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Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

AEieoeaae/ A?eai??e Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 621.7.073-52

aaoiiaoecaoe?y i?iaeooaaiiyoaoiieia?/ii? inianoee:oai??y ? i?aeoeea.

niaoe?aeuei?noue: 05.02.08 – oaoiieia?y iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiyaeieoi?a
oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? iiiia?ao?y.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Oa?e?anueeiio iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo?
oaoiieia?? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, n. i. n.,

Aeiaa Ea?ena Na?a??aia,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aaneoao “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e nenoai aaoiiaoeciaaiiiai i?iaeooaaiiyAeieoi? oaoi?/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?

Ieoaeeia Ieaenaiae? Ieeieaeiae/,

Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

Caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith oaoiieia?? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiyAeieoi? oaoi?/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?

Oa?ithe Ieeiea Aiaio?eiae/,

?inoeooo iaoei ? nenoai,

Aee?aeoi?I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:Iaoeiai-ae?iaie/a ia’?aeiaiiy
«Iioi?-N?/»Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “28” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 14.00 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaiii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.050.12 o
Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith:
310002, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. O?oica, 21.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aooi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “24” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaiii? a/aii? ?aaee Ocoiyi I.Ae.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. Iniiaiith iaoith oaoiieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
ae?iaieoeoaa (OIA) ? aeinyaiaiiy a oiae? aeaioiaeaiiy i?iaeoeoe??
iioeiaeueiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeo?aoaie ia ae?iaieoeoai oa eiai
?acoeueoaoaie. Oaiaeaioe?y aei ca?eueoaiiy /anoee iaeina??eiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaiao?aeiino? i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? oa
aoaeoeaiino? OIA oa aeieoiaiooaaiiy oeueiai i?ioeano. Oaoiieia?/ia
i?aeaioiaea ae?iaieoeoaa, yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aio/e?noth, iiaeiia naia
iaoe aenieee nooi?iue aio/eino?. Iaeiei c iai?yie?a, ui caaacia/o?
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oaoiieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ae?iaieoeoaa a caaae?
oa iaeina??eiiai ae?iaieoeoaa cie?aia, ? aaoiiaoecaoe?y i?iaeooaaiiy
oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee. Aiae?c no?oeoo?e aeo?ao ia OIA aeicaiey? c?iaeoe
aeniiaie i?i oa, ui i?iaeooaaiiy oa aeaioiaeaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee
neeaaea? aei 93% oeeo aeo?ao, i?e/iio /anoea aeo?ao ia i?iaeooaaiiy
inianoee eieeaa?oueny a?ey 19% (aeea. ?en. 1). Oaeei /eiii,
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee eiii’thoa?ieo
oaoiieia?e nooo?ai ciaioo? aaciina?aaei? aeo?aoe ia i?iaeooaaiiy oa
iiina?aaeeiaaii – aeo?aoe ia aeaioiaeaiiy inianoee.

A oie aea /an ne?ae caa?iooe oaaao ia oa, ui ?nioth/? aeine?aeaeaiiy c
ieoaiue aaoiiaoecaoe?? oaoiieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ae?iaieoeoaa Oeaaoeia
A.Ae. No?oeoo?ii-nenoaiiia iiaeaee?iaaiea e aaoiiaoecaoeey
i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia. – Ieine: “Iaoea e oaoieea”,
1979. – 258 n., Aaa?eo A.I., Aoeiia A.E. Aaoiiaoecaoeey oaoiieiae/aneie
iiaeaioiaee iaoeiino?ieoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. – E.: “Oaoi?ea”, 1982. –
215 n., Ieo?ioaiia N.I. A?oiiiaay oaoiieiaey iaoeiino?ieoaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. A 2-o oiiao. – E.: “Iaoeiino?iaiea”, 1983. – 403 n.,
Eaionoei I.I., Aieeia A.TH., Oeaoiaeno?oe A.A. Neioac no?oeoo?u
iia?aoeey i?e ecaioiaeaiee a aeaeii aaoiiaoece?iaaiiii
i?iecaiaenoaa.//Eca. AOCia – I.: “Iaoeiino?iaiea”, 7, 1984. – n.
144-148. a iniiaiiio cina?aaeaeai? ia i?iaeaiao neioaco ia?o?ooo ia?iaee
aeaoae? oa ?ioeo aniaeoao, iia’ycaieo c i?iaeooaaiiyi oaoiieia?/iiai
i?ioeano. Ia i?ioeaaao oeueiio, i?iaeai? aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?iaeooaaiiy
oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee oaaae i?eae?ey?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei. Aiaeia?/ii, a
?iaioao, ui i?enay/ai? i?iaeaiai aaoiiaoecaoe?? cania?a oaoiieia?/iiai
iniauaiiy, oaaaa a iniiaiiio cina?aaeaeaia ia aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?ioean?a
i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy, ? caaea/?, ui iia’ycai? c
i?iaeooaaiiyi inianoee, oaeiae oaeoe/ii ia ?icaeyaeathoueny.

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe iniaeeai c?inoa? o ca’yceo c i?ioeanaie
no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae iaoeiiaoae?aii? aaeoc? Oe?a?ie, ui nooo?ai
i?aeaeuo? cia/aiiy i?enei?aii? oaoiieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ae?iaieoeoaa.
Oaia aeena?oaoe?? ? /anoeiith iai?yieo iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?
Oa?e?anueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo oaoiieia?? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy
ca Iaoe?iiaeueiith i?ia?aiith Oe?a?ie aeine?aeaeaiue a aaeoc? e?eoe/ieo
oaoiieia?e, ?icae?e “I?enei?aia oaoiieia?/ia i?aeaioiaea ae?iaieoeoaa”
(iiia?e aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0195U024502, 0395U014669, 0396U008782).

Iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
oaoiieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ae?iaieoeoaa o iaoeiiaoaeoaaii? ca ?aooiie
ciaiueoaiiy i?aoeai?noneino? oa nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao ia i?iaeooaaiiy oa
aeaioiaeaiiy cania?a oaoiieia?/iiai iniauaiiy oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy iiai?
eiii’thoa?ii? iaoiaeieia?? i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee oa
ia??oiooaaiiy i?eioeei?a, ia yeeo aiia aoaeo?oueny. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy
iinoaaeaii? iaoe a ?iaio? ae??oothoueny oae? caaea/?:

aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e i?ioeano i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee,
eia?/ieo ca’yce?a oa ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iioie?a i?ae eiai eiiiiiaioaie;

aiae?c iniaeeainoae ooieoe?iothaaiiy ??cieo aeae?a oaoiieia?/ii?
inianoee oa ?o aieea ia no?oeoo?o i?ioeano i?iaeooaaiiy, eeaneo?eaoe?y
caaea/ i?iaeooaaiiy oeeo aeae?a inianoee, aeoiaey/e c ?o
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy;

ia’?eoeaaoe?y ?iaa??aio?a no?oeoo?e i?ioeano i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii?
inianoee;

aeyaeaiiy caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae iiaoaeiae ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iiaeaeae
oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee oa ?ic?iaea aia?aoo ?o iieno;

aiae?c iaoiae?a iaoeiii? a?ao?ee c iaoith aecia/aiiy aaeaeaaoiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei aaiiao?e/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee,
?ic?iaea aoaeoeaieo aeai?eoi?a iiaeaethaaiiy aaiiao?e/ieo ia?ac?a
??aeo/eo oa oi?iiooai?thth/eo /anoei oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee;

?ic?iaea oa ia??oiooaaiiy iaoai?cio i?eiyooy i?iaeoieo ??oaiue oa
ioe?iee ?o aeinoia??iino? ca oiia iaiiaiioe ?ioi?iaoe??, ui oa?aeoa?ii
aeey i?ioean?a i?iaeooaaiiy;

?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo canaae oa ?o aeei?enoaiiy aeey iiaoaeiae aoaeoeaieo
aeai?eoi?a eeanoa?-aiae?co aeaiaio?a oaoiieia?/ii?o inianoee oa
i?iaeoieo neooaoe?e, ui aeieeathoue a i?ioean? ?? i?iaeooaaiiy;

?ic?iaea iaoiae?a a?coae?caoe?? ?acoeueoao?a i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii?
inianoee oa aaoiiaoecaoe?? neioaco ?? e?aneaiue;

ia?aa??ea ia??oioiaaiino? iaoiaeieia?? i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii?
inianoee oeyoii canoinoaaiiy ?? caaaeueieo i?eioeei?a a nenoaiao
aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy ie?aieo aeae?a oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee oa
i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy inoaii?o;

ioe?ithaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? nenoai aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?iaeooaaiiy
oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee a iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, ui ia ??oio? aiae?co no?oeoo?e
i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee ??cieo aeae?a ia’?eoiaai?
?iaa??aioi? eiiiiiaioe oeueiai i?ioeano. Oea aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe oa
oai?aoe/ii ia??oiooaaoe iiao eiii’thoa?io iaoiaeieia?th i?iaeooaaiiy
inianoee, yea caaacia/o? nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao, iia’ycaieo c i?iaeooaaiiyi,
o 4-15 ?ac?a, i?aeaeuaiiy aeinoia??iino? i?eiyooy i?iaeoieo ??oaiue oa
?o yeino?, iane?aeeii /iai ? ciaioaiiy aeo?ao ia aeaioiaeaiiy inianoee
ia 10-15%. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeieia?y aaco?oueny ia:

iiaeae? i?ioeano i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee ye ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
i?ioeano ?oa?aoeaiiai (iaiioi/iiai) oeio, ui a?aoiao? ooieoe?iiaeuei?
iniaeeaino? oa oaoiieia?/i? oiiae aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo aeae?a inianoee;

eeaneo?eaoe?? caaea/ i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee ca e?eoa???i
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy inoaiuei?, aeoiaey/? c caaaeueiiai
oi?ioethaaiiy caaea/? i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo i?eno?i?a;

iaoiaeieia?? iiaeaethaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee oa ?? aeaiaio?a
o?aeiiaeie no?oeoo?aie oa cai?iiiiiaai?e ?aae?caoe?? oe??? iaoiaeieia??
caniaaie SQL-aac aeaieo;

aoaeoeaieo aeai?eoiao iiaeaethaaiiy neeaaeieo aaiiao?e/ieo ia?ac?a, ui
oa?aeoa?i? aeey aeaiaio?a iaaieo aeae?a oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee;

iaoai?ci? i?eiyooy i?iaeoieo ??oaiue oa ioe?iee ?o aeinoia??iino?, ui
??oioo?oueny ia i?ea?iaeuei?e oai??? “ia/?oeiai” aeaaaeaiiy, yeee
aeicaiey? oi?o?eoaaoe eia?/iee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanaie
i?iaeooaaiiy ye oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee, oae ? ?? eiiiiiaio?a, a oaeiae
caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue aaoiiaoecaoe?? oace neioaco eiino?oeoe??
inianoee;

aoaeoeaieo aeai?eoiao eeanoa?-aiae?co aeaiaio?a inianoee oa i?iaeoieo
neooaoe?e, oai?aoe/ia ia??oiooaaiiy yeeo iiaeaia a ?iaio?;

iaoiaeao a?coae?caoe?? ?acoeueoao?a i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee
oa aaoiiaoeciaaiiai neioaco ?? e?aneaiue.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue oa ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe a i?iieneiaino?.
Ia ??oio? ocaaaeueiaiue, oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoiae?a iiaeaethaaiiy noai?aii ?yae nenoai aaoiiaoeciaaiiai
i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee, ui aeicaieeee nooo?ai i?aeaeueoe
aoaeoeai?noue i?iaeooaaiiy oa aeaioiaeaiiy oaeeo aeae?a oaoiieia?/ii?
inianoee: ??aeo/eo oa eiio?ieueii-aei??thaaeueieo ?ino?oiaio?a, oaaeii?a
aeey onoaiiaee oa o?enaoe?? a i?ioean? caa?thaaiiy aeaiaio?a e??ieaiiy
ia iaiaeyo o?ainii?oieo iaoei, i?eniinia aeey cae?aiiy o?oaii?iaiae?a
iaeeaii-?aaoethth/i? aia?aoo?e o?ainii?oieo iaoei ia?aae caa?thaaiiyi
aai iaeeith, ooaii?a aeey ?icae?eueieo iia?aoe?e oieiaeiiai ooaiioaaiiy,
i?an-oi?i aeey i?anoaaiiy oa?ii- oa ?aaeoiieanoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a.

?ic?iaeai? nenoaie ai?iaaaeaeai? ia oaeeo iaoeiiaoae?aieo
i?aei?e?inoaao:

aea?aeaaia i?aei?e?inoai “Caaiae ?iai? A.I. Iaeeoaaa” (i. Oa?e?a);

eacaia i?aei?e?inoai “Oa?e?anueea eiino?oeoi?nueea ath?i c
aeecaeaaoaeoaaiiy” (i. Oa?e?a);

ae?iaie/a ia’?aeiaiiy “Eaeaaneee iaoeiino?ieoaeueiue caaiae” (i.
?aeaanuee, ?in?y);

aea?aeaaia i?aei?e?inoai “Caaiae “A?naiae” (i. Ee?a);

ae?iaie/a ia’?aeiaiiy “E??ianueeee caaiae” (i. Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, ?in?y);

aea?aeaaia i?aei?e?inoai “Oaiaein?enueeee i?eeaaeiaoae?aiee caaiae” (i.
Oaiaein?y);

ae?iaie/a ia’?aeiaiiy “Acianeee iioeei-iaoaie/iee caaiae” (i. Acia,
?in?y);

iaoeiai-ae?iaie/a ia’?aeiaiiy “AaeIII” (i. I?inuee, A?ei?onue);

ae?iaie/a ia’?aeiaiiy “?oaoeianueeee iaoeiiaoae?aiee caaiae” (i.
?oaoeianuee, ?in?y);

caaiae “Ae?ai?iaeoi?” (i. ?iaa/ueia, A?ei?onue);

aea?aeaaia i?aei?e?inoai “Oa?e?anueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo
oaoiieia?? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy” (i. Oa?e?a);

aeoe?iia?ia oiaa?enoai “Caaiae “Aanoa” (i. Ee?a);

aeoe?iia?ia oiaa?enoai “Aeiiaoeueeee aeine?aeiee caaiae i?aoeac?eiiai
onoaoeoaaiiy” (i. Aeiiaoeuee).

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoai aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii?
inianoee aeicaieeei a na?aaeiueiio nei?ioeoe oa?i?ie i?iaeooaaiiy
cacia/aieo aeae?a inianoee ia 75%, aeaioiaeaiiy – ia 10%. Aeiiii?/iee
aoaeo io?eiaiee a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oeeo nenoai aei 1991 ?ieo neeaa
565,2 oen. e?a.

A?iiiaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny oa io?eiaee iiceoeaio ioe?ieo ia 12 eiioa?aioe?yo,
neiiic?oiao oa nai?ia?ao, i?enay/aieo i?iaeaiai i?enei?eii?
oaoiieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ae?iaieoeoaa oa ieoaiiyi aaoiiaoecaoe??
oaoiieia?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeeeaaeai? a iiiia?ao??, aeaio
iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo oa 21 noaoo?, a oaeiae o 12 oacao aeiiia?aeae ia
nai?ia?ao oa eiioa?aioe?yo, anueiai o 36 ?iaioao.

