IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO O?CEEE

NO?AI AANEEUe AANEEUeIAE*

OAeE 539.184

AAAAOIOIOIIIA ?II?CAOe?ss AOII?A EOAEIICAIAEUeIEO AEAIAIO?A

01.04.05- iioeea, eaca?ia o?ceea

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oaeai?iaenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith eaaioiai? aeaeo?ii?ee Oeiii Ethaea?e
Ethaea?eiae/,

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ssoeaiei
Eaii?ae Iao?iae/,

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith o?ce/ii? aeaeo?ii?ee *ooia TH??e
?aaiiae/,

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

aeaeai iaoai?ei-iaoaiaoe/iiai oaeoeueoaoo ?iuoie?i Na?a?e
Iaaeiae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

?inoeooo o?ce/ii? iioeee I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Euea?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 23 aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 1430 aiaeei ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.159.01 i?e ?inoeooo? o?ceee IAI
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252650 INI, Ee?a-22, i?iniaeo Iaoee, 46.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?ceee
IAI

Oe?a?ie, (i.Ee?a, i?iniaeo Iaoee, 46.).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 20 eeiiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
?uoe A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? i?eaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe
niaeo?ineii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aaaaoioioiiieo i?ioean?a, ye? iathoue
i?noea i?e aeaiaioa?ieo aeoao aca?iiae?? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy c
aoiiaie. Aeey oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaany iaoiae ?ii?caoe?eii?
niaeo?ineii??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a aca?iiae?? ?ioaineaiiai eaca?iiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy c aoiiaie ? /anoeiith o?ceee aca?iiae?? oeueiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy c ?a/iaeiith. I?e aca?iiae?? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy c
aoiiaie, ii?yae c ?aae?caoe??th ?ioeo i?ioean?a, iiaeooue oaeiae
?aae?coaaoeny i?ioeane aaaaoioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy oa aaaaoioioiiii?
?ii?caoe?? aoii?a, yeee i?eaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy iaeii- oa
aaaaoica?yaeieo ?ii?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaaoioioiiieo i?ioean?a a iie?
eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ?icii/aeeny a na?aaeei? 60-oeo ?ie?a ?
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue noeioeth?oueny ?icaeoeii
eaca?ii? oaoi?ee, a naia: io?eiaiiyi eaca?ii? aaia?aoe?? a ??cieo oa
oe?ieeo iaeanoyo niaeo?a ?c aeinyaiaiiyi i?e oeueiio aaeeeeo
?ioaineaiinoae eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy oa nei?i/aiiyi o?eaaeino?
eaca?ieo ?iioeuen?a.

Aei ii/aoeo aeineiaeaeaiue i?ioeano aaaaoioioiiii? iiiicaoei? aoiiia
eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaioia, yei aoee caii/aoeiaaii iaie, iniiaieie
ia’?eoaie aeineiaeaeaiue aoee aoiie eoaeieo iaoaeia oa iia?oieo aacia.
Aei oeueiai /ano a iaoeiaie eioa?aoo?i aoee aiaenooii aenia?eiaioaeueii
aeaii i?i caeiiiii?iinoi oa iniaeeainoi aaaaoioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy
iaeii oa aeaiaeaeo?iiieo (neiaeaoieo oa o?eieaoieo) ca’ycaieo ??ai?a,
??aeaa?a?anueeeo ??ai?a (??), a oaeiae aaoiiiiicaoeieieo ?iaiia (AI?)
aoiiia eoaeiicaiaeueieo oa iioeo aeaiaioia a ?icieo niaeo?aeueieo
iaeanoyo i i?e ?iciie iiey?ecaoei? eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy, a oaeiae
aeaii i?i i?iya ei?aeyoeie aeaio aeaeo?iiia i?e aaaaoioioiiieo
i?ioeanao. Aoee a?aenooi? oaeiae aeai? i?i o?ce/i? i?ioeane,
ye? iiaeooue ?aae?coaaoeny i?e ooai?aii? iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a
i?e aaaaoioioiiioe ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaio?a. Cianii
ia aoee ?ic?iaeaii i oai?aoe/ii iaoiaee ?ic?aooieia i?ioeania
aaaaoioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy aiaeii/aieo aeua ?iaiia, i?ioeano
aaaaoioioiiii? iiiicaoei? aoiiia eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaioia. Acaaaei
aoee aiaenooii aeaii i?i oaeo aoiiio eiinoaioo, ye aoaeoeaiee ia?a?ic
aaaaoioioiiii? iiiicaoei? iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia.

A aeineiaeaeaiiyo i?ioeano aaaaoioioiiii? iiiicaoei? aoiiia
eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaioia iaie aia?oa aoa aeyaeaiee aoaeo ooai?aiiy
aeaica?yaeieo iiiia i?e aaaaoioioiiiie iiiicaoei? aoiiia eaca?iei
aei?iiiithaaiiyi. Oeae aoaeo aoa aeyaeaiee a aeine?aeaeaiiyo c
aeei?enoaiiyi oieniaaii? /anoioe eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy (w=9430 ni1).
Aei ii/aoeo i?iaaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiue, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo i?eaaaeaii a
aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi, a iaoeiaie eioa?aoo?i aoee aiaenooii
aenia?eiaioaeueii oa oai?aoe/ii aeaii i?i caeiiiii?iinoi oa iniaeeainoi
ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia i?e aaaaoioioiii?e ?iicaoe?? aoiiia
eoaeiicaiaeueieo oa iioeo aeaiaioia a ?icieo niaeo?aeueieo iaeanoyo i
i?e ?iciie iiey?ecaoei? eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy, i?i ?ieue ei?aeyoeie
aeaio aeaeo?iiia i?e ooai?aiii oeeo iiiia, a oaeiae aeaii i?i iaoaiici
?o ooai?aiiy. Aoee a?aenooi? oaeiae aeai? i?i o?ce/i? i?ioeane,
ye? iiaeooue ?aae?coaaoeny i?e ooai?aii? aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a i?e
aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a eoaeiicaiaeueieo oa ?ioeo aeaiaio?a.

Iaaaaeai? aeua oaeoe ? coiiaeththoue aeooaeuei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue ii oai? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aeooaeuei?noue
oaie aeine?aeaeaiue coiiaeaia ua e iiaeeea?noth i?aeoe/iiai
aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue, iai?eeeaae, a
ian-niaeo?iiao???, i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo oei?a eaca??a ? o. ae. (aeea.
ioieo i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a).

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeineiaeaeaiiy
i?ioeano aaaaoioioiiii? iiiicaoei? aoiiia eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaioia
i?iaiaeeeeny caiaeii ?yaeo i?ia?ai:

1. Aeaaeaii? iaoe N?N? «Enneaaeiaaiea ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo i?iaeai
acaeiiaeaenoaey eaca?iiai eceo/aiey n aauanoaii» (i?e aeeiiaiii
ainiiaea?nueeeo aeiaiai?ia c Iinoeoooii caaaeueii? oiceee AI N?N? i.
Iineaa ia i?ioyci 19811989 ??; iiia?a aea?ae. ?a?no?aoei? 0182.2057083,
01.84.0019513, 0186.0096089, 0189.0096089);

2. Iiiinoa?noaa aeui? inaioe N?N? «Acaeiiaeaenoaea iioieia ?ia?aee n
aauanoaii» (19891992 ??; iiia? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoei? 01.890086809);

3. AeEIO Oe?a?ie «Iiai ia?niaeoeaii oaoiieiai?» (1992-1993??; iiia?
aea?ae. ?a?no?aoei? 0194U004810); «Aeaeo?iiii ia?aoiaee ye aeaea?aea
iioe/iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy» (1993-1994 ??; iiia? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoei?
0194U004811);

4. Iiiinoa?noaa aeui? inaioe Oe?a?ie «Eaca?ii nenoaie» (1991-1993 ??;
iiia? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoei? 01.910024671); «Iiai ?a/iaeie oa iaoa?iaee»
(1992-1994 ??; iiia? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoei? 0193U019668)

5. Iiiinoa?noaa inaioe Oe?a?ie «Iiai ?a/iaeie oa iaoa?iaee» (1994-1996
??; iiia? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoei? 0194U038504); «Iiai ?a/iaeie oa iaoa?iaee»
(1997-1999 ??).

Iaoa i caaea/i aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeineiaeaeaiue iieyaaea o:

— aoaiiaeaii? o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a, ye? iathoue i?noea i?e ooai?aii?
iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a i?e aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a
eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaio?a;

aeyaeaiii ?iei ?aciiainieo oa ia?aciiainieo i?ioeania i?e ooai?aiii
aeaica?yaeieo iiiia i?e aaaaoioioiiiie iiiicaoei? aoiiia
eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaioia; anoaiiaeaiii caeiiiii?iinoae, iniaeeainoae
oa iaoaiicio ooai?aiiy oeeo iiiia a ?icieo niaeo?aeueieo iaeanoyo i?e
eiiieiie oa oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei? eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy;

anoaiiaeaiii caeiiiii?iinoae oa iniaeeainoae aaaaoioioiiiiai
caoaeaeaiiy iaeii oa aeaiaeaeo?iiieo (neiaeaoieo oa o?eieaoieo)
ca’ycaieo oa ?iaeaa?aianueeeo ?iaiia, a oaeiae AI? ia i?eeeaaei aoiiia
eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaioia a ?icieo niaeo?aeueieo iaeanoyo i?e eiiieiie
oa oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei? eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy;

aecia/aiii aoaeoeaieo ia?a?icia aaaaoioioiiii? iiiicaoei?
iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia aoiiia eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaioia;

i?iaaaeaiii ?ic?aooieia aiaeiioaiiy iiae aeoiaeaie iaeii oa
aeaica?yaeieo iiiia aeey aeiaaeeo ?aaeicaoei? eaneaaeiiai iaoaiicio
ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia aoiiia eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaioia.

Caaea/i aeineiaeaeaiue iieyaaee o:

?ic?iaoei iaoiaeia aeineiaeaeaiiy i?ioeania ooai?aiiy iaeii oa
aeaica?yaeieo iiiia i?e eiiieiie oa oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei? eaca?iiai
aei?iiiithaaiiy oa i?iaaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiue caiaeii oeeo iaoiaeia;

?ic?iaoei iaoiaeo aeii?ia aoaeoeaieo ia?a?icia aaaaoioioiiii?
iiiicaoei? iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia oa i?iaaaeaiii aeii?ia ia?a?icia caiaeii
oeueiai iaoiaeo;

?ic?iaoei iaoiaeo ?ic?aooieo aiaeiioaiiy iiae aeoiaeaie iaeiica?yaeieo
(N+) oa aeaica?yaeieo (N2+) iiiia aeey aeiaaeeo ?aaeicaoei? eaneaaeiiai
iaoaiicio ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia; a i?iaaaeaiii ?ic?aooieia
caiaeii oeueiai iaoiaeo, a oaeiae a ii?iaiyiii ?ic?aooieia c oei
aiaeiioaiiyi aeoiaeia oeeo iiiia, yea niioa?iaa?oueny a aenia?eiaioi.

noai?aiii noaaieueieo ii aia?ai? oa iiooaeieo eaca?ia ia iaiaeeiiaiio
neei, ia io?ieaethiiii?aiio a?aiaoi oa ia aa?aieeao, ui aaia?othoue
aei?iiiithaaiiy ia iaeiie iiia?a/iie iiaei, ye? aeaaaee a aeinoia??i?
?acoeueoaoe a aeine?aeaeaiiyo aaaaoioioiiieo i?ioean?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia iieyaa? a ne?aeoth/iio:

1. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii aeaoaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano ooai?aiiy
aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a i?e aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a
eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaio?a a oe?ie?e iaeano? niaeo?a oa aeyniaii
iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy oeeo ?ii?a. Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue
aoei ?ic?iaeaii oa ?aae?ciaaii aeaa iaoiaee:

A. Iaoiae aei??thaaiiy caeaaeiinoae aeoiaeia iaeiica?yaeieo oa
aeaica?yaeieo iiiia aiae /anoioe (w) eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy (N+(w)
oa N2+(w)) i?e eiiieiie oa oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei?, i?e oieniaaiie
aaee/eii iai?oaeaiinoi iiey eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy oa c
aaniethoecaoei?th aiaeiioaiiy iiae aeoiaeaie oeeo iiiia. Oeae iaoiae
aeei?enoiaoaaany aeey aeyaeaiiy oa aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aciiainieo i?ioean?a
ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a.

A. Iaoiae aei??thaaiiy caeaaeiinoae aeoiae?a iaeii oa aeaica?yaeieo
?ii?a a?ae ?ioaineaiino? (F) eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy (lgN+(lgF) oa
lgN2+(lgF)) i?e ?icieo oieniaaieo /anoioao oa c aaniethoecaoei?th
aiaeiioaiiy aeoiaeia oeeo ?ii?a. Oeae iaoiae aeei?enoiaoaaany aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue a iaeano? /anoio, a yeeo ?aciiaini?
i?ioeane ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a ia ?aae?cothoueny.

I?e aeei?enoaii? ia?oiai iaoiaeo i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy
?aciiainieo i?ioean?a ooai?aiiy ?ii?a Ca2+, Sr2+oa Ba2+ o aeaeei?e
(15000-19000 ni-1) oa ?ii?a Sr2+oa Ba2+ a ?io?a/a?aii?e (9390-9500 ni-1)
iaeanoyo niaeo?a. Aeyaeaii, ui o aeaeei?e iaeano? niaeo?a, a
iniiaiiio, ?aae?co?oueny eaneaaeiee iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo
?ii?a, a a ?io?a/a?aii?e iaeano? niaeo?a ?aae?co?oueny
aeaiaeaeo?iiiee iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy oeeo ?ii?a.

I?e aeei?enoaii? ae?oaiai iaoiaeo i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy
ia?aciiainieo i?ioean?a ooai?aiiy ?ii?a Sr2+oa Ba2+ o aeaeei?e
(18780-19000 ni-1) oa ?io?a/a?aii?e (9390-9500 ni-1) iaeanoyo
niaeo?a. I?e oeueiio oaeiae aeyaeaii, ui o aeaeei?e iaeano? niaeo?a
?aae?co?oueny eaneaaeiee iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a
(i?e/iio, a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ioaineaiino? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
?aae?co?oueny i?ioean ?ii?caoe?? iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a ?c ??cieo
noai?a), a a ?io?a/a?aii?e iaeano? niaeo?a- aeaiaeaeo?iiiee
iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy oeeo ?ii?a.

2. Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieia aiaeiioaiiy iiae aeoiaeaie
iaeii oa aeaica?yaeieo iiiia aeey aeiaaeeo ?aaeicaoei? eaneaaeiiai
iaoaiicio ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia. I?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee
aiaeiioaiiy aeoiaeia iiae iaeii oa aeaica?yaeieie iiiaie, yei aeacothoue
ia oa, ui i a iiae?aciiainieo i?iiiaeeao caeaaeiinoae N2+(w), ye?
aei??yi? a aeiaiaciii /anoio w=1500019000 ni1 oaeiae ?aaeico?oueny
eaneaaeiee iaoaiici ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia eaeueoeith, no?iioeith
oa aa?ith.

3. Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii i?inoee iaoiae aeii?thaaiiy aoaeoeaieo ia?a?icia
aaaaoioioiiii? iiiicaoei? iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia. Aeii?yii aoaeoeaii
ia?a?ice i’yoeoioiiii? iiiicaoei? iiiia Sr+ oa /ioe?e ? i’yoeoioiiii?
?ii?caoe?? ?ii?a Aa+ a iaeano? niaeo?a w=1878018940 ni1. Ii ii?yaeeo
aaee/eie aiie niiaiaaeathoue iiae niaith oa aeey aoiiia, eiee noaiaii
iaeiiieiinoi iiiicaoei? iaeiaeiai.

4. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii oa ?aaeiciaaii iaoiae aeineiaeaeaiiy
caeaaeiinoae N+(w) aeey iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia a oiiaao aiaenooiinoi
iane/aiiy i?ioeano ooai?aiiy oeeo iiiia i?e eiiieiie oa oee?eoey?iie
iiey?ecaoei? aei?iiiithaaiiy i i?e ?icieo oieniaaieo aaee/eiao
iai?oaeaiinoi iiey aei?iiiithaaiiy. Aeaoaeueii aeineiaeaeaii i?ioean
aaaaoioioiiii? ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a iaaiith, eaeueoeith, no?iioeith oa
aa?ith a oe?ieie iaeanoi niaeo?a (aoiiia Aa a aeiaiaciii /anoio
1480020900 ni1, aoii?a Na oa Sr a aeiaiaciii 1480019000 ni1 oa aoiiia Mg
a aeiaiaciii 1630018100 ni1). I?e oeueiio aeyaeaii:

«aieii i?ici?inoi» (?aciiainiee iiiiioi), yea ia? i?noea i?e
o?eoioiiiie iiiicaoei? aoiiia aoii?a Sr a ieiei /anoioe w=17100 ni-1
i?e eiiieiie oa oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei? eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy.
Aiii coiiaeaii iniaeeainoth o?eoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy AI?, eiee ia?aiao?
Oaii q0.

aoaeo aiia?eiiaiaoeieiiai ?icnithaaiiy eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy a
aoiiao Aa, yeee i?eaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy oeeo aoiiia a caoaeaeaieo
noaiao.

aaeeeo iiiai?iinoue aeaioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy neiaeaoieo oa o?eieaoieo
aeaiaeaeo?iiieo ca’ycaieo ?iaiia a aoiiao Sr oa Aa. Iiiai?iinoue
caoaeaeaiiy oeeo ?iaiia ? ii?iaiyiith ?c iiiai?iinoth caoaeaeaiiy
neiaeaoieo iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo ca’ycaieo ?iaiia.

— aaeeeo ?iia??i?noue aeaioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy o?eieaoieo
iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo ca’ycaieo ??ai?a a aoiiao Na, Sr oa Aa eeoa a oeo
aeiaaeeao, eiee oe? ??ai? cao?ththoueny aeaiaeaeo?iiieie
ca’ycaieie ??aiyie. O aeiaaeeo, eiee oe? o?eieaoi? ??ai? ia
cao?ththoueny aeaiaeaeo?iiieie ??aiyie, ?iia??i?noue caoaeaeaiiy ?o ?
iaaaeeeith.

aiiiaeueii iaeo iiiai?iinoue i?ioeano o?eoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy
o?eieaoieo iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo ?iaeaa?aianueeeo ?iaiia a aoiiao Na oa Sr
(caoaeaeaiiy oeeo ?iaiia ia i?iyaey?oueny a caeaaeiinoyo N+ (w) aeey
iiiia Ca+ oa Sr+), ui coiiaeaii aiaenooiinoth cao?aiiy oeeo ?iaiia
aeaiaeaeo?iiieie ?iaiyie oa ?aaeicaoei?th LS ca’yceo a aoiiao.

caieueoaiiy iiiai?iinoi aeaioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy neiaeaoieo
iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo ?? a aoiiao Aa a ?acoeueoaoi cao?aiiy oeeo ?iaiia
aeaiaeaeo?iiiei ca’ycaiei ?iaiai.

Aia?oa aeaoaeueii aeineiaeaeaii i?ioean aaaaoioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy
AI?. Aeyaeaii, ui:

a aieueoinoi aeiaaeeia aiie?ooaee iaeneioi?a, ye? coiiaeai?
o?eoioiiiei caoaeaeaiiyi AI? a aoiiao Na, Sr oa Aa ? cia/ii iaioeie aiae
aiie?ooae iaeneioi?a coiiaeaieo aeaioioiiiei caoaeaeaiiyi ca’ycaieo
?iaiia a oeeo aoiiao.

eeoa a aoiiao Sr iiiai?iinoue o?eoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy aeayeeo AI? ia?
aaeeeo aaee/eio. Aaeeea iiiai?iinoue caoaeaeaiiy oeeo AI? coiiaeaia oei,
ui aiie iathoue iaeo oe?eio, yea ? ii?iaiyiith c oe?eiith ca’ycaieo
?iaiia, a oaeiae aaeeeith aaee/eiith a?aeiia?aeiiai neeaaeaiiai
iao?e/iiai aeaiaioa caoaeaeaiiy oeeo ??ai?a.

a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao ia i?iyaey?oueny i?ioean o?eoioiiiiai
caoaeaeaiiy aiaeiieo AI? a aoiiao Na, Sr oa Aa, ui coiiaeaii iaeith
aaee/eiith a?aeiia?aeiiai neeaaeaiiai iao?e/iiai aeaiaioa caoaeaeaiiy
oeeo ??ai?a aaeeeith ?o oe?eiith oa neeueiei cao?aiiyi ?o a iiei
eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy.

Aeyaeaii ??ae iaa?aeiieo A?? aoii?a Na, Sr oa Aa. Aecia/aii
aia?a?? oeeo ??ai?a oa ?o iiai? iiiaioe.

6. Aia?oa aeaoaeueii aeineiaeaeaii i?ioean ooai?aiiy iaeiica?yaeieo
iiiia eaeueoeith, no?iioeith oa aa?ith a iaeanoi niaeo?a 93909480 ni1.
I?e oeueiio aeyaeaii:

aaeeeo iiiai?iinoue /ioe?eoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy aeaiaeaeo?iiiiai
ca’ycaiiai 5d6d 1D2 ?iaiy aoiio Aa.

aiiiaeueii iaeo iiiai?iinoue /ioe?eoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy o?eieaoiiai
4s4d 3D2 ?iaiy, a oaeiae i’yoeoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo
(neiaeaoieo oa o?eieaoieo) ?iaeaa?aianueeeo ?iaiia aoii?a Na
(caoaeaeaiiy oeeo ?iaiia ia i?iyaey?oueny a caeaaeiinoi N+(w)).

Io?eiai? a aeena?oaoe?? ?acoeueoaoe noaee iniiaith aeey ne?aeoth/eo
iai?yie?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue:

1) aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano ooai?aiiy aeai- oa aaaaoica?yaeieo ?ii?a
i?e iae?i?ei?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a a iie? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy;

2) aeine?aeaeaiiiy i?ioeano ooai?aiiy iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a i?e
aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a, ye? iathoue neeaaeiee niaeo?;

3) aei??thaaiiy aoaeoeaieo ia?a??c?a aaaaoioioiiii? ?ii?caoe??
iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a.

Iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy iieyaathoue o ne?aeoth/iio:

1. I?ioean ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a i?e aaaaoioioiii?e
?ii?caoe?? aoii?a eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaio?a ia? ?aciiainio no?oeoo?o. O
aeaeei?e iaeano? niaeo?a oey ?aciiainia no?oeoo?a, a iniiaiiio,
coiiaeaia niaeo?ii iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a, a a ?io?a/a?aii?e iaeano?
coiiaeaia niaeo?ii iaeo?aeueieo aoii?a.

2. Iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a o aeaeei?e iaeano?
niaeo?a, a iniiaiiio, ? eaneaaeiei. Aeaica?yaei? ?iie a oeueiio
aeiaaeeo ooai?ththoueny aiane?aeie aaaaoioioiiii? ?ii?caoe??
iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a ye ?c iniiaiiai noaio, oae ? ?c ia?oeo
caoaeaeaieo iaoanoaa?eueiiai oa ?aciiainiiai noai?a.

3. Iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a a ?io?a/a?aii?e iaeano?
niaeo?a ? aeaiaeaeo?iiiei. Aeaica?yaei? ?iie a oeueiio
aeiaaeeo ooai?ththoueny aiane?aeie aaaaoioioiiii? ?ii?caoe??
iaeo?aeueieo aoii?a.

4. Aoaeoeai? ia?a??ce aaaaoioioiiii? ?ii?caoe?? ?ii?a Sr+ oa Ba+ ii
ii?yaeeo aaee/eie ni?aiaaeathoue i?ae niaith oa c aoaeoeaieie
ia?a??caie ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a, noaiai? iae?i?eiino? ?ii?caoe?? yeeo
oae? ae nai?.

5. I?e ooai?aii? iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a i?e aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe??
aoii?a eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaio?a o aeaeei?e iaeano? niaeo?a
i?iyaeythoueny oae? aoaeoe:

a) iaaeii?iaiaa iiaeeiaiiy eaaio?a. A ?acoeueoao? i?iyao oeueiai
aoaeoa iaeiica?yaei? ?iie c aaeeeith aoaeoeai?noth ooai?ththoueny
a caoaeaeaieo iaoanoaa?eueiiio oa ?aciiainiiio noaiao;

a) a?ia?eiia?iaoe?eia ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea. ?aae?caoe?y oeueiai aoaeoo
i?eaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui aoiie Aa ooai?ththoueny a caoaeaeaieo noaiao;

a) «a?eii i?ici?ino?». ?aae?caoe?y oeueiai aoaeoo i?eaiaeeoue aei
??ceiai ciaioaiiy ?iia??iino? o?eoioiiii? ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Sr. Oeae
aoaeo coiiaeaiee o?eoioiiiei caoaeaeaiiyi aaoi?ii?caoe?eiiai ??aiy, eiee
ia?aiao? Oaii q0.

6. ?iia??i?noue caai?iiaieo neiaeao-o?eieaoieo aeaioioiiieo
ia?aoiae?a ia? aiiiaeueii aaeeeo aaee/eio, yea ? ii??aiyiith c
?iia??i?noth neiaeao-neiaeaoieo aeaioioiiieo ia?aoiae?a. Oeae oaeo
aeaco? ia ii?ooaiiy LS- ca’yceo aeey a?aeiia?aeieo ??ai?a.

7. Aieea caoaeaeaiiy ??cieo ca’ycaieo ??ai?a ia i?ioean
aaaaoioioiiii? ?ii?caoe?? aeine?aeaeoaaieo aoii?a caeaaeeoue a?ae
/enea E iiaeeiooeo oioii?a. C iaea?eueoith aoaeoeai?noth i?iaey?oueny
caoaeaeaiiy ca’ycaieo ??ai?a i?e iiaeeiaii? aeaio oioii?a (E=2). ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi /enea E aoaeoeai?noue i?iyao caoaeaeaiiy oeeo ??ai?a, ye
i?aaeei, ciaioo?oueny.

8. Iaea?eueoee aieea caoaeaeaiiy aaoi?ii?caoe?eieo ??ai?a ia
i?ioean o?eoioiiii? ?ii?caoe?? aeine?aeaeoaaieo aoii?a ia? i?noea eeoa
o aeiaaeeao, eiee oe? ??ai? iathoue iaeo oe?eio, neaai cao?ththoueny a
iie? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy oa eiee a?aeiia?aei? neeaaeai?
iao?e/i? aeaiaioe iathoue aaeeeo aaee/eio.

Aeinoiai?iinoue oa iaa?oioiaaiinoue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoaoia
caaacia/o?oueny i?iaaaeaiiyi aeineiaeaeaiue a oaeeo oiiaao, eiee
?aaeicothoueny oiiae icieueiaaiiai aoiia, a oaeiae, eiee ia
?aae?cothoueny ?iciiai oeio eiieo?oth/? aoaeoe, yei a iiaee
niioai?thaaoe ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue. I?i aeinoiai?iinoue io?eiaieo
?acoeueoaoia naiae/eoue oaeiae ?o aiaeoai?thaaiinoue oa aeia?a
niiaiaaeiiiy c ieie ?acoeueoaoia io?eiaieo iioeie aeineiaeieeaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia. Ia iniiai aiaeico
?acoeueoao?a ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue i?ioeano aaaaoioioiiii?
iiiicaoei? aoiiia eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaioia i?iiiiothoueny neiaeoth/i
?aeiiaiaeaoei?:

ii noai?aiith iiaa?ni? ia iiiieo ??aiyo, i?e aaaaoioioiiiie iiiicaoei?
aoiiia;

ii aeei?enoaiith ?aciiainieo i?ioeania aeey noai?aiiy
?aciiainiiiiiicaoeieiiai ianniaeo?iiao?a;

ii aeei?enoaiith ?aciiainieo i?ioeania aeey niaeo?ineiii? aoiiieo
ca’ycaieo ??ai?a oa AI?;

ii aeei?enoaiith ?aciiainieo oa ia?aciiainieo i?ioeania aeey noai?aiiy
aoaeoeaiiai iiioeueniiai aeaea?aea iaeii aai aeaica?yaeieo iiiia.

I?iaaaeaii aeineiaeaeaiiy i?ioeano ooai?aiiy iaeii oa aeaica?yaeieo
iiiia eoaeiicaiaeueieo aoiiia noeioeththoue ?icaeoie iiaeo oai?aoe/ieo
iaoiaeia ?ic?aooieia ??cieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?ioean?a aca?iiaei?
iiooaeiiai eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy c aoiiaie, a yeeo ii?yae c
iaeiiaeaeo?iiieie i?ioeanaie a?aoiaoaaeeny a aeaiaeaeo?iiii i?ioeane.

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeaii i?e i?iaaaeaiii aeineiaeaeaiue
ii oaiai AI N?N?, yei aeeiioaaeenue a Iinoeoooi caaaeueii? oiceee AI
N?N?, o Caea?iaonueeiio aiaeaeieaiii iaoeiai aeineiaeiiai oeaio?o
aea?aeaaiiai IAeI «Nenoaia» oa a o/aiaee i?ioean i?e /eoaiii eaeoeie ii
aca?iiaei? eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy c aoiiaie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a ne?aeoth/iio:

1. Ia iniiai aiaeico eioa?aoo?ieo aeaieo noi?ioeueiaaii oaia, iaoa
?iaioe oa ?? iniiaii caaaeaiiy.

2. Neiino?oeiaaia oa aeaioiaeaia no/ania aenia?eiaioaeueia onoaiiaea,
ia yeie aoee i?iaaaeaii aeineiaeaeaiiy.

3. Cai?iiiiiaaii, iaa?oioiaaii oa ?aaeiciaaii ani iaoiaee
aeineiaeaeaiue.

4. Iaeaaeeoue i?iaiaeia ?ieue a iiaeaioiaoei oa i?iaaaeaii
aenia?eiaioia, a oaeiae a ia?iaoei, aiaeici oa iioa?i?aoaoei?
?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue.

5. Iaeaaeeoue i?iaiaeia ?ieue a iaienaiii noaoae oa iioeo ae?oeiaaieo
iaoa?iaeia, a ?yae noaoae oa iioeo ae?oeiaaieo iaoa?iaeia iaienaii
iniaenoi.

6. Aenooiaa c aeiiiaiaeyie ia aieueoinoi Ananithcieo oa ia aeayeeo
Iiaeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioeiyo ii oaiaoeoe? aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeena?oaoei?. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue, ui
i?eaiaeyoueny a aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi, aeiiiaiaeaeeny a cai?ioaieo
aeiiiaiaeyo ia:

1) II International conference on multiphoton processes, (Budapest,
1980);

2) X Ananithciie eioa?aioei? ii eiaa?aioiie oa iaeiiieiie iioeoei
(Ee?a, 1980?.);

3) IX International school on coherent optics (Uzhgorod, 1989);

4) X Aaaieianueeie eiioa?aioei? ii iaeiiieiie iioeoei (Iiaineai?nuee,
1990?.).

