1

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO ?AAe?IO?CEEE OA AEAEO?II?EE ?I. I.ss. ONEEIAA

I?oei Ieueaa Oaaei??aia

OAeE 621.372.86: 621.373.4/.5

AAAAOINOOI?I*ANO? NIIA?EUeITHTH*? NENOAIE OA ?O

CANOINOAAIIss A EE?IIO?IIAO I?E?IAO?IAEO OA NOAI?E?IAO?IAEO OAEEUe

01.04.03 — ?aae?io?ceea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o ?aae?iano?iiii?/iiio ?inoeooo? IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

*o?eeiaa Na?oeaia Aiaoie??aia,

?aae?iano?iiii?/iee ?inoeooo
IAI Oe?a?ie,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ee?eeaiei Aiaoie?e Iiaianiae/,

?inoeooo ?aae?io?ceee oa
aeaeo?ii?ee ?i. I.ss.Oneeiaa

IAI Oe?a?ie, caa. a?aeae?eii,
i. Oa?e?a;

— aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?

Eacainueeee Aaaeei Ai?eniae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani?.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?aae?iaeaeo?ii?ee, eaoaae?a iao?ieia?? oa aei??thaaeueii? oaoi?ee,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «27» ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 15 -00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.157.01 a ??A IAI Oe?a?ie
(310085, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Ae. I?ineo?e, 12)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ??A IAI Oe?a?ie
(310085, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Ae. I?ineo?e, 12)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 25″ aa?aciy 1999 ?.

O.a.i. a/aiiai nae?aoa?y

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe
Ee?e/aiei I.ss.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

I?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a i?iaeiaaeo?oueny ?ioaineaia inai?iiy ae?aiacii?a
i?e?iao?iaeo (ii) oa noai?e?iao?iaeo (noaii) aeiaaeei oaeeue. Oea
aenoaa? iia? oa a?eueo neeaaei? aeiiae aei aeaea?ae aeaeo?iiaai?oii?
aia?a??, e?i?e ia?aaea/? oa ??ciiiai?oieo ianeaieo oa aeoeaieo aeaiaio?a
aeey aeacaieo ae?aiacii?a oaeeue. Ia??iaee/i? a?aoee ? aaaeeeaith
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith aaaaoueio aeaeo?iiieo i?eeaae?a, aeaiaio?a
aioaiii? oa aei??thaaeueii? oaoi?ee. Aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy
iie?a oaeeie no?oeoo?aie aeeeeea? ?ioa?an o ca’yceo c ??oaiiyi oe?ieiai
eiea i?eeeaaeieo caaea/.

Canoinoaaiiy aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo ia??iaee/ieo a?aoie a?aee?eaa?
aeiaeaoeia? iiaeeeaino? ii oi?aae?iith ?o aeanoeainoyie. A?aei?oiith
iniaeea?noth aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo ia??iaee/ieo a?aoie ? iayai?noue a
aeiaaioaeeueia?e /anoei? niaeo?o ?o aeanieo oaeeue oaeaeeeo i?inoi?iaeo
aa?iii?e. Aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo no?oeoo? ye niia?eueithth/eo nenoai o
aaeooiieo aaia?aoi?ao oeio eaii cai?ioii? oaee? ii oa noaii ae?aiacii?a
aeiaaeei oaeeue aeicaieeei noai?eoe iiaee i?eeaae, iacaaiee ee?iio?iiii
c eaac?iioe/iei ?iciiae?eaiei aeaiaeii aia?a?? [1]. I?eioeei ?iaioe
oeueiai aaia?aoi?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui i?e caoaeaeaii? a?aa?i/anoi?
aaaaoinooi?i/anoi? niia?eueithth/i? nenoaie aeaeo?iiiei io/eii iaae iath
o a?eueiiio i?inoi?? oi?io?oueny ni?yiiaaia aei?ii?ithaaiiy,
oa?aeoa?enoeee yeiai aecia/athoueny ?ici??aie oa aaiiao???th
niia?eueithth/i? nenoaie, ui aeicaiey? cae?enieoe aea?ae aia?a?? c
aaia?aoi?a. A ca’yceo c oeei oaeo niia?eueithth/o nenoaio iaiao?aeii
?icaeyaeaoe ye neeaaeio aeaeo?iaeeiai?/io no?oeoo?o, ui a?aee?eoa o
a?eueiee i?ino??, a ye?e oi?ioaaiiy iiey, ui aca?iiae?? c aeaeo?iiiei
iioieii, ia iiaeia a?aeae?eeoe a?ae oi?ioaaiiy iiey aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui
caaacia/o? aea?ae aia?a?? c i?eeaaeo.

Aeey ?icoi?iiy o?ce/ieo i?eioeei?a ?iaioe i?eeaaeo oa aeai?o
iioeiaeueii? aaiiao??? i?inoi?o aca?iiae?? iaiao?aeii oai?aoe/ii oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeeoe iniaeeaino? caoaeaeaiiy a?aee?eoeo
niia?eueithth/eo nenoai. Ie??i oiai, aiae?c aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae oaeeo no?oeoo? ia? naiino?eiee ?ioa?an, oiio ui yaey?
aeinoaoiuei neeaaeio iaoaiaoe/io i?iaeaio, yea ?ica’ycoaaeanue o?eueee a
aeayeeo ie?aieo aeiaaeeao.

Aea/aiiy oeeo ieoaiue neeaaea? iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie.

Noai?aiiy aaia?aoi??a, ye? iathoue aenieee ??aaiue aeo?aeii? iiooaeiino?
o ei?ioeioaeeueia?e /anoei? ii oa noaii ae?aiaciiao aeiaaeei oaeeue, ?
aeooaeueiith iaoeiaith oa aaaeeeaith i?eeeaaeiith caaea/ath. Iniaeeai
ia?niaeoeaiei ? a oeueiio aniaeo? canoinoaaiiy aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo
ia??iaee/ieo no?oeoo? ye eieeaaeueieo nenoai a aeaeo?iiieo i?eeaaeao.

Aeei?enoaiiy a ee?iio?ii? a?aee?eoi? aaaaoinooi?i/anoi?
niia?eueithth/i? nenoaie aeicaieeei iie?aueoe aeo?aei? oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?eeaaeo, cie?aia, ca?eueoeoe aaia?oth/o iiooaei?noue oa caaacia/eoe ca
?aooiie eaac?iioe/iiai ?iciiae?eaiiai aeaiaeo aia?a?? ocaiaeaeaiiy c
eaac?iioe/ieie e?i?yie ia?aaea/? a cacia/aieo ae?aiaciiao.

Oiio cai?iaaaeaeai? a ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ni?yiiaai? ia c’ynoaaiiy oa
aeaoaeueia aea/aiiy o?ce/ieo iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy iie?a o neeaaeieo
a?aee?eoeo aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ieo no?oeoo?ao oa ia noai?aiiy aaia?aoi??a ii
? noaii ae?aiacii?a aeiaaeei oaeeue c iie?auaieie aeo?aeieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aaeueie aeooaeuei?.