No?oeoo?a oa ianyae ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y ia? oi?io iaoeiai? iiiia?ao??,
ui neeaaea?oueny c anooio, oanoe aeaa oa aeniiaeo. Ianya iiiia?ao??
noaiiaeoue 15,57 aaoi?nueeeo a?eoo?a. Aiia i?noeoue 41 ?ethno?aoe?th, 10
oaaeeoeue oa nienie e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c 96 iaca.

Iniiaiee ci?no

I?iaeaia ciaioaiiy i?ii?aeeo /ano a?ae iiiaioo aeieeiaiiy iaiao?aeiino?
o aoaeue-yeiio ae?ia? aei iiiaioo ii/aoeo eiai ae?iaieoeoaa ?
i?eioeeiiaith aeey no/aniiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. Ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie
iiaeeeaa ca ?aooiie i?enei?aiiy oaoiieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ae?iaieoeoaa,
aiae?c no?oeoo?ii? noaie yei? (aeea. ?en. 2) aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie
i?i oa, ui nei?a/aiiy oa?i?i?a oa i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? i?iaeooaaiiy
oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee – iaeei c iai?yie?a aeinyaiaiiy
eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeiino? iaoeiiaoae?aiiai i?aei?e?inoaa. ?ioei a?aeiiei
iai?yieii ciaiueoaiiy aeo?ao ia OIA ? aeei?enoaiiy iai?ioii?
oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui naia oaoiieia?/ia inianoea ? oei eiiiiiaioii
oaoiieia?/ii? nenoaie, ca ?aooiie yeiai a iniiaiiio aeinyaa?oueny ??
aio/e?noue. A oie aea /an oaoiieia?/ia inianoea yaey? niaith ??ciiaeae
oe?ieiai eeano ia’?eo?a – oaoi?/ieo i?enoi?a, oiaoi ae?ia?a
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy aai i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy, ooieoe??th yeeo ? ia?aoai?aiiy
aeaeiaoooy, ia?ai?uaiiy, eiio?ieue ia’?eo?a aai ea?oaaiiy ieie. Oea aea?
i?aenoaao noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?ioean i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee
ia? a?aeiia?aeaoe caaaeueiei i?eioeeiai i?iaeooaaiiy oaoi?/ieo
i?eno?i?a, iath/e, a oie aea /an, iaaio niaoeeo?eo, iia’ycaio c
ooieoe?iiaeueii-eiino?oeoeaieie iniaeeainoyie inoaiuei?. Ocaaaeueiaiiy
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeooaaiiy a iaoeiiaoaeoaaii? aeicaiey?
oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe oeae i?ioean ye ?ioi?iaoe?eiee, ui aaia?o? iiaeaeue
ae?iaa (i?iaeo) i?ae oi?aae?iiyi ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i oaoi?/i? oa ?io? aeiiae
aei iueiai. Iniaeea?noue oaoi?/ieo i?eno?i?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui aeiiae
aei ieo iinyoue ooieoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ?, oaeoe/ii, ia i?noyoue
noa’?eoeaieo eiiiiiaio?a, iia’ycaieo c iaoaoi?/ieie oyaeaiyie oeio
oyaeaiue i?i anoaoe/i?noue ciai?oiueiai aeaeyaeo ae?iao. Oey
iniaeea?noue, aacia?a/ii, ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny ? ia oaoiieia?/io
inianoeo. Iaeiae aeey ia? oa?aeoa?iith ? oaeiae iaiao?aei?noue
o?aooaaiiy a i?ioean? i?iaeooaaiiy ?ano?nieo iaiaaeaiue iia’ycaieo c
iayai?noth o ?ino?oiaioaeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa? oeo /e ?ioeo oaoiieia?/ieo
iiaeeeainoae. Oiaoi i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee ne?ae
?icaeyaeaoe ye i?ioean i?iaeooaaiiy ca iayaiino? ia o?eueee iaiaaeaiue,
iia’ycaieo c iaiao?aei?noth ?aae?caoe?? aeai?eoio ooieoe?thaaiiy, ui
ie?aneaiee oaoi?/ieie aeiiaaie aei ae?iao, aea e iaiaaeaiue, iia’ycaieo
c oaoiieia?/ieie iiaeeeainoyie eiai iiaeaeueoiai aeaioiaeaiiy o aaea
?nioth/iio ?ino?oiaioaeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?.

Ocaaaeueiaii i?ioean i?iaeooaaiiy a iaoeiiaoaeoaaii? ? aca?iiae??th
o?ueio nai?o iniiaieo no?oeoo?ieo eiiiiiaio?a (oac): neioaco, aiae?co oa
ioe?iee (?en. 3). Aca?iiae?y oeeo eiiiiiaio?a iineoue iae?i?eiee
oa?aeoa?. Iiaeia neacaoe, ui aoaeue-yea i?iaeoia ??oaiiy aeieea? i?ae
/an aeeiiaiiy oace neioaco, eiie?aoia eiai aeeiiaiiy caaacia/o?oueny
oacith aiae?ca, a a?aeiia?aei?noue ?acoeueoaoo iao? i?iaeooaaiiy –
oacith ioe?iee. Iane?aeeii oaei? i?e?iaee i?ioeano ? eiai ?oa?aoeaiee
(oeeee?/iee oa?aeoa?).

?nioth/? ?iaioe c ieoaiue aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii?
inianoee ?aii?othoue iayai?noue oe??? oeeee?/iino?, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ni?iuaiiiai oyaeaiiy i?i i?ioean. Iai?eeeaae, A.A. ?aeiae/ aaaaea?
?aeiae/ A.A. Aaoiiaoecaoeey i?iaeoe?iaaiey i?eniiniaeaiee aeey
iaoaeei?aaeoueo noaieia. I.: “Iaoeiino?iaiea”, 1980. – 136 n., ui i?ae
?ioi?iaoe??th i?i caaioiaeo, ui ia?iaey?oueny, oaoiieia?/iith noaiith
iia?aoe?? oa ?ioi?iaoe??th, ui io?eio?oueny ia aeoiae? i?ioeano
i?iaeooaaiiy i?eniiniae, ?niothoue ooieoe?iiaeuei? (oiaoi iaeiicia/i?)
aca?iica’ycee, a?eueo oiai, oe? ca’ycee iiaeooue aooe ?aae?ciaai?
aeai?eoi?/ii. Oaea neooaoe?y ae?enii oa?aeoa?ia aeey iaei?ino?oeo, n
oi/ee ci?o i?iaeoieo ?ia?o, aeae?a oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee, iai?eeeaae,
?ino?oiaio?a. Aea aeey eiino?oeoeaii a?eueo neeaaeieo aeae?a inianoee
oea i?eiouaiiy ia aeeiio?oueny.

Eia?/ia noaia i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee ia? aeaeyae, ui
iiaeaiee ia ?en. 4 o aeaeyae? ae?aa?aie ia?aoiae?a i?ioeano.

C ae?aa?aie aeaeii, ui i?ioeano i?eoaiaiia ?oa?aoeoai?noue, i?e?iaea
yei? iia’ycaia c iaiiaiioith ao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??, a oaeiae c
iaiaeiicia/i?noth (aa??aioi?noth) ?acoeueoaoo i?ioeaaeo?e ni?anoaaeaiiy,
ui ? i?e/eiith ooai?aiiy eiioe?eoii? iiiaeeie. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei
??cieo iiaeeeaeo eaioetha?a ia?aoai?aiue iioi/iiai noaio i?iaeoo, ye?
cae?eniththoueny i?iaeoieie i?ioeaaeo?aie. Oaeei /eiii, o?aaeeoe?eiee
i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy i?ioeano i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee
oaeoe/ii caeeoa? iica oaaaith oaco neioaco eiino?oeoe??,
cina?aaeaeoth/enue ia i?ioean? aiae?co (iaoiaeao ?ic?aooieo cia/aiue
ia?aiao??a aaea ?nioth/i? eiino?oeoe??) oa ioe?iee eiai ?acoeueoao?a.
Cae/aeii, eiee ?icaeyaea?oueny i?ioean i?iaeooaaiiy eiino?oeoeaii
i?inoeo aeae?a oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee (iai?eeeaae, ?ino?oiaio?a) oaeee
i?aeo?ae ? aei?aaaeaiei, ine?eueee oi?o?eaoe?y ?o eiino?oeoe?e
caaacia/o? ?ic?ea i?iaeoieo oeeee?a. Oiaoi a oeueiio aeiaaeeo ae?enii
iiaeia iaiaaeeoeny o?eueee ?icaeyaeii caaea/ aiae?co ?, a?aeiia?aeii,
aeei?enoiaoaaoe eiii’thoa?i? oaoiieia?? aeey aaoiiaoecaoe? ?ic?aooie?a
ia?aiao??a oeiiai? iiaeae? inianoee aeoiaey/e c aeaieo i?i ??
oaoiieia?/ia i?ecia/aiiy oa oiiae ooieoe?thaaiiy, ye? aecia/athoueny
noaiith iia?aoe??. Oea aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
o?aaeeoe?eia iaiaaeaiiy o aeine?aeaeaiiyo i?ioean?a i?iaeooaaiiy
oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee o?eueee ?ioi?iaoe?eieie i?ioeanaie iioi/iiai
oeio, oiaiiaeeeaeth? aoaeoeaia canoinoaaiiy eiii’thoa?ieo iaoiae?a
i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui oaca neioaco,
iia’ycaia c iaiao?aei?noth i?iaaaeaiiy ?ici??eiaoaaiue ?iaeoeoe?eiiai
oa?aeoa?o ca oiia iaiiaiioe ?ioi?iaoe??, ia i?ioeaaao oiio, ui aeeiiaiiy
oac aiae?co oa ioe?iee caaacia/o?oueny i?ioeanaie aeaaeoeoeaiiai
aeaiaeo, aeinoaoiuei aeeaiei aeine?aeaeaieie a ?iaioao c eia?ee oa
ooo/iiai ?ioaeaeoo.

I?iaeaia ciaiueoaiiy iaaeaoa?i?iiaaiino? i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii?
inianoee, oiaoi ciaioaiiy iiooaeiino? eiioe?eoieo iiiaeei, ui
aeieeathoue a oiae? i?ioeano (aeea. ?en. 4), ? iaei??th c iniiaieo
caaea/ oai??? ?? i?iaeooaaiiy. Iaeiei c aieiaieo iaoiae?a, ui aeicaiey?
ae??ooaaoe oeth i?iaeaio, ? oi?o?eaoe?y eiino?oeoe?e inianoee oa ??
aeaiaio?a. Oaea oi?o?eaoe?y iiaea aooe ??cieo ??ai?a. Ia?oee ??aaiue
oi?o?eaoe?? eiino?oeoe?? oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee oa ?? aeaiaio?a
aeinyaa?oueny ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy ia?aiao?e/ieo eiino?oeoe?e.
A?aeiia?aeia oi?o?eaoe?y ? oi?o?eaoe??th ia ??ai? neioaco eiino?oeoe??,
i?e oeueiio, ne?ae iai’yoaoe, ui eiaeia ia?aiao?e/ia eiino?oeoe?y caaea?
iane?i/aio iiiaeeio nai?o ?aae?caoe?e. A?eueo aeeaiea oi?o?eaoe?y
a?aeiia?aea? aeiaaeeo noaiaea?oeciaaieo aeaiaio?a. Oi?o?eaoe?y oeueiai
??aiy ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny ia o?eueee ia eiino?oeoe?th aeaiaio?a
inianoee aea, cia/iith i??ith, e ia oaoiieia?th ?o aeaioiaeaiiy.

Aeoiaey/e c iayaiino? iaaii? a?aeiia?aeiino? i?ae oaoiieia?/iith
ooieoe??th inianoee oa ?? eiino?oeoe??th iiaeia ciaoiaeeoe ia?oa
iaaeeaeaiiy aei ?ica’yceo caaea/? neioaco oeyoii i?aeai?o iiaeeeaeo
oi?o?eiaaieo iiaeaeae inianoee, a?aoiaoth/e o? ?? oaoiieia?/i? ooieoe??,
ui aecia/ai? oaoiieia?/iei i?ioeanii. Oaeei /eiii, iinoa? iaiao?aei?noue
i?iaaaeaiiy eeaneo?eaoe?? caaea/ i?iaeooaaiiy inianoee ca ??
ooieoe?iiaeueiei i?ecia/aiiyi. Oaea eeaneo?eaoe?y iiaeaia o oaae.1. Oey
eeaneo?eaoe?y ooi/ith?oueny, aeoiaey/e c oaoiieia?/ieo oiia
ooieoe?thaaiiy oiai /e ?ioiai eeano inianoee. Oaeei /eiii, oiiae
caaaeueii? caaea/? i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee neeaaeathoueny c
aeaio iniiaieo eiiiiiaio?a: oaoiieia?/ii? ooieoe?? oa oaoiieia?/ieo
oiia. Eiaeiee c oeeo eiiiiiaio?a aecia/a?oueny i?ae /an i?iaeooaaiiy
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano, yeee, oaeei /eiii, ? i?ioeanii aa?oiueiai ??aiy
aeey i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee.

C aeeaa?aie ia?aoiae?a i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee (?en. 4)
aeaeii, ui oeaio?aeueiei ?ioi?iaoe?eiei eiiiiiaioii i?ioeano ? aeai? i?i
iioi/iee noai i?iaeoo. Oiaoi iinoa? caaea/a iiaeaethaaiiy oe???
?ioi?iaoe??. Caaaeueia iaoiaeeea ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy, yea
aeei?enoiao?oueny a ?iaio?, ??oioo?oueny ia iaaieo iaoai?ciao
aano?aeoe?e.

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeaeue oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee oa ?? aeaiaio?a iiaeiia
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aaeaeaaoio i?ioioeio nenoaio aano?aeoe?e. A ?iaio?
anoaiiaeaia, ui aeey iiaeaethaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee aeinoaoiuei
aeaio aano?aeoe?e – aano?aeoe?? ocaaaeueiaiiy oa aano?aeoe??
aa?aaoaaiiy. Oea a?aeiia?aea? ooieoe?iiaeueiei oa eiino?oeoeaiei
iniaeeainoyi inoaiuei?.