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue oaeiae aeiiiaiaeaeeny oa
iaaiai?thaaeeny ia:

1) IX Ananithciie eioa?aioei? ii eiaa?aioiie oa iaeiiieiie iioeoei
(Eaiiia?aae, 1978?.); 2) IV European conference on atomic and molecular
physics (Riga, 1978); 3)II International conferenc on multiphoton
processes, (Budapest, 1980); 4) VIII Ananithciie eiioa?aioei? ii oicioei
aeaeo?iiaoiiieo cioeiaiyo (Eaiiia?aae, 1981?); 5) X Ananithciie
eioa?aioei? ii eiaa?aioiie oa iaeiiieiie iioeoei (Ee?a, 1980?.); 6) IV
International conference on lasers and their application (Leipzig,
1981); 7) XIX Ananithciiio c’?caei ii niaeo?ineiii? (Oiinuee, 1983?.);
8) IX Ananithciie eiioa?aioei? ii oicioei aeaeo?iiaoiiieo cioeiaiyo
(Eaiiia?aae, 1981?.); 9) Ananithcieo naiiia?ao «Aaaaoioioiiii i?ioeane a
aoiiao oa iieaeoeao» (Oaeai?iae 19801989??.); 10) XII Ananithciie
eioa?aioei? ii eiaa?aioiie oa iaeiiieiie iioeoei (Iineaa, 1985?.); 11)
IV International conference on lasers technology and applications
(Quebec,1986); 12) IX Aaaieianueeie eiioa?aioei? ii iaeiiieiie iioeoei
(Iiaineai?nuee, 1987?.); 13) Ananithciiio naiiia?i «I?ioeane iiiicaoei?
c o/anoth caoaeaeaieo aoiiia» (Eaiiia?aae, 1988?.); 14) XX Ananithciiio
c’?caei ii niaeo?ineiii? (Ee?a, 1988?.); 15) XIII Ananithciie
eioa?aioei? ii eiaa?aioiie oa iaeiiieiie iioeoei (Iiine, 1988?.); 16)
Ananithciiio naiiia?i «Oai?iy aoiiia oa aoiiieo niaeo?ia» (Oaieini,
1988?.); 17) X Ananithciie eiioa?aioei? ii oicioei aeaeo?iiaoiiieo
cioeiaiyo (Oaeai?iae, 1988?.); 18) V International conference on
multiphoton processes (Paris, 1990); 19) Ananithciiio naiiia?i
«Aaoiiiiicaoeieii yaeua a aoiiao» (Iineaa, 1990?.); 20) International
school on coherent optics (Uzhgorod, 1989), XIV Ananithciie eioa?aioei?
ii eiaa?aioiie oa iaeiiieii iioeoei (Eaiiia?aae, 1991?.); 21) XI
Ananithciie eiioa?aioei? ii oai?i? aoiiia oa aoiiieo niaeo?ia
(Nocaeaeue, 1991?.); 22) XI Ananithciie eiioa?aioei? ii oicioei
aeaeo?iiaoiiieo cioeiaiyo (*aaiena?e, 1991?.); 23) IX European
conference on atomic and molecular phyics (Riga, 1992); 24) III
Ananithciiio naiiia?i ii aoiiiie niaeo?ine?ii? (*a?iiaieiaea, 1992?.);
25) International conference of laser optics (St.Peterburg, 1993); 26)
XVII International conference physics electronics and atomic collisions
(Aarhus, 1993); 27) VI International conference on multiphoton processes
(Quebek, 1993); 28) European quantum electronics conference (Amsterdam,
1994); 29) International conference nonlinear optics (St.Peterburg,
1995); 30) V European conference on atomic and molecular physics
(Edinburgh, 1995); 31) XIX International conference physics electronics
and atomic collisions (Quebec, 1995); 32) European quantum electronics
conference (Hamburg, 1996); 33) XIX International conference physics
electronic and atomic collisions (Quebec, 1995); 35) Iiaeia?iaeia
iaoeiaa eiioa?aioeiy i?enay/aia 150?i//th Iaaia Ioethy (Eueaia 1995);
35) XX International quantum electronics conference (Sydney, 1996); 36)
VII International conference on multiphoton processes
(GarmischPartenkirchen, 1996); 37) XX International conference physics
electronics and atomic collisions (Vienna, 1997); 38) Atomic and
molecular data and their application (Gaithersburg, 1997); 39) European
quantum electronics conferen (Glasgow, 1998); 40) VI European conference
on atomic and molecular physics (Siena, 1998); 41) VII International
Workshop on laser physics (Berlin 1998).

Ioaeieaoei?. Iniiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe iioaeieiaaii a
69 ioaeieaoeiyo. Ic ieo: 22 noaooi (a oiio /enei 5 iaeiiiniaieo) a
iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao; 7 noaoae (a oiio /enei 1 iaeiiiniaia) ? neeaaeiaeie
/anoeiaie o?ueio eiea, yei iioaeieiaaii ca ei?aeiiii; 6 noaoae (a oiio
/enei 1 iaeiiiniaia) a cai?ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aeaeaieo Iaoeiaith
?aaeith ii niaeo?ineii?? AI N?N?; 5 i?ai?eioia oa 29 oacia a iaoa?iaeao
eiioa?aioeie.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoei?. Aeena?oaoeieia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ic
anooio, naie ?icaeieia, aeniiaeia i nienea aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, ui
iinoeoue 171 iaeiaioaaiue ia 20 noi?iieao. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoeieii?
?iaioe neeaaea? 400 noi?iiie; i?eaaaeaii 60 ?enoieia (60 noi?iiie) oa 29
oaaeeoeue (41 noi?iiea).

INIIAIEE CIINO ?IAIOE

O anooii iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeueiinoue oaie aeineiaeaeaiue, aecia/aii
iaoa i caaea/i aeineiaeaeaiue, aeacai? iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia, i?eaaaeaii iioi?iaoeith i?i
ai?iaaoeith ?iaioe oa iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee iieno aenia?eiaioaeueii? onoaiiaee oa
aiae?co eiieo?oth/eo aoaeo?a, ye? iiaeooue iaoe i?noea i?e
aca?iiae?? iiooaeiiai eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy c aoiiaie.

Iniiaieie aoceaie onoaiiaee ? aeaea?aei eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
c nenoaiith eiio?ieth ia?aiao??a oeueiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy (aia?a??
a eaca?iiio ?iioeuen?, o?eaaeino? ?iioeueno eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
oa /anoioe oeueiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy), aaeooiia eaia?a, a ye?e
ciaoiaeyoueny aeaea?aei aoiiiiai io/ea oa /ani-i?ie?oiee
ian-niaeo?iiao?, oa nenoaia ?a?no?aoe?? ?iiieo ?iioeuen?a. Aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioeano aaaaoioioiiii? ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a
eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaio?a aoa aea?aiee iaoiae ia?an?/aiiy
io/e?a aoii?a oa eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Eaca?ia
aei?ii?ithaaiiy oieonoaaeinue a oeaio? aoiiiiai io/ea. Eiioeaio?aoe?y
aoii?a ? cii? ia?an?/aiiy io/e?a noaiiaeea n=1010 1011 ni—3.
?iie ?c iaeano? oieonoaaiiy eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
aeoyaoaaeenue ca aeiiiiiaith iino?eiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iiey,
?icae?eyeenue a /ani-i?ie?oiiio ian-niaeo?iiao?? ii ian? aai ca?yaeo
? ?a?no?oaaeenue ca aeiiiiiaith aoi?eiiiai aeaeo?iiiiai
iiiiiaeoaa/a AAI-1. ?iioeuene c AAI, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue iaeaoo ?ii?a
iaaii? iane aai ca?yaeo, i?aeneethaaeenue ca aeiiiiiaith
i?aeneethaa/a oa aiae?coaaeenue caiai’yoiaoth/ei inoeeeia?aoii.

A aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ??ci? oeie eaca??a:
iaiaeeiiaee eaca? ?c ci?iiith /anoioith aei?ii?ithaaiiy (w =9390-9500
ni-1), ae?oaa aa?iii?ea oeueiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, eaca? ia
?o??e-aethi?i??aiio a?aiao? (?AA), ??ciiai oeio eaca?e ia aa?aieeao
?c caaaeueiei ae?aiaciiii ci?ie /anoioe 14800-20900 ni-1. An? oe?
eaca?e i?aoethaaee a ?aaeei? aaia?aoe?? iaei??? iiia?a/ii? iiaee. A
ae?aiacii? /anoio 14800-19000 ni-1 oe?eia niaeo?a eaca?iiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy noaiiaeea 2-3 ni-1, a a ae?aiacii? /anoio 18700-20900
ni-1 — 1-1,3 ni-1. Oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy /anoioe eaca?iiai
aei?i?ithaaiiy noaiiaeea -1,5ni-1, a oe?eie niaeo?a- 0,2 ni-1.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iieacaa, ui a iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo i?e
iaeneiaeueieo aaee/eiao iai?oaeaiino? iiey eaca?iiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy (e=107 A/ni) oa eiioeaio?aoe?? aoii?a, aeaeo?iie
ca ?aooiie aoaeoo Eiiioiia oa iaa?iaiiai aaeuei?aiiai aoaeoo ia
iiaeooue i?eaeaaoe aia?a?th aeinoaoith aeey ?ii?caoe??
aeine?aeaeoaaieo aoii?a ? oiio ?i?caoe?y oeeo aoii?a
cae?enith?oueny aaciina?aaeiuei iieai eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

A ae?oaiio ?icaeiei ?icaeyiooi iaoaiicie ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia
oa ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeee aeey aeineiaeaeaiue i?ioeano ooai?aiiy iaeii- oa
aeaica?yaeieo iiiia i?e aaaaoioioiiiie iiiicaoei? aoiiia. Iaie aoee
cai?iiiiiaaii aeaa iiaeeeaeo iaoaiicie ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia:
eaneaaeiee (eiee ooai?aiiy oeeo iiiia i?ioiaeeoue a ?acoeueoaoi
iiiicaoei? iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia) oa aeaiaeaeo?iiiee (eiee ooai?aiiy oeeo
iiiia i?ioiaeeoue a ?acoeueoaoi iaeii/aniiai aiae?eao aiae aoiia aeaio
ciaiioiio s-aeaeo?iiia), oiaoi a ?acoeueoao? i?iyao ei?aeyoe?? aeaio
ciai?oi?o s-aeaeo?ii?a.

Aeey aeineiaeaeaiiy caeiiiii?iinoae, iniaeeainoae oa aeyaeaiiy
iaoaiicio ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia i?e aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe??
aoii?a iaie aoei cai?iiiiiaaii i ?aaeiciaaii o?e iaoiaee aeineiaeaeaiue:
1) aeineiaeaeaiiy caeaaeiinoae aeoiaeia iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo iiiia
aiae iioaineaiinoi eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy c aaniethoecaoei?th
aiaeiioaiiy iiae aeoiaeaie oeeo iiiia i?e ?icieo oieniaaieo /anoioao; 2)
aeineiaeaeaiiy caeaaeiinoae aeoiaeia iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo iiiia aiae
/anoioe i?e eiiieiie oa oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei? eaca?iiai
aei?iiiithaaiiy, i?e oieniaaiie aaee/eii iai?oaeaiinoi iiey oa c
aaniethoecaoei?th aiaeiioaiiy iiae aeoiaeaie oeeo iiiia; 3) i?iaaaeaiiy
?ic?aooie?a aiaeiioaiiy aeoiae?a iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo iiiia aeey
aeiaaeeo ?aaeicaoei? eaneaaeiiai iaoaiicio ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo
iiiia.

Aeey aeineiaeaeaiiy caeiiiii?iinoae, iniaeeainoae ooai?aiiy
iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia i?e aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a aoei
cai?iiiiiaaii i ?aaeiciaaii ne?aeoth/ee iaoiae: aeineiaeaeaiiy
caeaaeiinoae aeoiaeia iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia aiae /anoioe i?e eiiieiie oa
oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei? eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy, i?e oieniaaiie
aaee/eii iai?oaeaiinoi iiey («iaeie», eiee i?ioean aaaaoioioiiii?
iiiicaoei? aoiiia ia ? iane/aiei oa «aaeeeie»- eiee oeae i?ioean ?
iane/aiei).

E?ii oiai, cai?iiiiiaaii oa ?aae?ciaaii iaoiae aeii?thaaiiy aoaeoeaieo
ia?a?icia aaaaoioioiiii? iiiicaoei? iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?icaeyaeo oiia i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue
i?ioeano aaaaoioioiiii? ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Mg, Na, Sr oa Aa o aeaeei?e
iaeano? niaeo?a i?e e?i?ei?e oa oee?eoey?i?e iiey?ecaoe?? eaca?iiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, aeyaeaii? o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a, ye? iathoue i?noea i?e
?ii?caoe?? oeeo aoii?a, anoaiiaeaii? caeiiii??iinoae oa iniaeeainoae
iaeii- oa aaaaoioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy ??ciiai oeio ??ai?a a oeeo aoiiao.
Oae, i?ioean ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Mg aeine?aeaeoaaany a ae?aiacii?
/anoio 16300-18000 ni-1, aoii?a Ca oa Sr- a ae?aiacii? 14800-18940
ni-1, a aoii?a Ba — a ae?aiacii? 14800-20900 ni-1. I?e oeueiio aeey
iiiicaoei? aoiiia Ba iaiaoiaeii iiaeeiaiiy o?ueio eaaioia eaca?iiai
aei?iiiithaaiiy, aoiiia Mg- /ioe?ueio eaaioia, a aoiiia Ca oa Sr- a
caeaaeiinoi aiae /anoioe eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy o?ueio aai /ioe?ueio
eaaio?a.

I?ioeaaeo?a aei??thaaiiy caeaaeiinoae N+(w) (ye ? caeaaeiinoae N2+
(w )) aeey aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?ii?a iieyaaea a oiio, ui i?e eiaei?e
o?eniaai?e /anoio? oa iai?oaeaiino? iiey eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
i?iaiaeeeenue aeae?eueea (10-20) aei???a aiie?ooae ?iiieo neaiae?a ?
ii oeei aei??ai ciaoiaeeeenue na?aaei? cia/aiiy aaee/ei oeeo
aiie?ooae. *anoioa eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ci?ithaaeanue c e?ieii 3-5
ni-1 a i?ae?aciiainieo i?ii?aeeao caeaaeiinoae N+(w) oa c e?ieii 1-2
ni-1 a iaeano? ?aciiainieo iaeneioi?a.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy oeeo caeaaeiinoae i?iaiaeeeeny ye i?e «iaeie»
iai?oaeaiinoi iiey e1=1,3104-5,0·105A/ni (F1=1,5·1024-2,2·1025ni-2n-1),
oae i i?e «aaeeeie» iai?oaeaiinoi iiey e2=2,0·106 -1,5·107 A/ni
(F2=3,5·1028-2,0·1030 ni-2n-1). Aiaeiioeii, ui oae aeaoaeueii, ye oea
c?iaeaii a iaoeo aeineiaeaeaiiyo, i?ioean aaaaoioioiiii? iiiicaoei?
aoiiia Mg, Na, Sr oa Aa ia aeine?aeaeoaaany iioeie aaoi?aie. ?iceeae
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oi/ie ii aiie?ooae? ?iioeuen?a (ye ? a
ae?aiacii? /anoio 9390-9500 ni-1) i?e aeine?aeaeaii? caeaaeiinoae N+(w )
aeey iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a noaiiaea i?e «aaeeeeo» aaee/eiao iai?oaeaiino?
iiey eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy e2 aaee/eio 3-5%, a i?e «iaeeo»
aaee/eiao iiey e1- 10-15% a?ae na?aaeiueiai cia/aiiy aiie?ooae.

Iaeei ic oeiiaeo ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue caeaaeiinoae N+(w) i?e
aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe?? aeine?aeaeoaaieo aoii?a i?eaaaeaiee ia ?en.1.,
a naia, ia oeueiio ?enoieo i?eaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeey aoiio Sr a iaeano? /anoio 16900 — 17900 ni-1.

Ic ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiiy caeaaeiinoae N+(w) i?e aaaaoioioiii?e
?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Ig, Na, Sr oa Aa iiaeia c?iaeoe ?yae ocaaaeueiaiue:

1. *anoioe, ia yeeo i?iyaeythoueny ?aciiainii iaeneioie o aeoiae?
iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a N+, i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeaoue aiae aaee/eie
iai?oaeaiinoi iiey eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy.

2. Iaei? ?aciiainii iaeneioie i?iyaeythoueny ye i?e «iaeie» oae ? i?e
«aaeeeie» iai?oaeaiinoyo iiey eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy, a ?io?-oieueee
i?e «iaeie» iai?oaeaiinoi iiey eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy.

3. Aiieiooaee ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia eieeaathoueny a oe?ieeo iaaeao
(aiae 0.5 aei 9 ii?yaeeia).

4. Oe?eie ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia eaaeaoue a iaaeao aiae 2 aei 300 ni
-1.

5. A aieueoinoi aeiaaeeia ?aciiainii iaeneioie iathoue neiao?e/io, a a
aeayeeo aeiaaeeao- aneiao?e/io oi?io.

6. O aeoiae? iiiia Sr+ a ieiei /anoioe 17110 ni-1 niinoa?iaa?oueny
?aciiainiee iiiiioi («aieii i?ici?inoi» iiiicaoei? aoiiia), yeee ia?
aaeeeo aiieiooaeo (aiey aeaio ii?yaeeia).

I?iaaaeai? aiaeic oa ioeiiee, iieacaee, ui i?e «iaeeo» aaee/eiao iiey
eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy, cao?aiiy ca’ycaieo oa aeayeeo
aaoiiiiicaoeieieo ?iaiia ca ?aooiie i?ioeania iieueiaiai ia?aiiooaaiiy
?iaiia oa iiiicaoei? ?aciiainieo ?iaiia, a oaeiae aoaeoo Ooa?ea iacia/ia
i oiio /anoioe aaaaoioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy oeeo ?iaiia aeia?a
niiaiaaeathoue c /anoioaie, ia yeeo i?iyaeythoueny ?aciiaini? iaeneioie
a caeaaeiinoyo N+(w). A oaeeo oiiaao oe?eie ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia, yei
iaioi 5 ni-1, aecia/athoueny i?eaaaeaiith oe?eiith eaca?iiai
aei?iiiithaaiiy. Aaeeea oe?eia ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia, ye? coiiaeai?
caoaeaeaiiyi AI?, aecia/a?oueny aaeeeith oe?eiith oeeo ?iaiia aai
neeueiei ?o cao?aiiyi a iiei eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy.

