee,
aecia/aiith i?e?iaeieo aiaeieo ?ano?n?a, ?ic?iaoe? i?ia?aie
niinoa?aaeaiue aeey aea/aiiy aio?iiiaaiiiai aieeao ia e?euee?ni? ?
ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaiaio?a aiaeiiai aaeaino a iaaeao
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aiaeicai??a.

Caycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie ? oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeanue ia eaoaae?ao a?ae?ieia?? ? a?ae?io?i?? oa aeieia??, ye
neeaaeiaa /anoeia iaoeiai? oaie «Ioe?iea a?ae?iee?iaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a ?
aiaeiee aaeain ??/ie aanaeio Aei?i?a» ieaio I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,
a oaeiae o ca’yceo c i?aai?caoe??th ? ?ic?iaeith i?ia?aie niinoa?aaeaiue
ia aeieia?/iiio iie?aii?.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiue ? eiiieaenia
ioe?iea neeaaeiaeo aiaeiiai aaeaino ??/eiaeo aiaeicai??a,
o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo cii, aanaeio Aei?i?a (a iaaeao Oe?a?ie) c
o?aooaaiiyi ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe ae??ooaaeenue oae? iniiai? caaaeaiiy:

· aea?? ?ic?aooieiaeo aiaeicai??a c iaeiaeiaei 40-??/iei ia??iaeii
niin-oa?aaeaiue ca noieii ? iaoai?ieia?/ieie aeaiaioaie;

· iiaeaeueoa oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooie?a aiaeieo aaeain?a;

· i?iaaaeaiiy iieueiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeey ioe?iee oi/iino? aei???a ?
?ic?aooie?a aeo?ao aiaee ??cieie iaoiaeaie;

· ?ic?aooiee aeey eiaeiiai aiaeicai?o neeaaeiaeo aiaeiiai aaeaino —
aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a, noia?iiai, iiaa?oiaaiai ? i?aecaiiiai noieo,
aeia?iaoaaiiy, ci?ie caian?a aieiae, ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ca i?ny/i?,
naciii?, i?a-??/i? ? ??/i? ?ioa?aaee /ano oa ioe?iea oi/iino? ?o
aecia/aiiy;

· aecia/aiiy ii/aoeo oa cae?i/aiiy a?ae?ieia?/ieo ?ie?a, nacii?a,
ia??iae?a;

· ?ic?aooiee ? ocaaaeueiaiiy aiaeieo aaeain?a aeey 85 ??/eiaeo
aiaeicai??a, ie?aieo o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo cii, aanaeio Aei?i?a a iaaeao
Oe?a?ie ca aaaaoi??/iee ia??iae ? oa?aeoa?i? ca aiaei?noth ?iee;

· aecia/aiiy aiaeieo ?ano?n?a ??/ie aanaeio Aei?i?a ca aaaaoi??/iee ia-
??iae c o?aooaaiiyi ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?;

· ca??, aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaieo i?i caai?e ? neeaee aiaee,
aaciiai?ioia aiaeiei?enooaaiiy oa ioe?iea ?o aieeao ia na?aaei?e no?e ?
no?e a iaeiaiaei? ?iee, a oaeiae aeae?eaiiy a aanaei? Aei?i?a ??/ie, ia
yeeo ainiiaea?nueea ae?yeuei?noue ia?aaeuo? e?eoe/i? iaae?;

· ?ic?iaea i?ia?aie niinoa?aaeaiue aeey ioe?iee aieeao ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? ia e?euee?ni? ? ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee noieo oa ?io?
aeaiaioe aiaeiiai aaeaino a iaaeao aenia?eiaioaeueieo aiaeicai??a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa aeey aiaeicai??a
aanaeio Aei?i?a ca aeaieie aaaaoi??/ieo iaoo?ieo a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/ieo
niinoa?aaeaiue ia ia?aae? Aea?aeeiia?ae?iiaoo aeaoaeueii i?iaiae?ciaaii
oi?ioaaiiy aiaeiiai aaeaino, ie?aieo eiai neeaaeiaeo ca naciii?,
i?a??/i? ? ??/i? ?ioa?aaee /ano aaaaoi??/iiai ia??iaeo, oa?aeoa?ieo ca
aiaei?noth ?ie?a. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeai? e?euee?ni?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?iciiae?eo o /an? ? i?inoi?? aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a,
i?e?iaeiiai noia?iiai noieo, iiaa?oiaai? ? i?aecaiii? eiai neeaaeiaeo,
aeia?iaoaaiiy, e?euee?nii ioe?iaii aieea ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ia
no?e ??/ie, c?iaeai? ocaaaeueiaiiy aeey ie?aieo o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo cii
? aanaeio Aei?i?a a iaaeao Oe?a?ie.

Iiaith ? cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue aiaeiiai aaeaino ??/eiaeo aiaeicai??a
aanaeio Aei?i?a o aeaeyae? oa’ycaieo ea?o ?iciiae?eo aoiinoa?ieo
iiaae?a, i?e?iaeiiai noia?iiai noieo, aeia?iaoaaiiy.

O iaoiaee/iiio a?aeiioaii? iiaei ? iiaeaeueoa oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeoiae?a
i?e ?ic?aooieao aiaeiiai aaeaino ca a?ae?ieia?/i?, iaeiaiaei? ?
aaaaoiaiaei? ?iee c aecia/aiiyi ie?aieo eiai aeaiaio?a iacaeaaeii iaeei
a?ae iaeiiai. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaia i?ia?aia iaoeiaeo niinoa?aaeaiue ia
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aiaeicai?ao ii aea/aiith aieeao ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? ia e?euee?ni? ? ye?ni? oa-?aeoa?enoeee noia?iiai,
iiaa?oiaaiai ? i?aecaiiiai noieo, caian?a aieiae o a?oioao ciie
aa?aoe??, noieo oaa?aeeo iaiin?a, ?ioeo neeaaeiaeo aiaeiiai aaeaino.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa
iaeaea aeey an?o aieiaieo aiaeicai??a aanaeio Aei?i?a aecia/ai?
e?euee?ni? ieiueii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaiaio?a aiaeiiai aaeaino —
aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a, noia?iiai noieo, iiaa?oiaai? ? i?aecaiii? eiai
neeaaeiaeo, aeia?iaoaaiiy, caai??a ? neeae?a aiaee, aaciiai?ioiiai
aiaeiei?enooaaiiy ca ??ci? ?ioa?aaee /ano aeey aaaaoi??/iiai ia??iaeo ?
oa?aeoa?ieo ca aiaei?noth ?ie?a. A aanaei? Aei?i?a aeae?eaii 47 ??/eiaeo
aiaeicai??a, ia yeeo na?aaei?e no?e ? no?e ca iaeiaiaei? ?iee ciaioeany
aai ca?eueoeany ca ?aooiie ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? a?eueoa i?ae ia
10-20%. Ia oeeo ??/eao iaiao?aeii iaiaaeeoe aiaeiei?enooaaiiy ?, a ia?oo
/a?ao, i?iaiaeeoe caoiaee ii ioi?ii? aiaeieo ?ano?n?a.