Iaoai?ci aano?aeoe?e aeicaiey? anoaiiaethaaoe ca’ycee i?ae iiiyooyie, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?ioean? iiaeaethaaiiy. Eiaeia oaea iiiyooy
aeae?ey? iaaiee eean ia’?eo?a, yeee c iei ? ioioiaeith?oueny.
Aano?aeoe?y ocaaaeueiaiiy iiaeaeth? a?aeiioaiiy i?ae eeanaie ia’?eo?a,
ui iiaea aooe aecia/aia ye “aooe ??ciiaeaeii”. Iai?eeeaae, eeann
“??caoeue oaniiee” ? ??ciiaeaeii eeano “??caoeue”, a oie aea /an eean
“??caoeue oaniiee aeeneiaee” ? ??ciiaeaeii eeano “??caoeue oaniiee”.
Oeae i?eeeaae aeaiiino?o? oie oaeo, ui a?aeiioaiiy “aooe ??ciiaeaeii”
aaiaeeoue ia eeanao oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee ???a?o?th i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy.
Iayai?noue oaei? ???a?o?? aeicaiey? aoaeoeaii i?aai?ciaoaaoe i?ioean
ia?iaee ?ioi?iaoe?? aano?aaoth/enue a?ae ianooo?aeo n oi/ee ci?o
iioi/iiai noaio i?ioeano iiae?iaeoeue. Iai?eeeaae, i?e iiaeaethaaii?
i?an-oi?ie ia ??ai? eiiiiioaaiiy ianooo?aeie ? eiie?aoi? aeai? i?i
eeoieeiao nenoaio /e nenoaio ioieiaeaeaiiy. Aeei?enoaiiy aano?aeoe??
ocaaaeueiaiy aeicaiey? a?aeeeanoe ae??oaiiy ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c
ia?aiao?ecaoe??th oa ?? icia/aiiyi aeey oeeo nenoai, ia iiaeaeueoee /an,
? aeei?enoiaoaaoe a i?ioean? eiiiiioaaiiy o?eueee iaea?eueo nooo?a?
caaaeuei? ?o oa?aeoa?enoeee. A?aenooi?noue o iiaeae? iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aano?aeoe?th ocaaaeueiaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei
oi?eae?caoe?? eiaeii? caaea/? i?iaeooaaiiy, caia?a/aiith ?nioaaiiy
caaaeueieo iaoiae?a oa a?aeiia? a?ae aeei?enoaiiy iaoeiaeo i?aeoiae?a ia
ei?enoue aii??e/ieo i?eeii?a. Iane?aeeii oeueiai noa? iaiiaeeea?noue
aeei?enoaiiy eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e ia?iaee i?iaeoii? ?ioi?iaoe??,
aoaeoeai?noue yeeo iia’ycaia c ?ica’ycaiiyi, oae caaieo, ianiaeo
i?iaeai.

Ia iaio aaaeeeaei iaoai?ciii aano?aeoe??, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny a
i?ioean? ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee, ?
aano?aeoe?y aa?aaoaaiiy. Iaoai?ci aa?aaoaaiiy iiaeaeth? a?aeiioaiiy i?ae
eeanaie ia’?eo?a, ui aecia/a?oueny ye “? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith” aai “?
eiiiiiaioii”. Aeey eiaeiiai oaoi?/iiai ia’?eoo oey aano?aeoe?y yaii
caaea?oueny eiai niaoeeo?eaoe??th. Ae?enii, eeann iao?eoeue ooaii?a,
iai?eeeaae, neeaaea?oueny c ia’?eo?a, ui aoiaeyoue ye eiiiiiaioe a
ia’?eoe eeano ooaii?a aeey oieiaeiiai ooaiioaaiiy. A oie aea /an oey
aano?aeoe?y ia iiaea aooe ae/a?iaia niaoeeo?eaoe??th. Iai?eeeaae,
eiaeiee ??aeo/ee ?ino?oiaio ia? ?iai/o oa e??ieeueio /anoeie. Oe?
/anoeie aacia?a/ii ? neeaaeiaeie ?ino?oiaioo, i?ioa aiie ia ? eiai
neeaaeaeueieie iaeeieoeyie. Oiaoi aano?aeoe?y aa?aaoaaiiy iiaeaeth? ia
o?eueee a?aeiioaiiy i?ae o?ce/ieie neeaaeiaeie /anoeiaie ia’?eoo, aea e
eia?/ia a?aeiioaiiy i?ae ooieoe?iiaeueii ??cieie /anoeiaie ia’?eoo, ye?
ia iiaeooue aooe a?aeie?aieai? a?ae iueiai o?ce/ii. Ia ?en. 5 ia
i?eeeaae? caoeneoth/eo i?eno?i?a iiaeai? o?aaiaioe aano?aeoe?e
ocaaaeueiaiiy oa aa?aaoaaiiy.

A ?iaio? aeeeaaeai? oai?aoe/i? canaaee aia?aoo iiaeaethaaiiy,
iiaoaeiaaiiai ia ?aeyoe?eiiio, a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii?, i?aeoiae?.
Cai?iiiiiaaiee aiia?ao aeicaiey? iiaeaethaaoe iaaaaeai? aeua aeaa
iaoai?cie aano?aeoe??: ocaaaeueiaiiy oa aa?aaoaaiiy.

A iniiao ?ic?iaeaiiai aia?aoo iieeaaeai? oae? i?eioeeie:

aa?aaoaaiiy iiaeae? inianoee /e ?? aeaiaio?a c aeaiaioa?ieo
?ioi?iaoe?eieo iaeeieoeue;

iane?aeoaaiiy eeanaie eiiiiiaio?a a?ae nai?o ocaaaeueiaiue.

Ia?oee c oeeo i?eioeei?a aeei?enoiaoaaany aeey iiaeaethaaiiy oaoi?/ieo
nenoai oa oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a a ?iaio? I.?. ?i?oaiiaa, I.TH. I?eiaa
oaA.N. Ieaniaae/a, 1986. – n. 107-137.. Ae?oaee i?eioeei iieyaa? a oiio,
ui ca oiia iayaiino? o aecia/aiiai eeano ia’?eo?a c i?aaeiaoii? iaeano?
i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee iaaieo eiiiiiaio?a, aiaeia?/i?
eiiiiiaioe iathoue ? eeane, ui ? ??ciiaeaeaie oeueiai aecia/aiiai eeano.
Oea aeicaiey? nooo?ai ciaiooaaoe ianya ?ioi?iaoe?? i?e iiaeaethaaii?
oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee. Iai?eeeaae, iayai?noue ??aeo/i? /anoeie o
ia’?eo?a eeano “??aeo/ee ?ino?oiaio” aaoiiaoe/ii iio?aao? ?? iayaiino? o
??ciiaeae?a ??aeo/iai ?ino?oiaioo.

I?e noai?aii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? iiaeae? aoaeue-yeiai eeano oaoiieia?/ii?
inianoee aaiaeeoueny aea? iiiaeeie ?iai: N – ?iaia iiiyoue (eean?a), ui
iaiao?aei? aeey iiaeaethaaiiy, oa R – ?iaia, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo
anoaiiaeththoueny ca’ycee i?ae iiiyooyie. A iiiaeai? N aeae?eythoueny
?iaia ia?aeiieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo aeaiaio?a – /enae, neiaie?a, ?yaee?a
oiui.

Aeey eiaeiiai ?iai? ia?aeiiiai iiiyooy n caaea?oueny iiiaeeia iiaeeeaeo
cia/aiue – aaca iiiyooy, ui iicia/a?oueny B(n). sseui iicia/eoe ?iaia
ia?aeieo iiiyoue /a?ac N0, a /a?ac S iicia/eoe iiiaeeio, oiae? iiiaeeio
aeaieo, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny i?ae /an iiaeaethaaiiy i?aaeiaoii?
iaeano?, iia’yciii? c ?icaeyaea?iei eeanii oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee iiaeii
?aeo?aioii aecia/eoe ca oi?ioeaie:

A iaaaaeaieo oi?ioeao aeei?enoaia iicia/aiiy F(X,Y) aeey iiiaeeie
ooieoe?e, ui ae?thoue c iiiaeeie X a iiiaeeio Y, c? ne?i/aiith
iiiaeeiith aecia/aiiy, oa dom(f) aeey iiiaeeie aecia/aiiy ooieoe?? f.

Aeey eiaeiiai ?iai? iaia?aeiiiai iiiyooy n caaea?oueny ne?i/aia iiiaeeia
ia?, yea iicia/a?oueny /a?ac ?(n) ? ia? iacao neaiaoo?e iiiyooy n. Aaca
iaia?aeiiiai ii?iyooy aecia/a?oueny ?iaeoeoeaii ca ianooiieie oi?ioeaie:

Oaeei /eiii, c eiaeiei iiiyooyi i?aaeiaoii? iaeano? (o?aeiii –
i?ioioeiii) iia’ycaia iiiaeeia iiaeeeaeo eiai i?eeeaae?a – aaca. I?ioa
ia an? aeaiaioe aace ? c?aceaie o?aeio – i?ioioeio. Aeey oiai, uia
aeae?eeoe na?aae aeaiaio?a aace i?aeiiiaeeio ei?aeoieo i?eeeaae?a o?aeio
(o?aei?a – c?ace?a), aaiaeyoueny iaiaaeaiiy, ye? aecia/athoue
aenoain?iiae o?aeio, oiaoi iiiaeeie ei?aeoieo o?aei?a – c?ace?a.
Aenoain?iiae o?aeio c ?iaiai n iicia/a?oueny E(n). Iaiao?aei?noue
aaaaeaiiy iiyoue aace oa aenoain?iiaeo iia’ycaia c iaiao?aei?noth
iiaeaethaaiiy e??i no?oeoo?ieo ca’yce?a, ui aeinyaa?oueny ia ??ai?
aecia/aiiy aace, aea e iaaieo a?aeiia?aeiinoae ? caeaaeiinoae, ui
iiaeii? aeeiioaaoeny a eiino?oeoe?? inianoee. Iai?eeeaae, o i?eniinia?
iiaeai?e ia ?en. 5 ia ??ai? aace iiaeia i?iiiaeaethaaoe iayai?noue
oieeueee oa aaeee c iaaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ??cueae o eiaeii?. Aea aeey
oia, uia oaea ia?a oieeueea – aaeea aeei?enoiaoaaeany o i?eniinia?
iaiao?aeii iaeeanoe aeiaeaoeia? iaiaaeaiiy: oa?aeoa?enoeee ??cuea
iathoue ni?aiaaeaoe. Oaeei /eiii, aei aenoain?iiaeo i?eniiniae aoiaeeoue
eeoa oaea ia?a oieeueea – aaeea, aeey yei? cacia/aia oiiaa ni?aaaaeeeaa.