?en.1. Caeaaeiinoi aeoiaeia iiiia Sr+ aiae /anoioe eaca?iiai
aei?iiiithaaiiy i?e eiiiiie iiey?ecaoei? (a- e1=6·105A/ni, a- e2=2·106
A/ni).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui i?e aieea? ia aeine?aeaeoaai? aoiie
eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy iathoue i?noea iaeii, aeai- oa
o?eoioiii? i?ioeane caoaeaeaiiy ??ai?a.

Ia aeaiee /an, a e?oa?aoo?? a?aenooi? iiai? aeai? i?i aaee/eie nee
inoeeeyoi??a aeey ??cieo ia?aoiae?a a aoiiao Mg, Na, Sr, Aa ? oiio
ia/eneeoe ?iia??i?noue aaaaoioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy ??ai?a i?aeoe/ii ia
iiaeeeai. Aea, aeine?aeaeaiiy caeaaeiinoae N+(w) i?e o?eniaai?e
aaee/ei? iiey e1 a oiiaao a?aenooiino? iane/aiiy i?ioeano ?ii?caoe??
aoii?a aea? iiaeeea?noue io?eiaoe ye?nio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
?iia??iino? iaeii- oa aaaaoioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy ??ciiai oeio
??ai?a, a oaeiae i?i aaee/eio cao?aiiy ??ai?a a iie? eaca?iiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

I?iaaaeaii aeaoaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a aeai- oa o?eoioiiiiai
caoaeaeaiiy iaeii- ? aeaiaeaeo?iiieo (neiaeaoieo oa o?eieaoieo)
ca’ycaieo ?iaiia a aoiiao Mg, Na, Sr oa Ba. I?e oeueiio aeyaeaii
ne?aeoth/a:

-?aciiainii iaeneioie i?iyaeythoueny ye i?e «iaeeo», oae i i?e
«aaeeeeo» iai?oaeaiinoyo iiey eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy;

-oe?eie ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia i?e «iaeie» iai?oaeaiinoi iiey coiiaeaii
i?eaaaeaiith oe?eiith eaca?iiai ae?iiiithaaiiy;

-aiieiooaee ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia i?e «iaeie» iai?oaeaiinoi iiey
aei?iiiithaaiiy eieeaathoueny a iaaeao aiae o?ueio aei ainueie
ii?yaeeia. Iaeaieueoa aiieiooaea ?aciiainiiai iaeneioio niinoa?iaa?oueny
a caeaaeiinoi N+(w) i?e ?ii?caoe?? aoiia Ca (aiey ainueie ii?yaeeia);

-/anoioe, ia yeeo i?iyaeythoueny ?aciiaini? iaeneioie i?e «iaeie» oa
«aaeeeie» iai?oaeaiinoi iiey aei?iiiithaaiiy aeia?a niiaiaaeathoue c
/anoioaie caoaeaeaiiy ca’ycaieo ?iaiia, ui aeineiaeaeoaaeenue;

-niinoa?iaa?oueny aeaioioiiia caoaeaeaiiy anio iaeii- oa
aeaiaeaeo?iiieo (neiaeaoieo oa o?eieaoieo) ca’ycaieo ?iaiia, /anoioe
caoaeaeaiiy yeeo iiiaaeathoue a aeineiaeaeoaaio iaeanoue /anoio ?
caoaeaeaiiy yeeo aeicaieaii i?aaeeaie a?aeai?o, a naia: aeey aoiiia Na,
Sr oa Aa niinoa?iaa?oueny i?ioean aeaioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy
iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo ?iaiia nsms 1S0 i nsnd 1D2 eiioiao?aoeie. E?ii oiai a
aoiiao Sr niinoa?iaa?oueny i?ioean aeaioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy
aeaiaeaeo?iiieo ?iaiia 5p2 eiioiaoaoei?, a a aoiiao Aa —i?ioeane
aeaioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy aeaiaeaeo?iiieo ?iaiia 6p2, 5dnd, 5dns
eiioiao?aoeie;

-niinoa?iaa?oueny aaeeea iiiai?iinoue aeaioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy
o?eieaoieo iaeii- oa aeaiaeaeo?iiieo ca’ycaieo ?iaiia, yea aeecueea aei
iiiai?iinoi caoaeaeaiiy neiaeaoieo iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo ca’ycaieo ?iaiia;

-?iiai?iinoue caoaeaeaiiy aeayeeo o?eieaoieo aeaiaeaeo?iiieo ca’ycaieo
?iaiia neeueii caeaaeeoue aiae iai?oaeaiinoi iiey eaca?iiai
aei?iiiithaaiiy;

Aaeeea aaee/eia iiiai?iinoi aeaioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy o?eieaoieo
aeaiaeaeo?iiieo ?iaiia a aoiiao Sr oa Ba coiiaeaia aeaeieueeiia
i?e/eiaie: aeaiaeaeo?iiii (ye i iaeiiaeaeo?iiii) ?iaii ia ? «/enoeie» i
a ieo ? caaaeaee aeiiioee neiaeaoieo iaeii —oa aeaiaeaeo?iiieo ?iaiia,
i?iyaii ei?aeyoei? aeaio s-aeaeo?iiia a aoiii oa oei, ui aeayei
o?eieaoii aeaiaeaeo?iiii ?iaii ia iiaeia iienoaaoe a nenoaii LS-ca’yceo.

Aeyaeaii, ui iaeneiaeueia iiiaiiinoue aeaioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy
o?eieaoieo iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo 6snd 3D2 (n=6-17) ?iaiia a aoiii Aa
?aaeico?oueny a iaeanoi cia/aiue aieiaiiai eaaioiaiai /enea n=7,10,14.
Aiae?c iieacaa, ui a oeeo aeiaaeeao ia? i?noea cao?aiiy neiaeaoieo oa
o?eieaoieo ?iaiia aeaiaeao?iiieie ca’ycaieie ?iaiyie, oiaoi ia? i?noea
aoaeo aca?iiaei? iaeii- oa aeaiaeaeo?iiieo eiioiao?aoeie.

I?ioean o?eoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy o?eieaoieo ?iaeaa?aianueeeo ?iaiia
(??) nsm? 3P01 eiio?ao?aoe?e ia i?iyaey?oueny i?e /ioe?eoioiii?e
?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Ca i Sr. Aiiiaeueii iaea iiiai?iinoue o?eoioiiiiai
caoaeaeaiiy oeeo ?iaiia coiiaeaia oei, ui aiie ia cao?ththoueny
aeaiaeaeo?iiieie ?iaiyie (ineieueee aiie aiaenooii a iaeanoi /anoio
caoaeaeaiiy oeeo ?iaiia) aianeiaeie /iai aiie ? «/enoi» i o ieo
aiaenooii aeiiioee iioeo eiioiao?aoeie oa oei, ui aeey ?iaiia nsm? 3P01
eiioiao?aoeie ?aaeico?oueny LS-ca’ycie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aiie?ooae iaeneioi?a ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue
?ioa?eiia?iaoe?eiei ia?aoiaeai, aeicaiey? aeyaeoe iaeano? a niaeo?ao
aoii?a eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaio?a, a yeeo neiaeao-o?eieaoia
ia?ai?ooaaiiy ??ai?a iaea ? a?aeiia?aeii aeey iieno iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo
ca’ycaieo ??ai?a ni?aaaaeeeaa iaaeeaeaiiy LS-ca’yceo, a oaeiae iaeano?,
a yeeo neiaeao-o?eieaoia ia?ai?ooaaiiy aaeeea ? aeey iieno
iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo ca’ycaieo ??ai?a iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
jj-ca’ycie, aai ?io? oeie ca’yceo.

Aeine?aeaeaii oaeiae i?ioeane aaaaoioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy
??aeaa?a?anueeeo ??ai?a a aoiiao Na, Sr oa Aa. Oae, aeaioioiiia
caoaeaeaiiy neiaeaoieo oa o?eieaoieo ?? a aoii? Aa aeine?aeaeoaaeiny a
iaeano? /anoio 19000-20900 ni-1, a o?eoioiiia caoaeaeaiiy neiaeaoieo ??
a aoiiao Na oa Sr — a ae?aiaciiao 14800-16435 ni-1, 14800-15308 ni-1,
a?aeiia?aeii. ?c ?acoeueoao?a oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeia c?iaeoe
ne?aeoth/? aeniiaee:

1. A aoiiao Aa niinoa?iaa?oueny i?ioean aeaioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy anio
?? ?icieo eiioiao?aoeie, caoaeaeaiiy yeeo aeicaieaii i?aaeeaie aiaeai?o,
i?e/iio ?iiai?iinoue aeaioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy ?? 6snd 1D2 eiioiao?aoeie
aieueoa, iiae iiiai?iinoue aeaioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy ?iaiia 6sns 1S0
eiioiao?aoeie.

2. Aeey aoiiia Na oa Sr niinoa?iaa?oueny i?ioean o?eoioiiiiai
caoaeaeaiiy ?? nsn? 1P01 oa nsmf 1F03 eiioiao?aoeie. I?e oeueiio
aeyaeaii, ui iiiai?iinoue o?eoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy ?? nsn? 1P01
eiioiao?aoeie cia/ii aieueoa, iiae iiiai?iinoue o?eoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy
?iaiia nsmf 1F03 eiioiao?aoeie.

3. Aeey aoiiia Aa aeyaeaii aoaeo caieueoaiiy iiiai?iinoi aeaioioiiiiai
caoaeaeaiiy neiaeaoieo iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo ?iaeaa?aianueeeo 6snd 1D2 ?iaiia
(i?e n=16,17) a ieiei /anoioe, yea a?aeiia?aea? aeaioioiiiiio
caoaeaeaiith aeaiaeaeo?iiiiai ca’ycaiiai 5d7d 3P0 ?iaiy.

Ca?eueoaiiy ?iia??iino? aeaioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy ??ai?a 6snd 1D2 i?e
n=16,17 a aoiiao Aa coiiaeaii cao?aiiyi oeeo ??ai?a aeaiaeaeo?iiieie
ca’ycaiei ??aiai 5d7d 3P0.

Aeineiaeaeaii i?ioean o?eoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy AI? a aoiiao Ca, Sr oa
Aa. I?e oeueiio aeyaeaii ne?aeoth/a:

-i?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Na, Sr oa Aa caoaeaeaiiy oeeo ??ai?a
i?iyaey?oueny oieueee i?e «iaeie» iai?oaeaiinoi iiey eaca?iiai
aei?iiiithaaiiy;

-o?eueee i?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Sr caoaeaeaiiy aeayeeo A?? i?iyaey?oueny
ye i?e «iaeie», oae i i?e «aaeeeie» iai?oaeaiinoi iiey eaca?iiai
aei?iiiithaaiiy;

-aiieiooaee ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia coiiaeaieo caoaeaeaiiyi A?? i?e
«iaeeo» aaee/eiao iai?oaeaiinoi iiey eieeaathoueny a oe?ieeo iaaeao —
aiae iaeiiai aei o?ueio ii?yaeeia. Aaeeeo aiieiooaeo iathoue iaeneioie
eeoa iaei? oe?eie;

-i?e ?ii?caoe?? aoiio Sr aiieiooaee aeayeeo ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia
iaei? oe?eie (a?ey 5 ni-1) ? ii?iaiyieie c aiieiooaeaie ?aciiainieo
iaeneioiia, coiiaeaieo caoaeaeaiiyi ca’ycaieo ?iaiia, i iathoue
aiieiooaeo aiey o?ueio- /ioe?ueio ii?yaeeia;

-i?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Na, Sr oa Aa niinoa?iaathoueny ?aciiainii
iaeneioie, oe?eie yeeo eieeaathoueny a iaaeao aiae 5 aei 300 ni-1.
Oe?eie aeayeeo ?c oeeo iaeneioiia iathoue oaeo ae aaee/eio, ye i oe?eie
?aciiainieo iaeneioiia, yei coiiaeaii caoaeaeaiiyi ca’ycaieo ?iaiia;

-i?e ?ii?caoe?? aeine?aeaeoaaieo aoii?a iathoue i?noea iaeneioie, yei
i?iyaeythoueny oieueee i?e eiiieiie iiey?ecaoei? aei?iiiithaaiiy, i
iaeneioie, yei i?iyaeythoueny ye i?e e?i?ei?e, oae ? i?e oee?eoey?iie
iiey?ecaoei? aei?iiiithaaiiy;

-niinoa?iaa?oueny caoaeaeaiiy AI?, yei ca?aathoueny aei ia?oeo
caoaeaeaieo nd 2D3/2,5/2 oa np 2P01/2,3/2 ?iaiia iaeiica?yaeiiai iiia
a?aeiia?aeieo aoii?a;

-i?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Mg, Na, Sr oa Aa a caeaaeiinoyo N+(w) aiaenooiy
aaeeea eieueeinoue ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia, yei iiaeooue aooe coiiaeaii
caoaeaeaiiyi aiaeiieo AI?;

-i?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Na, Sr oa Aa a caeaaeiinoyo N+(w) ia? i?noea
?yae ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia, yei coiiaeaii caoaeaeaiiyi iaaiaeiieo AI?;

sse oaea a?aei?/aeinue, a iaeaieueoie ii?i oa c iaeaieueoith
iiiai?iinoth o?eoioiiia caoaeaeaiiy AI? i?iyaey?oueny i?e o?eoioiiiie
iiiicaoei? aoiia Sr. Aaeeea iiiai?iinoue caoaeaeaiiy oeeo ??ai?a
coiiaeaia aaeeeith aaee/eiith a?aeiia?aeiiai neeaaeaiiai iao?e/iiai
aeaiaioa oa iaeith ?o oe?eiith.

I?e o?eoioiii?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Na, Sr oa Aa a caeaaeiinoyo N+(w)
aiaenooiy aaeeea eieueeinoue ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia, yei iiaeooue aooe
coiiaeaii caoaeaeaiiyi aiaeiieo AI?. Aiaenooiinoue oeeo iaeneioiia
coiiaeaia aeaeieueeiia i?e/eiaie: iaeith iiiai?iinoth caoaeaeaiiy AI?,
aaeeeith oe?eiith oeeo ?iaiia oa neeueiei cao?aiiyi AI? a iiei eaca?iiai
aei?iiiithaaiiy.

I?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Sr a aeiaiaciii /anoio 16700-17200 ni-1 aeyaeaii
«aieii i?ici?inoi» (aeea. ?en.1), yea coiiaeaii i?ioeanii o?eoioiiiiai
caoaeaeaiy AI? i?e cia/aiiyo ia?aiao?a Oaii q 0.

Aeine?aeaeaii i?ioeane iaeiioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy ca’ycaieo ??ai?a a
aoii? Aa. ?c ?acoeueoao?a oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeia c?iaeoe ne?aeoth/?
ocaaaeueiaiiy:

1.Oe?eie ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia eieeaathoueny a iaaeao aiae 5 aei
40ni-1.

2.Aiieiooaee ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia iathoue aaee/eio aiey iaeiiai
ii?yaeea, ui cia/ii iaioa aiae aiieiooae iaeneioiia, coiiaeaieo
aeaioioiiiei caoaeaeaiiyi ca’ycaieo ?iaiia ?c iniiaiiai noaio.

3.A?aeiia?aei? ?aciiainii iaeneioie a caeaaeiinoyo N+(w) i?iyaeythoueny
eeoa i?e «iaeie» aaee/eii iai?oaeaiinoi iiey eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy.

4.Niinoa?iaa?oueny i?ioean iaeiioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy ?aciiainiiai 6s6?
1P01 ?iaiy ?c iniiaiiai noaio.

5.Iathoue i?noea i?ioeane iaeiioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy aeaiaeaeo?iiieo
ca’ycaieo ?iaiia ic caoaeaeaieo iaoanoaaieueieo 6s5d 1D2 oa 6s5d 3D1,2,3
oa ?aciiainiiai 6s6? 1P01 ?iaiia. Oe? i?ioeane i?iyaeythoueny ye i?e
eiiieiie, oae ? i?e oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei? aei?iiiithaaiiy.

Iaeiioioiiia caoaeaeaiiy ca’ycaieo ??ai?a ye ?c iniiaiiai, oae ? ?c
caoaeaeaieo noai?a ia i?iyaey?oueny i?e aaeeeeo aaee/eiao iiey e2.
Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui i?e oeeo iieyo cao?aiiy ??ai?a ca ?aooiie
iieueiaiai ia?ai?ooaaiiy ??ai?a aaeeea (a?ey 200 ni-1).

Aiae?c aeaco? ia oa, ui ooai?aiiy aoiiia Aa a caoaeaeaieo 6s5d 1D2 oa
6s5d 3D1,2,3 oa 6s6? 1P01 noaiao i?ioiaeeoue a ?acoeueoaoi
aiia?eiiaiiaoeieiiai ?icnithaaiiy naioea. C iaea?eueoith ?iia??i?noth
oea ?icn?thaaiiy i?iyaey?oueny a iaeano? /anoio aeecueeeo aei
/anoio, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue aeaioioiiiiio caoaeaeaiith

ca’ycaieo ??ai?a.