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aiaeiiaaeainiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? iaoeiaeie, i?iaeoieie ? ae?iaie/eie i?aai?caoe?yie i?e
i?iaaaeaii? eiiieaenieo aaia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ??/ie aanaeio
Aei?i?a, ioe?ioe? oi/iino? a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ia
ia?aae? Aea?aeeiia?ae?iiaoo, oi?ioaaii? aeiiii?/ii? ? aeieia?/ii?
iie?oeee aeey iioeiaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy ? ?ici?uaiiy aaeocae ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa, ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaieo noai ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy e ioi?iie aiaeieo ?ano?n?a, ?ioeo aeaiaio?a aiaeiiai
aaeaino.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeei?enoai? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iaoeiaiai ca?oo
eaoaae?e aeieia?? aaia?ao?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ii oai?: “Ioe?iea a?ae?iee?iaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a ?
aiaeiee aaeain ??/ie aanaeio Aei?i?a” (Aea?ae?a?no?aoe?y ?0195E004121,
?ia. ?0295E000234) ? i?e ?ic?iaoe? i?ia?aie a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/ieo
niinoa?aaeaiue ia aeieia?/iiio (oiiiaiio) iie?aii? a n.Aoe?
Ie?ii?anueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia aaoi?ii
naiino?eii. ?ic?aoiaai? aiaei? aaeaine aeey 85 ??/eiaeo aiaeicai??a,
c?iaeai? ocaaaeueiaiiy aeey o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo cii ? aanaeio Aei?i?a a
oe?eiio. Ni?anoaaeaii? caai?e aiaee, neeaee, aaciiai?ioia
aiaeiei?enooaaiiy c na?aaei?i noieii ? noieii ca iaeiaiaei? ?iee,
aecia/ai? aiaei? ?ano?ne i?eoie?a Aei?i?a c o?aooaaiiyi ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino?. Iiaoaeiaai? ea?oe iniiaieo aeaiaio?a aiaeiiai aaeaino
aanaeio Aei?i?a. I?iaaaeai? iieueia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey ioe?iee
oi/iino? aei???a aeo?ao aiaee ??cieie iaoiaeaie ? iaeaaeiaiiy
aeieia?/iiai iie?aiio.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeai? a ?yae? aeiiia?aeae aaoi?a ia iaoeiaeo
nai?ia?ao eaoaae? aeieia?? oa a?ae?ieia?? ? a?ae?io?i??, ia ca?oi?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? nooaeaio?a ? ani??aio?a aaia?ao?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo,
ia eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea, ia 7-io c’?cae? Oe?a?inueeiai aaia?ao?/iiai oiaa?enoaa, ia
2-io c?cae? a?ae?iaeieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa Oe?a?ie, ia iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Oe?a?inueea aaia?ao?y: no/aniee noai oa ia?niaeoeae»,
i?enay/ai?e 125-??//th a?ae aeiy canioaaiiy I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiai
a?aeae?eo Aaia?ao?/iiai oiaa?enoaa.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 5 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e ? aeiaeaoe?a.
Caaaeueiee ia’?i aeena?oaoe?? 185 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo,
aeeth/a? 13 ?enoie?a, 22 oaaeeoe? ? 5 aeiaeaoe?a. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e
ia?aoiao? 76 iaeiaioaaiue.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/aii ia’?eo
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoo ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy, aeacaia iaoeiaa iiaecia ? ??
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy a ?iaio? aoee 85 iaeeo oa na?aaei?o ??/eiaeo
aiaeicai??a aanaeio Aei?i?a ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. I?aaeiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeaee ie?ai? eiiiiiaioe aiaeiiai aaeaino — aoiinoa?i?
iiaaee, noia?iee, iiaa?oiaaee ? i?aecaiiee no?e, aeia?iaoaaiiy, ci?ia
caian?a aieiae a iaaeao aiaeicai??a ? ia?ao?ae aieiae c iaeieo nacii?a ?
ia??iae?a a ?io?, a oaeiae caai?e aiaee, neeaee, aaciiai?ioia
aiaeiei?enooaaiiy, aeiaeaoeiaa aeia?iaoaaiiy ?c noaae?a ? aiaeinoiaeu.
Aeey ?ic?iaee oaie aeei?enoai? iioae?eiaai? iaoa??aee aaaaoi??/ieo
niinoa?aaeaiue a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/ii? ia?aae? Aea?aeeiia?ae?iiaoo Oe?a?ie
ca ?ai?acaioaoeaiee 40-??/iee ia??iae (1951 — 1990 ?iee) oa aeai?
Aea?aeeiiaiaeainio i?i noia?i? caai?e ? neeaee aiaee, aaciiai?ioia
aiaeiei?enooaaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny o?ceei-aaia?ao?/i? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy
aiaeiiai aaeaino ? aiaeieo ?ano?n?a ??/eiaeo aiaeicai??a aanaeio
Aei?i?a. Aieea a?eueoino? oaeoi??a i?aenoeeath/i? iiaa?oi? (aaieia?/i?,
a?ae?iaaieia?/i?, ?aeue?o, a?oioiaee ? ?ineeiiee iie?ea) ? a?aeiinii
iino?eiei. Aieiaieie ? iaea?eueo i?ieeaeie a /an? ? i?inoi?? oaeoi?aie
oi?ioaaiiy aiaeieo aaeain?a ? ee?iaoe/i?, aei yeeo a?aeiinyoueny niiy/ia
?aae?aoe?y, oaiia?aoo?a ? aieia?noue iia?o?y, oaeaee?noue a?o?o,
aoiinoa?i? iiaaee, oaiia?aoo?iee ?aaeei oa aeeaeia i?iia?caiiy ?
aieia?noue a?oio?a.

A iaaeao aanaeio Aei?i?a noia?ia ?aae?aoe?y, yea ? aieiaiei aeaea?aeii
aia?a?? aeey aiaeiiaaeainiaeo i?ioean?a, ci?ith?oueny a?ae 3500-4000 aei
4600- 4800 IAeae/i2. A eeii? ?? cia/aiiy eieeaathoueny a?ae 540 aei 700,
a?oaei? — a?ae 52 aei 100 IAeae/i2.

Na?aaei? aaaaoi??/i? oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y ci?iththoueny a?ae 5,8-7,3N a
i?ai?/ieo ? i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo /anoeiao aei 9,1-9,6N a i?aaeaiieo.
Iaeieae/a na?aaeiy i?ny/ia oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y niinoa??aa?oueny a n?/i?
? aei??aith? -5,1…-8,0N a i?ai?/ieo ? i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo /anoeiao
aanaeio ? -3,7…-4,9N a i?aaeaiieo, iaeaeua — a eeii? ? ci?ith?oueny
a?aeiia?aeii a?ae 18,1-18,4N aei 22,5-22,8N. Iaeneiaeuei? oaiia?aoo?e
iia?o?y aeinyaathoue 37,0-40,0N, i?i?iaeuei? — -31,0…-38,0N.
Aaniethoia aiie?ooaea eieeaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y ca oieiaeiee ia??iae
neeaaea? 45,0-55,0N, ca oaieee — 30,0-35,0N, ca ??e — 70,0-75,0N.
No?eeee ia?ao?ae oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y /a?ac 0N ainaie ia i?aii/? ?
i?ai?/iiio noiae? niinoa??aa?oueny a ae?oa?e-o?ao?e aeaeaaeao
eenoiiaaea, ia i?aaei? — a ia?o?e aeaeaae? a?oaeiy, aaniith — a
ia?o?e-ae?oa?e aeaeaaeao aa?aciy.

Na?aaeiy ??/ia oaiia?aoo?a iiaa?oi? a?oio?a aei??aith? 7-12N. A e?oi?
i?nyoe? ?? cia/aiiy ci?iththoueny a?ae 20-25N a i?ai?/ieo ?
oeaio?aeueieo /anoeiao aei 28-30N a i?aaeaiieo. Aceieo iiaa?oiy a?oioo
ioieiaeaeo?oueny aei -1…-8N. Aaniethoi? iaeneiaeuei? oaiia?aoo?e
a?oio?a aeinyaathoue 60-65N, i?i?iaeuei? — -30…-40N. Iaea?eueoa
aeeaeia i?iia?caiiy a?oio?a aeinyaa? 120-160 ni. Caiane aieiae a
iao?iaiio oa?? a?oio?a, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue iaeiaio?e iieueia?e ?
iiai?e aieiai?ieino?, neeaaeathoue a?aeiia?aeii 140-220 ? 340-480 ii.

Na?aaei? ??/i? oaeaeeino? a?o?o ci?iththoueny a?ae 2,6 aei 4,7 i/n.
Iaea?eueo? na?aaei? i?ny/i? ?o cia/aiiy niinoa??aathoueny aceieo ?
aei??aiththoue 3,5-6,0 i/n, iaeiaio? ae?oeo — 2,1-4,4 i/n.

Iaeiaio? aaee/eie i?oaeiino? aiaeyii? ia?e niinoa??aathoueny a
n?/i?-ethoiio ? aei??aiththoue 3,3-5,0 aIa, iaea?eueo? a eeii? —
15,0-16,0 aIa. Na?aaei? ??/i? ?? cia/aiiy ci?iththoueny a iacia/ieo
iaaeao — a?ae 8,5 a i?ai?/ieo /anoeiao aanaeio aei 9,5 aIa a i?aaeaiieo.
A?aeiinia aieia?noue iia?o?y ca aeaieie ie?aieo iaoainoaioe?e aei??aith?
66-80%. Aeao?oeeo aieiaino? iia?o?y a e?oi? i?nyoe? ci?-ith?oueny a?ae
7,0 aIa a i?ai?/ieo aei 15,0 aIa a i?aaeaiieo /anoeiao aanaeio, a ceiia?
— aei??aith? 0,5-1,0 aIa. Na?aaei? ??/i? eiai aaee/eie ca?eueoothoueny c
i?aii/? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae 3,5 aei 5,5 aIa.

Iniiaiith caeiiii??i?noth ?iciiae?eo iiaae?a a aanaei? Aei?i?a ?
ciaioaiiy ?o e?eueeino? c i?aii/? ? i?ai?/iiai caoiaeo ia i?aaeaiue ?
i?aaeaiiee no?ae. Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue iiaae?a aeiaaea? a eeii? —
50-90 ii, a a ie?ai? ?iee aeinyaa? 100-250 ii. Iaeiaioa ?o noia
niinoa??aa?oueny a ethoiio ? aei??aith? 20-30 ii. Aeiey ??aeeeo iiaae?a
a?ae noia?ieo neeaaea? 70-85%, oaa?aeeo — 5-12% ? ci?oaieo — 10-13%.
Caaaeueia o?eaae?noue ni?aiaiai iie?eao a na?aaeiueiio neeaaea? 114-146,
iaea?eueoa — 150-190, iaeiaioa — 58-116 ae?a. Iaeneiaeuei? caiane aiaee
ia?aae aaniyiei ni?aioaiaiiyi ci?iththoueny a?ae 40 ii ia i?aaei? aei
210-230 ii ia i?aii/?. A i?ai?/ieo ? i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo /anoeiao aanaeio
cei c a?aeeeaaie niinoa??aa?oueny 5%, a oeaio?aeueieo — 15% ? i?aaeaiieo
— 90%.