Iaoith aeaii? ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea aoaeoeaieo oai?aoe/ieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a aiae?co iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy iie?a o
a?aee?eoeo aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo niia?eueithth/eo nenoaiao oa aeei?enoaiiy
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a i?e noai?aii? ee?iio?ii?a c eaac?iioe/iei
?iciiae?eaiei aeaiaeii aia?a??.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe ae??ooaaeeny oae? caaea/?:

— ?ic?iaea aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a oa aeai?eoi?a aiae?co ?icn?thth/eo oa
iai?aaeyth/eo aeanoeainoae a?aee?eoeo aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo
niia?eueithth/eo nenoai;

— aea/aiiy aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ieo aeanoeainoae oaeeo no?oeoo?, aiae?c aieeao
ia ieo ci?ie eiio?ao?aoe?? ia??iaeo oa niiniao caoaeaeaiiy;

— aeei?enoaiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a i?e iiaeaethaaii? oa
iioei?caoe?? i?inoi?o aca?iiae?? ee?iio?ii?a c eaac?iioe/iei
?iciiae?eaiei aeaiaeii aia?a??;

— noai?aiiy iiaeo c?ace?a i?eeaae?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa?:

— a iiaeeo?eaoe?? a?aeiieo iaoiae?a aeaeo?iaeeiai?ee aei aiae?co
niaoeeo?/iiai eeano ia??iaee/ieo no?oeoo? – a?aee?eoeo
aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo niia?eueithth/eo nenoai, oa ??oaiiy ia ?o iniia?
?yaeo iiaeo aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ieo caaea/;

— a c’ynoaaii? o?ce/ieo iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy iie?a a?aee?eoeie
aaaaoinooi?i/anoeie niia?eueithth/eie nenoaiaie, aiae?c? aeenia?n?eieo
aeanoeainoae o caai?iiaieo ciiao ae?aa?aie A??ethaia, aeyaeaii? oa
aea/aii? ?aciiainieo yaeu o aeiaaioaeeaa?e iaeano?;

— a canoinoaaii? iaoiaeo oioiea?iaaieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo ieanoei, yeei
aia?oa aoea iaea?aeaia a?coaeueia ea?oeia iie?a iiaa?oiaaeo oaeeue
aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo niia?eueithth/eo nenoai;

— o aeei?enoaii? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a i?e /enaeueiiio iiaeaethaaii?
niia?eueithth/i? nenoaie o ee?iio?iiao c eaac?iioe/iei ?iciiae?eaiei
aeaiaeii aia?a??.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue oa aeinoia??i?noue iaea?aeaieo a ?iaio? ?acoeueoao?a
aecia/a?oueny aaeaeaaoi?noth aeei?enoaieo oai?aoe/ieo iiaeaeae
?aaeueiei o?ce/iei oiiaai, ei?aeoi?noth canoiniaaieo iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoiae?a aiae?oe/iiai oa /enaeueiiai aiae?co, aeieeaa? ?c aeeiiaiiy
a?aie/ieo ia?aoiae?a aei a?aeiieo ?ai?oa ?acoeueoao?a. I?e iinoaiiaoe?
oa i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaio?a aeei?enoai? oa oaeineiiaeai? ai?iaiaai?
iaoiaee no/anii? ?aae?io?ceee. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeniiaee
a?aeiia?aeathoue oai?aoe/iei.

I?aeoe/ia oa iaoeiaa cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

— aeei?enoai? iaoiaee ??oaiiy aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ii? caaea/? aeicaieythoue
aeinoaoiuei iiaii iienaoe aeaeo?iaeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee a?aee?eoeo
aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo a?aa?i/anoeo niia?eueithth/eo nenoai oa i?iaanoe
/enaeueia iiaeaethaaiiy aaiiao??? i?inoi?o aca?iiae??;

— iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oi?ioaaiiy iie?a o a?aee?eoeo aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo
a?aa?i/anoeo niia?eueithth/eo no?oeoo?ao aeicaieythoue aeaoe
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeai?o aaiiao??? niia?eueithth/i? nenoaie oa ?aaeei?a
?iaioe ee?iio?iia c eaac?iioe/iei ?iciiae?eaiei aeaiaeii aia?a??; oe?
?acoeueoaoe oaeiae iiaeia aeei?enoaoe i?e noai?aii? aioai ia
niia?eueithth/eo no?oeoo?ao;

— ?ic?iaeai? aaia?aoi?e i?e?iao?iaiai oa noai?e?iao?iaiai ae?aiaciio
aeiaaeei oaeeue — ee?iio?iie c eaac?iioe/iei ?iciiae?eaiei aeaiaeii
aia?a??, iathoue iie?auai? aeo?aei? oa?aeoa?enoeee, aiie iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue oaeiae ye aeoeai? aioaie c aeaeo?e/iei neaioaaiiyi;

— cai?iiiiiaaiee niin?a ocaiaeaeaiiy ee?iio?iia c eaac?iioe/iei
?iciiae?eaiei aeaiaeii aia?a?? c eaac?iioe/ieie e?i?yie ia?aaea/
aeicaieea noai?eoe eiiiaeoio eiino?oeoe?th aaia?aoi?a oa ocaiaeaeoth/iai
ia?aoiaeo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a ?iaioe, ye? iaienai? o ni?aaaoi?noa?,
iieyaa? a o/ano? o iinoaiiaoe? caaea/ [2,5]; o ae??oaii? iinoaaeaieo
caaea/, ?ic?iaoe? /enaeueieo aeai?eoi?a, i?iaaaeaii? ?ic?aooie?a oa
aiae?c? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a [1,2,4-8]; o/ano? a ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo
eiino?oeoe?e ee?iio?ii?a c eaac?iioe/iei ?iciiae?eaiei aeaiaeii aia?a??,
i?iaaaeaii? aei??thaaiue ia aenia?eiaioaeueieo onoaiiaeao [3,7].

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

1. ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee a?aee?eoeo aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo a?aa?iie ia iniia? ??oaiiy
caaea/ caoaeaeaiiy ?o oaeeaaiaeii oa ieineith oaeeath.

2. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy
iie?a o a?aee?eoeo aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo niia?eueithth/eo nenoaiao
noiniaii aei ee?iio?ii?a c eaac?iioe/iei ?iciiae?eaiei aeaiaeii aia?a??.

3. ?ic?iaea oa aeine?aeaeaiiy ee?iio?ii?a c eaac?iioe/iei ?iciiae?eaiei
aeaiaeii aia?a??.

4. Iaeaoe i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai aeey /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy a?aee?eoi?
aaaaoinooi?i/anoi? niia?eueithth/i? nenoaie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie oa oaiaie.

Ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? /anoeiith oai?aoe/ieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? i?iaiaeeeenue a ??A, a iio?i a ??
IAI Oe?a?ie ii aea/aiith iniaeeainoae aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiieo iioie?a c
iieai niia?eueithth/eo nenoai a i?eeaaeao oeio eaii cai?ioii? oaee? c
iaoith noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo aeaea?ae eieeaaiue i?e?iao?iaiai oa
noai?e?iao?iaiai ae?aiacii?a aeiaaeei oaeeue. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ?
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith IAe?, ye? oa?eoee o a?aeiia?aei? iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?
ca?oe: iiia? Aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 76020089 (oeo? «Oeaa?a»), 1980?., iiia?
Aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 81.067.994 (oeo? «Aaoa»), 1985?., iiia?
Aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 01.86.0.095209 (oeo? «Aaoa»), 1990?., iiia?
Aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 01.89.0.084058 (oeo? «Aeeiai?ea»), 1993?., iiia?
Aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 01.91.0.024651 (oeo? «Eyiaaea»), 1993?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe.

Aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe iaaiai?thaaeeny
ia Ananithci?i iaoeia?i nai?ia?? «Aeaeo?iaeeiai?ea ia??iaee/ieo
no?oeoo?» IA?, i. Iineaa (1988, 1993), aeiiia?aeaeenue ia 1 Ananithci?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?eno?i? oa iaoiaee i?eeeaaeii?
aeaeo?iaeeiai?ee» (Iaeana, 1988), International Conference on Millimeter
and Submillimeter Waves and Applications (USA, San-Diego, 1994), Second
International Conference on Antenna Theory and Techniques (Kyiv,
Ukraine, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 4 noaooyo a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao
oa ca??ieeo iaoeiaeo noaoae, a 1 i?ai?eio? oa a i?aoeyo 3 iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??.

Iniiaiee oaeno aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a
? aeniiaeo (114 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo). ?iaioa i?noeoue 56
noi??iie ?ethno?aoe?e, 2 oaaeeoe? (o oaeno?) ? aeeth/a? nienie
e?oa?aoo?e, ui neeaaea?oueny c 69 a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo iaeiaioaaiue (8
noi?.). Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe 178 noi??iie.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie oa i?eeeaaeia cia/aiiy
aeena?oaoe??. Noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ?iaioe, iaaaaeaii ei?ioeee ci?no oa
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, a oaeiae iaa?oioiaaia ??
iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeaii ei?ioeee iaeyae iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e, ia
iniia? yeiai aea?ai? iiaeae? iieno aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo niia?eueithth/eo
nenoai oa a?aeiia?aei? iaoiaee ?ic?aooie?a ? aei??thaaiue ?o
aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi caoaeaeaiiy iniiaiith oaeeath ieineiai
oaeeaaiaeo a?aee?eoi? aaaaoinooi?i/anoi? a?aa?i/anoi? niia?eueithth/i?
nenoaie c oiieeie eaiaeyie, yea ia? o ia??iae? aeia?eueio e?euee?noue
eaiaaie ??cii? aeeaeie. Ine?eueee caoaeaeoth/ee niia?eueithth/o nenoaio
oaeeaa?ae ii?ooo? ?? ia??iaee/i?noue, oi iiea o aa?oiueiio iai?ai?inoi??
ia ? i?inoith noia?iiceoe??th i?inoi?iaeo aa?iii?e Oeiea ?
cia?aaeo?oueny o aeaeyae? iaia?a?aiiai niaeo?o, yeee iieno?oueny
?ioaa?aeii Oo?’?.

Aoea iaea?aeaia nenoaia e?i?eieo aeaaa?a?/ieo ??aiyiue, ??oaiiy yei?
iaoiaeii eeoe?a aeicaieeei i?eaanoe ?? aei ne?i/aii? nenoaie
o?ainoeaiaeaioieo ??aiyiue. *enaeueiee aiae?c oe??? nenoaie
cae?enith?oueny cai?iiiiiaaiei aoaeoeaiei niiniaii ?ic?aooie?a
aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aaaaoinooi?i/anoi? niia?eueithth/i?
nenoaie c aeei?enoaiiyi ianoaiaea?oieo i?ioeaaeo?, ye? aeicaieythoue
iiaeaethaaoe niia?eueithth/o nenoaio o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iio??aieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. Aeey ie?aiiai aeiaaeeo aeaoonooi?i/anoi? nenoaie
?acoeueoaoe ni?aiaee c a?aeiieie aeaieie, i?eaaaeaieie a ?iaio? [2].

?icn?yia iiea, ui ? noia?iiceoe??th iia?eueieo iiaa?oiaaeo oaeeue,
oaeaeeeo i?inoi?iaeo aa?iii?e oa oaeeue aacia?a?aiiai niaeo?o,
iieno?oueny oaeeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ye: eiao?oe??io a?aeaeooy iaaeath/i?
oaee?, niaeo?aeueia u?euei?noue ia?aoai?aiiy Oo?’? ?icn?yiiai iiey,
iiea aei?ii?ithaaiiy o aeaeuei?e cii?, aeenia?n?eia caeaaei?noue.

Oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino? eiao?oe??ioa a?aeaeooy a?ae /anoioe iieaco?, ui o
aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo niia?eueithth/eo nenoaiao ?niothoue iniaeeaino?, yeeo
iaia? a iaeiinooi?i/anoeo nenoaiao. Ceaie e?eaeo iiaeoey oa oace
eiao?oe??ioa a?aeaeooy a?aeiia?aeathoue aeieeiaiith aai cieeiaiith
iiaa?oiaaeo oaeeue, ye? ?iciianthaeaeothoueny ocaeiaae no?oeoo?e, a
??oaiiy aeenia?n?eiiai ??aiyiiy aeicaiey? aecia/eoe iaeano? ?o
?nioaaiiy. Aiae?c ooieoe?? niaeo?aeueii? u?eueiino? iiey iieaco?
iayai?noue iaeneioi?a ia /anoioao, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue ei?aiyi
aeenia?n?eiiai ??aiyiiy. A ?ac? ia?aoiaeo a iaeanoue oaeaeeeo oaeeue
aeyaey?oueny, ui o aeayeiio ae?aiacii? /anoio niaeo?aeueia aiie?ooaea,
ye ? aei oiai , ia? iaeneioie. Iaeneioie ia niaeo?aeuei?e e?ea?e a
iaeano? oaeaeeeo oaeeue aeacothoue ia oa, ui nenoaia ia? aea??i?noue oa
aoaeoeaii i?aeo?eio? o?eueee icia/ai? oaee?. Aeaoaeueiee /enaeueiee
aiae?c iieacaa, ui iai?aaeyth/? aeanoeaino? niia?eueithth/eo nenoai a
iaeano? iia?eueieo oaeeue caa??aathoueny ? a iaeano? oaeaeeeo oaeeue,
aai ae aaaaoinooi?i/anoa niia?eueithth/a nenoaia ia? aeenia?n?eio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo ? a caai?iiaieo ciiao ae?aa?aie A??ethaia. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
niaeo??a oaeeue o oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? /anoio aeicaieeee iiaoaeoaaoe ia
aeenia?n?eieo ae?aa?aiao e?ea?, ye? ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi a?aeiia?aeieo
aeenia?n?eieo caeaaeiinoae a iaeanoue oaeaeeeo oaeeue. Oaeaeei? a?ae
iaeano? ?nioaaiiy iia?eueieo oaeeue iai?aaeyth/? aeanoeaino?
niia?eueithth/i? nenoaie iineaaeythoueny. Aiae?c niaeo?o o oeeo iaeanoyo
iieaco?, ui iaeneioie neaai ae?aaeai?, ?, oaeei /eiii, niaeo? i?aeoe/ii
iaoii?yaeeiaaiee.

Ci?ia aaiiao??? ia??iaeo aaaaoinooi?i/anoi? niia?eueithth/i? nenoaie
aeicaiey? o oe?ieeo iaaeao oi?aaeyoe aeenia?n?eiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith:
ia?a?iciiae?eyoe oe?eio nioa i?iioneaiiy oa iai?iioneaiiy, ci?ithaaoe
ciae aeenia?n??.

A iinoaiiaoe? ?icaeyiooi? caaea/? i?eeiyoi i?eiouaiiy i?i iaiaiaaeai?
?ici??e aaaaoinooi?i/anoi? niia?eueithth/i? nenoaie. O ?aaeueieo oiiaao
aeiaiaeeoueny iaoe ni?aao ?c niia?eueithth/eie nenoaiaie ne?i/aieo
?ici???a, oiio aaaeeeai ciaoe aieea oeueiai oaeoi?a ia ?o aeenia?n?ei?
aeanoeaino?. O ?iaio? ae??oaia caaea/a c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao iiia?a/iiai
?ici??o niia?eueithth/i? nenoaie ? iieacaii, ui o?aooaaiiy ?? oe?eie
aiineoue iii?aaee o ?ic?aoiaai? aeenia?n?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee, ye? aeia?a
ocaiaeaeothoueny c aenia?eiaioaeueii iaea?aeaieie aeaieie.

