I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao

Aaeoceinueeee Na?a?e Aiaoie?eiae/

OAeE 631.15

Aaainiaaiee eai?oae aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa:

oi?ioaaiiy, ioe?iea oa aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.07.02 — aeiiii?ea

n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? AIE

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aa?a?iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aiae??e/oe Aaneeue Aaa?eeiae/,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e aa?a?iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aa?a?ieo iaoe

Aeai’yiaiei Ieeiea sseiae/,

?inoeooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI,

cano. aee?aeoi?a, caa. a?aeae?eaiiyi o?iain?a oa o?iainiai?

?io?ano?oeoo?e

 — eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aeoi? Ieeiea Aaneeueiae/,

A?eioea?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaiaaeaeiaioo ? i?aaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie,

a?aeae?e aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei AIE, i.Ee?a

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny « 19 » aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.26.006.04 Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 252057, i.Ee?a,
i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 54/1, aoae.214.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee « 17 » ethoiai 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
Oaaeii?i I.N.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aei iaaeaaiueiai /ano o a?o/eciyi?e
aeiiii?/i?e iaooe? aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee noeoiiino? ?ano?n?a i?aei?e?inoaa
oe?iei canoiniaoaaeanue eaoaai??y ae?iaie/iai (?ano?niiai) iioaioe?aeo.
A?eueo?noue aeiiii?no?a ?icoi?ee i?ae oeei iiiyooyi noeoii?noue ?ano?n?a
i?aei?e?inoaa, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny eeoa o i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa
i?iaeoeoe??. I?ioa i?aei?e?inoai aieiae?? oaeiae cia/iith e?euee?noth
?ano?n?a, ui ia aa?ooue aaciina?aaeiuei? o/ano? o ae?iaie/iio
i?ioean? — ?ano?ne noa?e ia?ao, ia’?eoe nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? noa?e,
o?iainia? aeeaaeaiiy. Oe? aeaiaioe ia aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo ae?iaie/iai
(?ano?niiai) iioaioe?aeo, oi/a oaeiae caae?yi? o oi?ioaaii? ?acoeueoao?a
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa.

Eaoaai???th, yea oa?aeoa?eco? anth noeoii?noue ?ano?n?a i?aei?e?inoaa, ?
aaainiaaiee eai?oae. Canoinoaaiiy ?? a aeiiii?/i?e iaooe? oa ia
i?aeoeoe? iaoiiaeaia oi?ioaaiiyi o iao?e e?a?i? ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, ui e
aeiaaa? aeei?enoaiiy aeiiii?/ieo eaoaai??e, i?eoaiaiieo ?eieia?e
aeiiii?oe?.

Ieoaiiy eai?oaeo oe?eaaeei aeineoue oe?iea eiei iaoeiaoe?a. A?eueoith
i??ith oea noinoaaeinue oao?aoe?a iie?oe/ii? aeiiii??. Aecia/aiiy
eaoaai??? eai?oaeo cono??/a?oueny ua o i?aaenoaaiee?a eeane/ii? oeiee
iie?oaeiiii?? (A.Ni?o, Ae.??ea?aei, Aeae.I?eeue). Ia??oiooaaiith noo?
eaoaai??? eai?oaeo oa eeaneo?eaoe?? eiai neeaaeiaeo i?eae?eyeanue cia/ia
oaaaa a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo E.Ia?ena. Aea/aiiyi aeaii? eaoaai??? caeiaeenue
oaeiae A.Aai-Aaaa?e, E.A?enaeue, E.Ooiiaoa?, A.Ia?oaee, Aeae.?ia?inii oa
?io?. Aiie ?icaeyaeaee ieoaiiy aeioiaeo a?ae eai?oaeo, aieeao ??cieo
oaeoi??a (cao?ao i?aoe?, ei?eniino?, ??aeeino?) ia aa?o?noue eai?oaeo,
ieoaiiy iaoai?cio ?iciiae?eo noai?thaaiiai i?iaeoeoo i?ae oaeoi?aie
ae?iaieoeoaa (aecia/aiiy /anoee i?iaeoeoo, ui i?eiaaea? ia eiaeiee
ie?aiee oaeoi? ae?iaieoeoaa), iiieoo ia eai?oae oa eiai i?iiiceoe??
oiui.