A oeueiio ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaai? ?io? o?ceei-aaia?ao?/i? oaeoi?e, ye?
aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy aiaeiiai aaeaino ??/eiaeo aiaeicai??a.

A aanaei? Aei?i?a iae?/o?oueny 20400 ??/ie ? no?oie?a caaaeueiith
aeiaaeeiith a?ey 104600 ei, c yeeo a?eueoa 90% i?eiaaea? ia iae? ??/ee
aeiaaeeiith iaioa 10 ei. Na?aaeiy aonoioa a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ia?aae?
aei??aith? 0,30 ei/ei2, iaea?eueoa — 0,5-0,7 ei/ei2 niinoa??aa?oueny a
aa?o?a’yo ??/ie Neo/?, Oaoa?aaa, ?in?, iaeiaioa — 0,2 ei/ei2 — ia
e?aiaa?aaeae? Aei?i?a i?ae ae?eaie Aeanie ? Noee, a oaeiae o aanaeiao
??/ie Naia?e ? E?inueei?.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aii iaoiaeeoe? ?ic?aooie?a aiaeieo aaeain?a,
ie?aieo eiai neeaaeiaeo, i?e?iaeiiai noieo, ioe?ioe? oi/iino? ?o
aecia/aiiy. Aeey ?ic?aooie?a aiaeieo aaeain?a ca aaaaoi??/iee ia??iae ?
oa?aeoa?i? ca noieii ?iee aeei?enoaii ??aiyiiy

P= Qi + Qa? + E + S , ( 2.1 )

aea ? — aoiinoa?i? iiaaee; Qi ? Qa? — iiaa?oiaaee ? i?aecaiiee no?e; E —
noia?ia aeia?iaoaaiiy; +S — aioo????/iee ia?a?iciiae?e caian?a aieiae c
iaeieo nacii?a ? ia??iae?a a ?io?, aeeth/ath/e iaa’ycee aiaeiiai aaeaino
? iiieeee aecia/aiiy ie?aieo eiai aeaiaio?a. An? neeaaeia? aiaeiiai
aaeaino aecia/aeeny a ii ? iacaeaaeii iaeei a?ae iaeiiai.

Aiaei? aaeaine aeey ??/eiaeo aiaeicai??a ?ic?aoiaai? ca a?ae?ieia?/i?
?iee, ca ii/aoie yeeo i?eeiaany ia?oee in?ii?e i?nyoeue, eiee
cae?i/oaaany ??/iee oeeee iaeiie/aiiy oa aeo?a/aiiy aieiae, a ?? caiane
cieaeoaaeenue aei iaeiaioeo cia/aiue. I?e oeueiio caa??aaeinue
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy P Q + E, aea Q — noia?iee no?e. Ca e?iaoeue
a?ae?ieia?/iiai ?ieo i?eeiaany inoaii?e e?oi?e i?nyoeue aai ia?oee
in?ii?e, eiee a caieiooeo ??/eiaeo aanaeiao iaei i?noea i?ioeeaaeia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy P Q + E.

Na?aaei?e oa? aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a ca aaaaoi??/iee ia??iae ? oa?aeoa?i?
?iee a iaaeao ?ic?aooieiaeo aanaei?a aecia/aany ye na?aaei? a?eoiaoe/ia
?c aeaieo an?o ioieo?a. Ca e?eoa??e ??aiii??iiai ?o ?ici?uaiiy ia
aiaeicai?ao i?eeiaeiny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy 0,5 f i?i/f iaen 1,0, aea f
i?i ? f iaen — iaeiaioa oa iaea?eueoa ieiu?, ia ye?
?iciianthaeaeothoueny iieacieee ie?aieo iiaaeii???a. Aeey ?ic?aooie?a
aeei?enoai? aeai? 159 iiaaeii??ieo ioieo?a, c yeeo 60 iaoainoaioe?e ? 99
iino?a.

Noaoenoe/i? ia?aiao?e iiaae?a ? noieo ca ?ic?aooieia? ?ioa?aaee /ano ia-
/enethaaeenue ca oaeeie oi?ioeaie i?e (n 30 ):

na?aaei? cia/aiiy Xn? —

X?

Xn? = ——— , ( 2.2 )

n

eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? Nv —

(E? — 1)2

Nv = ——————- , ( 2.3 )

n

eiao?oe??io aneiao??? Cs —

(E? — 1)3

Cs = ——————- , ( 2.4 )

n Cv3

aea X? — cia/aiiy iiaae?a aai noieo ca ie?ai? ?iee, E? — iiaeoeueiee
eiao?oe??io, n — e?euee?noue /eai?a ?yaeo.

A?aeiini? na?aaei? eaaae?aoe/i? iiieeee na?aaei?o cia/aiue ( Ao ) ?
eiao?oe??io?a aa??aoe?? ( Ecv ) ia/enethaaeenue ca oi?ioeaie —

+ Nv

Ao = ————- 100% , ( 2.5 )

n

1 + 2 Nv2

Ecv = + —————— 100% , ( 2.6 )

2 n

Noia?iee oa? ??/eiaiai noieo ( h, ii ) ia/enethaaany ca oi?ioeith

h = Q t /1000 F, ( 2.7 )

aea Q — na?aaeiy aaaaoi??/ia aeo?aoa aiaee, i3/n; t — e?euee?noue
naeoiae a ?ic?aooieiaiio ?ioa?aae? /ano; F — ieiua aiaeicai?o, ei2.

I?aecaiia neeaaeiaa ( ha? ) noia?iiai noieo ca ie?ai? i?nyoe? ? naciie
aec-ia/aeanue oeyoii ?ic/eaioaaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?a noia?iiai noieo ca
iaeiaioeie na?aaei?ie i?ny/ieie aeo?aoaie aiaee aaaaoi??/iiai ia??iaeo.
Iiaa?oiaaee oa? noieo ( hi ) ia/enethaaany ca oi?ioeith

hi = h — ha?. ( 2.8 )

Aeey aecia/aiiy i?e?iaeiiai noieo a?aoiaoaaeenue caai?e oa neeaee aiaee,
aaciiai?ioia aiaeiei?enooaaiiy, aeiaeaoeiaa aeia?iaoaaiiy c aiaeii?
iiaa?oi? noaae?a ? aiaeinoiaeu.

I?e?iaeiee no?e ( Qi ) ?ic?aoiaoaaany ca oi?ioeith

Qi = Qia — Qn + Qc +Aae , ( 2.9 )

aea Qia — iiaooiaee no?e, Qn — noia?ia aaee/eia noieo, yea neeaea?oueny
a ??/eo ca ?ic?aooieiaee ia??iae, Qc — noia?ia aaee/eia noieo, yea
caae?a?oueny ia ainiiaea?nuee? iio?aae, Aae — aeiaeaoeia? ao?aoe aiaee
ia aeia?iaoaaiiy c aiaeii? iiaa?oi? noaae?a ? aiaeinoiaeu.

Aeiaeaoeiaa aeia?iaoaaiiy ia/enethaaeinue ca oi?ioeith

Aae = Aa — An , ( 2.10 )

aea Aa — aeia?iaoaaiiy c aiaeii? iiaa?oi? noaae?a ? aiaeinoiaeu, An —
aeia?iaoaaiiy c iiaa?oi? noo? aei iiaoaeiae ooo/ieo aiaeiei.

Noia?ia aeia?iaoaaiiy c ??/eiaeo aanaei?a aecia/aeinue ca iaoiaeii
I.?.Eiinoaioeiiaa. Eiai aaee/eia ia/enethaaeanue iacaeaaeii a?ae ?ioeo
neeaaeiaeo aiaeiiai aaeaino ca i?ny/i? ?ioa?aaee /ano ca aeaieie
noaiaea?oieo niinoa?aaeaiue ca oaiia?aoo?ith ? aieia?noth iia?o?y ia
aenio? 2 i c aaaaeaiiyi iii?aaie ia ?ia?oe?ei?noue. ??/i? aaee/eie
aeia?iaoaaiiy aecia/aeenue ye noia i?ny/ieo ?o cia/aiue.