A eiioei ?icaeieo c?iaeaii iniiaii aeniiaee aeineiaeaeaiue i?ioeano
ooai?aiiy iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia aeineiaeaeoaaieo aoiiia a aeiaiaciii
/anoio w=14800-20900 ni-1.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icaeiei ?icaeyiooi caeiiiii?iinoi oa iniaeeainoi
ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia i?e aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Na,
Sr oa Aa a aeiaiaciii /anoio w=15000-19000 ni-1 i?e eiiieiie oa
oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei? eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy; iaoaiicie ?o
ooai?aiiy; o?ce/i? i?ioeane, ye? iathoue i?noea i?e ?o ooai?aii?;
?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieia aiaeiioaiiy aeoiaeia iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo
iiiia i?e ?aaeicaoei? eaneaaeiiai iaoaiicio ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo
iiiia oa ?acoeueoaoe aeii?thaaiue aoaeoeaieo ia?a?icia aaaaoioioiiii?
iiiicaoei? iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia.

Aeey aeyaeaiiy oa aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aciiainieo i?ioean?a ooai?aiiy
aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a i?e aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a
aeei?enoiaoaaany ?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae aei??thaaiiy caeaaeiinoae N2+(w).
Aeineiaeaeaiiy oeeo caeaaeiinoae i?iaiaeeeeny i?e oieniaaiie aaee/eii
iai?oaeaiinoi iiey eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy e=2·106 A/ni, aai e=1,5·107
A/ni (iioaineaiinoi F=3,5·1028 ni-2n-1, aai F=2·1030 ni-2n-1). ?iceeae
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oi/ie ii aiie?ooae? ?iioeuen?a (ye ? a
ae?aiacii? /anoio 9390-9500 ni-1) i?e aeine?aeaeaii? caeaaeiinoae N+(w )
aeey iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a noaiiaea 3-5% a?ae na?aaeiueiai
cia/aiiy aiie?ooaee, a i?e aeine?aeaeaii? caeaaeiinoae N2+ (w ) aeey
aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a noaiiaea 20-30% a?ae na?aaeiueiai cia/aiiy
aiie?ooae.

Aiaeiioeii, ui oae? aeaoaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy caeaaeiinoae N+(w) i
N2+(w) i?e aaaaoioioiiiie iiiicaoei? aoiiia Na, Sr oa Aa a oiiaao
oe?iei? niaeo?aeueii? iaeano?, oieniaaii? aaee/eie iai?oaeai?noue iiey
eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy, aaniethoecaoe?? aiaeiioaiiy aeoiae?a iiiia oa
?icii? iiey?ecaoei? aei?iiiithaaiiy, ia aoee i?iaaaeaii iioeie
aeineiaeieeaie. A?aei?oeii oaeiae, ui ?acoeueoaoe io?eiaii ?ioeie
aeineiaeieeaie aeia?a niiaiaaeathoue c aeaieie io?eiaieie iaie.

Ia ?en.2 aeey i?eeeaaeo i?eaaaeaiee iaeei ic oeiiaeo ?acoeueoaoia
aeineiaeaeaiue caeaaeiinoae N+(w) i N2+(w) io?eiaieo i?e aaaaoioioiiiie
iiiicaoei? aeine?aeaeoaaieo aoiiia, a naia, ia oeueiio ?enoieo
i?eaaaeaii? ?acoeueoaoe oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeey aoiia Aa a iaeano?
/anoio 14900-15900 ni-1.

Ic ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue caeaaeiinoae N+(w) oa N2+(w) io?eiaieo
i?e aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Na , Sr oa Aa iiaeia c?iaeoe ?yae
ocaaaeueiaiue:

1. Niinoa?iaa?oueny aiaeiinii aaeeeee aeoiae aeaica?yaeieo iiiia a
ii?iaiyiii c aeoiaeii iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia (N2+/N+=10-5-10-1). Aaee/eia
aiaeiioaiiy N2+/N+ caeaaeeoue aiae /anoioe eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy.

2. O aeoiae? aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a ia? i?noea aaeeea eieueeinoue
?aciiainieo iaeneioiia. I?e/iio, iaei? iaeneioie i?iyaeythoueny ye i?e
eiiieiie, oae i i?e oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei? eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy,
a ?io?- eeoa i?e e?i?ei?e iiey?ecaoe??.

3. O aeoiae? ?ii?a Aa2+ ?yae ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia i?iyaeythoueny eeoa
i?e oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei? eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy.

4. A ia?aaaaeiie aieueoinoi aeiaaeeia ?aciiainii iaeneioie o aeoiae?
iaeii-oa aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a i?iyaeythoueny ia ?icieo /anoioao eaca?iiai
aei?iiiithaaiiy, a a iaaaeeeie eieueeinoi aeiaaeeia- ia iaeieo i oeo aea
/anoioao.

5. Oe?eie ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia o aeoiae? aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a
ciaoiaeyoueny a oe?ieeo iaaeao — aiae 5 aei 100 ni-1.

6. Aiieiooaee ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia o aeoiae? iiiia Na2+, Sr2+ oa Aa2+
ciaoiaeyoueny a oe?ieeo iaaeao — aiae iaeiiai aei /ioe?ueio ii?yaeeia, a
aiieiooaee ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia o aeoiae? iiiia Na+, Sr+ oa Aa+
iathoue iaeo aaee/eio — aiey iaeiiai ii?yaeea.

?en.2. Caeaaeiinoi aeoiaeia iiiia Aa+ oa Aa2+ aiae /anoioe eaca?iiai
aei?iiiithaaiiy i?e eiiieiie (a) oa oee?eoey?iie (a) iiey?ecaoei?
(e=2·106 A/ni).

I?iaaaeaii ioeiiee oa aiaeic iieacaee, ui iaea aiieiooaea ?aciiainieo
iaeneioiia o aeoiaei iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia iia’ycaia c iane/aiiyi
i?ioeano iiiicaoei? aoiiia. Aiaeiai/ii ioeiiee oa aiaeic iieacaee, ui
i?ioean iiiicaoei? iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia no?iioeith oa aa?ith ia ?
iane/aiei i oiio ?aciiainii iaeneioie o aeoiaei aeaica?yaeieo iiiia, ye
i?aaeei, iathoue aaeeeo aiieiooaeo. Aoaeoe, yei iiaeooue cao?thaaoe
?iaii a iiei eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy oa coiiaethaaoe oe?eie
?aciiainieo iaeneioiia a caeaaeiinoyo N2+(w), ? oaeeie ae aoaeoaie, ye?
aeaoaeueii i?iaiaeiciaaii aeua (aeea. o?aoie ?icaeie).

Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy iaoai?cio ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a aoea
i?iaaaeaia ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y ?aciiainieo iaeneioi?a a caeaaeiinoyo
N2+(w). Ic ?acoeueoaoia oe??? iaeaioeoieaoei? aeey iiiia Ca2+, Sr2+ oa
Ba2+ i?e eiiieiie oa oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei? aei?iiiithaaiiy iiaeia
c?iaeoe ?yae aeniiaeia:

1.Iathoue i?noea ?aciiainii i?ioeane, yei coiiaeaii aaaaoioioiiiith
iiiicaoei?th iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia ye ?c iniiaiiai ns 2S1/2, oae ? ?c
ia?oeo caoaeaeaieo nd 2D3/2,5/2 oa np 2P01/2,3/2 noaiia.

2.I?e ooai?aii? ?iiia Ca2+ i?e eiiieiie iiey?ecaoei? aei?iiiithaaiiy a
aieueoinoi aeiaaeeia i?iyaeythoueny ?aciiainii i?ioeane, yei coiiaeaii
iiiicaoei?th iiiia Ca+ ic caoaeaeaieo 3d 2D3/2,5/2 ?iaiia i a iaioinoi
aeiaaeeia- ic caoaeaeaieo 4p 2P01/2,3/2 ?iaiia, a i?e oee?eoey?iie
iiey?ecaoei? aei?iiiithaaiiy i?iyaeythoueny eeoa o?e- oa /ioeoioiiii
?aciiainii i?ioeane, yei coiiaeaii iiiicaoei?th iiiia Ca+ eeoa ic
caoaeaeaieo 3d 2D3/2,5/2 ?iaiia.

3.O aeoiae? iiiia Sr2+ i?e eiiieiie iiey?ecaoei? aei?iiiithaaiiy a
aieueoinoi aeiaaeeia i?iyaeythoueny ?aciiainii i?ioeane, yei coiiaeaii
iiiicaoei?th iiiia Sr+ ic caoaeaeaieo 5p 2P01/2,3/2 ?iaiia i a iaioinoi
aeiaaeeia- yei coiiaeaii iiiicaoei?th iiiia Sr+ ic caoaeaeaieo 4d
2D3/2,5/2 ?iaiia.

4.O aeoiae? iiiia Aa2+ i?e eiiieiie oa oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei?
aei?iiiithaaiiy a iaeanoi «iaeeo» /anoio (15000-17700 ni-1) a aieueoinoi
aeiaaeeia i?iyaeythoueny ?aciiainii i?ioeane, yei coiiaeaii iiiicaoei?th
iiiia Aa+ ic caoaeaeaieo 5d 2D3/2,5/2 ?iaiia, a i?e ooai?aiii iiiia Aa2+
a iaeanoi «aaeeeeo» /anoio (17700-18700 ni-1) a aieueoinoi aeiaaeeia —
i?ioeane, yei coiiaeaii iiiicaoei?th iiiia Aa+ ic caoaeaeaieo 6p
2P01/2,3/2 ?iaiia.

Ia?aaaaeio aieueoinoue ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia a caeaaeiinoyo N2+(w)
aeey iiiia Na2+, Sr2+ oa Aa2+ iiaeia iaeiicia/ii iaeaioeoieoaaoe
?aciiainieie ia?aoiaeaie a niaeo?i iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia. Oeae oaeo
iaeiicia/ii aeieaco? ?aaeicaoeith eaneaaeiiai iaoaiicio ooai?aiiy oeeo
aeaica?yaeieo iiiia.

?acii c oei, aeaye? ?aciiaini? iaeneioie o aeoiae? ?ii?a Na2+, Sr2+ oa
Aa2+ ia iiaeia iiynieoe ?aae?caoe??th eaneaaeiei iaoai?ciii ooai?aiiy
oeeo ?ii?a.

Oae, iaaaeeea eieueeinoue ?aciianieo iaeneioiia a caeaaeiinoyo N2+(w)
aeey iiiia Na2+, Sr2+ oa Aa2+ i?iyaey?oueny ye i?e eiiieiie, oae i i?e
oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei? aei?iiiithaaiiy, oi/a a?aeiia?aei? ?aciiainii
ia?aoiaee a niaeo?i iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia Na+, Sr+ oa Aa+ aeicaieaii eeoa
aeey eiiieii? iiey?ecaoei? aei?iiiithaaiiy. Oeae oaeo aeaco? ia oa, ui
i?e eiiieiie oa oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei? aei?iiiithaaiiy aai oieueee
i?e oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei?, iaoaiici ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia ia
? eaneaaeiei.

E??i oiai, aeayea eieueeinoue ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia a caeaaeiinoyo
N2+(w) aeey iiiia Sr2+ oa Aa2+, yei ia aaeaeiny iaeaioeoieoaaoe
?aciiainieie ia?aoiaeaie a niaeo?i iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia, i?iyaey?oueny a
iaeanoi «iaeeo» /anoio (iaioa 16500 ni-1). Oeae oaeo aeaco? ia oa, ui
a oeie iaeanoi /anoio ?aaeico?oueny iaoaiici ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo
iiiia Sr2+ oa Aa2+, yeee ia ? eaneaaeiei.

A caeaaeiinoyo N2+(w) aeey iiiia Ba2+ niinoa?iaathoueny ?aciiainii
iaeneioie, yei i?iyaeythoueny oieueee i?e oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei?
eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy. Oaei iaeneioie ia iiaeia iaeaioeoieoaaoe
?aciiainieie ia?aoiaeaie a niaeo?i iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia, ui oaeiae
aeaco? ia ?aaeicaoeith iaoaiicia ooai?aiiy iiiia Aa2+ yeee ia ?
eaneaaeiei.

Aeey aeyniaiiy iaoaiicio ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia a
iiae?aciiainieo i?iiiaeeao caeaaeiinoae N2+(w) aoea ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea
oa i?iaaaeaia oeiea na?iy aeineiaeaeaiue, yea aaco?oueny ia aei??thaaii?
aaee/ei noaiaiae iaeiiieiinoi E2+a ooai?aiiy oeeo iiiia. Aeey oeueiai
aeine?aeaeoaaeenue caeaaeiino? aeoiae?a iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a
a?ae ?ioaneaiino? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ? oaea ?c ieo aecia/aeenue
noaiai? iae?i?eiino? ooai?aiiy oeeo ?ii?a.

Iaeei ic oeiiaeo ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue caeaaeiinoae lgN+(lgF) oa
lgN2+(lgF) ia iaeiie oieniaaiie /anoioi aeey iiiia Sr+ oa Sr2+, Aa+ oa
Aa2+ i?eaaaeaiee ia ?en.3.

?en.3. Caeaaeiinoi aeoiaeia iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo iiiia no?iioeith
(a, w=18844 ni-1) i aa?ith (a, w=18875 ni-1) aiae iioaneaiinoi
eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy i?e eiiieiie iiey?ecaoei?. Aaee/eie E+a oa
E2+1a, E2+2a E2+3a — noaiaii iaeiiieiinoi ooai?aiiy iaeii- oa
aeaica?yaeieo iiiia, aiaeiiaiaeii.

Ic ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue caeaaeiinoae lgN+(lgF) oa lgN2+(lgF)
aeey iiiia Sr+ oa Sr2+, Aa+ oa Aa2+ iiaeia c?iaeoe ?yae ocaaaeueiaiue:

1. Aoaeoeaia ooai?aiiy ?ii?a Sr2+ oa Aa2+ niinoa?iaa?oueny oieueee a
iaeanoi iioaneaiinoae, yea aiaeiiaiaea? iane/aiith i?ioeano
aaaaoioioiiii? iiiicaoei? aoiiia Sr oa Aa, aiaeiiaiaeii.

2. Aiaeiioaiiy iiae aeoiaeaie aeai- oa iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia (N2+/N+)
i?e oeo iioaineaiinoyo aei?iiiithaaiiy, eiee ianooia? iane/aiiy i?ioeano
aaaaoioioiiii? iiiicaoei? aoiiia, cia/ii iaioa aeey iiiia aa?ith, iiae
aeey iiiia no?iioeith.

Aeii?yii aaee/eie noaiaiae iae?i?eiino? E2+1a aai E2+2a aeey iiiia Sr2+
oa Aa2+ aeia?a niiaiaaeathoue c /eneii eaaioia, iiaeeiaiiy yeeo
iaiaoiaeii aeey iiiicaoei? iiiia Sr+ oa Aa+ ic iniiaiiai aai caoaeaeaieo
?iaiia. Oeae oaeo iaeiicia/ii aeiaiaeeoue ?aaeicaoeith eaneaaeiiai
iaoaiicio ooai?aiiy iiiia Sr2+ oa Aa2+, i?e/iio i?e ?icieo
iioaineaiinoyo ?aaeico?oueny i?ioean iiiicaoei? iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia ic
?icieo noaiia. Niinoa?aaeaiiy iiiia Sr2+ oa Aa2+ oieueee a iaeanoi
iioaineaiinoae, aea ?aaeico?oueny iane/aiiy i?ioeano iiiicaoei? aoiiia
Sr oa Aa, oaae aeaco? ia ?aaeicaoeith eaneaaeiiai iaoaiicio ooai?aiiy
aeaica?yaeieo iiiia.

Caiaeii ?ic?iaeaii? iaie iaoiaeeee aoee iiii?yii aoaeoeaii ia?a?ice
/ioe?e- oa i’yoeoioiiii? iiiicaoei? iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia Aa+ oa
i’yoeoioiiii? iiiicaoei? ?ii?a Sr+. Ic ?acoeueoaoia aiaeico
aeii?thaaiue, ioeiiie i ?ic?aooieia aaaaoioioiiieo ia?a?icia iiaeeeai
c?iaeoe ?yae aeniiaeia: a) aaee/eie aoaeoeaieo ia?a?icia aaaaoioioiiii?
iiiicaoei? iiiia Sr+ oa Aa+ i?aeoe/ii niiaiaaeathoue iiae niaith, a
oaeiae c aaee/eiaie ia?a?icia aaaaoioioiiii? iiiicaoei? aoiiia i?e
iaeeiaeiaeo noaiaiyo iae?i?eiino?; a) aaee/eia aoaeoeaiiai ia?a?ico
iiiicaoei? iiiia Sr+ ic iniiaiiai noaio aeia?a niiaiaaea? c aaee/eiith
ia?a?ico, yeee aoa ?ic?aoiaaiee.