I?ioa aaaeeeaa oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iathoue oaeiae ieoaiiy
aecia/aiiy neeaaeo eai?oaeo, aaainiaaiiai a on? aeaee ae?yeueiino?,
ia??oiooaaiiy aa?o?nii? ioe?iee eiai aeaiaio?a, aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
no?oeoo?e eai?oaeo ia o?iainiai-iaeiiaee noai i?aei?e?inoaa, aecia/aiiy
aoaeoeaiino? eiai aeei?enoaiiy oiui. Oiaoi oea ieoaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy
eai?oaeo ia ??ai? ie?aiiai i?aei?e?inoaa. E??i oiai, aaainiaaiee eai?oae
o iaoiio ?icoi?ii? a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae eaoaai??? eai?oaeo a ??
eeane/iiio cia/aii?, i?ae yeith ?icoi?thoue eeoa noeoii?noue cania?a
ae?iaieoeoaa.

Eaoaai??y aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo iiaa o a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?/i?e iaooe?.
A?o/eciyi? oao?aoe? o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ?icaeyaeathoue eeoa iaai?
noi?iie eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy — aieea caaacia/aiino? oa no?oeoo?e
aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ia o?iainiai-iaeiiaee noai i?aei?e?inoa
(I.Oioiieyinueeee, I.?o?iiaa, A.Eiaaeueia, N.Aieia oa ?io?), aa?o?nio
ioe?ieo eiai ie?aieo aeaiaio?a (A.Ianaeue-Aanaeye, I.Oaaei?ia,
O.Aeno?ay, N.Aieia, O.Ii?iciaa, A.Iiaiaeai?nueeee, A.Oi??i oa ?io?),
ieoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy (A.Caaeiinueeee, ?.Aeaie,
I.Aeai’yiaiei, I.?o?iiaa, ?.Iaaeaaae?aa, A.Iiaiaeai?nueeee oa ?io?)
oiui. Eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ye eaoaai???
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee oa anaa?/iee eiai ?icaeyae ciaoiaeeoue a?aeia?aaeaiiy
a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo A.Aiae??e/oea. I?ioa ?yae ieoaiue aeiaaathoue
iiaeaeueoiai a?eueo aeeaieiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oea noino?oueny
eeaneo?eaoe?? no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo, aeaea?ae
oi?ioaaiiy, oaeineiiaeaiiy aa?o?nii? ioe?iee neeaaeiaeo, aecia/aiiy
aieeao ?ioeyoe?eieo i?ioean?a ia eiai no?oeoo?o, aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy oa aeayeeo ?ioeo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo c oi/ee ci?o ye?niiai neeaaeo oa
e?euee?niiai aei??o, i?eioeei?a oi?ioaaiiy oa ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy ? aaaeeeaith aeiiii?/iith i?iaeaiith, ae??oaiiy yei?
aeanoue ciiao a?eueo eaae?o?eiaaii i?eeiaoe ??oaiiy uiaei ioe?iee
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai noaio i?aei?e?inoa, eiai ci?oeiaiiy oa
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa. Ia??oioiaaia aecia/aiiy neeaaeo ?
?ici??o aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ? ae?ae iaiao?aeiei aeey ia’?eoeaii?
ioe?iee ??aiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa, a oaeiae aeyaeaiiy ?aaeueiiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeaniei oa iice/eiaei eai?oaeii c oei, uia ia
ia?aeoe oo iaaeo, ca yeith iiaeaeueoa caeo/aiiy e?aaeeoieo ?ano?n?a
iiaea ianoe a nia? caa?ice ii?iaeueiiio ooieoe?iioaaiith i?aei?e?inoaa.
E??i oiai, aiae?c no?oeoo?e aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo aeicaieeoue anoaiiaeoe
iai?yie iioei?caoe?? aaee/eie eiai neeaaeiaeo aeaiaio?a c iaoith a?eueo
?aoe?iiaeueiiai ?o aeei?enoaiiy.

Iio?aaa c’ynoaaiiy cacia/aieo ieoaiue ? ia??oioiao? aea?? oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?th
aeeiiaii a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o eaoaae?e
aa?a?iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (oaia: (Oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio AIE a oiiaao
ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee», ? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??
UA01002102?).