Ia/eneaiiy aeia?iaoaaiiy ca i?nyoe? eiie?aoieo ?ie?a ( A ) i?iaiaeeeenue
ca oi?ioeith

A = Az Ez Ea El Eu , ( 2.11 )

aea Az — i?ny/i? aaee/eie aeia?iaoaaiiy aac a?aooaaiiy iii?aaie; Ez —
eiao?oe??io oi?noeino?, aeey ??/eiaeo aiaeicai??a i?eeiaany 6 ni; Ea —
iii?aai/iee eiao?oe??io ia iiaaee, aecia/aany a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y ? nooiaiy caieiaeaiino? oa?eoi???; El — iii?aai/iee
eiao?oe??io ia oo?aoeaioiee iai?i, aecia/aany a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e ? aieiaino? iia?o?y, /enea ?e/a?aeniia oa oaeaeeino? a?o?o;
Eu — iii?aai/iee eiao?oe??io ia oaeaee?noue a?o?o, ia/enethaaany ca
oi?ioeith

Eu = 0.23 Uo + 0.32 , ( 2.12 )

aea Uo — oaeaee?noue a?o?o ia aenio? oethaa?a.

Aioo????/iee ia?a?iciiae?e caian?a aieiae ia aiaeicai?? c iaeieo
nacii?a, ia??iae?a a ?io? aecia/aany ye caeeoeiaee eiiiiiaio ??aiyiiy
aiaeiiai aaeaino. Oey neeaaeiaa aeeth/a? oaeiae iiieeee ia/eneaiiy /e
aecia/aiiy ie?aieo neeaaeiaeo aiaeiiai aaeaino ? eiai iaa’ycee.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeeiiaia aaeainiaa ioe?iea aiaeieo ?ano?n?a c
iaoith a?eueo iiaiiai ? eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy
noia?iiai, iiaa?oiaaiai ? i?aecaiiiai noieo ii ie?aieo aiaeicai?ao,
i?e?iaeieo ciiao, aanaeio Aei?i?a a iaaeao Oe?a?ie, anoaiiaeaii
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ie?aieie aeaiaioaie aiaeiiai aaeaino, ?o
i?ieea?noue o /an? oa i?inoi?? ca naciii?, i?a??/i? ? ??/i? ?ioa?aaee
/ano aaaaoi??/iiai ia??iaeo, iaeiaiaeieo oa aaaaoiaiaeieo ?ie?a.
?ic?aooieaie aecia/aii, ui ??/i? noie iiaae?a a iaaeao ie?aieo
aiaeicai??a iinooiiai ciaioothoueny a oe?ioiiio iai?yieo (iaeaea ia 25%)
a?ae 600-650 ii o i?ai?/ii-cao?aeieo /anoeiao aanaeio Aei?i?a aei
460-480 ii o i?aaeaiieo. Iaea?eueoa ??/ia e?euee?noue aoiinoa?ieo
iiaae?a (620-670 ii), aeiaaea? o aa?oi?e /anoei? aanaeio ?.Noe?, yea
i?io?ea? ii Iiae?euenuee?e ? Aieeinuee?e aeni/eiao c aaniethoieie
a?aei?oeaie ?aeue?oo 340-400 i iaae ??aiai ii?y. A?eueoa e?euee?noue
iiaae?a (ia 10-15%) oa?aeoa?ia oaeiae aeey aa?oi?o /anoei aanaei?a ??/ie
Ai?ei?, Neo/?, Oaoa?aaa, ?in?, aiaeicai??a Eueae ? Oai?o?, aa?oi?o
i?eoie?a ?.Naia?e. Iaeiaioa noia iiaae?a (459 ii) niinoa??aa?oueny a
iaaeao aiaeicai?o ?.Iie?a No?a.

A?aeiinia /anoea iiaae?a oaieiai ia??iaeo iinooiiai ca?eueoo?oueny c
i?aii/? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae 60 aei 70% ??/ii? ?o noie, a a aaniethoieo
aaee/eiao, iaaiaee, ciaioo?oueny a?ae 330-410 aei 310-350 ii. Ia ceiiaee
? aaniyiee naciie i?eiaaea? a?aeiia?aeii ii 16-28 ? 18-23% ??/ii? noie
iiaae?a, ia e?oi?e — 35-52%.

??/iee oa? i?e?iaeiiai noia?iiai noieo a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaee/eie,
?ioaineaiino? ? ?iciiae?eo aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a ii oa?eoi???, ?ioeo
o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo oaeoi??a oa ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? oaeiae
ciaioo?oueny a oe-?ioiiio iai?yieo a?ae 120 aei 5-10 ii (a 12-25 ?ac?a).

Ia oii? oe?ioii? ci?ie aaaaoi??/iiai oa?o noieo, yea a caaaeueieo ?enao
iiaoi?th? caeiiii??iino? i?inoi?iaiai ?iciiae?eo aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a, ?
aiaeicai?e, ia yeeo eiai aaee/eia a?eueoa aai iaioa ciiaeueii?. Oae, ca
?aooiie aieeao aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a ? ?aeue?oo oa? noieo a aa?o?a’yo
aanaei?a Noe?? ? Ai?ei? ca?eueoo?oueny ia 40% ii??aiyii ?c ciiaeueieie
aaee/eiaie ? noaiiaeoue 140-160 ii. I?aeaeuaiei noieii, yeee a 2,5-5
?ac?a ia?aaeuo? ciiaeueiee, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oaeiae aa?o?ay ??/ie
?in?, Nieiii?, E?inueei?.

Aeey ie?aieo ??/ie ciie i?oaieo e?n?a /anoea noieo oaieiai ia??iaeo
noaiiaeoue 56-73% (50-110 ii), e?ninoaiiai? ciie — 64-80% (30-90 ii).
Aeey aiaeicai??a noaiiai? ciie eiai /anoea a ca’yceo c a?aeeeaaie
ciaioo?oueny aei aaee/ei noieo ciie i?oaieo e?n?a, a a aaniethoieo
aaee/eiao ci?ith?oueny a?ae 5 aei 25 ii. Ia aaniyiee nacii i?eiaaea?
a?ae 35 aei 70% ??/iiai noieo.

Eiao?oe??ioe ??/iiai noieo eieeaathoueny a iaaeao a?ae 0,02 aei 0,30.

*anoea iiaa?oiaaiai noieo aeey a?eueoino? aiaeicai??a neeaaea? 90-95%
a?ae noia?iiai, a ia iaeeo ??/eao ieaeiuei? /anoeie aanaeio
ca?eueoo?oueny aei 98-99%. Eeoa ia caea?noiaaieo aiaeicai?ao eiai
aaee/eia ciaioo?oueny aei 55-75%. Oa? i?aecaiiiai noieo aeey a?eueoino?
??/ie ciie i?oaieo e?n?a neeaaea? 20-25 (23% a?ae noia?iiai),
e?ninoaiiai? — 8-12 (16%) ? noaiiai? — 1-3 ii (14%).

Noia?ia aeia?iaoaaiiy ii oa?eoi??? aanaeio Aei?i?a ci?ith?oueny iaioa
i?ae ia 10% ? eieeaa?oueny a?ae 500 aei 460 ii. A ca’yceo c? ciaioaiiyi
iiaae?a c i?aii/? ? i?ai?/iiai caoiaeo ia i?aaeaiue, noia?ia
aeia?iaoaaiiy ciaioo?oueny ia o?eueee c i?aii/? ia i?aaeaiue, a ? c
caoiaeo ia no?ae. Iaea?eueoa aaee/eia aeia?iaoaaiiy, ui aei??aith?
510-520 ii, ia? i?noea ia aiaeicai?ao, ia yeeo niinoa??aa?oueny
iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue iiaae?a. Ii a?aeiioaiith aei aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a
noia?ia aeia?iaoaaiiy aeey a?eueoino? aiaeicai??a neeaaea? 80-90%, a a
i?aaeaiieo — ca?eueoo?oueny aei 95-97%.

Iniiaia /anoea noia?iiai aeia?iaoaaiiy i?eiaaea? ia oaieee ia??iae ?ieo
? a cii? i?oaieo e?n?a aei??aith? 74-83%, e?ninoaiia?e — 84-89%,
noaiia?e — 91-92%. Aceieo aeia?iao?oueny 2-3% ??/ii? noie aai 10-15 ii.

O cayceo c ia?aoiaeii aieiae c iaeieo nacii?a ? ia??iae?a a ?io?,
noia?ia aeia?iaoaaiiy ca oaieee ia??iae ?ieo a noaiia?e ? e?ninoaiia?e
ciiao ia?aaeuo? iiaaee ia 20-40%, a cii? i?oaieo e?n?a — ia 5-10%.

Aiaei? aaeaine ca aaaaoi??/iee ia??iae ?ic?aoiaai? aeineoue iaae?eii,
i?i ui na?ae/aoue iacia/i? iaa’ycee, na?aaei? cia/aiiy yeeo
aei??aiththoue 5% a?ae ao-iinoa?ieo iiaae?a. Aeey 85% aeine?aeaeaieo
aiaeicai??a ?o aaee/eia ia ia?aaeuo? 10%.