Iaei??th ?c oa?aeoa?enoee iiey o aa?oiueiio iai?ai?inoi?? ? eooiaa
?iciiae?eaiiy iiey aei?ii?ithaaiiy o aeaeuei?e cii? aai ae ae?aa?aia
ni?yiiaaiino?. Canoinoaaiiy aeey iaaeeaeaiiai ia/eneaiiy ?ioaa?aea Oo?’?
aneiioioe/iiai iaoiaeo ia?aaaeo aeicaieeei iaea?aeaoe ae?ac aeey
aieiaiiai /eaio aneiioioe/iiai ?iceeaaeo, ?c yeiai aeoiaeeoue, ui iiea o
aeaeuei?e cii? ia? aeaeyae oeee?iae?e/ii? oaee? c eooiaei
?iciiae?eyiiyi, yea a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aiie?ooaee ieinei? oaee?, ui
?iciianthaeaeo?oueny a iai?yi? i?ae eooii aei?ii?ithaaiiy , eeoa
iiiaeieeii kcos, aea k – oaeeueiaa /enei.

Aeey aoaeoeaiiai aeaiaeo aia?a?? c aaia?aoi?a iaiao?aeii oi?ioaaiiy
iaeiiiaethnoeiai?, ii iiaeeeaino?, aocueei? ae?aa?aie ni?yiiaaiino? c
iaeneioiii ii ii?iae? aei iiaa?oi? niia?eueithth/i? nenoaie. Oai?aoe/i?
?ic?aooiee iieacothoue i?eioeeiiao iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy oaei?
ae?aa?aie ni?yiiaaiino? a iaeano? oaeaeeeo oaeeue. A iaeano? iiaa?oiaaeo
oaeeue ae?aa?aia ni?yiiaaiino?, a iniiaiiio, aecia/a?oueny ae?aa?aiith
ni?yiiaaiino? caoaeaeoth/iai oaeeaaiaeo.

Iaoiae caoaeaeaiiy oaeeaaiaeii aeicaieea aeinoaoiuei iiaii iienaoe
oa?aeoa? aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai iiey aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo niia?eueithth/eo
nenoai, ye? iathoue iaeiaeiao oe?eio eaiaaie, o iaaeeaeaii? aace?ia/ii
oiieeo eaiaeae. Eiee ae ci?ith?oueny oe?eia eaiaaie aai oiaueia eaiaeae
o ia??iae? niia?eueithth/i? nenoaie, oi canoinoaaoe oeae iaoiae
iaiiaeeeai. Aeey iieno iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy iie?a o oaeeo
aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo niia?eueithth/eo nenoaiao aeei?enoiaothoueny iaoiaee
oai??? aeeo?aeoe??.

Oeueiio ieoaiith i?enay/aii o?ao?e ?icae?e aeena?oaoe??, a yeiio ia
iniia? no?iaiai ??oaiiy caaea/? aeeo?aeoe?? ieinei? I-iiey?eciaaii?
aeaeo?iiaai?oii? oaee? ia a?aa?ieao ?c neeaaeiith no?oeoo?ith ia??iaeo
i?iaiaeeoueny aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao eiai eiio?ao?aoe?? ia aeenia?n?th ?
?iciiae?e aiie?ooae i?inoi?iaeo aa?iii?e. Aeey aeia?eueieo ia?aiao??a
no?oeoo?, /anoioe oa eooa iaae?iiy aeaeo?iiaai?oii? oaee? ??oaiiy
iaaiaeeoueny o aeaeyae? nenoaie aeaaa?a?/ieo ??aiyiue ae?oaiai ?iaeo,
aiae?c yei? i?iaiaeeoueny /enaeueii iaoiaeii ?aaeoeoe??.

I?e aea/aii? ?icn?yiiai ia aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo a?aa?ieao iiey a?aei?/aii,
ui oae? no?oeoo?e oi?iothoue iiey c yne?aai ae?aaeaieie ?aciiainieie
iniaeeainoyie ? cia/ieie aiie?ooaeaie aeueo i?inoi?iaeo aa?iii?e o
aeiaaioaeeueia?e iaeano?. Oe? ?aciiaine ia niinoa??aathoueny a
iaeiinooi?i/anoeo nenoaiao [3], aiie ia iia’ycai? oaeiae c aeieeiaiiyi
iiaeo aeeo?aeoe?eieo aa?iii?e, ui ?iciianthaeaeothoueny. A ca’yceo c
oeei aoei aeneiaeaii i?eiouaiiy, ui oaeee oa?aeoa? iiey iaoiiaeaii
?nioaaiiyi oaeaeeeo oaeeue, ye? i?enooi? o niaeo?? aeanieo oaeeue
a?aee?eoeo niia?eueithth/eo nenoai. ??oaiiy aeenia?n?eiiai ??aiyiiy aeey
/anoeiaiai aeiaaeeo ae?enieo ei?ai?a iieacaei, ui ?aciiaine aiie?ooae
aa?iii?e o aeiaaioaeeueia?e iaeano? iia’ycai? c ?aaeeiaie iiaa?oiaaeo oa
oaeaeeeo oaeeue ? a?aeiia?aeathoue iaae? nioae i?iioneaiiy aeenia?n?eii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee oa (aai ae) ia?aoiaeo a iaeanoue oaeaeeeo oaeeue.

Ci?ia aaiiao??? ia??iaeo aaaaoinooi?i/anoi? no?oeoo?e aeicaiey?
oi?aaeyoe ?o aiie?ooaeii-/anoioieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, aeeeth/aoe ?aaeei
aeca?eaeueiiai a?aeaeooy oa aeiaeoeny iacia/ii? ci?ie aiie?ooae
i?inoi?iaeo aa?iii?e o aeinoaoiuei oe?ie?e /anoioi?e iaeano? aai,
iaaiaee, ?aciiainiiai ?o ca?eueoaiiy. Ii??aithth/ee aiae?c aeenia?n?eieo
caeaaeiinoae aeey nenoai ??cii? eiio?ao?aoe?? iieacaa, ui iaea?eueo
??cei ia ci?io ?o aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a ?aaao? nenoaia c ia??iaee/iith
ci?iith aeeaeie eaiaaee, aeey yei? o aeayeeo nioaao i?iioneaiiy iiaeeeaa
ci?ia ciaeo aeenia?n??. Aeey an?o ?icaeyiooeo eiio?ao?aoe?e
aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo nenoai ? oa?aeoa?iei ia?a?iciiae?e oe?eie nioa
i?iioneaiiy ? iai?iioneaiiy o caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o aaiiao?e/ieo
ia?aiao??a.

Aeeeaaeai? iaoiaee aeicaieythoue i?iaanoe aoaeoeaiee aiae?c
?icn?thth/eo oa iai?aaeyth/eo aeanoeainoae aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo
niia?eueithth/eo nenoai, aeaoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeai?o aaiiao???
niia?eueithth/i? nenoaie oa ?aaeei?a caoaeaeaiiy, oaeei /eiii
iiaeaethaaoe ? iioei?coaaoe i?ino?? aca?iiae?? a ee?iio?iiao c
eaac?iioe/iei ?iciiae?eaiei aeaiaeii aia?a??.

Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy iniiaieo oai?aoe/ieo aeniiae?a oa iaea?aeaiiy
a?eueo iiaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy iie?a o a?aee?eoeo
aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo niia?eueithth/eo nenoaiao aoee i?iaaaeai?
aenia?eiaioe i?e caoaeaeaii? nenoai ??cii? aaiiao??? oaeeaaiaeii
(“oieiaei?” aei??thaaiiy) oa aeaeo?iiiei io/eii.

Aenia?eiaioe aeeiioaaeenue a ii oa noaii ae?aiaciiao aeiaaeei oaeeue ia
iaeaoao oa ee?iio?iiao c eaac?iioe/iei ?iciiae?eaiei aeaiaeii aia?a??.
Iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ??oaiiy
ie?aieo i?eeeaaeieo caaea/ neeaaeathoue ci?no /aoaa?oiai ?icae?eo.

Aeey aei??thaaiiy aeenia?n?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee oa a?coae?caoe?? no?oeoo?e
iiey iiaa?oiaaeo oaeeue a?aee?eoeo aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo niia?eueithth/eo
nenoai ia “oieiaeieo” aei??thaaiiyo aia?oa aeei?enoaii iaoiae
oioiea?iaaieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo ieanoei [4,5], yeee a?aeiinyoue aei
iaoiae?a ?aaeoeaiiai ciiaeoaaiiy. Nooue oeueiai iaoiaeo iieyaa? a oiio,
ui a aeine?aeaeoaai?e ae?eyioe? IA*-iiey ?ici?uothoue ia?ooiio
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiao ieanoeio c iaeei oaiiiaei caoaeaeaiiyi iiey. Ii
iiaa?oi? ieanoeie ia?ai?uo?oueny ?ioaineaia na?oeiaa ieyia iaiao?aeii?
oi?ie oa ?ici???a. ??cea ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? iao??aiiaaaeaieo
iin??a no?oio ia ae?eyioe? cana?oee i?eaiaeeoue aei ci?ie
aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ieanoeie (eiao?oe??io?a a?aeaeooy,
caeiieaiiy, iiaeeiaiiy). I?eeiath/e ?icn?yiee iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaith
ieanoeiith IA*-neaiae, iiaeia a?aeiiaeoe ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
aeine?aeaeoaaia iiea.

Iaoiae aeicaiey? eiio?iethaaoe aia?oo?e ?ici??ii 100o100 ii2 c
aeene?aoiei ciaioaiiyi iiey aiae?co o 2, 4 oa 8 ?ac?a. *an oi?ioaaiiy
cia?aaeaiiy iiey, ui eiio?ieth?oueny, ia a?eueo ye 32 nae, ?yaeea — 0.8
nae. Ci?ia ?ici???a ae?aiao?o na?oeiai? ieyie ?aaoeth?oueny a iaaeao
a?ae 2 aei 0.2 ii. O ?yae? caaea/ , ye? ia aeiaaathoue aei??thaaiue
aeniei/anoioieo neeaaeiaeo ?iciiae?eo IA* iiey, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, a
oaeiae i?e ye?niiio a?aeoai?aii? no?oeoo?e iiey, aeinoaoiuei iaiaaeeoe
?ici?? na?oeiai? ieyie 1/4 aai 1/2 , aeey aei??thaaiiy aeenia?n?eieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ?ici?? na?oeiai? ieyie neeaaeaa 1/15 , aea — aeiaaeeia
oaee?. Iaoiae aeicaiey? cae?enieoe a?coae?caoe?th no?oeoo?e IA*-iiey o
?yaeeiaiio, yne?aa?niiio oa aeniiiiao?e/iiio ?aaeeiao ?iaeeeaoe??.
?aaeei caieno ?iciiae?eaiiy iiey o aea?aiiio ia?aoei? ia naiiienoe?
aeicaiey? aecia/eoe aeiaaeeio niia?eueiaii? oaee? oa iiaoaeoaaoe
aeenia?n?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee. Aei??thaaiiy aeenia?n?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee o
?aaeei? iiaa?oiaaeo oaeeue i?iaaaeai? aeey /ioe?ueio- oa
i’yoenooi?i/anoeo niia?eueithth/eo nenoai o 8-ii ae?aiacii? aeiaaeei
oaeeue.

Aei??thaaiiy aeenia?n?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?e caoaeaeaii?
aaaaoinooi?i/anoi? niia?eueithth/i? nenoaie aeaeo?iiiei io/eii o
ee?iio?iiao c eaac?iioe/iei ?iciiae?eaiei aeaiaeii aia?a?? aeeiioaaeenue
a ii oa noaii ae?aiaciiao aeiaaeei oaeeue.

Ii??aiyiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa oai?aoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a iieaco? ?o
iiaio a?aeiia?aei?noue. Aaaaoinooi?i/ano? niia?eueithth/? nenoaie
caoaeaeothoueny a ie?aieo nioaao a ?aaeeiao iiaa?oiaaeo oa oaeaeeeo
oaeeue, i?e ci?i? e?eueeino? eaiaaie o ia??iae? niia?eueithth/i? nenoaie
(/ioe?ueio- aai i’yoenooi?i/anoa niia?eueithth/a nenoaia) ci?uothoueny
oi/ee ?ic?ea?a aeenia?n?eii? oa?aeoa?enoeee. Iii?/aii oaeiae, ui
iaea?eueo eaaei aaaaoinooi?i/ano? niia?eueithth/? nenoaie
caoaeaeothoueny ia iaaeao nioa i?iioneaiiy. ??cieoey i?ae oai???th oa
aenia?eiaioii niinoa??aa?oueny o e?eueeino? caoaeaeaieo nioa
i?iioneaiiy. A aenia?eiaio? ?o iaioa. Iaei??th c iiaeeeaeo i?e/ei ?
aieea ioneiaeo no?oi?a.

Iiaeeea?noue oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoinooi?i/anoith niia?eueithth/ith nenoaiith
ae?aa?aie ni?yiiaaiino? ?c caaeaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iieacaia
oai?aoe/ii. Aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?aa?ai ni?yiiaaiino?
aei?ii?ithaaiiy aaaaoinooi?i/anoi? niia?eueithth/i? nenoaie
aeeiioaaeinue oeyoii aei??thaaiue iiey aei?ii?ithaaiiy ee?iio?ii?a c
eaac?iioe/iei ?iciiae?eaiei aeaiaeii aia?a?? o A- oa I- ieiueiao.
Aei??thaaiiy aeeiioaaeenue o 2-ii oa noaii ae?aiaciiao ca aeiiiiiaith
ciiaea ia ??cieo a?aenoaiyo a?ae niia?eueithth/i? nenoaie.

Aei??thaaiiy iieacaee, ui o ee?iio?ii?a, o yeeo aeei?enoaii
aaaaoinooi?i/anoo nenoaio, oi?io?oueny iaeiiiaethnoeiaa ae?aa?aia
ni?yiiaaiino? ye o A-, oae ? I-ieiuei? c eooii aei?ii?ithaaiiy ii
ii?iae? aei ?? iiaa?oi?. Eooia? ?ici??e iniiaiiai iaethnoea
a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiaaeei? oa oe?ei? niia?eueithth/i? nenoaie. Oae ye
aeiaaeeia nenoaie o i?eeaaeao cae/aeii a?eueoa, i?ae ?? oe?eia, oi o
I-ieiuei? ae?aa?aia ni?yiiaaiino? a?eueo oe?iea, i?ae o A-ieiuei?. I?e
ci?i? ?aaeeio ?iaioe i?eeaaeo ci?ith?oueny oaeiae eoo aei?ii?ithaaiiy,
oaeei /eiii cae?enith?oueny aeaeo?e/ia neaioaaiiy ae?aa?aie
ni?yiiaaiino?.