Aia?oa a iaoeo ?iaioao caiaeii ?ic?iaeaii? iaie iaoiaeeee aoee
i?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee aiaeiioaiiy aeoiaeia iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo iiiia
eaeueoeith, no?iioeith oa aa?ith i?e ?aaeicaoei? eaneaaeiiai iaoaiicio
ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia. ?acoeueoaoe oeeo ?ic?aooieia aeia?a
niiaiaaeathoue c oei aiaeiioaiiyi aeoiaeia iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo iiiia
eaeueoeith, no?iioeith oa aa?ith, yea niinoa?iaa?oueny a aenia?eiaioi.

Oe? oaeoe: aaee/eie noaiaiae iae?i?eiino? ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo
?ii?a oa a?aei?/ai? aeua ?ic?aooiee iaeiicia/ii aeacothoue ia oa, ui i a
iiae?aciiainieo i?iiiaeeao caeaaeiinoae N2+(w) ?aaeicooueny eaneaaeiee
iaoaiici ooai?aiiy iiiia Ca2+, Sr2+ oa Ba2+.

A eiioei ?icaeieo c?iaeaii iniiaii aeniiaee c ?acoeueoao?a
aeineiaeaeaiue i?ioeano ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia aeineiaeaeoaaieo
aoiiia a aeiaiaciii /anoio 15000-19000 ni-1.

A i’yoiio ?icaeiei ?icaeyioo? oiiae i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue
i?ioeano aaaaoioioiiii? ?ii?ca?? aoii?a Ca, Sr oa Ba a aeiaiaciii /anoio
9390-9500 ni-1 i?e e?i?ei?e oa oee?eoey?i?e iiey?ecaoe?? eaca?iiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, caeiiiii?iinoi oa iniaeeainoi aaaaoioioiiiiai
caoaeaeaiiy ?iciiai oeio ?iaiia a a oeeo aoiiao oa o?ce/i? i?ioeane, ye?
iathoue i?noea i?e aaaaoioioiii?e ?o ?ii?caoe??. Aiaeiioeii, ui a
oeueiio aeiaiaciii /anoio, i?ioean aaaaoioioiiii? iiiicaoei? aoiiia Na,
Sr oa Aa iiee ui acaaaei ia aeineiaeaeoaaany. Caeaaeiinoi N+(w) i?e
aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Ca, Sr oa Aa aeineiaeaeoaeenue a
aeiaiaciii iai?oaeaiinoi iiey eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy e=8,1105
-4,1·106 A/ni (F=9,4·1027-2,4·1029ni-2n-1). Aeey iiiicaoei? aoiiia Sr oa
Ba o aiaeii/aiiio aeua aeiaiaciii /anoio iaiaoiaeii iiaeeiaiiy i’yoe
eaaioia, a aeey iiiicaoei? aoiiia Ca- oanoe eaaioia.

Ic ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue caeaaeiinoae N+(w) aeey aaaaoioioiiii?
iiiicaoe?? aoii?a Ca, Sr oa Ba iiaeia c?iaeoe ?yae ocaaaeueiaiue:

1. I?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Ba i?e «iaeie» oa «aaeeeie» iai?oaeaiinoi iiey
aei?iiiithaaiiy i?iyaeythoueny aeaa ?aciiainii iaeneioie ia /anoioao
9405ni-1 ? 9462 ni-1. *anoioe, ia yeeo i?iyaeythoueny oe? ?aciiaini?
iaeneioie i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeaoue aiae iai?oaeaiinoi iiey eaca?iiai
aei?iiiithaaiiy.

2.I?e «iaeie» aaee/eii iai?oaeaiinoi iiey aei?iiiithaaiiy aiieiooaea
?aciiainiiai iaeneioio ia /anoioi w=9405 ni-1 ia? aaee/eio aiey 0,5
ii?yaeeia (i?e oe?eii eiai aiey 30 ni-1), a iaeneioio ia /anoioi w=9462
ni-1- aiey o?ueio ii?yaeeia (i?e oe?eii eiai aiey 5 ni-1).

3.I?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Ca oa Sr ?aciiainia no?oeoo?a ia i?iyaey?oueny.

Ic ?acoeueoaoia iaeaioeoieaoei? ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia oa aiaeico
iiaeeeaeo i?ioean?a, yei iiaeooue iaoe i?noea i?e aaaaoioioiiiiio
caoaeaeaiith aeine?aeaeoaaieo aoii?a, iiaeia c?iaeoe ?yae aeniiaeia:

1.I?e i’yoeoioiiiie iiiicaoei? aoiiia Aa i?iyaey?oueny i?ioean
/ioe?eoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy aeaiaeaeo?iiiiai ca’ycaiiai 5d6d 1D2 ?iaiy
(w= 9462 ni-1) i i?ioean i’yoeoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy iaaiaeiiiai AI?
(w=9405ni-1).

2.Aiieiooaea ?aciiainiiai iaeneioia, coiiaeaiiai caoaeaeaiiyi
aeaiaeaeo?iiiiai ca’ycaiiai 5d6d 1D2 ?iaiy, ? ii?iaiyiith c aiieiooaeaie
iaeneioiia, yei coiiaeaii caoaeaeaiiyi ca’ycaieo ?iaiia (a oiio /enei i
oeueiai) o aeaeeiie iaeanoi niaeo?a.

3.I?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Ba ia i?iyaey?oueny aaeeea eieueeinoue
?aciiainieo iaeneioiia, yei iiaeooue aooe coiiaeaii caoaeaeaiiyi
aiaeiieo AI?.

4.I?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Ca acaaaei ia i?iyaeythoueny ?aciiainii
iaeneioie, yei iiaeooue aooe coiiaeaii /ioe?e- oa i’yoeoioiiiei
caoaeaeaiiyi iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo (neiaeaoieeo oa o?eieaoieo) ca’ycaieo
?iaiia.

sse i o aeaeeiie iaeanoi niaeo?a (aeea. ?icaeie 3) aoee i?iaaaeaii
ioeiiee iiiai?iinoi aaaaoioioiiii? ?ii?caoe?? aeineiaeaeoaaieo aoii?a oa
aaee/ei cao?aiiy ?iaiia. I?iaaaeaii ioeiiee iieacaee, ui i?e «iaeeo»
aaee/eiao iiey i?ioean iiiicaoei? aoiiia ia ? iane/aiei, a cao?aiiy
?iaiia ? iaaaeeeei. Aeaoaeueii i?iaiaeiciaaii i?e/eie ??cieo aaee/ei
iiiai?iinoi caoaeaeaiiy ca’ycaieo ?iaiia oa i?e/eie iaei? iiiai?iinoi
caoaeaeaiiy AI? (aeea. ?icaeie 3). Iieacaii, ui iaea ?iia??i?noue
caoaeaeaiiy ca’ycaieo ??ai?a coiiaeaia iaeith aaee/eiith a?aeiia?aeieo
neeaaeaieo iao?e/ieo aeaiaio?a caoaeaeaiiy oeeo ??ai?a.

A eiioei ?icaeieo c?iaeaii iniiaii aeniiaee c ?acoeueoao?a
aeineiaeaeaiue i?ioeano ooai?aiiy iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia aeineiaeaeoaaieo
aoiiia a aeiaiaciii /anoio w=9390-9500ni-1.

A oinoiio ?icaeiei i?eaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue iaoaiicio
ooai?aiiy iiiia Sr2+ oa Aa2+ i?e aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Sr oa
Aa a aeiaiaciii /anoio 9390-9500 ni-1 i?e e?i?ei?e oa oee?eoey?i?e
iiey?ecaoe?? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Caeaaeiinoi N2+(w) aeey iiiia
Sr2+ oa Aa2+ aeineiaeaeoaeenue a aeiaiaciii iai?oaeaiinoi iiey eaca?iiai
aei?iiiithaaiiy e=4,7·106-107 A/ni (F=3,2·1029 -1,4·1030 ni-2n-1). Ic
?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue caeaaeiinoae N+(w) oa N2+(w) io?eiaieo i?e
aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Sr oa Ba iiaeia c?iaeoe ?yae
ocaaaeueiaiue:

1.Niinoa?iaa?oueny aiiiaeueii aaeeeee aeoiae aeaica?yaeieo iiiia a
ii?iaiyiii c aeoiaeii iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia (N2+/N+=10-2-10-1). I?e
oeueiio aiaeiioaiiy aeoiaeia N2+/N+ aeey aeai- oa iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia
no?iioeith cia/ii aieueoa, iiae aeey oeeo aea iiiia aa?ith.

2.Aiaeiioaiiy aeoiae?a aeai- oa iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia (N2+/N+) a
iiae?aciiainieo i?iiiaeeao caeaaeiinoae N+(w) oa N2+(w) cia/ii aieueoa a
iio?a/a?aiiie iaeanoi niaeo?a, iiae o aeaeeiie iaeanoi niaeo?a.

3.?aciiainii iaeneioie o aeoiaeao ?ii?a Sr+ oa Sr2+ ia i?iyaeythoueny.

4.I?e ooai?aii? ?ii?a Aa+ oa Aa2+ ?aciiaini? iaeneioie
niinoa??aathoueny ia iaei?e ? o?e aea /anoio? (9405 ni-1), i?e/iio
oe?eie oeeo iaeneioi?a aeineoue aaeee? (a?ey 30 ni-1).

5.Aiieiooaee ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia o aeoiae? ?ii?a Aa+ oa Aa2+
aeineoue iaei (aiey iaeiiai ii?yaeea) i ? ii?iaiyieie c aiieiooaeaie
iaeneioiia, yei niinoa?iaathoueny o aeaeeiie iaeanoi niaeo?a a oiiaao,
eiee iaeneioie a caeaaeiinoyo N+(w) oa N2+(w) niiaiaaeathoue.

I?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui i?e aeei?enoaieo eaca?ieo iieyo
i?ioean iiiicaoei? aoiiia Sr ia ? iane/aiei, a i?ioean iiiicaoei? aoiiia
Aa ? iane/aiei. I?iaaaeaiee aiaeic iieacaa, ui oe?eia ?aciiainiiai
iaeneioio a caeaaeiinoi N2+(w) aeey iiiia Ba2+ ia ? coiiaeaiith
i?eaaaeaiith oe?eiith eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy, a iiaea aooe
coiiaeaiith aeaeieueeiia i?e/eiaie: aaeeeith oe?eiith ?aciiainieo ?iaiia
(iai?eeeaae AI?), aaeeeith aaee/eiith aeeiaii/ii? iiey?eciaiinoi ?iaiia,
noia?iiceoei?th aeaeieueeio ?aciiainieo iaeneioiia aai iniaeeainoyie
i?iyao iaoaiicio ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia.

I?iaiaeiciaaii oiiae ?aaeicaoei? eaneaaeiiai oa aeaiaeaeo?iiiiai
iaoaiici?a oai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia i?e ?ii?caoe?? aeineiaeaeoaaieo
aoiiia. Aiaeic iieacaa, ui ye aiaenooiinoue ?aciiainii? no?oeoo?e a
caeaaeiinoi N2+(w) aeey iiiia Sr2+, oae i iayaiinoue ?aciiainii?
no?oeoo?e a caeaaeiinoi N2+(w) aeey iiiia Aa2+ aeaco? ia oa, ui iaoaiici
ooai?aiiy oeeo iiiia ia ? eaneaaeiei. Aeaoaeueii i?iaiaeiciaaii
caeiiiii?iinoi oa iniaeeainoi ?aaeicaoei? aeaiaeaeo?iiiiai iaoaiicio
ooai?aiiy iiiia Sr2+ oa Ba2+.

sse ? o aeaeei?e iaeano? niaeo?a, a ?io?a/a?aii?e iaeano? niaeo?a
oaeiae aeine?aeaeoaaeenue caeaaeiino? aeoiaeo iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo
?ii?a a?ae ?ioaineaiino? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Oeiiai ?acoeueoaoe
oeeo aeineiaeaeaiue caeaaeiinoae lgN+(lgF) oa lgN2+(lgF) aeey iiiia Sr+,
Ba+ oa Sr2+ Ba2+i?e eiiieiie iiey?ecaoei? aei?iiiithaaiiy i?eaaaeaii ia
?en.4.

?en.4. Caeaaeiinoi aeoiaeia iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo iiiia no?ioeith (a,
w=9435 ni-1) i aa?ith (a, w=9395 ni-1) aiae iioaneaiinoi eaca?iiai
aei?iiiithaaiiy i?e eiiieiie iiey?ecaoei?. Aaee/eie E+a oa E2+1a, E2+2a
— noaiaii iaeiiieiinoi ooai?aiiy iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo iiiia,
aiaeiiaiaeii.

Ic ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue caeaaeiinoae lgN+(lgF) i lgN2+(lgF) aeey
iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo iiiia no?iioeith oa aa?ith iiaeia c?iaeoe ?yae
aeniiae?a:

1. Ooai?aiiy iiiia Sr2+ oa Aa2+ ia? i?noea a iaeano? iioaineaiinoae, a
yeie ?aaeico?oueny oa ia ?aaeico?oueny iane/aiiy i?ioeano iiiicaoei?
aoiiia.

2. I?e ooai?aii? iiiia Sr2+ oa Aa2+ niinoa?iaathoueny aeai iaeanoi, a
yeeo ?aaeicothoueny ?icii aaee/eie noaiaiae iaeiiieiinoi E2+a ooai?aiiy
aeaica?yaeieo iiiia.

3. Ciiia aaee/eie noaiaii iaeiiieiinoi E2+a aeey iiiia Sr2+ oa Aa2+ ia?
iinoea a iaeanoi iioaineaiinoae, aea ianooia? iane/aiiy i?ioeano
iiiicaoei? aoiiia no?iioeith oa aa?ith.

4. Niiaaiaeiioaiiy iiae aeoiaeaie aeey aeai- oa iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia
N2+/N+ ? aieueoei aeey iiiia no?iioeith, iiae aeey oeeo aea iiiia
aa?ith.

5. Ooieoeiiiaeueiee aeae caeaaeiinoae lgN+(lgF) i lgN2+(lgF) aeey
iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo iiiia no?iioeith oa aa?ith, io?eiaieo a
iio?a/a?aiiie oa aeaeeiie iaeanoyo niaeo?a, nooo?ai aiae?iciy?oueny.

Aiaeic iieacaa, ui iiii?yii aaee/eie noaiaiae E2+1a oa E2+2a a ?icieo
iaeanoyo iioaineaiinoae aei?iiiithaaiiy i?ioe?i/aoue iiaeeeainoi
?aaeicaoei? eaneaaeiiai iaoaiicio ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia i
iaeiicia/ii aeieacothoue ?aaeicaoeith aeaiaeaeo?iiiiai iaoaiicio.
Niino?aaeaiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia a iaeanoi ?ioaineaiinoae, aea
iane/aiiy iiiicaaoei? aoiiia aiaenooi?, oaae aeaco? ia ?aaeicaoeith
aeaiaeaeo?iiiiai iaoaiicio ooai?aiiy oeeo iiiia.

A eiioei ?icaeieo c?iaeaii iniiaii aeniiaee c ?acoeueoao?a
aeineiaeaeaiue i?ioeano ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia aeineiaeaeoaaieo
aoiiia a aeiaiaciii /anoio w=9390-9500 ni-1.

A nueiiiio ?icaeiei ?icaeyiooi iiaeeeainoi i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy
?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue i?ioeano aaaaoioioiiii? iiiicaoei? aoiiia
eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaioia. ?acoeueoaoe oeeo aeineiaeaeaiue iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoaii aeey ?yaeo i?eeeaaeieo caaea/, a naia: aeey noai?aiiy
aeaea?aea iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo iiiia; noai?aiiy ?aciiainiiai
iiiicaoeieiiai ian-niaeo?iiao?a, a yeiio iiaeia i?iaiaeeoe iaeii/aniee
aiaeic ii ianai oa /anoioai ?aaeicaoei? ?aciiainieo i?ioeania, a oaeiae
aeey niaeo?ineiii? aoiiia oa iiiia. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue
aeacothoue oaeiae ia iiaeeeainoue noai?aiiy eaca?a ia iiiieo ia?aoiaeao
c aaaaoioioiiiith iaea/eith oa noeioeththoue ?icaeoie iiaeo oai?aoe/ieo
iaoiaeia iieno aca?iiaei? eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy c aoiiaie, yei
iathoue neeaaeiee niaeo?.