Aiaei? ?ano?ne i?eoie?a Aei?i?a a iaaeao Oe?a?ie aei??aiththoue 23,7
ei3. Aiie oi?iothoueny iiaaeaie — 155,3 ei3, c yeeo a?ey 90%
aeo?a/a?oueny ia noia?ia aeia?iaoaaiiy (oaae.1).

A ca’yceo c iniaeeainoyie oi?ioaaiiy noieo ii oa?eoi???, oa?aeoa?i? ca
noieii ?iee ia ie?aieo aiaeicai?ao aanaeio Aei?i?a ia ni?aiaaeathoue a
/an?. Aeey 57% aiaeicai??a aaaaoiaiaeieie ca noieii ?ieaie aoee 1969/70,
1974/75, 1979/80 ? 1980/81 a?ae?ieia?/i? ?iee. A aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao
aieia? ?iee ca iiaaea-ie ia ni?aiaaeathoue c aaaaoiaiaeieie ?ieaie ca
noieii. Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue iiaae?a niinoa??aaeanue a 1965/66,
1968/69, 1974/75, 1976/77 ? 1979/80 ?ieao.

Oaaeeoey 1. Aiaei? aaeaine ? na?aaei?e no?e ??/ie aanaeio Aei?i?a ii

i?e?iaeieo ciiao (ii — /enaeueiee, ei3 — ciaiaiiee)

I?e?iaeia

ciiaIeiua, oen.ei2Aeaiaioe aiaeiiai

aaeainoIaa’ycea

aiaeiiai iiaaeeno?eaeia?i-aoaaiiyaaeaino %I?oaieo e?n?a

128,1590/75,6117/15,0501/64,2 -4,7E?ninoaiiaa

102,5515/52,871/7,3474/48,6-5,8Noaiiaa

60,8442/26,923/1,4451/27,4 -7,0Aanaei

Aei?i?a

291,4

533/155,3

81/23,7

481/140,2

-5,4

Iaeiaiaeieie ?ieaie, ye? niinoa??aaeenue iaeaea ia 47% a?ae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? aiaeicai??a, aoee 1953/54 oa 1963/64 a?ae?ieia?/i? ?iee.
Iaeiaiaei? ?iee ca noieii, ye i?aaeei, ni?aiaaeathoue c nooeie ?ieaie ca
iiaaeaie.

Ia ie?aieo aiaeicai?ao noia iiaae?a ca aaaaoiaiaei? ?iee ci?ithaaeanue
a?ae 428 aei 913 ii, a a na?aaeiueiio aei??aithaaea 693 ii, ui ia 24%
a?eueoa ii??a-iyii c aaaaoi??/iei ia??iaeii. Ia ie?aieo aiaeicai?ao oea
ia?aaeuaiiy aei??a-ithaaei 54% aai neeaaeaei anueiai 0,95 aaaaoi??/ii?
aaee/eie.

??/iee no?e ia 85 ?ic?aooieiaeo aiaeicai?ao ca aaaaoiaiaei? ?iee
ia?aaeuo? na?aaei? aaaaoi??/i? cia/aiiy a 2,3 ?ace, c eieeaaiiyie ia
ie?aieo aiaeicai?ao a?ae 1,5 aei 5,0 ?ac?a. A aaniethoieo cia/aiiyo oa?
??/iiai noieo a aaaaoiaiaei? ?iee ci?ith?oueny a?ae 36 aei 391 ii ?
a?eueoa, a eiao?oe??ioe noieo — a?ae 0,06 aei 0,58.

Oa? iiaa?oiaaiai noieo a aaaaoiaiaei? ?iee ii ie?aieo aiaeicai?ao
eieeaa?oueny a?ae 28 aei 280 ii, i?aecaiiiai — a?ae 0,8 aei 228 ii.

A iaaeao ie?aieo aiaeicai??a aeia?iaoaaiiy ca aaaaoiaiaei? ?iee ci?-
ith?oueny a?ae 345 aei 737 ii.

A iaeiaiaei? ?iee ??/i? noie iiaae?a a iaaeao ie?aieo aiaeicai??a
ci?-iththoueny a?ae 255 ii aei 695 ii, i?e na?aaeiueiio ?o cia/aii? 456
ii, ui neeaaea? a?ey 80% aaaaoi??/ii? aaee/eie.

??/eiaee no?e a oe? ?iee ia ?icaeyiooeo aiaeicai?ao iaeaea a
o?e ?ace iaioa ii??aiyii c aaaaoi??/iei ? ci?ith?oueny ii oa?eoi??? a?ae
1,6 aei 99 ii. Ia ie?aieo aiaeicai?ao oey ??cieoey iiaea aeinyaaoe 10-16
?ac?a. Eiao?oe??ioe noieo eieeaathoueny a?ae 0,01 aei 0,21.

Iiaa?oiaaee no?e a iaeiaiaei? ?iee ia ie?aieo aiaeicai?ao ci?ith?oueny
a?ae 0,6 aei 47,9 ii, a oa? aeia?iaoaaiiy — a?ae 301 aei 664 ii. *anoea
i?aecaiii? neeaaeiai? aei??aith? 46% noia?iiai noieo, ui iaeaea a o?e
?ace ia?aaeuo? ?? na?aaeith aaaaoi??/io aaee/eio.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aii aiae?co aeei?enoaiiy oa ioi?ii? aiaeieo
?ano?n?a c iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy aieeao ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ia
na?aaei?e no?e ? no?e ca iaeiaiaei? ?iee. Ocaaaeueiaiiy e?euee?nieo
iieaciee?a aeei?enoaiiy aiaeieo ?ano?n?a iieacaee, ui c ?icaeyiooeo
i?eoie?a aanaeio Aei?i?a a oe?eiio caae?a?oueny 8,6% ??/iiai noieo,
neeaea?oueny 7,1%, aaciiai?ioia aiaeiei?enooaaiiy aei??aith? 1,5%.
A?aeiinii noieo ca iaeiaiaei? ?iee caai?e, neeaee aiaee ? aaciiai?ioia
aiaeiei?enooaaiiy ca?eueoothoueny a 2,5-3,0 ?ace (oaae.2).

Oaaeeoey 2. A?aeiiino? i?i na?aaei? caai?e aiaee, neeaee ? aaciiai?ioia

aiaeiei?enooaaiiy a aanaei? ?.Aei?i?i ii i?e?iaeieo
ciiao

I?e-?iaeia ciiaCaai?e aiaee a % aei noieoNa?aaei? neeaee

aiaee a %

aei noieoAaciiai?ioia aiaeiei?enooaaiiy

a % aei noieoaaaaoi-??/iiai ia??iaeoiaei-aiaeiiai ?ieoaaaaoi-??/iiai
ia??iaeoiaei-aiaeiiai ?ieoaaaaoi-??/iiai ia??iaeoiaei-aiaeiiai
?ieoI?oaieo e?n?a6.818.15.213.8-1.6-4.3E?ni-noaiiaa
6.622.74.415.2-2.2-7.5Noaiiaa

34.1165.838.0184.83.919.0Aanaei

Aei?i?a

8.6

25.3

7.1

21.0

-1.5

-4.3

Ia a?eueoino? ??/ie ciie i?oaieo e?n?a caai?e aiaee neeaaeathoue 5-10%
na?aaeiueiai ??/iiai noieo, neeaee — 1-5%, aaciiai?ioia aeei?enoaiiy —
1-2%. Iaea?eueo? caai?e aiaee, ye? aei??aiththoue 12% ??/iiai noieo,
oa?aeoa?i? aeey ?.Aieeiiyoue, neeaee (10-20%) — aeey ?.Oaoa??a ? ??
i?eoie?a — Aoeae, Aieeiiyo?, ??o?. Aaciiai?ioia aiaeiei?enooaaiiy ia
??/eao Noio?ae, Neo/, Oaoa??a, Aieeiiyoue noaiiaeyoue 6-20%, ia ?ioeo ia
ia?aaeuo? 1-2% ??/iiai noieo.

Ia a?eueoino? e?aiaa?aaeieo i?eoie?a Aei?i?a caai?e aiaee noaiiaeyoue
6-7% na?aaeiueiai noieo. Ia?ie neeae?a aei??aiththoue 2-3%, a a?aeiinii
noieo a iaei-aiaei? ?iee — 7-8% ? eeoa aeey ??/ie Ia?aa?ae ? I??eue —
24-42%. Aaciiai?ioia aeei?enoaiiy ??/eiaeo aiae ia a?eueoino? oeeo
aiaeicai??a noaiiaeoue 1-2% ??/iiai noieo ? 4-5% ii a?aeiioaiith aei
noieo iaeiaiaeieo ?ie?a. Ia ??/eao Ia?aa?ae, Aa?anoiaa ? I?/ee eiai
aaee/eia aei??aith? 12-21%, a ia ?.Cieioiiioea 27 ? 70%.