Neaiaoo?e o?aei?a iiaeaeththoue a?aeiioaiiy “aooe neeaaeiaith /anoeii?”,
oiaoi cai?iiiiiaaia noaia aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe aano?aeoe?th
aa?aaoaaiiy. Aano?aeoe?y ocaaaeueiaiiy caaacia/o?oueny a oeueiio iaoiae?
oeyoii aaaaeaiiy ia iiiaeei? ?iai o?aei?a – i?ioioei?a a?aeiioaiiy
ii?yaeeo <. Cacia/aiee aeua i?eioeei iane?aeoaaiiy oaia? iiaea aooe oi?iaeueii caienaiee oaeith oi?ioeith: . I?eeeaaeii ?aae?caoe?? aeeeaaeaii? iaoiaeeee iiaeaethaaiiy i?aaeiaoii? iaeano? i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee ? iienaia a iiiia?ao?? ?aeyoe?eia iiaeaeue i?aaeiaoii? iaeano? i?iaeooaaiiy ?ino?oiaio?a. Oey iiaeaeue aaco?oueny ia oaaeeoeyo a?aeiioaiue: EEANE, IA?AIAO?E, OA?AEOA?ENOEA, EEANEO?EAOe?ss oa CIA*AIIss. A?aeiioaiiy EEANE ia? anueiai aeaa noiai/eea: [iacaa eeano] oa [aaciina?aaei?e iaaeeean]. I?ae iaaeeeanii ia?aiiai eeano ?icoi?thoue oaeee eean, ui eiaeiee i?aaenoaaiee ia?aiiai eeano iaeaaeeoue oaeiae ? iaaeeeano. I?i?iaeueiee c iaaeeean?a ia?aiiai eeano iaceaathoue aaciina?aaei?i iaaeeeanii. Iai?eeeaae, caien i?i eean i?ae??cieo ??coe?a aoaea iaoe aeaeyae “(i?ae??ciee ??caoeue, ??caoeue)”. Oeae caien o?eno? a aac? aeaieo nenoaie ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i oa, ui i?ae??ciee ??caoeue ? ??ciiaeaeii ??coey. C?icoi?ei, iiiyooy “?ino?oiaio” ? iaea?eueo caaaeueiei iiiyooyi i?aaeiaoii? iaeano?, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny. Oiaoi aaca aeaieo iiaeiia i?noeoe caien “(?ino?oiaio, NOTHING)”, ui iiaeaeth? oea oaa?aeaeaiiy. ?ioi?iaoe?eiee ia?ac aoaeue-yeiai ?ino?oiaioo o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei caaaeueii? noaie aa?aao?oueny c eiai oa?aeoa?enoee. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai aaiaeeoueny a?aeiioaiiy IA?AIAO?E c? noiai/eeaie: [iacaa ia?aiao?o], [oei aeaieo], [oanao ia?aiaoo]. Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui oei aeaieo caaea? aaco ia?aiao?o, a oanao ia?aiao?o – iaiaaeaiiy, ye? aeae?eythoue aenoain?iiae c aace. Iai?eeeaae, aeey iniiaiiai eooa a ieai? a aac? aeaieo ia? aooe cao?eniaaiee caien “(iniiaiee eoo a ieai?, REAL,)”. Ca’ycie i?ae eeanaie oa ia?aiao?e anoaiiaeth?oueny a?aeiioaiiyi OA?AEOA?ENOEEA, ui ia? noiai/eee [iacaa eeano], [iacaa ia?aiao?o], [oiiae]. Oaeei /eiii oaa?aeaeaiiy “??caoeue oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iniiaiei eooii a ieai?, cia/aiiy yeiai eaaeaoue a ae?aiacii? a?ae 0? aei 90?” iiaeaeth?oueny a aac? aeaieo nenoaie caienii “(??caoeue, iniiaiee eoo a ieai?, NOTHING)”. Eiinoaioa NOTHING aeei?enoiao?oueny a oe?e neooaoe?? c iaoith a?aeia?aaeaiiy oiai, ui aeiaeaoeiaeo aei oanaoo iaiaaeaiue ia cia/aiiy iniiaiiai eooa a ieai? aeey eeano ??coe?a ia aaiaeeoueny. Aeey caa??aaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i eiie?aoi? aecaiiey?e ?ino?oiaio?a aeei?enoiaothoueny ua aeaa a?aeiioaiiy EEANEO?EAOe?ss oa CIA*AIIss c? noiai/eeaie [iicia/aiiy], [iacaa eeano] oa [iicia/aiiy], [iacaa ia?aiao?o] oa [cia/aiiy ia?aiao?o] a?aeiia?aeii. Ia?oa c a?aeiioaiue aecia/a? ca’ycie i?ae aecaiiey?ii ?ino?oiaioo oa oei iaea?eueo eiie?aoieie eeanii, aei yeiai oeae aecaiiey? iaeaaeeoue. Aiia neeaaea?oueny c caien?a, i?eeeaaeii yeeo ? ianooiiee “(AAe?2106.4567, ??caoeue i?io?aeiee i?yiee)”. A?aeiioaiiy CIA*AIIss aecia/a? ca’ycie i?ae aecaiiey?ii ?ino?oiaioo, ia?aiao?ii oa cia/aiiyi oeueiai ia?aiao?o. I?eeeaaeii oaeiai caieno ? “( AAe?2106.4567, iniiaiee eoo a ieai?, 85?)”. ?ic?iaeaia a ?iaio? ?aae?caoe?y caaaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy caniaaie SQL-aac aeaieo oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaeany aaoi?ii aeey iiaeaethaaiiy i?aaeiaoieo iaeanoae i?iaeooaaiiy ?ioeo aeae?a oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee. ?? aacia?a/ia iiceoeaia ?ena iieyaa? a oiio, ui oey ?aae?caoe?y aeicaiey? ?ioaa?oaaoe a ?aieao ?aeeiiai i?aeoiaeo ??cii??aei? aeai?, ui ? oa?aeoa?iith ?enith caaea/ aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee. Cie?aia, cia/aiiyi ia?aiao?o, ui oa?aeoa?eco? ?ino?oiaio iiaea aooe, iai?eeeaae, e?i?y, ui caaea? ??aeo/o e?iieo ?ino?oiaioo, /e aoaeue-yea ?ioa aaiiao?e/ia no?oeoo?a. Aaaeeea?noue ?ioaa?aoe?? a no?oeoo?o iiaeae? oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee aaiiao?e/iiai eiiiiiaioo iia’ycaia c oei, ui aaiiao?e/ia oi?ia ? iaei??th c iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo oa?aeoa?enoee iaoeiiaoae?aiiai ae?iao acaaae? oa iaeeieoe? oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee cie?aia. Caaaeath/e ia oea, aaaeeeaith caaea/ath, iaiao?aei?noue ?ica’ycaiiy yei? aeieea? i?ae /an ?ic?iaee aoaeue-yei? nenoaie aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee, ? caaea/a aeai?o aaeaeaaoieo iaoiae?a aaiiao?e/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy. Aiae?c ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a aaiiao?e/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy aaoi? i?iaiaeea ia aac? eeaneo?eaoe?? aeaiaio?a inianoee ca ?o aaiiao?e/iith oi?iith (aeea. ?en. 6). Iaoiaee iiaeaethaaiiy noaiaea?oeciaaieo oa caaaeueiiiaoeiiaoae?aieo aaiiao?e/ieo ia'?eo?a aeia?a a?aeii? ? aacothoueny ia iaoiaeao eiino?oeoeaii? aaiiao???. Iaeiae i?e i?iaeooaaii? inianoee, ui ia? a nai?io neeaae? aeaoae?, aaiiao??y yeeo ia iiaea aooe iienaia aiae?oe/ieie caeaaeiinoyie, oeio oi?iiooai?thth/eo aeaoaeae aeoyaeieo ooaii?a, i?an- oa eeaa?ieo oi?i, oaaeii?a aeey eiio?ieth ieaciaeo iiaa?oiue iinoa? i?iaeaia iiaeaethaaiiy ieaciaeo e?eaeo. I?aeoiaee aei iiaeaethaaiiy oaeeo ia’?eo?a caeaa?eueoiai aacothoueny ia ai?ieneiaoe?? e?eaeo /anoeiai-eoa?/ieie ooieoe?yie. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui oeae i?aeo?ae iiaea i?ecaanoe aei inoeeeyoe?? (oiaoi eieeaaiue) e?eai?, ui aoaeo?oueny, a ieieao eiio?ieueieo oi/ie (aeea. ?en.7). Oea yaeua aeieea? o iane?aeie iaaiiai i?ioe??//y i?ae aeiiaaie iaia?aaiino? ae?oai? iio?aeii? e?eai? oa i?inoioe ?? ia?aiao?ecaoe??. Nooi?noue i?iaeaie iieyaa? o oiio, ui iio?aei? e?eai? ia iathoue aaiiao?e/iiai oa?aeoa?o ?, oaeei /eiii, caeaaeaoue a?ae niiniao ia?aiao?ecaoe??. Oaoiieia?/iei iane?aeeii inoeeeyoe?? e?eai? i?e aeaioiaeai? inianoee ? aeaeiaaoaaiiy iiaa?oi?, ui ia?iaey?oueny, ??aeo/ei ?ino?oiaioii. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ao?ao oi/iino? aaiiao?e/ii? oi?ie iiaa?oi? aeaoaeae oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee. Ciaeaeaiee a iiiia?ao?? iaoiae caaacia/aiiy iaia?a?aiino? aaiiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee e?eai? (i?oo aaeoi?o aeioe/ii? oa e?eaecie) aeicaieea iiaoaeoaaoe aoaeoeaiee aeai?eoi ciaoiaeaeaiiy e?eai?, ui i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac caaeai? eiio?ieuei? oi/ee. I?e oeueiio aaeaeiny oieeiooe yaeua inoeeeyoe??. A iniiao iaoiaeo iieeaaeaia oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i oa, ui ca oiiae aeai?o a yeino? ia?aiao?o e?eai? ?? iaoo?aeueiiai ia?aiao?o i?yeeo iaaaoeaieo yaeu i?e ?ioa?iieyoe?? ia a?aeaoaa?oueny. Ine?eueee aea?? iaoo?aeueiiai ia?aiao?o (aeiaaeeie e?eai?) iaiiaeeeaee c nooi oaoi?/ieo i?e/ei iaiao?aeii ai?ieneioaaoe eiai. sse ai?ieneiaoe?y o cai?iiiiiaaiiio iaoiae? aeae?a?oueny aeiaaeeia eaiaii?, ui c’?aeio? eiio?ieuei? oi/ee. Oeae aeai?eoi aeey caaeaii? iine?aeiaiino? eiio?ieueieo oi/ie iiaea aooe iiaeaiee oaeei ?aeo?aioiei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi: Iao?eoey B ia/eneth?oueny aeoiaey/e c? cia/aiue eii?aeeiao eiio?ieueieo oi/ie. Iao?eoey A caaea?oueny oae: ??aiyiiy ieaciai? e?eai? i?ae oi/eaie Pk-1 oa Pk ia? oaeee aeaeyae: Oi/ee oa aecia/athoueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyie: I?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee, ye aaea a?aecia/aeiny, ? i?ioeanii ia?aoai?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe??, oiio ?ic?iaea iaoeiai ia??oioiaaieo iaoiae?a i?aai?caoe??, a?aeia?aaeaiiy oa caa??aaiiy i?iaeoii? ?ioi?iaoe?? noaiiaeoue iaeio c i?ia?aeieo caaea/ a aaeoc? aaoiiaoecaoe?? oeueiai i?ioeano. ?icaeyioo? aeua iniaeeaino? oa iaoiaee iiaeaethaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??, ui aeieea? i?ae /an i?iaeooaaiiy inianoee, aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i iayai?noue o oaei? ?ioi?iaoe?? iniiaieo ?en, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey ciaiue. Ne?ae iaaaaeaoe, ui oa?i?i ciaiiy aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey iicia/aiiy iniaeeai i?aai?ciaaieo ianea?a ?ioi?iaoe??, ui iathoue na?e ci?no, no?oeoo?o, iaiao?aei? ca’ycee, i?ioeaaeo?e i?eiyooy ??oaiue. Aeaiaioe oaeeo ianeae ?ioi?iaoe?? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny: aioo??oiueith ?ioa?i?aoiaai?noth, oiaoi iayai?noth nenoaie ?iai, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny ye aeey iicia/aiiy naieo aeaiaio?a oae ? aeey iicia/aiiy ca’yce?a i?ae ieie; ?aeo?neaiith no?oeoo?iaai?noth, oiaoi iiaeeea?noth i?e i?aiao?aeiino? ?ic/eaiiaoaaoe (aeaeiiiiiiaoaaoe) aeaiaio ciaiue ia eiai neeaaeia? /anoeie ? iaaiaee aa?aaoaaoe aeaiaio ciaiue c eiai neeaaeiaeo /anoei. Oey aeanoea?noue aeaiaio?a ciaiue icia/a? iayai?noue i?ae ieie a?aeiioaiue oeio “/anoeia – oe?ea” oa “aeae – ??ciiaeae”; ca’yci?noth, oiaoi iiaeeea?noth anoaiiaethaaoe i?ae aeaiaioaie ciaiue ca’yce?a, ui aeicaieythoue ?ioaa?oaaoe ?o o ?aeeiee nieneiaee eiioaeno; aeoeai?noth, oiaoi i?ia?aeiith, ia a?aei?io a?ae aeaieo, ?ieeth a i?ioean? ia?iaee ?ioi?iaoe??. I?ioeaaeo?a i?eiyooy ??oaiiy aeeiio?oueny oiio, ui aeieeea iaaia eiio?ao?aoe?y ciaiue, yea aeoea?co? oeth i?ioeaaeo?o; ooieoe?iiaeueiith oe?e?noi?noth, oiaoi iiaeeoa?noth aeai?o ?acoeueoaoo, /ano oa cania?a eiai io?eiaiiy, oi?ie a?aeia?aaeaiiy oa iaoai?cio ioe?iee. Oi?o?eaoe?y eiino?oeoe?? oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee oa ?? aeaiaio?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?eueo (noaiaea?oi? aeaiaioe) /e iaio (ia?aiao?e/i? eiino?oeoe??) aei?noeeo iaiaaeaiue no?oeoo?e ?o ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ia?ac?a. Iiaeia neacaoe, ui oey oi?o?eaoe?y iaeeaaea? ia iiaeeeao ?aae?caoe?th eiino?oeoe?? inianoee ?aieo (o?aei). I?iaeooaaiiy ae inianoee a oeueiio aeiaaeeo iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye iaeaaiaeaeaiiy oeo ia?aiao??a (neio?a o?aeia), ui ?o cia/aiiy ia o?enothoueny ?aieith oi?o?eaoe??. Oaeei /eiii, i?e?iaeiei iaoai?ciii i?aai?caoe?? ciaiue i?i oaoiieia?/io inianoeo ? iaoai?ci o?aei?a, aia?oa aeei?enoaiee I. I?inueeei o ca’yceo c i?iaeaiaie ineoieia?? eiii’thoa?iiai ci?o. Iai?eeeaae, o?aei, ui a?aeiia?aea? eeano ??coe?a neeaaea?oueny c aeaio o?aei?a – eiiiiiaio?a: ?iai/a oa e??ieeueia /anoeie. Oe? o?aeie – eiiiiiaioe iathoue o ni?io neeaae? a?aeiia?aei? neioe. Iai?eeeaae, o?aei ?iai/i? /anoeie ia? neio, iicia/aiee ye ? – ia?aaei?e eoo. I?aaeiaoia iaeanoue i?iaeooaaiiy ?ino?oiaio?a o iane?aeie aeinoaoiuei iiaii i?iaaaeaiith oi?o?eaoe??th iiaeaeth?oueny aeineoue i?inoith o?aeiiaith no?oeoo?ith. A oie aea /an, i?iaeooaaiiy a?eueo neeaaeii? inianoee i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaiao?aeiino? aeei?enoiaoaaoe oe?e? ia?aae? o?aei?a. I?e oeueiio icia/aiiy neio?a aeayei? /anoeie c o?aei?a ii?iaeaeo? i?ioean ia?aea/? aeaieo neioai ?ioeo o?aei?a ia?aae?. Iai?eeeaae, i?e i?iaeooaaii? oaaeii?a aeey anoaiiaeaiiy oa i?eaa?thaaiiy e??ieeueieo aeaiaio?a oeio aiiie oa no?eaei?a ia iaiae? o?ainii?oieo iaoei c aeaiaio?a eiiieaeoo IN?I – I aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue ia?aoiaeo aei eii?aeeiao oeaio??a oeeo e??ieeueieo aeaiaio?a o ?aeei?e nenoai? a?aee?eo a?ae ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ?o a?aeiinia ?icoaooaaiiy , ui iiaeaia ia e?aneaii?. Ia ?en.8 iieacaiee i?eeeaae aeo?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??, ui iiaeaia ia e?aneai? oa ?acoeueoao ia?aoiaeo aei ?aeeii? nenoaie eii?aeeiao. ?ioi?iaoe?eia iiaeaethaaiiy ? iaiao?aeiith ia?aaeoiiaith aeei?enoaiiy eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e i?e i?iaeooaaii? oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee. ?ioi?iaoe?eia iiaeaeue ? oei na?aaeiaeuai, a yeiio aeeiiothoueny i?iaeoi? i?ioeaaeo?e – aeaiaioa?i? i?ioeane ia?aoai?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe??. Iaea?eueo neeaaeieie c ieo ? i?ioeane neioaco eiino?oeoe?? oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee. Aeey i?inoeo ??ciiaeae?a inianoee, iai?eeeaae ?ino?oiaio?a, oaca neioaco caiaeeoueny aei ciaoiaeaeaiiy oeiiai? ia?aiao?e/ii? iiaeae?. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo caaea/a neioaco noa? ??ciiaeaeii caaea/? ae?aaiinoeee ? iiaea aooe noi?ioeueiaaia oae: ca aeaieie aeo?aeieie oaoiieia?/ieie ooieoe??th oa oiiaaie ciaeoe eean inianoee, ui caaacia/o? aeeiiaiiy oe??? ooieoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi aecia/aieo oiia. Oaeei /eiii, caaea/a iiaea aooe ?ica’ycaia, yeui ?nio? a?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae caaaeaiiyi ia i?iaeooaaiiy (caaaeaiiy ia i?iaeooaaiiy = oaoiieia?/ia ooieoe?y + oaoiieia?/i? oiiae) oa noaiith aecaiiey??a iaaiiai eeano oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee. Ine?eueee oey a?aeiia?aei?noue ia iaia’yceiai iaeiicia/ia, aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue o ioe?ioe? ??cieo aeueoa?iaoea – aeai?o c eiioe?eoii? iiiaeeie. Iiaeaeue iaoai?cio ioe?iee a?aeiia?aeiino? iiaea aooe iiaoaeiaaia oae. Iaoae X – iiiaeeia, aeaiaioai yei? a?aeiia?aeathoue oaoiieia?/i? ooieoe?? oa oiiae, Y – iiiaeeia noai eean?a inianoee. A?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae iiiaeeiaie X oa Y a oeeo oa?i?iao (oi/i?oa aeaoa?i?iiaaia a?aeiia?aei?noue) – oea aeaiaio iiiaeeie, oiaoi iiiaeeie i?aeiiiaeei iiiaeeie. Oaeei /eiii, aeey a?aeiia?aeiino? o?aca “oaoiieia?/iei ooieoe?? oa oiiaai x a?aeiia?aea? inianoea eeano y” iiaeaeth?oueny oi?ioeith:. Ia’?eoeaii i?eoaiaio i?ioeano i?iaeooaaiiy iaaeaoa?i?iiaai?noue iiaeia a?aooaaoe oeyoii aaaaeaiiy aeiaaeeiai? aaee/eie ? ia aeayeiio eiia??iinoiiio i?inoi?? c? cia/aiiyie a iiiaeei?. Oaea ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y aeicaiey? aecia/eoe /eneiao ioe?ieo ??aiy a?aeiia?aeiino? aeaiaio?a x oa y ca oi?ioeith:, oiaoi oey ioe?iea aei??aith? eiia??iino? oiai, ui aeaiaioe x oa y a?aeiia?aeathoue iaeei iaeiiio a?aeiinii aeiaaeeiai? aaea/eie ?. Ia?aiao?e/iee i?ino?? ? iiaeia aaaaeaoe, iai?eeeaae, i?inoi?ii iia’ycaiei c iieooaaiue aenia?o?a, a eiia??iinoio i??o P – ?iciiae?eii eiia??iinoae, iia’ycaiei c ??cieoeath aeoiie aenia?o?a uiaei iyaiino? a?aeiia?aeiino?. Aeoaea aaaeeeaei ie?aiei aeiaaeeii a?aeiia?aeiinoae, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e iiaeaethaaii? i?ioean?a i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee ? aeiaaeie a?aeiia?aeiino? iiae?aiino? aai aea?aaeaioiino?. A?aeiia?aeiino? oeueiai oeio aeieeathoue o ca’yceo c iaiao?aei?noth eeaneo?eoaaoe ia’?eoe ca aeayeei e?eoa???i. A ?aaeueieo caaea/ao eeaneo?eaoe?? (aai eeanoa?-aiae?co), ui aaeaeaaoi? caaea/ai i?iaeooaaiiy, oe? e?eoa???, ye i?aaeei, ? iaiaaieie, ?icieoeie. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo ?icaeyaeathoueny a?aeiia?aeiino? i?ae aeaiaioaie iaei??? iiiaeeie, yeo iiaeia iicia/eoe, iai?eeeaae, X. A?aeiioaiiy aea?aaeaioiino? ia X ? a?aeiioaiiy, ui caaeia?eueiy? oaeei aeiiaai: eiaeiee aeaiaio ni?a?aeiineoueny nai c niaith (?aoeaeneai?noue); yeui aeaiaio x a?aeiia?aea? aeaiaioo y, oiae? e iaaiaee aeaiaio y a?aeiia?aea? aeaiaioo x (neiao?e/i?noue); yeui aeaiaio x a?aeiia?aea? aeaiaioo y, a aeaiaio y a?aeiia?aea? aea-iaioo z, oiae? e aeaiaio x a?aeiia?aea? aeaiaioo z (o?aiceoeai?noue). Aeey aeiaaeeiai? aaee/eie ? c? cia/aiiyie o iiiaeei? a?aeiioaiue aea?aaeaioiino? ia iiiaeei? X iiaeii aaanoe ooieoe?th, ui ioe?ith? ?ic??ciai?noue i?ae aeaiaioaie oe??? iiiaeeie ca oi?ioeith:. A ?iaio? aea/ai? aeanoeaino? aaaaeaii? ooieoe?? aai i??e ?ic??ciaiino? oa iiaoaeiaaia a?aeiia?aeia oai??y. Cie?aia, e??i i?? ?ic??ciaiino?, ui aeieeathoue ca aeeeaaeaiith aeua noaiith, aea/ai? a?eueo caaaeuei? aeiaaeee ? anoaiiaeaii, ui oea ocaaaeueiaiiy ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei nooo?aiai ?icoe?aiiy oai???. Aaaeeeaei canoinoaaiiyi oai??? i?? ?ic??ciaiino? ? iiaoaeiaa iia’ycaieo c a?aeiioaiiyie aea?aaeaioiino? ?icaeoo?a ne?i/aii? iiiaeeie ia’?eo?a. ?icaeooy oaeiai eeano a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue o caaea/ao ?ici?uaiiy aeaiaio?a inianoee i?e cae?aii? i?eniinia c oi?o?eiaaieo aeaiaio?a. Aaaaeaiee a ?iaio? eean ?icaeoo?a ne?i/aii? iiiaeeie X, ia ye?e caaeaia i??a ?ic??ciaiiy, iacaaiee aaoi?ii eeanii ?ici?ciath/eo ?icaeoo?a. ?icaeooy ? oeueiai eeano oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ia??ai?noth , aea, a. A iiiia?ao?? aeiaaaeaii oai?aio ?aeeiino? ?ic??ciyth/iai ?icaeooy ca oiiae aecia/aii? e?eueeino? eiai aoii?a. Oey oai?aia ia??oioiao? ei?aeoi?noue iaaaaeaieo a iiiia?ao?? aeai?eoi?a iiaoaeiae ?ici?ciath/eo ?icaeoo?a ia ne?i/ai?e iiiaeei? ia’?eo?a. ?ic?iaeai? aeai?eoie canoiniaothoueny aeey aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?ioean?a neioaco i?eniinia c oi?o?eiaaieo aeaiaio?a eiiieaeo?a ia?aiaeaaiaeaeoaaeueii? inianoee, cie?aia inianoee aeey onoaiiaee ia iaiae? o?ainii?oieo iaoei aeey iiaeaeueoiai i?eaa?thaaiiy e??ieeueieo aeaiaio?a oeio aiiie oa no?eaei?a (IN?I-I) oa inianoee aeey cae?aiiy oa eiio?ieth o?oaii?iaiae?a iaeeaii-?aaoethth/i? aia?aoo?e (IN?I-O). I?ae /an neioaco i?eniiniae c? noaiaea?oieo aeaiaio?a iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ?o aca?iia ?icoaooaaiiy ? caaacia/eoe iaia?aoeii?noue ianya?a i?inoi?o, ye? caeiathoue oe? aeaiaioe a i?eniinia?. Iai?eeeaae, noaiaea?oiee onoaiiai/iee aocie, ui cae?a?oueny c aeaiaio?a eiiieaeoo IN?I-I ia? aeaeyae, yeee iieacaiee ia ?en.9. Oe? aeaiaioe anoaiiaeththoueny ia o?oaao, ye? i???ioiaai? acaeiaae a?n? OX aai a?n? OY. Aee?o aei??aith? a?aenoai? a?ae a?n? oaei? o?oae aei oeaio?o e??ieeueiiai aeaiaioo, ui anoaiiaeth?oueny. Eiino?oeoe?y onoaiiai/iiai aocea i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaiao?aeiino? a?aooaaiiy iaiaaeaiue i?e onoaiiaoe? aeaio e??ieeueieo aeaiaio?a n oeaio?aeueieie oi/eaie P(xP, yP) oa Q(xQ, yQ), ye? iiaeia caaeaoe oaeith ia??ai?noth (aea B – aaaa?eoiee ?ici?? aocea, a c – oaoiieia?/iee caci?, yeee o?aaa caaacia/eoe): , . Ooieoe?y ae(P, Q), ui aecia/a?oueny oi?ioeith: , ? i??ith ?ic??ciaiino?. Oiaoi a neooaoe??, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe io?eiai? a iiiia?ao?? caaaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe i?i ?ici?ciath/? ?icaeooy aeey iiiaeeie oi/ie oeaio??a e??ieeueieo aeaiaio?a. Oea aeicaiey? iiaoaeoaaoe oa ia??oiooaaoe aeai?eoi, ui i?iaiaeeoue ?icaeooy e??ieeueieo aeaiaio?a ia a?oie, aeaiaioe yeeo iiaeooue aooe anoaiiaeai? ca aeiiiiiaith iaei??? i?eniiniae. I?e/iio oai?aoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe aa?aioothoue iioeiaeuei?noue ca e?eoa???i i?i?iaeueiino? e?eueeino? i?iaeoo?ieo i?eniinia. Aeacaiee e?eoa??e ia? ia o?eueea cia/aiiy aeey ioe?iee neeaaeiino? i?iaeooaaiiy oa iiaeaeueoiai cae?aiiy i?eniinia. I?i?iaeuei?noue e?eueeino? i?eniinia caaacia/o? oaeiae i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? aeeiiaiiy oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano oa eiai aoaeoeaiino?, caaaeath/e ia ciaioaiiy i?aeaioia/iai /ano oa e?eueeino? ia?aonoaiiaie inianoee. I?eiyooy i?iaeoieo ??oaiue a cai?iiiiiaai?e aaoi?ii iia?e eiii’thoa?i?e iaoiaeieia?? i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee, ui cai?iiiiiaaia o ?iaio?, yea caoeua?oueny, cae?enith?oueny c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoai?cio aeaaaeaiiy ca i?iaeoeoe?eieie i?aaeeaie oa ia/?oeeie i?iaeoeoe?eieie i?aaeeaie. Oai??y ia/?oeiai aeaaaeaiiy ? i?ea?iaeueiei aia?aoii, aaeaeaaoiei caaea/ai neioaco oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee. I?iaeoeoe?ei? i?aaeea aeaaaeaiiy oe?iei canoiniaothoueny a nenoaiao ooo/iiai ?ioaeaeoo, cie?aia a aenia?oieo nenoaiao iaaee/ii? oa oaoi?/ii? ae?aaiinoeee. ?ioaa?aoe?y oeueiai i?aeoiaeo aei aaoiiaoecaoe?? ?ic’ycaiiy i?iaeai oa aeeeaaeaieo aeua iaoiae?a iiaeaethaaiiy i?aaeiaoii? iaeano? i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee aeicaieea ?ic?iaeoe aaoiiaoeciaai? nenoaie i?iaeooaaiiy e?eueeio eean?a oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee c ?ioaeaeooaeueiith iiaaae?ieith. A ?iaio? ?icaeyiooi aeaa ??ciiaeaee i?iaeoeoe?eieo i?aaee – oaeoieia?/ieo oa iia?aoe?eieo. Ia?aiee niin?a iiaeaethaaiiy i?aaeiaoii? iaeano? aeicaiey? aac ao?aoe caaaeueiino? iaiaaeaoenue o?eueee oaeoieia?/ieie i?aaeeaie, oiaoi i?aaeeaie aeaeo: “sseui iaeii/anii ? a??ieie oaa?aeaeaiiy H1, …, Hn, oiae? iii?ae oaa?aeaeaiue C1, …, Cm oi/a a iaeia ? oaeiae a??iei”. A iiiia?ao?? iienaiee iaea?eueo caaaeueiee eean caaea/, ui iiaeooue ?ica’ycoaaoeny c canoinoaaiiyi iaoai?cio aeaaaeaiiy ia iniia? i?iaeoeoe?eieo i?aaee. Iaeiae ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui aeaaaeaiiy ca i?iaeoeoe?eieie i?aaeeaie aea? iiaeeea?noue iiaeaethaaoe i?ioean i?eiyooy i?iaeoieo ??oaiue a oiiaao iiaii? aecia/aiino? oa aeinoia??iino? ao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??. I?e i?iaeooaaii? oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee iiaia aecia/ai?noue oa aeinoia??i?noue ia? i?noea i?ae /an aiae?co ia’?eoo iniauaiiy. Iai?eeeaae, ?icaeyiooee aeua i?ioean ia?aoiaeo a?ae ?ioi?iaoe?? uiaei aca?iiiai ?icoaooaaiiy oeaio??a e??ieeueieo aeaiaio?a, yea ia?aaea?oueny e?aneaiiyi iaiae?, aei ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ?o eii?aeeiaoe o ?aeei?e o?eniaai?e nenoai? eii?aeeiao, ui iia’ycaia c iaiaeeth, i?e i?iaeooaaii? i?eniiniae c aeaiaio?a eiiieaeoo IN?I-I. C?icoi?ei, ui oaeee ia?ao?ae iiaeia aeeiiaoe a ?o/io, aea i?e ?aaeueieo e?eueeinoyo oi/ie ia iaiae?, ui i?aeeyaathoue ia?iaoe?, aeei?enoaiiy eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e i?e aeeiiaii? oaei? iia?aoe?? ia o?eueee aeioe?eueia aea e iaiao?aeia. A aac? ciaiue oaei? i?aenenoaie ciaoiaeyoueny i?aaeea aeaaaeaiiy oeio (aeea. ?en.8): “sseui oi/ea P ciaoiaeeoueny i?aai?o/ a?ae oi/ee Q ia 306 ii, oiae? aei aace aeaieo o?aaa aeiaeaoe ??aiyiiy ”. Aiae?c oeeo i?aaee iaoiaeii noaeiaiai aeaaaeaiiy aeicaiey? ciaeoe eii?aeeiaoe an?o oeaio?aeueieo oi/ie e??ieeueieo aeaiaio?e o aea?ai?e nenoai? eii?aeeiao ca oiiae, ui ?ioi?iaoe?y ia e?aneaii? iiaia. A ?ac? iaiiaiioe ?ioi?iaoe?? i?aenenoaia aiae?co e?aneaiiy aeicaiey? aecia/eoe, yea c iaiao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a?aenooiy. sse aeaeii, oe? i?aaeea iathoue eaoaai?e/iee oa?aeoa?. Aiaeia?/ii, cacia/aia nenoaia ia? i?aaeea oeio: "sseui oi/ea P ciaoiaeeoueny i?aai?o/ a?ae oi/ee Q ia 306 ii c aeiioneii ±0,1, oiae? aei aace aeaieo o?aaa aeiaeaoe ia??ai?noue ". Noi?iiaaia o oaeee niin?a nenoaia ia??aiinoae aecia/a? aeiiae aei oi/iino? cae?aiiy i?eniiniae. A oie aea /an, i?aaeea, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny i?ae /an neioaco eiino?oeoe?? ia iathoue oaeiai eaoaai?e/iiai aeaeyaeo. Iai?eeeaae, i?e i?iaeooaaii? ooaiio aeey oieiaeiiai ooaiioaaiiy aeieea? caaea/a aeai?o noaie ooaiioaaiiy: noi?uaii? /e iine?aeiaii?. Ine?eueee iaia? /?oeeo oa iaeiicia/ieo e?eoa???a oaeiai aeai?o, oi aeei?enoiaothoueny i?aaeea “ia/?oe?”, iai?eeeaae: “sseui aaaa?eoi? ?ici??e aeaoae? ia ia?aaeuothoue 250 ii, a oiaueia iaoa??aeo eaaeeoue a ae?aiacii? a?ae 0,2 aei 6 ii, oiae? ne?ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe iine?aeiaio noaio ooaiioaaiiy c ??aiai aiaaiaiino? 0,7”. Naia iaeaoaai?e/i?noue ? oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth oeeo i?aaee. Aiie caaeathoue ia aacoiiaii a??ia oaa?aeaeaiiy, a eeoa aecia/athoue ??aaiue aiaaiaiino? o cai?iiiiiaaiiio ??oaii?. Oae? i?aaeea oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny a aenia?oieo nenoaiao, i?ioa a aeena?oaoe??, ia iiaeyae aaoi?a aia?oa, aeeeaaeaia ia??oioiaaia iaoiaeeea ia?iaee oaeeo i?aaee. Oey iaoiaeeea aaco?oueny ia ocaaaeueiai? iiiyooy ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aeinooiieo nenoai? oaeo?a oeyoii ia?aoiaeo a?ae eeane/iiai aecia/aiiy, ye a?ia?iiai ?iciiae?eo cia/aiue aeey oeeo oaeo?a (“oae” /e “i?”), aei eiia??iinoii? i??e ia iiiaeei? oaeeo eeane/ieo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e. Oea aea? iiaeeea?noue no?iai aecia/eoe ?ioo?oeaiee oa?i?i “??aaiue aiaaiaiino?”, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny o aeiaaeeo aeei?enoaiiy ia/?oeeo i?aaee aeaaaeaiiy. A naia, eiaeia i?aaeei caaea? ieaeith a?aieoeth aeey iiaeeeaeo oiiaieo eiia??iinoae a?aeiinii i?? - ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e. Oaeei /eiii, nenoaia i?aaee, /e aaca ciaiue, o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei oa?i?iieia?? aenia?oieo nenoai, aecia/a? iaiaaeaiiy ia eiia??iinoi? i??e, ui caaeathoue aiaaiaiino? o oaeoao. Oaeei /eiii, caaea/a aeaaaeaiiy ?acoeueoaoiio ia?aoai?th?oueny ia caaea/o aecia/aiiy ieaeiuei? a?aieoe? eiia?iino? oeueiai ?acoeueoaoo ca oiiae aeinoia??iino? an?o oaeo?a, ye? caaeathoue aeo?aei? aeai? caaea/?, ia iiiaeei? oeo eiia??iinoieo i??, ui ia i?ioe??