Ii??aiyiiy aei??yieo iie?a aei?ii?ithaaiiy ee?iio?ii?a c
iaeiinooi?i/anoith oa aaaaoinooi?i/anoith niia?eueithth/eie nenoaiaie
iieacaei, ui i?e aeei?enoaii? iaeiinooi?i/anoi? nenoaie ae?aa?aia
ni?yiiaaiino? ?c caaeaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ia oi?io?oueny, oiio ui
i?e/eiith aei?ii?ithaaiiy iaeiinooi?i/anoi? nenoaie ? aeiaaeeia?
iaiaeii??aeiino? oa e?aeia? aoaeoe.

Iiaeeea?noue eaiae?caoe?? aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy c
i?i?iaeueieie caeoeaie ? iaeiei ?c aaaeeea?oeo ieoaiue, ye? iaiao?aeii
ae??ooaaoe i?e i?aeoe/iiio aeei?enoaii? ee?iio?ii?a c eaac?iioe/iei
?iciiae?eaiei aeaiaeii aia?a??.

I?e ocaiaeaeaii? ee?iio?iia c eaac?iioe/iith e?i??th ia?aaea/?, cie?aia
c ae?aeaeo?e/iei i?iiaiaaiaeii, yeee ia? neiao?e/io ae?aa?aio
ni?yiiaaiino?, iaiao?aeii ianeiao?e/io ae?aa?aio ee?iio?iia ia?aoai?eoe
o neiao?e/io c oaciaei o?iioii, aeecueeei aei ieineiai. Ine?eueee
ocaiaeaeaiiy o aeaeuei?e cii? c aia?aaoe/ii? oa eiino?oeoeaii? oi/ee
ci?o ? ia?aoe?iiaeueiei, eiai iaiao?aeii cae?enithaaoe o aeeaei?e cii?
aei?ii?ithaaiiy aaia?aoi?a.

Aeey ei?aeoe?? ?ica?aeiino? iiey aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
ae?aeaeo?e/i? e?ice. ?icaeyiooi aeaa aa??aioe ocaiaeaeaiiy: ca
aeiiiiiaith ciai?oiuei? nenoaie ae?aeaeo?e/ieo oeee?iae?e/ieo ?
noa?e/ieo e?ic oa iaei??? aieaioe/ii? e?ice, ?icoaoiaaii?
aaciina?aaeiuei o i?eeaae?. Ciai?oiy nenoaia e?ic iio?aao? niaoe?aeueieo
i?eno?i?a aeey iano?ithaaiiy, a cai?iiiiiaaiee aa??aio ?ici?uaiiy e?ice
o i?eeaae? caaacia/o? eiiiaeoi?noue eiino?oeoe?? aac ci?ie yeino?
ocaiaeaeaiiy.

Ee?iio?iie c eaac?iioe/iei ?iciiae?eaiei aeaiaeii aia?a?? ?ic?iaeai? a
onueiio ii (8, 3, 2 ii) oa noaii ( 0,95, 0,8 ii) ae?aiaciiao aeiaaeei
oaeeue. Aeo?aeia iiooaei?noue oaeeo aaia?aoi??a cia/ii aeua, i?ae o
ee?iio?ii?a c oaeeaaiaeiei aeaiaeii aia?a??, oiio ui ?iciiae?eaiee
aea?ae aia?a?? cia/ii ciaioo? caeoee, iia’ycai? c caoooaiiyi o
niia?eueithth/?e nenoai?, caoaeaeaiiyi aeueo oei?a eieeaaiue, a oaeiae
i?e ocaiaeaeaii? c eaac?iioe/ieie e?i?yie ia?aaea/?.

Ia ee?iio?iiao, a yeeo aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aeanoeaino? aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo
niia?eueithth/eo nenoai, o ei?ioeioaeeueia?e /anoei? ii ae?aiaciio aoee
iaea?aeai? ??ai? iiooaeiino? a?ey 5 Ao, o noaii ae?aiacii? — 0.7 Ao, ye?
cia/ii ia?aaeuothoue ??ai? iiooaeiinoae, ui iaea?aeai? ia iiae?aieo
i?eeaaeao oeueiai eeano (eaiie cai?ioii? oaee?, ea?neiio?iie oa ?io?).
Oea na?ae/eoue i?i ia?niaeoeai?noue oaeiai aaia?aoi?a. Ie??i
canoinoaaiiy ee?iio?iia c eaac?iioe/iei ?iciiae?eaiei aeaiaeii aia?a?? o
?ie? aeaea?aea aeaeo?iiaai?oieo eieeaaiue, eiai iiaeia aeei?enoaoe ye
aeoeaio aioaio c aeaeo?e/iei neaioaaiiyi, ui cia/ii ?icoe?th? iaeanoue
eiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Aiaeia?a oaeeo i?eeaae?a a Oe?a?i? oa ca ?? iaaeaie ia ?nio?.

AENIIAEE

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, iaea?aeai? a aeena?oaoe??, oa aeniiaee, ui
noi?ioeueiaai? a cae?i/aii?, caiaeyoueny aei ianooiiiai.

1. Canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a caoaeaeaiiy oaeeue oaeeaaiaeii oa ieineith
oaeeath aeicaieeei aia?oa aeinoaoiuei iiaii iienaoe oa?aeoa?
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai iiey o a?aee?eoeo aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo niia?eueithth/eo
nenoaiao a?aa?i/anoiai oeio aeia?eueii? aaiiao???.

2. Oai?aoe/ii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy
iie?a o a?aee?eoeo aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo niia?eueithth/eo nenoaiao oa
iayai?noue o niaeo?? aeanieo oaeeue oaeaeeeo i?inoi?iaeo aa?iii?e
aecia/athoue o?ceeo ?iaioe ee?iio?iia c eaac?iioe/iei ?iciiae?eaiei
aeaiaeii aia?a?? ? aeicaieythoue aeeiiaoe aeaaaeaiiy aia?a?? ?c
aaia?aoi?a c i?i?iaeueieie caeoeaie.

3. Iiaoaeiaai? aoaeoeai? /enaeuei? aeai?eoie, ye? aeicaieeee i?iaanoe
aiae?c aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee nenoai ??cii? eiio?ao?aoe?? oa
iiaeaethaaiiy aaiiao??? i?inoi?o aca?iiae?? ee?iio?ii?a c eaac?iioe/iei
?iciiae?eaiei aeaiaeii aia?a??.

4. ?ic?iaeai? iia? oa oaeineiiaeai? ?nioth/? aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee a?aee?eoeo aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo
niia?eueithth/eo nenoai; i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioe, ye? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue
aeniiaee oai???.

5. ?ic?iaeaii aaia?aoi? ii oa noaii ae?aiacii?a aeiaaeei oaeeue, yeee
caaacia/o? aenieee ??aaiue aeo?aeii? iiooaeiino? oa ocaiaeaeaiiy c
eaac?iioe/ieie e?i?yie ia?aaea/; eiai iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe oaeiae ye
aeoeaio aioaio c aeaeo?e/iei neaioaaiiyi.

Oeeoiaaia e?oa?aoo?a

1. Eeeiio?ii / Eaaei A.ss., Ai?iaeeei A.E., Ee?e/aiei A.ss. e ae?./ Iiae
?aae. A.ss. Oneeiaa.- E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1992.- 200n.

2. Karjala D.S. and Mittra R. Radiation from a modulated corrugated
surface exnited by a waveguide // Proc. IEE (London).-1966.- Vol.113.-
P.1143-1150, October.