AENIIAEE

Caiaeii ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiaeee aoee i?iaaaeaii aeineiaeaeaiiy i?ioeano
ooai?aiiy iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo iiiia i?e aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe??
aoii?a aeoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaio?a a ?icieo aeiaiaciiao /anoio oa i?e
?iciie iiey?ecaoei? eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy. Ia?aaaaeia aieueoinoue
?acoeueoaoia io?eiaia aia?oa, a ?acoeueoaoe io?eiaii iioeie
aeineiaeieeaie aeia?a niiaiaaeathoue c aeaieie io?eiaieie iaie.

1. I?iaaaeaii aeaoaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy caeaaeiinoae i?ioeano
ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a i?e aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a
eaeueoe?th, no?iioe?th oa aa??th a?ae /anoioe, iiey?ecaoe?? oa
?ioaineaiino? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy o aeaeei?e (w =15000-19000
ni-1) oa ?io?a/a?aii?e (w=9390-9500 ni-1) iaeanoyo niaeo?a.
Aiae?c noeoiiino? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iaeiicia/ii aeieaco?, ui
o aeaeei?e iaeano? niaeo?a, a iniiaiiio, ?aae?co?oueny eaneaaeiee
iaoai?ci, a a ?io?a/a?aii?e iaeano? ?aae?co?oueny aeaiaeaeo?iiiee
iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a.

2. Aecia/aii aoaeoeai? ia?a??ce /ioe?e- oa i’yoeoioiiii?
?ii?caoe?? ?ii?a Ba+ oa i’yoeoioiiii? ?ii?caoe?? ?ii?a Sr+ a iaeano?
/anoio w=18780-19000 ni-1. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey iaeiaeiaeo
noaiaiae iae?i?eiino? aaee/eie ia?a??c?a aeey oeeo ?ii?a
iaeiaeia?. Ii ii?yaeeo aaee/eie aiie ni?aiaaeathoue c
aaee/eiaie a?aeiia?aeieo aoaeoeaieo ia?a??c?a aaaaoiooiiii?
?ii?caoe?? aoii?a.

3. I?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee aiaeiioaiiy aeoiae?a iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo
iiiia a iiae?aciiainieo i?iiiaeeao caeaaeiinoae N+(w) oa N2+(w) aeey
aeiaaeeo ?aaeicaoei? eaneaaeiiai iaoaiicio ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia
(w=15000-19000 ni-1). Aeai? oeeo ?ic?aooie?a aeia?a ni?aiaaeathoue c
aeia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie. Oeae oaeo oaae aeaco? ia ?aaeicaoeith
eaneaaeiiai iaoaiicio ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo iiiia.

4. I?e aaaaoioioiiiie iiiicaoei? aoiiia Ca, Sr oa Ba a aeiaiaciii
/anoio 15000-19000 ni-1 aeyaeaii aaeeeo aoaeoeaiinoue oa naeaeoeaiinoue
ooai?aiiy iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia a ia?oeo caoaeaeaieo nd 2D3/2,5/2 oa np
2P01/2,3/2 noaiao.

5. I?iaaaeaii aeaoaeueii aeineiaeaeaiiy i?ioeano aaaaoioioiii?e
?ii?caoe?? aoii?a iaaiith, eaeueoeith, no?iioeith (w=14800-18700 ni-1)
oa aa?ith ( w=14800-20900 ni-1) aiae /anoioe eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy
i?e eiiieiie oa oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei?. I?e oeueiio aeyaeaii, ui:

— a ieiei /anoioe w — 17100 ni-1 ia? iinoea «aieii i?ici?inoi» i?ioeano
o?eoioiiii? iiiicaoei? aoiiia Sr, yea ?aaeico?oueny ye i?e eiiieiie, oae
i i?e oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoei? eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy. Oeae aoaeo
coiiaeaiee i?ioeanii o?eoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy AI?, eiee ia?aiao? Oaii
q0.

— a aoiiao Aa i?iyaey?oueny aoaeo aiia?eiiaiiaoeieiiai ?icnithaaiiy
naioea, yeee i?eaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy oeeo aoiiia a caoaeaeaieo noaiao.

— iiiai?iinoue aeaioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy o?eieaoieo aeaiaeaeo?iiieo
ca’ycaieo ?iaiia ? ii?iaiyiith c iiiai?iinoth aeaioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy
neiaeaoieo iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo ca’ycaieo ?iaiia. Aaeeea iiiai?iinoue
caoaeaeaiiy o?eieaoieo aeaiaeaeo?iiieo ?iaiia coiiaeaia aeiiioeaie iioeo
?iaiia a oei ?iaii oa ii?ooaiiyi LS-ca’yceo.

-aaeeea ?iia??i?noue aeaioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy o?eieaoieo
iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo c’ycaieo ??ai?a ia? i?noea a oiio aeiaaeeo, eiee aiie
cao?ththoueny aeaiaeaeo?iiieie ca’ycaieie ??aiyie.

— iiiai?iinoue o?eoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy o?eieaoieo iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo ??
aeey aoiiia Na oa Sr ? noooaai iaioith (caoaeaeaiiy oeeo ?iaiia ia
i?iyey?oueny a caeaaeiinoyo N+(w)) aiae iiiai?iinoi o?eoioiiiiai
caoaeaeaiiy neiaeaoieo iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo ??. Oaeee oaeo coiiaeaiee oei,
ui a iaeanoi /anoio, aea iiaeooue caoaeaeoaaoeny oei ?iaii, ia
?aae?co?oueny i?ioean cao?aiiy iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo ?iaiia aeaiaeaeo?iiieie
?iaiyie, aianeiaeie /iai oei iaeiiaeaeo?iiii ?iaii ? «/enoeie» i aeey
ieo aeeiio?oueny LS-ca’ycie.

— a aeiaiaciii /anoio w=20700-20800 ni-1 ?aaeico?oueny aoaeo
caieueoaiiy iiiai?iinoi aeaioioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy neiaeaoieo
iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo ?? a aoiiao Aa, ui coiiaeaii cao?aiiyi oeeo ?iaiia
aeaiaeaeo?iiiei ca’ycaiei ?iaiai.

— na?aae aeineiaeaeoaaieo aoiiia oieueee a aoiiao Sr ia? i?noea aaeeea
iiiai?iinoue o?eoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy aeayeeo AI?, a iiiai?iinoue
o?eoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy AI? aeey aoiiia Na, Aa oa aeayeeo AI? aeey
aoiiia Sr ia? iaeo aaee/eio. Aaeeea iiiai?iinoue caoaeaeaiiy aeayeeo AI?
aeey aoiiia Sr coiiaeaia aaeeeith aaee/eiith a?aeiia?aeiiai o?eoioiiiiai
neeaaeaiiai iao?e/iiai aeaiaioa oa iaeith oe?eiith oeeo ?iaiia.

— a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao ia i?iyaey?oueny i?ioean o?eoioiiiiai
caoaeaeaiiy aiaeiieo AI?. Iaea iiiai?iinoue caoaeaeaiiy oeeo ?iaiia
coiiaeaia iaeith aaee/eiith a?aeiia?aeiiai neeaaeaiiai iao?e/iiai
aeaiaioa aai aaeeeith oe?eiith AI?. Aiaenooiinoue i?iyao caoaeaeaiiy AI?
a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao coiiaeaia oaeiae neeueiei ?o cao?aiiyi a iiei
eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy.

— a aoiiao Na, Sr oa Aa niioa?iaa?oueny o?eoioiiia caoaeaeaiiy ?yaeo
iaaiaeiieo AI?. Aecia/aii aia?a?? oa iiaii iiiaioe oeeo ?iaiia.

6. I?iaaaeaii a aeiaiaciii /anoio w=9390-9500 ni-1 aeaoaeueii
aeineiaeaeaiiy caeaaeiinoi i?ioeano aaaaoioioiiii? ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a
eaeueoeith, no?iioeith oa aa?ith aiae /anoioe eiiieii-iiy?eciaaiiai
eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy. I?e oeueiio aeyaeaii:

— aaeeeo iiiai?iinoue /ioe?eoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy neiaeaoiiai
aeaiaeaeo?iiiiai ca’ycaiiai 5d6d 1D2 ?iaiy aoiia Aa.

— aiiiaeueii iaeo iiiai?iinoue i’yoeoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy neiaeaoieo
iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo ca’ycaieo ?iaiia a aoiiao Na. Iaea iiiai?iinoue
caoaeaeaiiy oeeo ?iaiia coiiaeaia iaeith aaee/eiith a?aeiia?aeiiai
neeaaeaiiai iao?e/iiai aeaiaioa.

— aiiiaeueii iaeo iiiai?iinoue /ioe?e- oa i’yoeoioiiiiai caoaeaeaiiy
o?eieaoieo iaeiiaeaeo?iiieo ca’ycaieo ?iaiia a aoiiao Na, ui coiiaeaii
iaeith aaee/eiith a?aeiia?aeiiai neeaaeaiiai iao?e/iiai aeaiaioa,
aiaenooiinoth aeiiioie iioeo ?iaiia a oei ?iaii oa ?aaeicaoei?th
LS-ca’yceo.

7. Anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue i?iyao caoaeaeaiiy ??cieo ca’ycaieo
??ai?a i?e aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a a?ae /enea oioii?a E,
iiaeeiaiiy yeeo iaiao?aeia aeey caoaeaeaiiy oeeo ??ai?a. C
iaea?eueoith aoaeoeai?noth caoaeaeaiiy ca’ycaieo ??ai?a ye
neiaeaoieo, oae ? o?eieaoieo (iaeii- oa aeaiaeaeo?iiieo)
i?iyaey?oueny i?e iiaeeiaii? aeaio oioii?a (E=2). ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
/enea E aoaeoai?noue i?iyao caoaeaeaiiy oeeo ??ai?a i?e
aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a, ye i?aaeei, ciaioo?oueny.

8. Aiaeic ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue aeaco? ia iiaeeeainoue
i?eeeaaeiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?ioeano aaaaoioioiiii? iiiicaoei? aoiiia
eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaioia a oaeeo iai?yieao: a) aeey niaeo?ineiii?
aoiiia oa iaeiica?yaeieo iiiia; a) aeey noai?aiiy iiioeueniiai aeaea?aea
iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo iiiia; a) aeey noai?aiiy eaca?a ia iiiieo
ia?aoiaeao; a) aeey noai?aiiy ?aciiainiiai iiiicaoeieiiai
ian-niaeo?iiao?a, a yeiio aiaeic aoaea caeienithaaoeny iaeii/anii ii
iani oa ii /anoioi i?iyao ?aciiainieo i?ioeania.

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue noeioeththoue oaeiae ?ic?iaeo iiaeo
oai?aoe/ieo iaoiaeia aeey iieno aca?iiaei? eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy c
aoiiaie eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaioia.

NIENIE AAAEEEAIOEO IIOAEIEIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOeI?

1. Aiiaea?ue E.E., Caiani/iue E.I., Aeaeiia I.A., No?ai A.A. *anoioiay
caaeneiinoue i?ioeanna aeaooyeaeo?iiiie iiiaioioiiiie eiiecaoeee aoiiia
// Ienueia AEOO. — 1981. — O.7, Aui.6. — N. 243-247.

2. Aiiaea?ue E.E., No?ai A.A. Aa?iyoiinoue o?ao- e oanoeoioiiiie
eiiecaoeee aoiia eaeueoeey // Iioeea e niaeo?ineiiey. — 1986. — O.61,
Aui.1. — N. 24-28.

3. Aiiaea?ue E.E. No?ai A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea ?aciiainiiai iaeeiaeiiai
i?ioeanna ia?aciaaiey eiiia Aa2+ // Iioeea e niaeo?ineiiey. — 1983. —
O.55, Aui.4. — N. 784-786.

4. Aiiaea?ue E.E., Aeoaee/ I.E., No?ai A.A., Oeiii E.E. Iaeeiaeiay
eiiecaoeey aoiiia eooa?aey // Iioeea e niaeo?ineiiey. — 1988. -O.64,
Aui.3. -N. 476-479.

5. Aiiaea?ue E.E. No?ai A.A. Aa?iyoiinoue /aou?aooioiiiie eiiecaoeee
aoiia Mg a iaeanoe niaeo?a 16300-18000 ni-1 // Iioeea e niaeo?ineiiey. —
1990. -O.68, Aui.2. — N. 265-267.

6. Aiiaea?ue E.E. No?ai A.A. Aeeyiea aaoieiiecaoeeiiiuo ninoiyiee ia
o?aooioiiioth eiiecaoeeth aoiia Aa a iaeanoe niaeo?a 19000-20500 ni-1 //
Iioeea e niaeo?ineiiey. — 1991. — O.71, Aui.6. — N. 902-906.

7. Aiiaea?ue E.E., Aeoaee/ I.E., No?ai A.A. Ia?aciaaiea iaeii- e
aeaooca?yaeiuo eiiia i?e iaeeiaeiie eiiecaoeee aoiiia no?iioeey e aa?ey
eaca?iui eceo/aieai a iaeanoe /anoio 16800-18000 ni-1 // AEYOO. — 1986.
— O.90, Aui.6. — N. 1952-1962.

8. No?ai A. A., Aiiaea? I. I., Aeoaee/ I. I. Aeineiaeaeaiiy
?aciiainiiai i?ioeano aaaaoioioiiii? iiiicaoei? aoiiia aeey ?ic?iaee ia
eiai iniiai ianniaeo?iiao?a // Oe?a?inueeee oice/iee aeo?iae. — 1994. —
o.39, N11,12. — N. 1048-1050.

9. Aeaeiia I.A., Caiani/iue E.I., Cii A.A., No?ai A.A. Aeaooyeaeo?iiiay
iiiaioioiiiay eiiecaoeey aoiiia // Ecaanoey aeaaeaiee iaoe NNN?, na?.
oece/aneay. — 1981. — O.45, N6. — N. 1085-1091.

10. Eaiaeueae A.E., I?aia?aaeaineee I.A., No?ai A.A. Eaneaaeiue
i?ioeann ia?aciaaiey aeaooca?yaeiuo eiiia uaei/iicaiaeueiuo aoiiia //
Ecaanoey aeaaeaiee iaoe NNN?, na?. oece/aneay. — 1988. — O.52, N6. — N.
1095-1105.

11. Aiiaea?ue E.E., Iaeeeeoaeee C.A., Naa/aiei I.I., No?ai A.A. ?ieue
iiey?ecaoeeee eceo/aiey i?e i?yiii i?ioeanna o?aooioiiiie eiiecaoeee
aoiia no?iioeey // Niiauaiey aeaaeaiee iaoe A?oceineie NN?. — 1987. —
O.125, N3. — N. 529-532.

12. Aiiaea?ue E.E., No?ai A.A. Niaeo? aoiia aa?ey a iiea eaca?iiai
eceo/aiey // Eaaioiaay yeaeo?iieea. — 1990. — O.17, N8. — N. 1038-1043.

13. Delone N.B., Bondar I.I., Suran V.V., Zon B.A. Dependence of the
process of nonlinear two-electron ionization of the barium atom on the
polarization of the laser radiation // Optics communications. — 1982. —
V.40, N4. — P. 268-270.

14. Bondar I.I., Gomonay A.I., Delone N.B., Zapesochnyi I.P., Suran
V.V. Measurement of three- and five-photon ionization probabilities of
the barium atom // J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. -1984. -V.17. — P.
2049-2056.

15. Bondar I.I., Delone N.B., Dudich M.I.,Suran V.V. Formation of
doubly charged ions in the non-liner ionisation of alkaline-earth atoms
in the spectral range 15000-18700 cm-1 // J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt.
Phys. — 1988. — V.21. — P. 2763- 2787.

16. Bondar I. I., Kotochigova S. A., Suran V. V. The role of
spontaneous relaxation in the three-photon ionization of Ba through the
two-photon resonant 5d7s 3D2 state // J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. —
1991. — V.24. — P. 2985-2996.

17. Delone N.B., Krainov V.P., Suran V.V. Multiple ionization of atoms
in a laser field // Laser physics. — 1992. -V.2, N6. — P. 816-851.

18. Suran V.V. Investigation of three-photon ionization of Sr atoms in
the frequency range from 16000 to 18950 cm-1 // Laser physics. — 1997.
— V.7, N3. — P. 32-636.

19. Suran V.V. Implementation of the stepwise mechanism of the
formation of Ba2+ ions in multiphoton ionization of atoms with linearly
and circularly polarized radiation in the frequency range from 17600 to
18700 cm-1 // Laser physics. — 1997. — V.7, N6. — P. 1220-1224.