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ice?eooy noo?
eaoaai??? aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo oa ia??oiooaaiiy iaoiaeieia?/ieo ?
iaoiaee/ieo aniaeo?a eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe a aeena?oaoe?? iinoaaeaii oa ?ica’ycaii oae?
iniiai? caaaeaiiy:

— c’yniaaii a?aei?iiino? aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo a?ae eaoaai??e
ae?iaie/iai (?ano?niiai) iioaioe?aeo oa eai?oaeo a eiai
caaaeueiii?eeiyoiio cia/aii?;

— ia??oioiaaii ye?niee neeaae aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo;

— aeine?aeaeaii a?aeia?aaeaiiy neeaaeiaeo aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo a
aooaaeoa?nuee?e ca?oiino?;

— i?iaiae?ciaaii a?o/eciyio oa i?aeia?iaeio i?aeoeeo aa?o?nii? ioe?iee
aeaiaio?a aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo;

— c’yniaaii aieea ?ioeyoe?eieo i?ioean?a ia aaee/eio oa no?oeoo?o
aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa;

— ia??oioiaaii iniiai? e?eoa??? oi?ioaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeaniei oa iice/eiaei eai?oaeii;

— oaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeieia?/i? oa iaoiaee/i? iniiae aecia/aiiy
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoeiaa iiaecia oa oai?aoe/ia
oe?ii?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

— cae?eniaii ooi/iaiiy noo? eaoaai??? aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo oa
cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th eiai neeaaeiaeo;

— ?ice?eoi iaaeie?ee iaoiaeieia?? iiaoaeiae aooaaeoa?nueeiai aaeaino
a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa oa cai?iiiiiaaii iai?yie ?? oaeineiiaeaiiy;

— ia??oioiaaii e?eoa??? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeaniei oa
iice/eiaei eai?oaeii;

— aianaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy ioe?iee o?iainiai-iaeiiaiai
noaio aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa;

— ia(?oioiaaii iaoiaeieia?th ? iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy oa aiae?co
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy
?acoeueoao?a, iaea?aeaieo a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, aeicaieeoue a?eueo
eaae?o?eiaaii i?eeiaoe ??oaiiy uiaei ioe?iee o?iainiai-iaeiiaiai noaio
aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa, iioeiaeueii oi?ioaaoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae
aeaniei oa iice/eiaei eai?oaeii, oi/i?oa aecia/aoe aoaeoeai?noue
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa ? ia iniia? oeueiai — oeyoe ?? i?aeaeuaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ?acoeueoaoe oa
aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? i?ieoee ai?iaaoe?th ia noi??ieao iioae?eiaaieo
iaoeiaeo noaoae. Iaoiaee/i? ieoaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaainiaaiiai
eai?oaeo aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa, ?ic?iaeai? a aeena?oaoe??, ciaoiaeyoue
i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy o ?iaio? oi?aae?iue n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
Aaeneinueeiai ?aeiio A?iieoeueei? oa Eaaa?eeoeueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei?
iaeanoae (a?aeiia?aeii aeoe i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??
a?ae 22 aa?aniy 1998 ?ieo ? 121 oa a?ae 25 aeiaoiy 1998 ?ieo ? 137), o
i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo?ao (aeia?aeea a?ae 5 aeiaoiy 1998 ?ieo ? 94).

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny oaeiae o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo i?e
aeeeaaeaii? aeayeeo oai c eo?no “Aeiiii?ea i?aei?e?inoa”.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? i?noyoueny o i’yoe noaooyo,
iioae?eiaaieo o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo, caaaeueiei ianyaii 1,9 ae?.a?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c
ia?ae?eo oiiaieo iicia/aiue, anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a iniiaii? /anoeie,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoeo. ?iaioa ia?aoiao?
156 noi??iie ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo, 32 oaaeeoe? oa 18 ?enoie?a. Nienie
aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae i?noeoue 123 iaeiaioaaiiy.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? aeena?oaoe?? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie a oiiaao
oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo oa caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieacaii iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a.

?icae?e 1. Nooue ? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo aa?a?ieo
i?aei?e?inoa

O ?icae?e? i?noeoueny ia??oiooaaiiy noo? eaoaai??? aaainiaaiiai
eai?oaeo, a?aei?iiinoae eiai a?ae eaoaai??? ae?iaie/iai (?ano?niiai)
iioaioe?aeo oa eai?oaeo a eiai eeane/iiio cia/aii?. Aecia/aii neeaaeia?
aeaiaioe aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo, cai?iiiiiaaii ?o eeaneo?eaoe?th noiniaii
noa? canoinoaaiiy oa c’yniaaii aieea ?ioeyoe?eieo i?ioean?a ia ?ici?? ?
no?oeoo?o aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie.