3. Aeeo?aeoeey aiei ia ?aoaoeao / A.I. Oanoiiaeia, E.I. Eeoaeiaiei, N.A.
Ianaeia, A.A. Nieiaoa/ O.: Ecae-ai Oa?uee. oi-oa, 1973.-278n.

4. Aaeiaa?a E.A., Aaeiaa?a Y.E., Iaaaeueaa A.A. Eiaeeeaoeey no?oeoo?u
yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iiey i?e iiiiue ia?aaiiaaniuo iineoaeae oiea a
iieoi?iaiaeieeao // ?aaeeioaoieea e yeaeo?iieea.-1971.-O.16.- A.3.-
N.458- 460.

5. A.n. N275182 NNN?. Ono?ienoai aeey aecoaeecaoeee iiey a NA*
?aciiaoi?a /E.A. Aaeiaa?a, Y.E. Aaeiaa?a, A.A. Iaaaeueaa(NNN?). 1970.
Athe. ?22.

Ioae?eaoe?? aaoi?a ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Aocee E.I., Ieoei I.O. Aicaoaeaeaiea ioe?uoie iiiainooiai/aoie
caiaaeeythuae nenoaiu oeia «a?aaaiea» aieiiaiaeii // ?aaeeioaoieea e
yeaeo?iieea.- 1996.- O.41.- ?4.- N.1-8.

2. Ieoei I.O. Aeeo?aeoeey aiei ia iiiainooiai/aoie io?aaeaoaeueiie
?aoaoea i?yiioaieueiiai i?ioeey // ?ani?ino?aiaiea e aeeo?aeoeey
?aaeeiaiei. –E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1984.- N.128-138.

3. Eunaiei A.A., Ieoei I.O., *o?eeiaa N.A. Aecoaeecaoeey iieae
iiaa?oiinoiuo aiei caiaaeeythueo nenoai ieeeeiao?iaiai aeeaiaciia //
Yeaeo?iiiay oaoieea, Na?ey 1, Yeaeo?iieea NA*.-1979.- A.2.- N.98-101.

4. Aocee E.I., Ieoei I.O., *o?eeiaa N.A., Oa?aiao I.E. Aiaeec
aeenia?neiiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee ioe?uouo iiiainooiai/aouo caiaaeeythueo
nenoai eiia/iie oe?eiu // ?aaeeioeceea e ?aaeeiano?iiiiey.- 1998.-
O.3.-?1.- N.99-104.

5. Ieoei I.O., *o?eeiaa N.A. ?an/ao aeenia?neiiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee
ioe?uouo iiiainooiai/aouo a?aaaiie. O.: 1985.-22n. (I?ai?. / E?Y AI
ONN?; ?292).

6. Ao?ae/ I.E., Eunaiei A.A., Ieoei I.O., *o?eeiaa N.A. Enneaaeiaaiea
eceo/athueo no?oeoo? oeia iiiainooiai/aouo a?aaaiie // O?oaeu Ia?aie
ananithciie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Ono?ienoaa e iaoiaeu
i?eeeaaeiie yeaeo?iaeeiaieee». Iineaa: Ecae-ai IAE.- 1988.- N.97.

7. Buzik L.M., Pishko O.F., Churilova S.A. Application of the open
multi-step slow-wave structures in millimeter and submillimeter wave
oscillator // Conference Digest. International Conference on Millimeter
and Submillimeter Waves and Applications, 10-14 January, 1994,
San-Diego, California. Proc. SPIE, V.2250, P.198-199. Pablished by SPIE
The International Society for Optical Engineering.

8. Buzik L.M., Pishko O.F., Churilova S.A. Directional patterns of
waveguide exciting the open multi-step slow-wave system // Proc. of the
Second International Conference on Antenna Theory and Techniques.-Kyiv
(Ukraine).- 1997.-P.292-294.

Aiioaoe?y

I?oei I.O. Aaaaoinooi?i/ano? niia?eueithth/? nenoaie oa ?o canoinoaaiiy
a ee?iio?iiao i?e?iao?iaeo oa noai?e?iao?iaeo oaeeue. — ?oeiien.
Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.03 – ?aae?io?ceea.-
?inoeooo ?aae?io?ceee oa aeaeo?ii?ee ?i. I.ss. Oneeiaa IAI Oe?a?ie, i.
Oa?e?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaai? oai?aoe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoiaee
aiae?co aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee niaoeeo?/iiai eeano
ia??iaee/ieo no?oeoo? — a?aee?eoeo aaaaoinooi?i/anoeo niia?eueithth/eo
nenoai. Cia/io oaaao i?eae?eaii oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaiith iniaeeainoae
oi?ioaaiiy iie?a a oaeeo nenoaiao oa aenia?eiaioaeueiiio
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiith iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Oe? nenoaie ai?iaaaeaeai? a ee?iio?iiao c eaac?iioe/iei ?iciiae?eaiei
aeaiaeii aia?a??. Cai?iiiiiaai? oa ?aae?ciaai? /enaeuei? aeai?eoie, ye?
aeiiiiaaathoue iiaeaethaaoe oa iioei?coaaoe i?ino?? aca?iiae?? oaeeo
ee?iio?ii?a.

Noai?ai? oa aeine?aeaeai? aaia?aoi?e ii oa noaii ae?aiaciio aeiaaeei
oaeeue – ee?iio?iie c eaac?iioe/iei ?iciiae?eaiei aeaiaeii aia?a??. Oe?
aaia?aoi?e iathoue ??aaiue iiooaeiino?, yeee cia/ii ia?aaeuo? ??ai?
iiooaeiino?, io?eiai? ia i?eeaaeao iiae?aiiai oeio.

Ae??oai? ieoaiiy ocaiaeaeaiiy aei?ii?ithaaiiy aaia?aoi?a c
eaac?iioe/ieie e?i?yie ia?aaea/?, cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeeo?eaoe?y aaia?aoi?a
c ei?eaoth/ith aei?ii?ithaaiiy e?icith.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaaaoinooi?i/anoa niia?eueithth/a nenoaia, ee?iio?ii c
eaac?iioe/iei ?iciiae?eaiei aeaiaeii aia?a??, aeoeaia aioaia,
aeenia?n?eia oa?aeoa?enoeea.