20. Suran V.V. Implementing the stepwise mechanism of the formation of
Sr2+ and Ba2+ ions multiphoton ionization of atoms in the frequency
range from 18780 to 18940 cm-1 // Laser physics. — 1997. — V.7, N3. —
P. 660-664.

21. Suran V.V. Formation of Ca2+ ions in multiphoton ionization of
atoms with linearly and circularly polarized radiation in the frequency
range from 15000 to 18700 cm-1 // Laser physics. — 1997. — V.7, N3. — P.
665-671.

22. Suran V.V. The measurement of the cross sections of multiphoton
ionization Sr+ and Ba+ ions // Laser physics. — 1997. — V.7, N3. — P.
637-642.

23. Delone N.B., Zapesochnyi I.P., Zon B.A., Suran V.V., Two-electron
ionization of atoms // Invited papers to II International conference on
multiphoton processes. — Budapest (Hungary). — 1980. — P. 37-48.

24. Delone N.B., Suran V.V., Zon B.A. Many-electron processes in
nonlinear ionization of atoms // Multiphoton ionization of atoms. —
Ontario: Academic Press Canada, 1984. — P. 235-264.

25. Suran V.V. Multiphoton processes in alkaline earth atoms // Intense
laser phenomena and related subjects. -Singapure: World Scientific
Publishing, 1989. — P. 180-193.

26. Bondar I.I., Suran V.V. Influence of laser radiation field on the
spectrem of Ba atoms //Intense laser phenomena and related subjects.
-Singapure: World Scientific Publishing, 1989. — P. 404-411.

27. Bondar I.I., Dudich M.I., Suran V.V., Shimon L.L. The stepwise
process of doubly-charged barium ions creations in visible spectra range
// Intense laser phenomena and related subjects. — Singapure: World
Scientific Publishing, 1989. — P. 412-418.

28. Bondar I.I., Suran V.V., Probebility of four-photon ionization of
Mg atom in the spectrum region 16300-18000 cm-1// Intense laser
phenomena and related subjects. — Singapure: World Scientific
Publishing, 1989. — P. 419-423.

29. Bondar I.I., Delone N.B., Ilkov F.A., Suran V.V. Excitation of
two-photon intermediate resonances with the triplet states at
three-photon barium and strontium atoms // SPIE’s 1986 Quebek
International symposium. — SPIE Proceeding. — V.664. -P. 106-109.

30. Bondar I.I., Lendel V.I., Suran V.V., Delone N.B., Preobrazhensky
M.A. The stepwise process of doubly charged barium ions formations //
Multiphoton processes. — Greate Britain: Cambridge university Press,
1988. — P. 70-81.

31. Aiiaea?ue E.E., Aiiiiae A.E., No?ai A.A. Yenia?eiaioaeueiia
enneaaeiaaiea iiiaioioiiiie eiiecaoeee aoiia aa?ey // Iaeeiaeiua
i?ioeannu a aeaooyeaeo?iiiuo aoiiao. — I.: Niaao ii niaeo?ineiiee AI
NNN?. — 1984.- N. 26-46.

32. No?ai A.A. Ia?aciaaiea aeaooca?yaeiuo eiiia i?e iiiaioioiiiie
eiiecaoeee uaei/iicaiaeueiuo aoiiia // Oai?ey aiciouaiee a aoiiiuo
?an/aoao. — I.: Niaao ii niaeo?ineiiee AI NNN?. — 1985. — N. 60-91.

33. Aiiaea?ue E.E., No?ai A.A. Ia?aciaaiea aeaooca?yaeiuo eiiia
uaei/iicaiaeueiuo aoiiia a iiea eaca?iiai eceo/aiey // O?iaie yia?aee e
aa?iyoiinoe ia?aoiaeia a aoiiao e eiiao. — I.: Niaao ii niaeo?ineiiee AI
NNN?. — 1986. — N. 108-126.

34. Aiiaea?ue E.E., Aeoaee/ I.E., No?ai A.A. Ia?aciaaiea aeaooca?yaeiuo
eiiia i?e iaeeiaeiie eiiecaoeee aoiia aa?ey a iaeanoe /anoio 14800-18700
ni-1 // O?iaie yia?aee e aa?iyoiinoe ia?aoiaeia a aoiiao e eiiao. — I.:
Niaao ii niaeo?ineiiee AI NNN?. — 1986. — N. 128-153.

35. Aiiaea?ue E.E., No?ai A.A. Ia?aciaaiea iaeiica?yaeiuo eiiia
eaeueoeey, no?iioeey e aa?ey a iaeanoe niaeo?a 15000-18700 ni-1 //
Yeaiaioa?iua i?ioeannu a iiea eaca?iiai eceo/aiey. — I.: Niaao ii
niaeo?ineiiee AI NNN?.- 1988. — N. 123-153.

36. Aa?iao O.O., Aiiaea?ue E.E. No?ai A.A. O?aooioiiiay niaeo?ineiiey
aaoieiiecaoeeiiiuo ninoiyiee aoiia aa?ey a iaeanoe niaeo?a 19000-20500
ni-1 // Iiiaioioiiiua ia?aoiaeu a aoiiao. — I.: Niaao ii niaeo?ineiiee
AI NNN?. — 1990. — N. 36-49.

37. Suran V.V., Bondar I.I. Hyper-raman scattering effect at influence
of laser radiation on Ba atoms / Book of abstracs of VI European
conference on atomic and molecular physics. — Siena (Italy). — 1998. —
P. 1-100.

38. Suran V.V., Bondar I.I. Proof of realization of two-electron
mechanism of Ba2+ ions formation at muliphoton ionization of atoms in
9390-9460 spectral region // Book of abstracs of IV Seminar
«Strong-field Phenomena». — Berlin (Germany). — 1998. — V.1.

AIIOAOeI?

No?ai A.A. Aaaaoioioiiia ?ii?caoe?y aoii?a eoaeiicaiaeueieo
aeaiaio?a.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?ceei-
iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.05 — iioeea, eaca?ia
o?ceea.- ?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aea/aiith caeiiii??iinoae oa iniaeeainoae
ooai?aiiy iaeii- oa aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a i?e aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoe??
aoii?a eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaio?a o aeaeei?e (w=14800 -19000 ni-1) oa
?io?a/a?aii?e (w=9390-9500 ni-1) iaeanoyo niaeo?a. A aeena?oaoe??
?ic?iaeai? iia? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiue: 1) aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ioeano ooai?aiiy aeai- oa aaaaoica?yaeieo ?ii?a i?e iae?i?ei?e
?ii?caoe?? aoii?a a iie? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy; 2)
aeine?aeaeaiiiy i?ioeano ooai?aiiy iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a i?e
aaaaoioioiii?e ?ii?caoea? aoii?a, ye? iathoue neeaaeiee niaeo?; 3)
aei??thaaiiy aoaeoeaieo ia?a??c?a aaaaoioioiiii? ?ii?caoe??
iaeiica?yaeieo ?ii?a. Aiae?c noeoiiino? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
iaeiicia/ii aeieaco?, ui o aeaeei?e iaeano? niaeo?a, a iniiaiiio,
?aae?co?oueny eaneaaeiee iaoai?ci, a a ?io?a/a?aii?e iaeano?
?aae?co?oueny aeaiaeaeo?iiiee iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy aeaica?yaeieo ?ii?a.
Aecia/aii aoaeoeai? ia?a??ce aaaaoioioiiii? ?ii?caoe?? ?ii?a Sr+ oa
Ba+. Aeyaeaii «a?eii i?ici?ino?» i?e o?eoioiii?e ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a Sr oa
aoaeo a?ia?eiia?iaoe?eiiai ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaaaoioioiiia ?ii?caoe?y, aaaaoioioiiia
caoaeaeaiiy, eoaeiicaiaeuei? aeaiaioe, iaeiica?yaei? ?iie,
aeaica?yaei? ?iie.

No?ai A.A. Iiiaioioiiiay eiiecaoeey aoiiia uaei/iicaiaeueiuo
aeaiaioia.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeceei-
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.05 — iioeea, eaca?iay
oeceea. Einoeooo oeceee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth caeiiiia?iinoae e
iniaaiiinoae ia?aciaaiey iaeii- e aeaooca?yaeiuo eiiia i?e
iiiaioioiiiie eiiecaoeee aoiiia uaei/iicaiaeueiuo aeaiaioia a aeaeeiie
(w=14800-19000 ni-1) e eio?ae?aniie (9390-9500 ni-1) iaeanoyo
niaeo?a. A aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioaiu iiaua iai?aaeaiey enneaaeiaaiee:
1) enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeanna ia?aciaaiey aeaoo- e iiiaica?yaeiuo eiiia
i?e iaeeiaeiie eiiecaoeee aoiiia a iiea eaca?iiai eceo/aiey: 2)
enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeanna ia?aciaaiey iaeiica?yaeiuo eiiia i?e
iiiaioioiiiie eiiecaoeee aoiiia, eioi?ua eiatho neiaeiue niaeo?: 3)
ecia?aiea yooaeoeaiuo na/aiee iiiaioioiiiie eiiecaoeee iaeiica?yaeiuo
eiiia.

I?iaaaeaiu aeaoaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey caaeneiinoae i?ioeanna
ia?aciaaiey aeaooca?yaeiuo eiiia i?e iiiaioioiiiie eiiecaoeee aoiiia
eaeueoeey, no?iioeey e aa?ey io /anoiou, iiey?ecaoeee e eioaineaiinoe
eaca?iiai eceo/aiey a aeaeeiie e eio?ae?aniie iaeanoyo niaeo?a.
Aiaeec niaieoiiinoe iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia iaeiicia/ii aeieacuaaao,
/oi a aeaeeiie iaeanoe niaeo?a, a iniiaiii, ?aaeecoaony eaneaaeiue
iaoaieci, a a eio?ae?aniie iaeanoe niaeo?a ?aaeecoaony
aeaooyeaeo?iiiue iaoaieci ia?aciaaiey aeaooca?yaeiuo eiiia.

I?e iiiaioioiiiie eiiecaoeee aoiiia Na, Sr e Aa a aeeaiaciia /anoio
15000 -19000 ni-1 iaia?oaeaii aieueooth yooaeoeaiinoue e naeaeoeaiinoue
ia?aciaaiey iaeiica?yaeiuo eiiia a ia?auo aicaoaeaeaiiuo nd 2D3/2;5/2 e
np 2P1/2;3/2 ninoiyieyo.

Ii?aaeaeaiu aooaeoeaiua na/aiey /aou?ao- e iyoeoioiiiie
eiiecaoeee eiiia Aa+ e iyoeoioiiiie eiiecaoeee eiiia Sr+ a iaeanoe
/anoio w=18780-18920 ni-1. Aeey iaeeiaeiauo noaiaiae iaeeiaeiinoe
aaee/eiu na/aiee aeey yoeo eiiia iaeeiaeiaua. Ii ii?yaeeo
aaee/eiu iie niaiaaeatho n aaee/eiaie yooaeoeaiuo na/aiee
iiiaioioiiiie eiiecaoeee aoiiia.

A aeeaiaciia /anoio w=14800 -18700 ni-1 i?iaaaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey
caaeneiinoe i?ioeanna iiiaioioiiiie eiiecaoeee aoiiia iaaiey, eaeueoeey,
no?iioeey e aa?ey (w=14800 — 20900 ni-1) io /anoiou eaca?iiai eceo/aiey
i?e eeiaeiie e oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoeee. Iaia?oaeaii, /oi:

— a ie?aniinoe /anoiou w=17100 ni-1 iaaethaeaaony «ieii
i?ic?a/iinoe» i?ioeanna o??ooioiiiie eiiecaoeee aoiiia Sr, eioi?ia
i?iyaeyaony i?e eeiaeiie e oee?eoey?iie iiey?ecaoeee eaca?iiai
eceo/aiey. Yoio yooaeo iaoneiaeai i?ioeannii o??ooioiiiiai aicaoaeaeaiey
aaoieiiecaoeeiiiiai ninoiyiey (AEN) a neo/aa, eiaaea ia?aiao? Oaii q0.

— eiaao ianoi yooaeo aeia?eiiaeiaoeeiiiiai ?annayiey naaoa, eioi?ue
i?eaiaeeo e ia?aciaaieth aoiiia Aa a aicaoaeaeaiiuo ninoiyieyo;

— aa?iyoiinoue aeaoooioiiiiai aicaoaeaeaiey o?eieaoiuo
iaeiiaeaeo?iiiuo e aeaooyeaeo?iiiuo (neiaeaoiuo e o?eieaoiuo)
naycaiiuo o?iaiae n?aaieia n aa?iyoiinoth aeaoooioiiiiai aicaoaeaeaiey
neiaeaoiuo iaeiiyeaeo?iiiuo naycaiiuo ninoiyiee. Aa?iyoiinoue
o?aooioiiiiai aicaoaeaeaiey o?eieaoiuo iaeiiaeaeo?iiiuo
?eaeaa?aianueeeo ninoiyiee (?N) aeey aoiiia Na e Sr nouanoaaiii
iaiueoa, /ai aa?iyoiinoue o?aooioiiiiai aicaoaeaeaiey neiaeaoiuo
iaeiiaeaeo?iiiuo ?N;

— oieueei a aoiiao Sr aa?iyoiinoue o?aooioiiiiai aicaoaeaeaiey
iaeioi?uo AEN eiaao aieueoea aaee/eiu, a aa?iyoiinoue
o?aooioiiiiai aicaoaeaeaiey AEN aeey aoiiia Na, Aa e iaeioi?uo AEN
aeey aoiiia Sr eiaao iaeoth aaee/eio.

A aeeaiaciia /anoio w=9390 -9500ni-1 i?iaaaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey
caaeneiinoe i?ioeanna iiiaioioiiiie eiiecaoeee aoiiia eaeueoeey,
no?iioeey e aa?ey io /anoiou eeiaeii-iiey?eciaaiiiai eaca?iiai
eceo/aiey. Iaia?oaeaii aieueooth aa?iyoiinoue /aou?aooioiiiiai
aicaoaeaeaiey neiaeaoiiai aeaooyeaeo?iiiiai naycaiiiai 5d6d 1D2
ninoiyiey a aoiiao Aa e aiiiaeueii iaeoth aa?iyoiinoue iyoeoioiiiiai
aicaoaeaeaiey neiaeaoieo, a oaeaea /aou?a- e iyoeoioiiiiai
aicaaeaeaiey o?eieaoiuo iaeiiyeaeo?iiiuo naycaiiuo ninoiyiee a aoiiao
Na.

Iaia?oaeaii caaeneiinoue aa?iyoiinoe aicaoaeaeaiey ?acee/iuo
naycaiiuo ninoiyiee io /enea iiaeiuaiiuo eaaioia E. N iaeaieueoae
yooaeoeaiinoth i?iyaeyaony i?ioeann aeaoooioiiiiai
aicaoaeaeaiey naycaiiuo ninoiyiee neiaeaoiuo e o?eieaoiuo (iaeii- e
aeaooyeaeo?iiiuo). N aic?anoaieai /enea E yooaeoeaiinoue
i?iyaeaiey aicaoaeaeaiey naycaiiuo ninoiyiee, eae i?aaeei,
oiaiueoaaony.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiiaioioiiiay eiiecaoeey, iiiaioioiiiia
aicaoaeaeaiea, uaei/iicaiaeueiua yeaiaiou, iaeiica?yaeiua
eiiu, aeaooca?yaeiua eiiu.

Suran V.V. Multiphoton ionization of alkaline-earth atoms.-
Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 01.04.05 — optics, laser
physics. -Institute of Physics of National Academy of Science of
Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to study of conformities to natural laws,
peculiarities of singly- and doubly-charged ions formation during
multiphoton ionization of alkaline-earth atoms in visible (14800
-19000 cm-1) and infrared (9390-9500 cm-1) spectral range. New
directions of investigations, such as: 1) investigation of doubly- and
multi-charged ions formation at nonlinear ionisation of atoms in the
field of laser radiation; 2) investigation of the process of
singly-charged ions formation during multiphoton ionization of atoms
with complex spectrum; 3) the measurement of effective
cross-sections of multiphoton ionization of singly-charged ions are
worked out. The analysis of obtained results unambiguously prove the
realization of step-wise mechanism in visible spectral range, and in
infrared range — the realization of direct two-electron mechanism.
Effective cross-sections of multiphoton ionization of Sr+ and Ba+
are defined. The «trasparency window» at three-photon ionization of Sr
atoms and the effect of Hyper-Raman scattering of light are found
out.

Key words: multiphoton ionization, multiphoton excitation,
alkaline-earth atoms, singly-charged ions, doubly-charged ions.

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