/aoue iaiaaeaiiyi aace ciaiue. No?iaa oi?ioethaaiiy iio?aao? aeayeeo iicia/aiue. Iaoae B – iiiaeeia an?o oaeo?a, ye? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a i?ioean? i?iaeooaaiiy, P(B) – iiiaeeia i?aeiiiaeei iiiaeeie B, F(B) - iiiaeeia ne?i/aieo i?aeiiiaeei iiiaeeie B. Ia/?oea i?aaeei aeaaaeaiiy - oea o??eea, a ye?e X – iiiaeaeeia oaeo?a – aeniiae?a, Y – iiiaeeia oaeo?a – i?eiouaiue (a?iioac), a C(X | Y) – ioe?iea aiaaiaiino? a oiio, ui oi/a a iaeei c aeniiae?a a??iee ca oiia aeinoia??iino? a?iioac. Eiaeia oaea o??eea iaeeaaea? iaiaaeaiiy ia iiaeeea? eiia??iinoi? i??e – ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oaeo?a o oaeee niin?a: o??eea aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe o?eueee o? eiia??iinoi? i??e P, aeey yeeo aeeiio?oueny ia??ai?noue. sseui iicia/eoe aaco ciaiue /a?ac K, a /a?ac K* - iiiaeeio oeo eiia??iinoieo i??, ui caaeiaieueiythoue ia??aiinoyi aeey aneo i?aaee c K, oiae? caaea/a ioe?iee ??aiy aiaaiaiino? o ?acoeueoao? w ca ii/aoeiaeie aeaieie D aoaea iaoe oaeee ae?ac: Oaeei /eiii, a ?iaio? aaeaeiny aeaoe oi?iaeueio iinoaiiaeo caaea/? aeaaaeaiiy aeniiaeo aeoiaey/e c ii/aoeiaeo oiia, aeei?enoiaoth/e “ia/?oe?” i?aaeea aeaaaeaiiy, yea oa?aeoa?ia aeey i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee. Iai?eeeaae, aeaye? i?aaeea aeaaaeaiiy, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a caaea/? i?eiyooy ??oaiy i?i aea?? noaie ooaiioaaiiy aeaoaeae i?e i?iaeooaaii? oaoiieia?? ooaiioaaiiy ? a?aeiia?aeii? ooaiiiai? inianoee iathoue aeaeyae: “sseui aeiaaa?oueny na?aaeiy /e iiieaeaia (15 – 17 eaae?oao) oi/i?noue ooaiioaaiiy, oiae? c aiaai?i?noth ia iaioa ye 0,5 aeae?a?oueny iine?aeiaia noaia ooaiioaaiiy”; “sseui aeiaaa?oueny aeniea ye?noue aeaioiaeaiiy aeaoaeae (a?aenooi?noue iiaiooinoae, aeniea ye?noue c??co), oiae? c aiaai?i?noth ia iaioa ye 0,5 aeae?a?oueny noi?uaia noaia ooaiioaaiiy”. Iiaeaia a iiiia?ao?? iaoiaeeea aeei?enoaiiy “ia/?oeiai” aeaaaeaiiy oa ?ica’ycaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo caaea/ aoea canoiniaaia i?e aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?ioean?a neioaco a NAI? i?eniinia c aeaiaio?a eiiieaeo?a IN?I-I oa IN?I-O, NAI? ooaii?a aeey oieiaeiiai ooaiioaaiiy, NAI? i?an-oi?i aeey oa?ii- oa ?aaeoiieanoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a. Aeina?ae aeei?enoaiiy oeeo nenoai o i?iieneiaino? aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i ia??oioiaai?noue cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee. Caaa?oaeueieie noaae?yie i?iaeooaaiiy aoaeue-yeiai aeaeo oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee ? noaae?? caaaeueii? ioe?iee ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe oa aeioneo i?iaeoii? aeieoiaioaoe??. Aeey oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee oea aaeeeith i??ith iia’ycaia c a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?aae?noe/iiai aaiiao?e/iiai ia?aco ni?iaeoiaaiiai i?eno?ith oa aaia?aoe??th eiai e?aneaiue. ?aae?noe/iee ia?ac aaiiao?e/iiai o?ea ia iii?oi?? eiii’thoa?a iiaeia io?eiaoe oeyoii a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?iciiae?eo yne?aaino? a?aeaeoiai iiaa?oiath oeueiai o?ea na?oea. A?aeiia?aeiee ia?ac noai?th?oueny caaaeyee ea?oaaiith yne?aa?noth (oi/ie cia?aaeaiiy) i?enae?a cia?aaeaiiy oae, uia a?aooaaoe na?oeio?i?, ye? aeieeathoue i?e ina?oeai? o?ea ia?aeaeueiei aeiooeii i?iiai?a. A ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaia oa aeine?aeaeaia iiaeaeue caaaeueii? yne?aaino? cia?aaeaiiy, ui iiaea?oueny oi?ioeaie: Aaeoi? e - oea aaeoi? iai?yieo ci?o. Ci?no aaeoi??a l oa n iiyniaiee ia ?en.10. Iiaeaia iiaeaeue a?aoiao? aea? eiiiiiaioe yne?aaino? iiaa?oi?: Is – yne?aa?noue aeca?eaeueiiai a?aeaeooy; Id – yne?aa?noue aeeoociiai a?aeaeooy. ssne?aa?noue aeca?eaeueiiai a?aeaeooy ? iane?aeeii caaaeueiiai caeiio a?aeaeooy na?oea a?ae aaniethoii aeca?eaeueii? iiaa?oi? ? i?iii?oe?eia neaey?iiio aeiaooeo aaeoi?o ci?o oa ii?iaeueiiai aaeoi?o iiaa?oi?. Oey yne?aa?noue aiineoue eeoa /anoeo o caaaeueia a?aeaeooy, ine?eueee aeey ?aaeueieo o?e ia? i?noea aeeoocia ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea. I?e aeeoociiio a?aeaeoo? e?euee?noue a?aeaeoiai iiaa?oiath na?oea iaeiaeiaa o an?o iai?yieao, oiio yne?aa?noue oaeiai a?aeaeooy i?iii?oe?eia neaey?iiio aeiaooeo iai?yieo iaaeath/iai na?oea ia ii?iaeueiee aaeoi? iiaa?oi?. I?ae /an iaeaaiaeaeaiiy i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy iaoiaeii /eneiaiai iiaeaethaaiiy oa a?coaeueii? ioe?iee ?acoeueoao?a a?ee anoaiiaeai? oae? cia/aiiy iaa?aeiieo eiao?oe?aio?a aeey aeiaeaieo, ui a?aeiia?aea? yne?aaino? aeeoociiai a?aeaeooy: m = 0,9; g = 0,1; k = 8. Ine?eueee a ?iaio? iine?aeiaii i?iaaaeeoueny ia’?eoiee i?aeo?ae aei iiaeaethaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee oa ?? aeaiaio?a, oea noaaeoue caaea/o aeieoiaiooaaiiy, oiaoi ia?aoiaeo a?ae i?aaenoaaeaiiy i?iaeoii? ?ioi?iaoe?? o aeaeyae?, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny i?ae /an i?iaeooaaiiy, aei i?aaenoaaeaiiy ?? o aeaeyae? e?aneaiue aeey iiaeaeueoiai aeei?enoaiiy o ae?iaieoeoa?. Iniiaia oeiiaa i?iaeaia i?e cae?eniaii? oaeiai ia?aoiaeo iieyaa? o iaiao?aeiino? iiaoaeae aaeoi?ii? iiaeae? e?eai? ia ieiuei?, ui a?aeiia?aea? ?ano?iaiio ia?aco oaei? e?eai?. ?ano?ia? ia?ace e?eaeo aeieeathoue i?e iiaoaeia? i?iaeoe?e oa ia?aoei?a aaiiao?e/ieo o?e iaoiaeii neaioth/iai i?iiaiy. ?ano?iaee ia?ac e?eai? (aeea. ?en.11) i?aaenoaaey? niaith iine?aeiai?noue aoce?a aeene?aoii? n?oee ia ieiuei?, /a?ac ye? c iaaiith iioeaeith iiaeiia oey e?eaa i?ioiaeeoe. Caaaeath/e ia oa, ui i?e aeeiiaii? e?aneaiue a iniiaiiio aeei?enoiaothoueny e?ea?, ye? neeaaeathoueny c a?ae??ce?a i?yieo oa aeoa e?e. A ?iaio? aeiaaaeaii, ui aeey caaeaii? iine?aeiaiino? oi/ie P1(x1,y1), …,Pn(xn, yn) i?yia ax + by + c = 0, a?ae yei? o na?aaeiueiio eaaae?aoe/iiio iaeiaioa a?aeoeeythoueny oi/ee iine?aeiaiino? iiaea aooe ciaeaeaia ye ?ica’ycie niaeo?aeueii? caaea/? oaeiai aeaeo: I?e oeueiio iaeneioi a?aeoeeaiiy a?aeiia?aea? iaeneiaeueiiio aeaniiio cia/aiith oe??? caaea/?. Oaeei /eiii, i?iaeaia aeae?eaiiy i?yiie?i?eieo o?aaiaio?a eiioo?o iiaea aooe aoaeoeaii ?ica’ycaia oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy niaeo?aeueieo ia/enethaaeueieo iaoiae?a aeey iiceoeaii? iao?eoe? ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo. A oe?eiio, cai?iiiiiaaia a ?iaio? iiaa iaoiaeieia?y eiii’thoa?iiai i?iaeooaaiiy inianoee aeey oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a o iaoeiiaoaeoaaii? aoea aeei?enoaia a ?ic?iaeao Oa?e?anueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo oaoiieia?? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. Aoee noai?ai? oa ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?iieneiao aenieoaoaoe?? ia caaiaeao Oe?a?ie, ?in?? oa A?ei?on? nenoaie aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy: ??aeo/eo oa eiio?ieueii-aei??thaaeueieo ?ino?oiaio?a (NAI? “?ino?oiaio”); i?eniinia aeey onoaiiaee e??ieeueieo aeaiaio?a oeio aiiie oa no?eaei?a ia iaiaeyo o?ainii?oieo iaoei i?ae caa?thaaiiy c aeaiaio?a eiiieaeooIN?I-I (NAI? “Oaaeii”); i?eniinia, ui i???ioothoue oa o?enothoue aeaoae? o?oaii?iaiae?a iaeeaii-?aaoethth/i? aia?aoo?e, aeey caa?thaaiiy oa iayiiy c aeaiaio?a eiiieaeoo IN?I-I (NAI? - O); oi?i aeey i?anoaaiiy oa?ii- oa ?aaeoiieanoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a (NAI? “Oa?e?a-i?an”); ooaii?a aeey ?icae?eueieo iia?aoe?e oieiaeiiai ooaiioaaiiy (NAI? “Oa?e?a-ooaii”). Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa aeina?ae aenieoaoaoe?? oeeo nenoai aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i ia??oioiaai?noue oa iaae?ei?noue cai?iiiiiaaieo aaoi?ii oai?aoe/ieo canaae oa iiaoaeiaaii? ia ?o iniia? iiai? iaoiaeieia?? eiii’thoa?ii? i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee. A ?iaio? oaeiae aea/aia ieoaiiy i?i aeiiii?/io aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo nenoai. ?o aoaeoeai?noue coiiaeth?oueny oaeeie /eiieeaie: cieaeaiiy i?aoeai?noneino? i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee; i?enei?aiiy i?ioean?a oaoiieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ae?iaieoeoaa; i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ii?iae?caoe?? oa oi?o?eaoe?? eiino?oeoe?? oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee oa ?? aoce?a; i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy iniauaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a a iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?; i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee; i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?aoe? eiino?oeoi??a inianoee. Cae/aeii oe? /eiieee iathoue ??cio aaao aeey ??cieo nenoai aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee. Aea a aoaeue-yeiio aeiaaeeo aiie aeicaieythoue ciaioeoe aeo?aoe ia i?iaeooaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ?iaeaia?iiai ia?niiaeo, ciaioeoe aeo?aoe ia aeaioiaeaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee ca ?aooiie yeino? i?iaeooaaiiy oa ??aiy ii?iae?caoe?? oa oi?o?eaoe?? eiino?oeoe?e, a oaeiae aeo?aoe ia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy inianoee. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui aeei?enoaiiy NAI? oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee aea? iiaeeea?noue ciaioeoe cao?aoe ia o?eueee i?ae /an oaoiieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ae?iaieoeoaa, aea e a naiiio ae?iaieoeoa?, a?aooaaoe oa aeinoia??ii ioe?ieoe oea cieaeaiiy aeo?ao ia aeaea?oueny iiaeeeaei. ?ioaa?iaai? aeai? i?i cieaeaiiy aeo?ao ca ?acoeueoaoaie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoai iiaeai? o oaae.2. ??oaiiy i?i aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy o??? /e ?ioi? nenoaie aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee iiaeiii i?eeiaoeny a ?acoeueoao? ni?anoaaeaiiy aeo?ao i?e aaciaiio (?o/iiio) i?iaeooaaii? c aeo?aoaie, ui iia’ycai? c ia?aoiaeii aei oaoiieia?? aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy, oa iioi/ieie aeo?aoaie ia oaea i?iaeooaaiiy. sseui aa?o?noue ?iaeaia?ieo ?ia?o i?e ?o/iiio i?iaeooaaii? iicia/eoe Ce; aa?o?noue aeaioiaeaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee a aaciaiio aa??aio? – Cm; eiao?oe?aio a?aeiiniiai ciaioaiiy aeo?ao ia i?iaeooaaiiy oa aeaioia-eaiiy inianoee i?e ia?aoiae? aei aeei?enoaiiy NAI? – ne oa nm a?aeiia?aeii; aeo?aoe, ui iia’ycai? c ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi NAI? (aeo?aoe ia i?eaeaaiiy oa aaaaeaiiy a aenieoaoaoe?th oaoi?/ieo cania?a, aeo?aoe ia i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy, eiai ?inoaeyoe?th, aeo?aoe ia iaa/aiiy ia?niiaeo oiui) – C0, oiae? aeo?aoe ia i?iaeooaaiiy N iaeeieoeue oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee a aaciaiio aa??aio? neeaaeooue N·(Ce + Cm), a ca oiia aeei?enoaiiy NAI?: C0 + N·((1 - ne)Ce + (1 - nm)Cm). Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, ianya i?iaeooaaiiy N0 iaeeieoeue inianoee, ye? caaacia/othoue iie?eooy aeo?ao ia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy NAI? aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith: . A oaae.3 iaaaaeai? ona?aaeiai? cia/aiiy iieacieea N0 aeey ??cieo NAI? oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee, ye? aoee io?eiai? ia iniia? aeina?aeo ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?o ia aeanyoe iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoaao. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy cacia/aieo nenoai ia iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoaao i?iaiaeeeiny c 1987 ?ieo, ui aeicaieeei io?eiaoe aei 1991 ?ieo aeiiii?/iee aoaeo o noi? 565,2 oen. e?a. ?acoeueoaoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoai i?ney 1991 ?ieo aeathoue oae? ?acoeueoaoe aeey eiiieaenii? inianoee oeio ooaii?a oa i?an-oi?i: ciaiueoaiiy i?aoeai?noneino? i?iaeooaaiiy inianoee o i'youe ?ac?a; ciaioaiiy aeo?ao ia aeaioiaeaiiy inianoee ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? i?iaeoieo ?ia?o oa iioei?caoe?? eiino?oeoe?? inianoee o aeaa ?ace; ciaioaiiy oa?i?io i?aeaioiaee ae?iaieoeoaa ae?ia?a o aeaa ?ace. Aeniiaee Aiae?c i?ioeano i?iaeooaaiiy oaoi?