Aeey ia??oiooaaiiy noo? eaoaai??? aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo aaaeeeai
i?iaiae?coaaoe i?ioean i?aai?caoe?? i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?. ??
cae?eniaiiy iiaeeeaa ca oiiae iayaiino? a ia?oo /a?ao iaaii? e?eueeino?
a?ioiaeo eioo?a, oiaoi eai?oae ia?o ca ana aenooia? o a?ioia?e oi?i?.
Oea eiai, oae caaia, ia?a?nia oi?ia. C iaoith i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa
eai?oae o a?ioia?e oi?i? iiaeiai aooe iai?aaeaiee ia i?eaeaaiiy cania?a
ae?iaieoeoaa (aeeth/ath/e caieth ye iniiaiee can?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa) ? iaeiaiiy ?iai/i? neee. I?e
oeueiio a?i ia?aoiaeeoue a ?ioo oi?io — i?iaeoeoeaio, caeaoio
noai?thaaoe i?iaeoeo.

O i?ioean? noai?aiiy iaoa??aeueieo aeaa cae?enith?oueny ae?iaie/a
niiaeeaaiiy ?ano?n?a, oiaoi a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?ao?ae eai?oaeo a oiaa?io
oi?io. Eai?oae, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a oiaa?i?e oi?i?, aeeiio? ooieoe??
oiaa?o, a, ioaea, ioneoue aooe ?aae?ciaaiee, a ?acoeueoao? /iai a?i
ia?aeaea o naith ia?a?nio oi?io — a?ioiao. sseui ?icaeyaeaoe i?ioean
ae?iaieoeoaa ye aacia?a?aiee, oi a eiaeiee iiiaio /ano eai?oae
i?aei?e?inoaa ia?aaoaa? o o?ueio oi?iao. Iaeia eiai /anoeia
ciaoiaeeoueny o a?ioia?e oi?i?, ?ioa — o i?iaeoeoeai?e ? iaaia /anoeia
i?aaenoaaeaia oiaa?iith oi?iith. Ioaea, eai?oae i?aei?e?inoaa ia?aaoaa?
/anoeiai o noa?? ae?iaieoeoaa ? /anoeiai o noa?? ia?ao.

E??i oiai, aeayea /anoeia eai?oaeo i?aei?e?inoaa iiaea aaainoaaoenue
oaeiae a ?io? caniae iaae?iaie/i? noa?e. Oea noino?oueny eoi?ae? oe?iieo
iaia??a, aiane?a aei noaoooieo oiiae?a ?ioeo i?aei?e?inoa, e?aaeeooaaiiy
noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, o?iainoaaiiy ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e (aoae?aieoeoai caeeaae?a ioi?iie caei?ia’y,
ina?oe, o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e oiui).

O iie?oe/i?e aeiiii?? i?eeiyoi aeae?eyoe o?e iniiaieo oaeoi?e
ae?iaieoeoaa — caiey, i?aoey ? eai?oae. Eai?oae i?e oeueiio aeeth/a?
eeoa caniae ae?iaieoeoaa (iniiai? oa iai?ioi?). A aeena?oaoe??
ia??oioiao?oueny aeaui ?ioee i?aeo?ae aei o?aeooaaiiy neeaaeo eai?oaeo.
E?eoa???i a?aeianaiiy oiai /e ?ioiai aeaiaioa ae?iaieoeoaa aei neeaaeo
eai?oaeo iaie acyoi iayai?noue o eiaeiiai c ieo a?aeiia?aeieo
oa?aeoa?ieo iciae.