Ia i?aaiaa?aaeieo i?eoieao Aei?i?a — Nooai?, ?in? ? Oyniei? caai?e aiaee
noaiiaeyoue 5-26% ??/iiai noieo ? 40-95% noieo a iaeiaiaei? ?iee, neeaee
— a?aeiia?aeii 5-25% ? 20-70%. A aanaei? ?.?inue a?ae aa?o?ay aei
n.Oanth?e ca ?aooiie neeae?a niinoa??aa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy noieo ia 11% ?
ia 32% — a iaeiaiaei? ?iee. Ieae/a ca oa/??th niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy
noieo a?aeiia?aeii ia 7 ? 21%.

Caai?e aiaee c a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ia?aae? aanaeio Naia?e ci?iththoueny a?ae
6 aei 53% ii a?aeiioaiith aei na?aaeiueiai noieo. Neeaee aiaee
noaiiaeyoue 28-36%, a a iaeiaiaei? ?iee — a 1,6-2,6 ?ace ia?aaeuothoue
no?e. Aaciiai?ioia aiaeiei?enooaaiiy ia ??/eao aanaeio Naia?e aei??aith?
12-15% ??/iiai noieo.

Iaea?eueo ca?aaoeueiaaieie ??/eaie ? Oiii?a, Aoeaa, Aieeiiyoue, Aniaiue,
?iiai, Ia?aa?ae, Cieioiiioea, ?inue. Ia aiaeicai?e oeeo ??/ie i?eiaaea?
1,0-1,96 aa/ei2 aiaeii? iiaa?oi? noaae?a ? aiaeinoiaeu, a yeeo
ca?aaoeueiaaii a?ae 15 aei 67% ??/iiai noieo. A noaiia?e cii? iaea?eueo
ca?aaoeueiaaieie ??/eaie ? Aacaaeoe oa ?iaoeaoeue. A iaaeao aiaeicai??a
no?e oeeo ??/ie iiai?noth ca?aaoeueiaaiee.

A iaaeao aanaeio Aei?i?a aeyaeaii 47 ??/eiaeo aiaeicai??a, ia yeeo
na?aaei?e no?e ? no?e a iaeiaiaei? ?iee ciaioeany aai ca?eueoeany ca
?aooiie ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? a?eueoa, i?ae ia 10-20%. Ii
a?aeiioaiith aei na?aaeiueiai noieo — oaeeo aiaeicai??a aeae?eaii 16
(oaae.3).

Oae, na?aaei?e no?e ??/ie Oyni?ia, Naia?e, Aia/i? ciaioeany ia 10-15%, a
Nooaie, Cieioiiioee, Iie?? ssee — ia 25-52%. Ia ??/eao Eueaa, Aoeaa,
??oa, aa?oi?e /anoei? ?in? na?aaei?e ??/iee no?e ca ?aooiie
neeae?a ca?eueoeany ia 11-16%, a ia ??/eao Aaeeea Oa?i?aea, Nieiia,
Iie?a No?a — ia 37-48%. Na-?aaei?e no?e a aa?oi?e /anoei? ?.?iaoeaoeue
ca?eueoeany ia 130%, a ieaei?e — ia 29%. A iaeiaiaei? ?iee no?e ia 14
??/eao aanaeio Aei?i?a ciaioeany ia 20-125%. Ia aeae?eaieo aiaeicai?ao
aanaeio Aei?i?a iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe ia?oi/a?aia? caoiaee c ioi?iie
aiaeieo ?ano?n?a.

Ca inoaii? 8 ?ie?a caai?e aiaee ciaioeeenue ia 45%, neeaee — ia 46%,
aaciiai?ioia aiaeiei?enooaaiiy — ia 44%. Neeaee caa?oaeiaieo no?/ieo
aiae ca oeae ia??iae ca?eueoeeenue ia 26%.

I?e ?icaeyae? ieoaiue ioi?iie aiaeieo ?ano?n?a iniaeeao oaaao ne?ae
i?eae?eyoe ieoaiith ?o caa?oaeiaiiy aeeooc?eiei oeyoii a iaaeao aanaei?a
? iaaeoiae-aeaiith a iiaa?oiaa? ? i?aecaii? aiaee caa?oaeithth/eo
?a/iaei c aoiinoa?ieie iiaaeaie. Aei ae??aeo caoiae?a a oeueiio iai?yieo
? noai?aiiy acaeiaae ??/ie ? eaiae?a aiaeiioi?iiieo cii, caoenieo nioa,
cii nai?oa?ii? ioi?iie, i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaeno
i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueeeo, aa?ioaoi?/ieo, iae?i?aoeaieo oa
aeiiii?/ieo caoiae?a. An? oe? caoiaee ? eiiieaenieie ? iiaycai? c
ioi?iiith caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a oa ?ioeo i?e?iaeieo eiiiiiaio?a.

Oaaeeoey 3. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aaee/ei caai??a ? neeae?a aiaee
a?aeiinii

na?aaeiueiai noieo aeey ??/ie aanaeio Aei?i?a, %

??/ea — ioieoCaai?e

aiaeeNeeaee

aiaee??cieoey i?ae caai?aie ? neeaeaie aiaee??/ee, aeey yeeo ??cieoey
i?ae caai?aie ? neeaeaie aiaee ia?aaeuo? 10%

Eueaa — i.Inieoeuee—11.411.4??oa — nio
Aieiaea?nuee-Aieeinueeee3.519.215.7Aoeaa — n.Ai?iaee?aea5.816.310.5?inue
— n.E?oiiaea?aioe?13.924.911.0Oyni?i — n.Aaeeea
ssaeii?aea25.815.6-10.2Naia?a — n.Eioai?aea40.328.1-12.2Aia/a — nio
Aanee?aea38.723.7-15.0

??/ee, aeey yeeo ??cieoey i?ae caai?aie ? neeaeaie aiaee ia?aaeuo? 20%

Nooaia — n.Caei??aea25.00.0-25.0Cieioiiioea —
i.Cieioiiioa27.30.4-26.9Aaeeea Oa?i?aea — n.Aiaaeai?aea—37.537.5Iie??
ssee — o.A?ooaanueeee53.41.0-52.4Nieiia —
n.Iiaiiaae?aea16.554.337.8Iie?a No?a — nio E?eie/ee
15.163.648.5?iaoeaoeue — n.Ieaenaiae?i-Noaiai?aea8.5134.4125.9?iaoeaoeue
— n.?ne??aea26.488.862.4?iaoeaoeue — i.E?eaee ??a44.573.729.2

Aeey aea/aiiy aieeao aeeooc?eieo aeaea?ae caa?oaeiaiiy, ? a ia?oo /a?ao
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, iaiao?aeii aea?aoe ia oeiiaeo
eaiae-oaooao aenia?eiaioaeuei? caieioo? aiaeicai?e c ??cieie i?e?iaeieie
? aio?iiiaaiieie oiiaaie oi?ioaaiiy aiaeiiai aaeaino. Ia oeeo
aiaeicai?ao iaiao?aeii aeine?aeaeoaaoe oiiae oi?ioaaiiy e?euee?nieo ?
ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a, ??aeeiai oa oaa?aeiai noieo,
iiaa?oiaaeo oa i?aecaiieo aiae, noia?iiai aeia?iaoaaiiy, aieiaino?
a?oio?a. Ia ?ioeo aanaeiao, ui ciaoi-aeyoueny, iai?eeeaae, o
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa? — aeiaeaoeiai aea/aoe aieea
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ia ie?ai? eiiiiiaioe i?e?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua, aeeth/ath/e aiaei? ?ano?ne.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoiaee ii??aiyiiy, ?acoeueoaoe eiiieaenieo
a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ia aenia?eiaioaeueieo aanaeiao,
aeoeai? iieueia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaeia anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino?
oi?ioaaiiy e?euee?nieo ? ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaiaio?a aiaeiiai
aaeaino, ?o caeaaei?noue a?ae ??aiy ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? oa
?ic?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c ioi?iie ? aeei?enoaiiy aiaeieo ?ano?n?a,
?ioeo eiiiiiaio?a i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua. I?ia?aia oaeeo
aein-e?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaia aaoi?ii ? i?eaaaeaia a aeena?oaoe??.

AENIIAEE

1. I?iaaaeai? aiaeiiaaeainia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaee iiaeeea?noue
eiiieaenii ? a?eueo aeeaiei aea/eoe oiiae oi?ioaaiiy aiaeieo ?ano?n?a,
anoaiiaeoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae noia?iei, iiaa?oiaaei, i?aecaiiei
noieii, aoiinoa?ieie iiaaeaie, aeia?iaoaaiiyi, aeine?aeeoe ?o
i?ieea?noue a /an? ? i?inoi??, c?iaeoe ocaaaeueiaiiy ii ie?aieo
aiaeicai?ao, i?e?iaeieo ciiao, aanaeio Aei?i?a a iaaeao Oe?a?ie ca
naciii?, i?a??/i? ? ??/i? ?ioa?aaee /ano aaaaoi??/iiai ia??iaeo,
iaeiaiaeieo ? aaaaoiaiaeieo ?ie?a c o?aooaaiiyi ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino?.