/ieo i?eno?i?a, cie?aia oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee ??cieo aeae?a aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee ? ?ioi?iaoe?eiei i?ioeanii iaiioi/iiai, ?oa?aoe?eiiai oeio, a iane?aeie yeiai a?aeaoaa?oueny aaia?aoe?y i?iaeoii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?ae oi?aae?iiyi ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i oaoiieia?/i? ooieoe?th oa oiiae ooieoe?thaaiiy inianoee, ui i?iaeoo?oueny . Iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoiith iaoiaeeeith aeey noai?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iiaeaeae ? ?icoe?aiiy ?aeyoe?eiiai iaoiaeo iiaeaethaaiiy, ui a?aeiia?aea? oai??? o?aei?a. Aaeaeaaoi?noue iaoiae?a iiaeaethaaiiy aaiiao?e/ii? oi?ie aeaiaio?a oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee caeaaeeoue a?ae ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy oeeo aeaiaio?a. Aaoiiaoecaoe?y oace neioaco i?ioeano i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee iio?aao? aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo, iao?aaeeoe?eieo i?aeoiae?a. Iaeiei c oaeeo i?aeoiae?a ? oai??y “ia/?oeiai” aeaaaeaiiy, yea aeicaiey? ia??oiooaaoe iaoiaee io?eiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ca oiiae iaiiaiioe ?ioi?iaoe??, ui oa?aeoa?ia aeey oace neioaco eiino?oeoe??. Canoinoaaiiy eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e i?e i?iaeooaaii? inianoee iio?aao? ?ic?iaee iaoiae?a eeaneo?eaoe?? i?iaeoieo neooaoe?e oa ?? aeaiaio?a. A ca’yceo c oeei aeieea? i?iaeaia ?ic?iaee oa ia??oiooaaiiy iaoiae?a eeanoa?-aiae?co, ui canoiniaothoueny i?e ae??oaii? oeeo caaea/. Aeey iiaoaeiaaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi oeeo iaoiae?a aeai?eoi?a anoaiiaeaia ?o aoaeoeai?noue. Iine?aeiaia aeei?enoaiiy ia’?eoiiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?iaeooaaiiy i?eaiaeeoue aei iaiao?aeiino? iiaeaethaaiiy eiino?oeoe?? o oa?i?iao i?inoi?iai? aaiiao???, ui noaaeoue caaea/? a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?aae?noe/ii? o?eaei??ii? iiaeae? i?eno?i?a, ui i?iaeoothoueny, oa aaoiiaoeciaaiiai aaia?oaaiiy e?aneaiue ca oaeith iiaeaeeth. ?ica’ycaiiy ia?oi? c oeeo caaea/ aaco?oueny ia ci?oai?e iiaeae? a?aeaeooy na?oea, yea a?aoiao? ca?eaeueia oa aeeoocia a?aeaeooy. Ae?oaa caaea/a iiaea aooe caaaeaia aei niaeo?aeueii? i?iaeaie aeey iiceoeaii? iao?eoe? ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo ? aoaeoeaii ae??oaia c aeei?enoaiiyi a?aeiia?aeieo iaoiae?a ia/enethaaeueii? iaoaiaoeee. ?aae?caoe?y cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiaeee a NAI? eiie?aoieo aeae?a oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i ia??oioiaai?noue oai?aoe/ieo canaae, ia yeeo oe? iaoiaeeee aacathoueny. Aeina?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy NAI? oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee ia iaoeiiaoae?aieo i?aei?e?inoaao aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i aoaeoeai?noue oeeo nenoai, ui caaacia/o? ciaioaiiy aeo?ao ia i?iaeooaaiiy oa aeaioiaeaiiy inianoee, a oaeiae io?eiaoe iieacieee ?o ieoiiino?. nienie iniiaieo ?ia?o ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? 1. A.I. AEieoeaae/. Aaoiiaoecaoeey i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee: oai?ey e i?aeoeea. – E.:”Oaoi?ea”, 1998. – 263 n. 2. A.I. AEieoeaae/. I?eioeeiu iino?iaiey NAI? ia?aiaeaaeeaaaiie inianoee. – I.: OeIEEeioi?iaoeee, 1990. – 52 n. 3. Ai?aoeei A.I., AEieoeaae/ A.I., AEieoeaae/ I.Ae., Eiacaa A.N.,Iiaoiae/ A.ss. e ae?. Ia?aoeiay oaoiieiae/aneay inianoea aeey AIN. – E.:”Oaoi?ea”, 1992. – 216 n. 4. AEieoeaae/ A.I., Aioaoaiyi A.E., Eiiiaaeia A.I., Iaoeeaea A.E. Ainnoaiiaeaiea oaaee/ii-caaeaiiuo neiaeiuo iiaa?oiinoae a caaea/a aaoiiaoecaoeee i?ia?aiie?iaaiey noaieia n *IO // Aii?inu iai?iiiie oaoieee, na?. IV. – 1985. – ?7. – n.50 – 53. 5. AEieoeaae/ A.I., Eaiaeei N.E., Iaoeeaea A.E. Nenoaia aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey ia?aaioee iauaiiuo aeaoaeae ia o?aca?iuo noaieao n *IO // Aii?inu iai?iiiie oaoieee, na?ey ??. – 1987. – ?7. – n.32 – 34. 6. AEieoeaae/ A.I., Eaiaoia N.TH., Iaoeeaea A.E. E aii?ino iioeiecaoeee auai?a no?oeoo?u ia?aaaouaathuaai iai?oaeiaaiey aeaeeo aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo i?iecaiaenoa // Aii?inu iai?iiiie oaoieee, na?ey III. – 1987. – ?12. – n.57 – 64. 7. AEieoeaae/ A.I., E?aineie E.A., Iaoeeaea A.E. Caaea/a aaeoi?ecaoeee ?ano?iauo ecia?aaeaiee a nenoaiao iaoeiiie a?aoeee // Aii?inu iai?iiiie oaoieee, na?ey III. – 1987. – ?6. – n.37 – 40. 8. AEieoeaae/ I.Ae., AEieoeaae/ A.I., Eiacaa A.N. Nicaeaiea yenia?oiie nenoaiu aeey ioeaiee aiciiaeiinoe i?eiaiaiey oieoeoee?iaaiiie ia?aiaeaaeeaaaiie oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee // Aii?inu iai?iiiie oaoieee, na?ey III. – 1987. – ?10. – n.69 – 73. 9. AEieoeaae/ A.I., Aieiaeei A.A., Eioaiianeee A.E., Iaoeeaea A.E. Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiay nenoaia iino?iaiey noaiu nai?ee oieaa?naeueiie inianoee aeey naa?ee o?oaii?iaiaeia // Aii?inu iai?iiiie oaoieee, na?ey II. – 1987. – ?4. – n.3 – 5. 10. AEieoeaae/ A.I., Ae?ocyea A.E., Iaoeeaea A.E. Caaea/a aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iaeoe?iaaiey oieaa?naeueiuo nai?ii-?acai?iuo oaaeiiia // Aii?inu iai?iiiie oaoieee, na?ey II. – 1987. – ?1. – n.18 – 20. 11. AEieoeaae/ A.I., Eaiaoia N.TH., ?onaeia E.TH. Eiiieaen i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa ioeaiee caa?ocee AN YAI // Aii?inu iai?iiiie oaoieee, na?ey III. – 1987. – ?3. – n.23 –26. 12. AEieoeaae/ I.Ae., Iiaoiae/ A.ss., AEieoeaae/ A.I. Iiuo yenieoaoaoeee e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey nenoai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie ia?aaioee aeaoaeae neiaeiie aaiiao?e/aneie oi?iu // Aii?inu iai?iiiie oaoieee, na?ey II. – 1988. – ?6. – n.3 – 4. 13. AEieoeaae/ A.I. Nenoaia aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey 3-eii?aeeiaoiuo noaieia n *IO eae eino?oiaioaeueiay nenoaia ?aoaiey caaea/ // Aii?inu iai?iiiie oaoieee, na?ey II. – 1988. – ?6. – n.7 – 9. 14. AEieoeaae/ I.Ae., AEieoeaae/ A.I., Eioaiianeee A.E. Iino?iaiea ia?u noiaenoaa aeey yenia?oiie nenoaiu oieaa?naeueiie ia?aiaeaaeeaaaiie inianoee // Aii?inu iai?iiiie oaoieee, na?ey III. – 1988. – ?11. – n.22 – 24. 15. AEieoeaae/ A.I., Eioaiianeee A.E., Ie?ioie/aiei A.N. Ainnoaiiaeaiea iiaa?oiinoae i?e ia?aaioe i?annoi?i ia noaieao n *IO // Aii?inu iai?iiiie oaoieee, na?ey II. – 1989. – ?5. – n.39 – 44. 16. AEieoeaae/ A.I., Eeaeaiia TH.A., Eaiaeei N.E., Iaoeeaea A.E. Oaoiieiaey iieo/aiey neiaeiii?ioeeueiuo iiaa?oiinoae ooaiiia e i?annoi?i iauaiiui o?aca?iaaieai ia noaieao n *IO // I?iecaiaenoaaiiue iiuo. – 1990. – ?6. – n.15 – 18. 17. AEieoeaae/ A.I., Ie?ioie/aiei A.N. Ii?aaeaeaiea iiaea/e ia no?ieo i?e iiaeaioiaea oi?aaeythueo i?ia?aii iauaiiie ia?aaioee // Aii?inu iai?iiiie oaoieee, na?ey ??. – 1993. – ?3–4. – n.39 – 41. 18. AEieoeaae/ A.I. I?iaeoe?iaaiea oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee eae iauaeo aaoiiaoecaoeee // Iaoai?ea oa iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. – 1997. – ?2. – n.196 – 203. 19. AEieoeaae/ A.I. NAI? oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee eae n?aaenoai iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe oaoiieiae/aneiai iniauaiey nai?i/ii-naa?i/iuo iia?aoeee i?e i?iecaiaenoaa AOO // Iaoai?ea oa iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. – 1997. – ?2. – n.203 – 206. 20. AEieoeaae/ A.I. Iaaeaoa?ieie?iaaiiue iiaeoiae a caaea/ao neioaca nenoai aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iaeoe?iaaiey n?aaenoa oaoiieiae/aneiai iniauaiey // Aunieea oaoiieiaee a iaoeiino?iaiee. – Oa?ueeia: Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao. – 1997. – n.82 – 85. 21. AEieoeaae/ A.I. E aii?ino neioaca CAD/CAM-nenoai n?aaenoa oaoiieiae/aneiai iniauaiey // E?eoe/aneea oaoiieiaee, aaoiiaoecaoeey i?iaeoe?iaaiey e i?iecaiaenoaa ecaeaeee a iaoeiino?iaiee. – E.: Einoeooo niaea?aeaiey e iaoiaeia iao/aiey Ieienoa?noaa ia?aciaaiey Oe?aeiu. – 1997. – n.93 – 97. 22. AEieoeaae/ A.I. E aii?ino aaoiiaoecaoeee neioaca eiioo?ia ?aaeoueo e?iiie oi?iiia?acothueo aeaoaeae ooaiiia aeey ?acaeaeeoaeueiuo iia?aoeee // Eocia/ii-ooaiiiai/iia i?iecaiaenoai. – ?11. – 1998. – n.9 – 11. 23. AEieoeaae/ A.I. E aii?ino i aaeoi?ecaoeee e?eaie i?ioeey neiaeiiai ?aaeouaai eino?oiaioa // Aunieea oaoiieiaee a iaoeiino?iaiee. – Oa?ueeia: Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao. – 1998. – n.107 – 109. 24. AEieoeaae/ A.I. E aii?ino i iiaeaee?iaaiee iaoaieciia ?aniiciaaaiey i?e iiiiue ia?u ?acee/ey // Aanoiee Oa?niineiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. Niaoeeaeueiue auione. – 1999. – n.75 – 76. 25. AEieoeaae/ A.I. Eiaa?eaioiay no?oeoo?a eioaeeaeooaeueiuo nenoai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. – aui. 50. – 1999. – n.147 – 150. AIIOAOe?ss AEieoeaae/ A.I. Aaoiiaoecaoe?y i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee: oai??y oa i?aeoeea. – Iiiia?ao?y. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.02.08 – oaoiiea?y iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao. Oa?e?a 1999 ??e. Caoeua?oueny ?iaioa, iaoith yei? ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oaoiieia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ae?iaieoeoaa ca ?aooiie nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao ia i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe a ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaia oa ia??oioiaaia iiaa iaoiaeieia?y i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee, ui aaco?oueny ia no/anieo eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?yo ia?iaee i?iaeoii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Aeine?aeaeaii iniaeeaino? i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee, yea a ?iaio? iine?aeiaii aea/a?oueny ye ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ioean iaiioi/iiai oeio. ?icaeyiooi ??ci? i?aeoiaee aei ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy eiino?oeoe?e oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee oa anoaiiaeaii, ui o?aeiia? no?oeoo?e iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoii a?aeiia?aeathoue caaea/ai iieno eiino?oeoe?e oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee oa ?? aeaiaio?a, aeoiaey/e c ?o ooieoe?iiaeueii-eiino?oeoeaieo oa oaoiieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae. ?ic?iaeaii oai?aoe/i? canaaee oa iiaeaii ?aae?caoe?th iaoiaeo iiaeaethaaiiy eiino?oeoe?e oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee o?aeiaie c aeei?enoaiiyi oaoi?ee SQL-aac aeaieo. Ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a aiae?c ??ciiiai?oieo nenoai iaoeiii? a?ao?ee iieacaii, ui aaeaeaaoi?noue ?o canoinoaaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae ooieoe?iiaeueiiai oeio aeaiaio?a oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee, ui iiaeaeththoueny. ?ic?iaeaii aoaeoeaiee aeai?eoi iiaeaethaaiiy ieaciaeo e?eaeo, yeee aeicaiey? caiia?aoe aeieeiaiith aoaeo?a ?o inoeeeyoe??, ui iathoue iaaaaeai? oaoiieia?/i? iane?aeee. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo i?eiyooy i?iaeoieo ??oaiue ca oiiae iaiiaiioe ?ioi?iaoe??, yea aaco?oueny ia i?ea?iaeuei?e oai??? “ia/?oeiai” aeaaaeaiiy, ui a?aee?eei oeyo aeei?enoaiith eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e ia oac? neioaco eiino?oeoe?e oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee oa ?? aeaiaio?a. Cai?iiiiiaaii aoaeoeai? aeai?eoie eeanoa?-aiae?co aeey iiaoaeiae eeaneo?eaoe?e i?iaeoieo neooaoe?e a i?ioean? i?iaeooaaiiy oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee oa aeiaaeaii ?o ei?aeoi?noue. ?icaeyioo? ieoaiiy aaoiiaoecaoe??? io?eiaiiy e?aneaiue oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee, aeoiaey/e c ?? ia’?eoii? ?ioi?iaoe??ii? iiaeae?. Ia i?aenoaa? aeei?enoaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeieia?? a nenoaiao aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy i’yoe ??ciiaeae?a oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee anoaiiaeaii ?? aeinoia??i?noue. Iiaaaeaii ioe?ieo aeiiii?/ii? aeioe?eueiino? aeei?enoaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeieia?? i?e i?iaeooaaii? ??cieo aeae?a oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee. Eeth/ia? neiaa: oaoiieia?