Aiiioaoeey

Ieoei I.O. Iiiainooiai/aoua caiaaeeythuea nenoaiu e eo i?eiaiaiea a
eeeiio?iiao ieeeeiao?iauo e noaieeeeiao?iauo aiei.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiao/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.03. – ?aaeeioeceea.
Einoeooo ?aaeeioeceee e yeaeo?iieee ei. A.ss. Oneeiaa IAI Oe?aeiu, a.
Oa?ueeia, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?aaeeiaeaiu oai?aoe/aneea e yenia?eiaioaeueiua iaoiaeu
aiaeeca yeaeo?iaeeiaie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee niaoeeoe/aneiai eeanna
ia?eiaee/aneeo no?oeoo? – ioe?uouo iiiainooiai/aouo caiaaeeythueo
nenoai, eioi?ua iaoee i?eiaiaiea a eeeiio?iiao n eaaceiioe/aneei
?ani?aaeaeaiiui auaiaeii yia?aee. Cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeaii
oai?aoe/aneiio iainiiaaieth iniaaiiinoae oi?ie?iaaiey iieae a oaeeo
nenoaiao e yenia?eiaioaeueiiio iiaeoaa?aeaeaieth iieo/aiiuo
?acoeueoaoia.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa ?anniio?aii aicaoaeaeaiea iniiaiie aieiie
ieineiai aieiiaiaea ioe?uoie iiiainooiai/aoie a?aaai/aoie caiaaeeythuae
nenoaiu n oiieeie eaiaeyie, eiathuae a ia?eiaea i?iecaieueiia /enei
eaiaaie ?acee/iie aeoaeiu. Yoio iaoiae iicaieee aeinoaoi/ii iieii
iienaoue oa?aeoa? yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iiey iiiainooiai/aouo caiaaeeythueo
nenoai, eiathueo iaeeiaeiaoth oe?eio eaiaaie, a i?eaeeaeaiee aaneiia/ii
oiieeo eaiaeae. A neo/aa eciaiaiey oe?eiu eaiaaie eee oieueiu eaiaeae a
ia?eiaea caiaaeeythuae nenoaiu i?eiaieoue yoio iaoiae ia i?aaenoaaeyaony
aiciiaeiui. Aeey iienaiey iniaaiiinoae oi?ie?iaaiey iieae a oaeeo
iiiainooiai/aouo caiaaeeythueo nenoaiao eniieueciaaiu iaoiaeu oai?ee
aeeo?aeoeee. Ia iniiaa no?iaiai ?aoaiey caaea/e aeeo?aeoeee ieineie
I-iiey?eciaaiiie yeaeo?iiaaieoiie aieiu ia a?aaaieao ni neiaeiie
no?oeoo?ie ia?eiaea i?iaaaeaii enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey aai eiioeao?aoeee
ia aeenia?neth e ?ani?aaeaeaiea aiieeooae i?ino?ainoaaiiuo aa?iiiee.

I?eiaiaiiua iaoiaeu aeaee aiciiaeiinoue i?iaanoe yooaeoeaiue aiaeec
?annaeaathueo e iai?aaeythueo naienoa iiiainooiai/aouo caiaaeeythueo
nenoai, aeaoue ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii auai?o aaiiao?ee caiaaeeythuae nenoaiu
e ?aaeeiia aicaoaeaeaiey. I?aaeeiaeaiiua e ?aaeeciaaiiua /eneaiiua
aeai?eoiu, iicaieeee iiaeaee?iaaoue e iioeiece?iaaoue i?ino?ainoai
acaeiiaeaenoaey a eeeiio?iiao n eaaceiioe/aneei ?ani?aaeaeaiiui auaiaeii
yia?aee.

Aeey iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey iniiaiuo oai?aoe/aneeo auaiaeia e iieo/aiey aieaa
iieiie eioi?iaoeee ia iniaaiiinoyo oi?ie?iaaiey iieae a ioe?uouo
iiiainooiai/aouo caiaaeeythueo nenoaiao auee i?iaaaeaiu yenia?eiaiou i?e
aicaoaeaeaiee nenoai ?acee/iie aaiiao?ee aieiiaiaeii (“oieiaeiua”
ecia?aiey) e yeaeo?iiiui io/eii. Yenia?eiaiou i?iaiaeeeenue a ii e noaii
aeeaiaciiao aeeei aiei. A ?aaioa i?eaiaeeony iaoiaeeea e ianoaeaeathony
?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee, a oaeaea i?iaiaeeony
n?aaiaiea yenia?eiaioaeueiuo e oai?aoe/aneeo aeaiiuo. Iienaiu
?acoeueoaou ii ?ac?aaioea e enneaaeiaaieth eeeiio?iiia n eaaceiioe/aneei
?ani?aaeaeaiiui auaiaeii yia?aee e ono?ienoa aeey eo niaeaniaaiey n
eaaceiioe/aneeie eeieyie ia?aaea/.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou, iieo/aiiua a aeenna?oaoeee, naiaeyony e
neaaeothuaio:

— i?eiaiaiea iaoiaeia aicaoaeaeaiey aiei aieiiaiaeii e ieineie aieiie
iicaieeei aia?aua aeinoaoi/ii iieii iienaoue oa?aeoa? yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai
iiey a ioe?uouo iiiainooiai/aouo caiaaeeythueo nenoaiao a?aaai/aoiai
oeia i?iecaieueiie aaiiao?ee.

— oai?aoe/anee e yenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, /oi iniaaiiinoe
oi?ie?iaaiey iieae a ioe?uouo iiiainooiai/aouo caiaaeeythueo nenoaiao e
iaee/ea a niaeo?a nianoaaiiuo aiei auno?uo i?ino?ainoaaiiuo aa?iiiee
ii?aaeaeytho oeceeo ?aaiou eeeiio?iia n eaaceiioe/aneei ?ani?aaeaeaiiui
auaiaeii yia?aee e iicaieytho inouanoaeoue auaiae yia?aee ec aaia?aoi?a
n ieieiaeueiuie iioa?yie.

— iino?iaiu yooaeoeaiua /eneaiiua aeai?eoiu, iicaieythuea i?iaanoe
aiaeec yeaeo?iaeeiaie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee nenoai ?acee/iie eiioeao?aoeee
e iiaeaee?iaaiea aaiiao?ee i?ino?ainoaa acaeiiaeaenoaey a eeeiio?iiao n
eaaceiioe/aneei ?ani?aaeaeaiiui auaiaeii yia?aee.

— ?ac?aaioaiu iiaua e oniaa?oainoaiaaiu nouanoaothuea yenia?eiaioaeueiua
iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey oa?aeoa?enoee ioe?uouo iiiainooiai/aouo
caiaaeeythueo nenoai; i?iaaaeaiu yenia?eiaiou, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea
auaiaeu oai?ee.

— ?ac?aaioai aaia?aoi? ii e noaii aeeaiaciiia aeeei aiei,
iaania/eaathuee aunieee o?iaaiue auoiaeiie iiuiinoe, i?aaeeiaeaia
iiaeeoeeaoeey i?eai?a n ei??aeoe?othuae eceo/aiea eeicie, eioi?ay
nouanoaaiii oi?inoeea eiino?oeoeeth ia?aoiaea i?e niaeaniaaiee n
eaaceiioe/aneeie eeieyie ia?aaea/.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiiainooiai/aoay caiaaeeythuay nenoaia, eeeiio?ii n
eaaceiioe/aneei ?ani?aaeaeaiiui auaiaeii yia?aee, aeoeaiay aioaiia,
aeenia?neiiiay oa?aeoa?enoeea.

Abstract

Pishko, O.F. Multi-step slow-wave structures: Application to
millimeter and submillimeter wave clynotrons. – Manuscript. A
dissertation in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
Candidate of Science degree in Physics and Mathematics (speciality code
01.04.03 – Radio Physics). – A.Usikov Institute of Radio Physics and
Electronics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov, 1999.

The dissertation presents theoretical and experimental methods for
analyzing electrodynamic properties of a special class of periodic
structures, namely open multi-step slow-wave structures. Considerable
attention is given to the theoretical foundations of field formation in
the structures and experimental verification of the appropriate results.

The slow-wave structures considered have found application in clynotrons
with a distributed quasioptical power output. The numerical algorithms
that have been suggested and implemented enable modeling and
optimization of the field-particle interaction space in such
clynotrons.

Novel millimeter and submillimeter wave generators, namely clynotrons
with a distributed quasioptical power output have been designed and
analyzed. The devices are characterized by microwave powers greatly in
excess of the levels typical of other similar generators.

The problems arising in matching the generator output with
quasioptical transmission lines have been solved, and a modified
generator, equipped with a correcting lens, has been proposed.

Key words: multi-step slow-wave structures; clynotrons with a
distributed quasioptical power output; active antenna; dispersion law.

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