2. Aeaiaioe aiaeiiai aaeaino aecia/ai? ca iaeiaeiaee 40-??/iee
?ai?acaioaoeaiee ia??iae niinoa?aaeaiue ? iacaeaaeii iaeei a?ae iaeiiai.
Aiaei? aaeaine ?ic?aoiaai? iaae?eii, na?aaeiy iaa’ycea aiaeiiai aaeaino
aeey ?icaeyiooeo aiaeicai??a aei??aith? 5% ii a?aeiioaiith aei
aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a. Aeey 85% aeine?aeaeaieo aiaeicai??a ?o aaee/eia ia
ia?aaeuo? 10%.

3. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue
aiaeiiai aaeaino ??/eiaeo aiaeicai??a aanaeio Aei?i?a o aeaeyae?
iiaoaeiaaieo ea?o ?iciiae?eo aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a, noia?iiai noieo oa
aeia?iaoaaiiy. Oe? ea?oe, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo, oa’ycai? i?ae niaith ?
? a?eueo aeaoae?ciaaieie. ?o aeei?enoaiiy aea? iiaeeea?noue ooi/ieoe
ie?ai? aeaiaioe aiaeiiai aaeaino, cie?aia aeey aa?oi?o /anoei
aiaeicai??a Oo???, Noe??, Ai?ei?, Neo/?, ?in?, Ai?neee, I?ae?, Naia?e,
Aia/i?, a oaeiae ??/ie Eueae ? Oai?o?. Na?aaei? iiieeee aecia/aiiy
aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a ca iiaoaeiaaieie iaie ea?oaie neeaaeathoue 2%,
noia?iiai noieo — 7,5%, aeia?iaoaaiiy — 1%. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae aieeaii
?aeue?oo ??/ia e?euee?noue aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a? ca?eueoo?oueny ia 5-10%,
oa? noieo — ia 30-40% ? a?eueoa ii??aiyii c ciiaeueieie aaee/eiaie.

4. Aeey ?icaeyiooeo aiaeicai??a i?iaaaeaii ni?anoaaeaiiy ?iciiae?eo
aeaiaio?a aiaeiiai aaeaino ii oa?eoi??? ca a?ae?ieia?/i? ? eaeaiaea?i?
?iee. A na-?aaeiueiio ca aaaaoi??/iee ia??iae aoiinoa?i? iiaaee ca oe?
?iee a?ae??ciythoueny ia 0,5%, no?e — ia 0,6%, a aeia?iaoaaiiy i?aeoe/ii
ni?aiaaea?.

5. Aeyaeaii, ui ia oii? caaaeueii? oe?ioii? ciiaeueiino?, ie?ai?
aeaiaioe aiaeiiai aaeaino ci?iththoueny a ??cieo iaaeao. Aoiinoa?i?
iiaaee a aanaei? Aei?i?a ciaioothoueny c i?aii/? ? i?ai?/iiai caoiaeo ia
i?aaeaiue aei 25%, noia?iee no?e a 12-25 ?ac?a. Aaaaoi??/iee oa?
aeia?iaoaaiiy ciaioo?oueny a oe?ioiiio iai?yieo ? c caoiaeo ia no?ae
anueiai ia 10%. O cayceo c ia?aoiaeii aieiae c iaeieo nacii?a ?
ia??iae?a a ?io?, noia?ia aeia?iaoaaiiy ca oaieee ia??iae ?ieo a
noaiia?e ? e?ninoaiia?e ciiao ia?aaeuo? iiaaee ia 20-40%, a cii? i?oaieo
e?n?a — ia 5-10%.

6. Aiane?aeie aieeao ee?iaoe/ieo oaeoi??a, i?e?iaeii? ? ooo/ii?
ca?a-aoeueiaaiino? noieo ia ??/eiaeo aiaeicai?ao, ainaie oa aceieo
a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/i? i?ioeane oiia?eueiththoueny, aaniith oa ae?oeo,
iaaiaee, noathoue a?eueo ?ioaineaieie. Aaniith oi?io?oueny 50% noia?iiai
noieo, 21% iiaae?a ? 29% aeia?iaoaaiiy, ae?oeo, a?aeiia?aeii, 16%, 42%,
53%, aceieo — 22%, 20%, 2%, ainaie — 12%, 17%, 16% ??/ieo ?o aaee/ei.

Iaocaiaeaeaiiy ie?aieo aeaiaio?a aiaeiiai aaeaino iieacaee, ui ia
aiaeicai?ao ??/ie I?ei’youe-n.?a/eoey, Aeae?aea, Aieoaa, ?iiai ? Iiiaa
iaiao?aeii i?iaanoe aeiaeaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii ooi/iaiith oiia
oi?ioaaiiy ? ?ic?aooie?a noieo ca aaaaoi??/iee ia??iae ? oa?aeoa?i? ca
noieii 1951/52, 1974/75, 1980/81 a?ae?ieia?/i? ?iee.

7. Aeyaeaii, ui o ca’yceo c iniaeeainoyie oi?ioaaiiy noieo ii oa?eoi???,
iia’ycaieie c ia??aiii??i?noth ?iciiae?eo iiaae?a, aieeaii oaeoi??a
i?aenoeeath/i? iiaa?oi?, oa?aeoa?i? ?iee ca noieii ia ie?aieo
aiaeicai?ao niinoa??aaeenue a ??ciee /an.

Ia ie?aieo aiaeicai?ao aanaeio Aei?i?a niinoa??aa?oueny aneio?iii?noue
i?ioean?a oi?ioaaiiy aeaiaio?a aiaeiiai aaeaino, iniaeeai noieo. Iaei? ?
o? ae ?iee ca noieii ia ??cieo aiaeicai?ao iiaeooue aooe ye
aaaaoiaiaeieie, oae ? iaeiaiaeieie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aneio?iiieie ca
noieii aoee — 1953/54, 1963/64 ? 1974/75 a?ae?ieia?/i? ?iee.
Aneio?iii?noue oaeiae iaea i?noea a oa?aeoa?i? ca iiaaeaie ?iee —
1970/71 ? 1974/75 ??. Aeyaeaii, ui noia ??/ieo ? i?ny/ieo aaee/ei
aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a ia ??cieo ae?eyieao iaeieo ? oeo aea aiaeicai??a
iiaea a?ae??ciyoeny a?aeiia?aeii a 2-3 ? 10-20 ?ac?a.

8. I?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui a na?aaeiueiio o aanaei? Aei?i?a
ca aaaaoiaiaei? ?iee aeiaaea? ia 24% a?eueoa iiaae?a ii??aiyii c
aaaaoi??/iei ia-??iaeii, ca iaeiaiaei? ?iee — anueiai 80% a?ae ?o
aaee/eie. Noia?iee ??/iee no?e ca aaaaoiaiaei? ?iee ia?aaeuo? na?aaei?e
a 2,3 ?ace, ca iaeiaiaei? — neeaaea? anueiai 0,30 a?ae eiai aaee/eie.

9. Ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaieo aieeao ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ia no?e
??/ie iieacaee, ui na?aaei?e no?e ??/ie ciie i?oaieo e?n?a ?
e?ninoaiiai? ciie ca ?aooiie ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ciaioeany
a?aeiia?aeii ia 1,6 ? 2,2%, a a iaeiaiaei? ?iee — ia 4,3 ? 7,5%. Ia
??/eao noaiiai? ciie na?aaei?e no?e, iaaiaee, ca ?aooiie neeae?a ?
ia?aeeaeaiiy noieo c ?ioeo aanaei?a ca?eueoeany iaeaea ia 4,0%, a
iaeiaiaei? ?iee — ia 19%. Ca inoaii? 8 ?ie?a caai?e ? neeaee aiaee,
aaciiai?ioia aiaeiei?enooaaiiy ciaioeeinue ia 44-46%, a neeaee o
iiaa?oiaa? aiaei? ia’?eoe caa?oaeiaieo no?/ieo aiae, iaaiaee,
ca?eueoeeenue ia 26%.

10. A aanaei? Aei?i?a aeae?eaii 47 ??/eiaeo aiaeicai??a, ia yeeo
na?aaei?e no?e ? no?e a iaeiaiaei? ?iee ciaioeany aai ca?eueoeany ca
?aooiie ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? a?eueo, i?ae ia 10-20%. Ia oeeo
??/eao iaiao?aeii iaiaaeeoe aiaeiei?enooaaiiy ?, a ia?oo /a?ao,
i?iaiaeeoe caoiaee c ioi?iie aiaeieo ?ano?n?a.