/ia inianoea, ?ino?oiaio, i?eniiniaa, ooaii, i?an-oi?ia, i?iaeooaaiiy, aaoiiaoeciaaia nenoaia i?iaeooaaiiy, ?ioi?iaoe?eia oaoiieia?y, ooo/iee ?ioaeaeo, o?aei, iaoeiia a?ao?ea. SUMMARY Zholtkevych G.M. Computer aided design methodology for technological equipment: theory and practices. – Monograph. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of engineering science on a speciality 05.02.08 – Technology of mechanical engineering. The Kharkhiv State Polytechnic University. Kharkiv 1999. The protecting work purpose is the affectivity of manufacture technological preparing increasing. The increasing based on the decreasing of technological equipment design expenses. The new technological equipment design methodology is the base for the work purpose realisation. The base of the methodology is modern design information handling methods. The methodology devises and grounds in the work. The peculiarities technological equipment design process as indirect information handling process is researched in the work. Different approaches to technological equipment modelling considered at the work and established that framework structures are adequate to technological equipment and description problems for their elements' constructions. Theoretical principles of framework modelling of technological equipment and their element constructions are devised and their SQL-database realisation is described. The computer graphical systems analyses showed that for the functional class of technological equipment corresponds own adequate method of geometrical modelling. Effective algorithms of sculptural curves modelling are devised. The algorithms are free from oscillation phenomena. The project solution method is grounded at the work. It based on the original theory of “fuzzy” deduction. These results made possible the using of computer technology during syntheses phase of technological equipment design. New results about cluster – analyses for elements of technological equipment are established. On this base effective algorithms for building project situations of technological equipment design process classification devised. Concerning with technological equipment drafts generation problems are considered at the work. The successful using new methodology of technology equipment design for devising five different kind of technological equipment is the proof of justifiability the methodology. The economic effectiveness of the methodology is marked. Key words: technological equipment, tool, device, punch, mould, design, computer aided design system, information technology, artificial intelligence, framework, computer graphics. AIIOAOeEss AEieoeaae/ A.I. Aaoiiaoecaoeey i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee: oai?ey e i?aeoeea. – Iiiia?aoey. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.08 – oaoiieiaey iaoeiino?iaiey. Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao. Oa?ueeia 1999 aiae. Iniiaiie oeaeueth oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony aeinoeaeaiea a i?ioeanna ecaioiaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee iioeiaeueiiai niioiioaiey iaaeaeo cao?aoaie ia i?iecaiaenoai e aai ?acoeueoaoaie Iaaethaeathuayny oaiaeaioeey oaaee/aiey aeiee iaeeina?eeiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e ?anoe?aiey iiiaieeaoo?u iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee i?eaiaeeo e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe e ea/anoaa oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa e aa aeieoiaioe?iaaiey. Iaeiei ec iai?aaeaiee onei?aiey oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony aaoiiaoecaoeey i?iaeoe?iaaiey n?aaenoa oaoiieiae/aneiai iniauaiey e, a /anoiinoe, oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee. Aaaeiinoue nie?auaiey cao?ao ia i?iaeoe?iaaiea e ecaioiaeaiea oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee iauyniyaony i?aaeaea anaai oai, /oi eiaiii oaoiieiae/aneay inianoea yaeyaony eiiiiiaioie oaoiieiae/aneie nenoaiu, io eioi?ie caaeneo aa aeaeinoue, a cia/eo e yooaeoeaiinoue a oneiaeyo iaeeina?eeiiai iiiaiiiiaieeaoo?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Oe?ieee niaeo? i?iaeai, eioi?ue ninoaaeyao i?aaeiaoiay iaeanoue oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa, enneaaeiaaeny o/aiuie e iao/iuie eieeaeoeaaie eae o ian a no?aia, oae e ca ?oaaaeii. I?e yoii neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi i?iaeaiu iaoiaeieiaee i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee e, iniaaiii, i?eiaiaiey a yoii i?ioeanna eiiiuethoa?iuo oaoiieiaee inoaeny, i?aeoe/anee, aia ciiu aieiaiey enneaaeiaaoaeae. A oao aea ?aaioao, eioi?ua iinayuaiu ianoiyuae i?iaeaiaoeea, eniieuecoaony oi?iuaiiue acaeyae ia i?ioeann i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee eae ia i?ioeann iioi/iiai (iieiinoueth caaeaiiiai ia/aeueiuie oneiaeyie e oaeoaie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe) oeia. Oaeie oi?iuaiiue iiaeoiae i?eaiaeeo e iaaiciiaeiinoe onoaiiaeaiey eiaa?eaioiuo eiiiiiaioia eco/aaiiai i?ioeanna, neaaenoaeai /aai yaeyaony ionoonoaea n?aaenoa aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee, niiniaiuo aaeaioe?iaaoueny e ?acee/iui aa aeaeai. Eiuie neiaaie, a ?aieao o?aaeeoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaea caaea/a i?iaeoe?iaaiey eaaeaeiai aeaea oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee yaeyaony oieeaeueiie, /oi aeaeaao iaaiciiaeiie ?ac?aaioeo iauae niaea?aeaoaeueiie e iao/ii iainiiaaiiie iaoiaeieiaee i?iaeoe?iaaiey, iniiaaiiie ia nia?aiaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaeyo. A ianoiyuae ?aaioa ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca iaueo caeiiiia?iinoae i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaoie/aneeo ono?ienoa e iniaaiiinoae yoiai i?ioeanna aeey oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee iauaeoeae?iaaia eiaa?eaioiay no?oeoo?a iineaaeiaai. Iaee/ea eiaa?eaioiie no?oeoo?u iicaieeei oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaoue e i?aeoe/anee ii?iaiaaoue iiaoth iaoiaeieiaeth i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee. Yoa iaoiaeieiaey aace?oaony ia i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?iaeoe?iaaiee inianoee eae ia eioi?iaoeeiiiii i?ioeanna iaaeaoa?ieie?iaaiiiai (ia iioi/iiai) oeia, ninoiyuaai ec o?ao iniiaiuo acaeiiaeaenoaothueo eiiiiiaioia: neioaca, aiaeeca e ioeaiee. Enneaaeiaaiea yoie iiaeaee iicaieeei onoaiiaeoue, /oi i?aaenoaaeaiea i iioi/iii oa?aeoa?a i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee ni?aaaaeeeai aeey i?inoaeoeo aa aeaeia aaeaeo oiai, /oi i?iaeoe?iaaiea oeacaiiuo aeaeia inianoee aace?oaony ia oieoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aoaieyo. Iineaaeiaa naiaeeo i?iaeoe?iaaiea e ?an/aoo ia?aiao?ia eiino?oeoeee ii caaeaiiie au/eneeoaeueiie noaia. A iauai neo/aa yae?ii i?ioeanna i?iaeoe?iaaiey yaeyaony oaca neioaca eiino?oeoeee, aeey eioi?ie oa?aeoa?iui yaeyaony i?eiyoea i?iaeoiuo ?aoaiee a oneiaeyo iaiieiiou eioi?iaoeee. A iniiao i?aaeeaaaaiie iaoiaeieiaee i?iaeoe?iaaiey iieiaeaia eioi?iaoeeiiiay iiaeaeue i?iaeoe?oaiiai iauaeoa, eioi?ay a eaaeaeue iiiaio i?ioeanna i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaeouoth i?iaeoioth eioi?iaoeeth. Oaeei ia?acii, i?iaeoe?iaaiea iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae i?ioeann i?aia?aciaaiey yoie iiaeaee n oeaeueth aeinoeaeaiey iieiiou eioi?iaoeee, iicaieythuae inouanoaeoue ecaioiaeaiea inianoee. Enneaaeiaaiea ?acee/iuo iiaeoiaeia e iiaeaee?iaaieth i?aaeiaoiuo iaeanoae nenoai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiea iicaieeei iainiiaaoue, /oi aeey caaea/ i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee iaeaieaa aaeaeaaoiuie yaeythony o?aeiiaua no?oeoo?u. A ?aaioa i?iaaaeaii oai?aoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea iaoiaeia eo i?aaenoaaeaiey e i?aaeeiaeaia ?aaeecaoeey a ?aieao SQL-aac aeaiiuo. A aeaeo oiai, /oi aaiiao?e/aneay eioi?iaoeey ninoaaeyao aei 85% i?iaeoiie eioi?iaoeee a iaoeiino?iaiee, enneaaeiaaiu ?acee/iua nenoaiu iaoeiiie a?aoeee e onoaiiaeaii, /oi eaaeaeiio ooieoeeiiaeueiiio eeanno yeaiaioia oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee niioaaonoaotho naie aaeaeaaoiue iaoiae aaiiao?e/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey. A nayce n oaaee/aieai eniieueciaaiey a iaoeiino?iaiee iiaa?oiinoae ieaciaiai oeia, /oi i?eaaei e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaeaee?iaaoue yeaiaiou oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee, eiathuea oaeiai oeia iiaa?oiinoe, ?anniio?aia caaea/a iino?iaiey yooaeoeaiiai aeai?eoia iiaeaee?iaaiey ieaciauo e?eauo, naiaiaeiiai io yaeaiey inoeeeeyoeee. Iineaaeiaa ii?iaeaeaao iaaaoeaiua oaoiieiae/aneea iineaaenoaey a i?ioeanna ecaioiaeaiey inianoee – auaeaeaeeaaiea iiaa?oiinoe eino?oiaioii a i?ioeanna ia?aaioee. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue a i?ioeanna i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee i?eiyoey ?aoaiee a oneiaeyo iaiieiiou eioi?iaoeee iinoaaeea caaea/o ?ac?aaioee iaoiaeia ?aoaiey yoie caaea/e. A ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeaia oai?ey “ia/aoeiai” auaiaea, eae iniiaa aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee a yoie neooaoeee. Eaeay oai?ee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ec eiathueony aeueoa?iaoea iaiaoiaeeii auae?aoue ?aoaiea n iaeaieueoae iaaeaaeiinoueth (eiyooeoeeaioii oaa?aiiinoe). A ?aaioa aeaii oi?iaeeciaaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea eiyooeoeeaioa oaa?aiiinoe e eceiaeaia iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiey “ia/aoeiai” auaiaea. ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeia eeanoa?-aiaeeca aeey eeanneoeeaoeee yeaiaioia oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee e neooaoeee, aicieeathueo a oiaea aa i?iaeoe?iaaiey, iicaieeei iino?ieoue yooaeoeaiua aeai?eoiu au/eneaiey oaeeo eeanneoeeaoeee, eioi?ua eaaee a iniiao iaoiaeia eiiaeiaoi?iiai neioaca eiino?oeoeee inianoee ec noaiaea?oiuo yeaiaioia. Ia iniiaaiee i?eiaiaiey i?aaeeaaaaiie iaoiaeieiaee a ?ac?aaioea nenoai aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iaeoe?iaaiey iyoe ?acee/iuo eeannia oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee, eioi?ua oniaoii yenieoaoe?othony ia 13 iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i aeinoiaa?iinoe oai?aoe/aneeo iieiaeaiee e i?aeoe/aneeo iaoiaeia, eceiaeaiiuo a ?aaioa. A ?aaioa oaeaea aeaia ioeaiea yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey i?aaeeiaeaiiie iaoiaeieiaee aeey ?aciuo aeaeia oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee. Aiaae?aiea nenoai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey iyoe aeaeia oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee, eioi?ua aace?othony ia i?aaeeiaeaiiie iaoiaeieiaee, iicaieeei iieo/eoue aei 1991 aiaea yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo a ?acia?a 565,2 oun. ?oa. Iiuo yenieoaoaoeee nenoai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey eiiieaeniie oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee oeia ooaiiia e i?an-oi?i a ia?eiae iinea 1991 aiaea iicaieee iieo/eoue neaaeothuea oa?aeoa?enoeee yooaeoeaiinoe: - oiaiueoaiea o?oaeiaieinoe i?iaeoe?iaaiey inianoee a iyoue ?ac; - oiaiueoaiea cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai inianoee ca n/ao iiauoaiey ea/anoaa i?iaeoiuo ?aaio e iioeiecaoeee aa eiino?oeoeee a aeaa ?aca; - oiaiueoaiea n?ieia iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa ecaeaeee a aeaa ?aca.. Eeth/aaua neiaa: oaoiieiae/aneay inianoea, eino?oiaio, i?eniiniaeaiea, ooaii, i?ann-oi?ia, i?iaeoe?iaaiea, aaoiiaoece?iaaiiay nenoaia i?iaeoe?iaaiey, eioi?iaoeeiiiay oaoiieiaey, eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo, o?aei, iaoeiiay a?aoeea. ___________________________________________ I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo OO.OO.99 ?. Oi?iao 60o90/16. Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1,0. Iae.-aeae. a?e. 1,0. Iaeeaae 100. Caiiaeaiiy OOO. ___________________________________________ i. Oa?e?a 16, aoe. E?eaieii?anueea, 30. Oa?e?anueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo oaoiieia?? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy.

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