11. Aeey aea/aiiy caa?oaeiaiiy aiaeieo ?ano?n?a aeeooc?eiei oeyoii
aiane?aeie ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? iaiao?aeii ia oeiiaeo
eaiaeoaooao noai?eoe aenia?eiaioaeuei? aiaeicai?e c ??cieie i?e?iaeieie
? aio?iiiaaiieie oiiaaie oi?ioaaiiy aiaeiiai aaeaino. Ii cai?iiiiiaai?e
i?ia?ai? ia oeeo aiaeicai?ao iaiao?aeii aea/aoe oiiae oi?ioaaiiy
e?euee?nieo ? ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaiaio?a aiaeiiai aaeaino, ia ?ioeo
— aeiaeaoeiai aieea ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ia ie?ai? eiiiiiaioe
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, aeeth/ath/e aiaei? ?ano?ne.

12. Aeniiaee, ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ocaaaeueiaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaai?
/e-naeueieie ?ic?aooieaie aeaiaio?a aiaeiiai aaeaino, ye? aeeiiai? ia
no/aniiio iaoeiaiio ??ai?. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aiaeiiaaeainiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ca aaaaoi??/iee ia??iae ? oa?aeoa?i? ca noieii ?iee,
ioe?iea aieeao ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ia ??/eiaee no?e,
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aea/aiith e?euee?nieo ? ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aeaiaio?a aiaeiiai aaeaino ia aenia?eiaioaeueieo aiaeicai?ao iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? iaoeiaeie, i?iaeoieie ? ae?iaie/eie i?aai?caoe?yie i?e
i?iaaaeaii? eiiieaenieo aaia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ??/ie aanaeio
Aei?i?a, ioe?ioe? oi/iino? a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ia
ia?aae? Aea?aeeiia?ae?iiaoo, oi?ioaaii? aeiiii?/ii? ? aeieia?/ii?
iie?oeee aeey iioeiaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy ? ?ici?uaiiy aaeocae ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa, ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaieo noai ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy e ioi?iie aiaeieo ?ano?n?a, ?ioeo aeaiaio?a aiaeiiai
aaeaino. Eiiieaeni? aiaeiiaaeainia? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
iniiaith i?e aea/aii? i?e/ei i?aeoiieaiiy oa?eoi??e, a oaeiae iiaeeeaeo
ci?i aiaeiiai aaeaino o ca’yceo c aeiaaeueieie ci?iaie ee?iaoo.

NIENIE IOAE?EAOe?E CA OAIith AeENA?OAOe?? :

1. Iaaeoi I.I., Aaeouaiei I.I., Aiaeoi I.N., AEo?aaeueia A.A. Ioe?iea
oi/iino? aei???a ? ?ic?aooie?a aeo?ao aiaee // A?niee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. O?i?ei-a?ieia?/i? iaoee oa iaoee i?i Caieth. — Ee?a:
Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao, 1991. — Aei.2. — N. 50-54.

2. ssaeiinueeee A.A., Iaaeoi I.I., Aaeouaiei I.I., Ia?oiiaiei I.A.
Oi?ioaaiiy ? ?ic?aooiee aio?iiiaaiiiai naeth a i.Ee?a? // A?niee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aaia?ao?y. — Ee?a: Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao,
1993. — Aei.40. — N. 107-113.

3. Aaeouaiei I.I. ?iciiae?e iie?a e?eueeino? aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a ia
??/eiaeo aiaeicai?ao aanaeio Aei?i?a // A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
Aaia?ao?y. — Ee?a: Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao, 1995. — Aei.41. — N.
109-119.

4. Aaeouaiei A.I. Aaeainiaay ioeaiea aiaeiuo ?ano?nia ?ae aannaeia
Aeiai?a, eo eniieueciaaiea e io?aia // Aoi?ie nuacae
aeae?iaeieiae/aneiai iauanoaa Oe?aeiu. Oacenu aeieeaaeia. — Oii 2. —
Eeaa, 1997. — N. 194-195.

5. Aaeouaiei I.I. Aiaei? aaeaine ? aiaei? ?ano?ne ??/eiaeo aiaeicai??a
aanaeio Aei?i?a oa ?o aeei?enoaiiy (a iaaeao Oe?a?ie) // A?niee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aaia?ao?y. — Ee?a: Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao,
1998. — Aei.43. — N. 77-81.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aaeouaiei I.I. Aaeainiaa ioe?iea aiaeieo ?ano?n?a ??/ie aanaeio Aei?i?a,
?o aeei?enoaiiy oa ioi?iia (a iaaeao Oe?a?ie). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 11.00.07 — a?ae?ieia?y noo?, aiaei? ?ano?ne,
a?ae?io?i?y. — Aaia?ao?/iee oaeoeueoao Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aaeainia?e ioe?ioe? aiaeieo ?ano?n?a ??/eiaeo
aiaeicai??a aanaeio Aei?i?a ca ie?ai? naciie, oieiaei? ? oaie? i?a??//y
aaaaoi??/iiai ia??iaeo ? oa?aeoa?i? ca noieii a?ae?ieia?/i? ?iee.
Aecia/aii i?e?iaeiee no?e. Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue aiaeiiai aaeaino o
aeaeyae? oa’ycaieo ea?o ?iciiae?eo aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a, noia?iiai noieo
oa aeia?iaoaaiiy. I?iaiaeeoueny ni?anoaaeaiiy caai??a, neeae?a aiaee ?
aaciiai?ioiiai aiaeiei?enooaaiiy c na?aaei?i noieii ? noieii ca
iaeiaiaei? ?iee. Aeae?eaii 47 aiaeicai??a, a iaaeao yeeo na?aaei?e no?e
? no?e ca iaeiaiaei? ?iee ci?ieany a?eueoa i?ae ia 10-20%. I?iiiio?oueny
i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy aieeao aeeooc?eieo aeaea?ae caa?oaeiaiiy ia
e?euee?ni? ? ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaiaio?a aiaeiiai aaeaino.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ??/eiaee no?e, iiaaee, aeia?iaoaaiiy, aiaeiee aaeain,
aiaeiei?enooaaiiy, ioi?iia aiaeieo ?ano?n?a.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aaeouaiei A.I. Aaeainiaay ioeaiea aiaeiuo ?ano?nia ?ae aannaeia Aeiai?a,
eo eniieueciaaiea e io?aia (a i?aaeaeao Oe?aeiu). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?aoe/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 11.00.07 — aeae?ieiaey nooe, aiaeiua ?ano?nu,
aeae?ioeiey. — Aaia?aoe/aneee oaeoeueoao Eeaaneiai oieaa?neoaoa eiaie
Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aaeainiaie ioeaiea aiaeiuo ?ano?nia ?a/iuo
aiaeinai?ia aannaeia Aeiai?a ca ioaeaeueiua naciiu, oieiaeiua e
oaieua iieoaiaeey iiiaieaoiaai ia?eiaea e oa?aeoa?iua ii noieo
aeae?ieiae/aneea aiaeu. Ii?aaeaeai anoanoaaiiue noie. I?aaeeiaeaia
iiaeaeue aiaeiiai aaeaina a aeaea oaycaiiuo ea?o ?ani?aaeaeaiey
aoiinoa?iuo inaaeeia, noiia?iiai noiea e enia?aiey. I?iaiaeeony
niiinoaaeaiea caai?ia, na?inia aiaeu e aacaica?aoiiai aiaeiiio?aaeaiey n
n?aaeiei noieii e noieii ca iaeiaiaeiua aiaeu. Auaeaeaii 47 aiaeinai?ia,
a i?aaeaeao eioi?uo n?aaeiee noie e noie ca iaeiaiaeiua aiaeu eciaieeny
aieueoa /ai ia 10-20%. I?aaeeaaaaony iiaeoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth aeeyiey
aeeoooceeiuo enoi/ieeia caa?yciaiey ia eiee/anoaaiiua e ea/anoaaiiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee yeaiaioia aiaeiiai aaeaina.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?a/iie noie, inaaeee, enia?aiea, aiaeiue aaeain,
aiaeiiio?aaeaiea, io?aia aiaeiuo ?ano?nia.

ANNOTATION

Galushenko A.N. Balance evaluation of water resources of rivers in the
Dnipro basin, their use and protection (within Ukraine). — Manuscript.

The thesis for candidate of Geographical science degree by speciality
11.00.07 — Hydrology of the land, water resources, hydrochemistry. —
Geographical faculty of Kyiv University by name of Taras Shevchenko,
Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the balance evaluation of water resources
river catchments in the Dnipro basin for seasons, cold and warm periods,
hydrologic years of long-term period and characteristic years for a
drain. A natural drain is determined. The model of water balance in a
form of the map on precipitation distribution, drain and evaporation is
offered. Water escape and irrevocable water compares to a long-term
drain and drain for dry year. 47 catchments in the Dnipro basin are
allocated, in limits of which the average drain and the drain for dry
year had changed more than on 10-20%. The approach to research influence
of diffusion sources pollution on quantitative and qualitative
characteristics of water balance elements is offered.

Key words: a river drain, deposits, evaporation, water balance, water
consumption, water resources protection.

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