Oaeeie iciaeaie iiaeia aaaaeaoe:

— iayai?noue aa?o?nii? ioe?iee. Caniae ae?iaieoeoaa, caiey oa ?iai/a
neea iathoue aa?o?nio ioe?ieo;

— iiaeeea?noue aeeo/aiiy c i?ioeano ae?iaie/iai aeei?enoaiiy. Aeaniee
oaeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa iiaea a aoaeue-yeee iiiaio i?iaeaoe iaaio
e?euee?noue cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa, caie?, ca?eueieoe /anoeio iaeiaieo
i?aoe?aiee?a;

— aaciina?aaeiy o/anoue o ae?iaie/iio i?ioean? (o noai?aii? iiai?
aa?oino?). Iiaia a?aenooi?noue aoaeue-yeiai c ae?iaie/eo ?ano?n?a (/e
cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa, /e caie?, /e ?iai/i? neee) ?iaeoue iaiiaeeeaei
cae?eniaiiy i?ioeano ae?iaieoeoaa;

— ciin o i?ioean? ae?iaie/iai aeei?enoaiiy. C i?aeaeuaiiyi ?ioaineaiino?
ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano ciin eiaeiiai c oaeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa
a?aeaoaa?oueny a?eueo oaeaeeeie oaiiaie;

— iaiao?aei?noue a?aeoai?aiiy ae?iaie/eo ?ano?n?a aeey i?iaeiaaeaiiy
aoaeoeaiiai i?ioeano ae?iaieoeoaa. Aeaia iciaea aeieeaa? c
iiia?aaeiuei?, oiaoi ?c oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i iayai?noue ciino oaeoi??a
ae?iaieoeoaa;

— iaiao?aei?noue aeo?a/aiiy iaaii? e?eueeino? a?ioiaeo eioo?a ia
i?eaeaaiiy oaeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa, oiaoi iio?aaa aaainoaaiiy a eiaeiee c
ieo iaaii? noie a?ioiaeo eioo?a.

Caniae ae?iaieoeoaa, caiey oa ?iai/a neea aieiae?thoue ia?ae?/aieie
iciaeaie, ui e aeicaiey? ia’?aeiaoe ?o a iaeio eaoaai??th — eaoaai??th
aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo.

A?o/eciyieie aeiiii?noaie a oiiaao ieaiiai-oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aeiiii?ee
aeey ?ioaa?aeueii? ioe?iee noeoiiino? ?ano?n?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaeanue
eaoaai??y ae?iaie/iai (?ano?niiai) iioaioe?aeo.

Canoinoaaiiy ?? ia oie /an aoei aeineoue ia??oioiaaiei. Ae?iaie/ee
iioaioe?ae aeei?enoiaoaaee aeey aecia/aiiy aaee/eie ae?iaie/eo ?ano?n?a
oiai /e ?ioiai i?aei?e?inoaa, aoaeoeaiino? ?o aeei?enoaiiy aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy iiaeaeueoiai ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co a aeeiai?oe? /e ii a?oi?
ainiiaea?noa. Iaaoee oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeeee anoaiiaeaiiy ia
iniia? aaee/eie ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ieaoaae?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa aei athaeaeaoo oa ianya?a
aea?aeaaii? caeoi?ae? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??.

Noa?a canoinoaaiiy eaoaai??? ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo c ia?aoiaeii aei
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei caoceeanue. Aacia?a/ii, iaaia cia/aiiy oey eaoaai??y
ia? ? ca?ac. Aea ne?ae caa?iooe oaaao ia oo ianoaaeio, ui ae?iaie/ee
iioaioe?ae aeeth/a? eeoa aeaiaioe, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny o i?ioean?
ae?iaieoeoaa, a oie /an ye i?aei?e?inoai aieiae?? oaeiae ?ano?naie, ui
aaciina?aaeiuei ia caae?yi? o ae?iaie/iio i?ioean? — ?ano?ne noa?e
ia?ao, ia’?eoe nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, o?iainia? aeeaaeaiiy. Oe?
aeaiaioe ia ? neeaaeiaeie ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo, oi/a cia/iith i??ith
aieeaathoue ia ?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee an??? noeoiiino? cania?a i?aei?e?inoaa, ia iaoo
aeoieo, a aeaiee /an a?eueo ia??oioiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe eaoaai??th
aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo.

Aaainiaaiee eai?oae iiaeia aecia/eoe ye noeoii?noue ?ano?n?a, acyoeo ia
an?o noaae?yo ?o e?oaiia?ao, ui caaacia/othoue ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i?aei?e?inoaa ca an?ia iai?yiaie eiai ae?yeueiino?. Oiaoi e?euee?nii
aaainiaaiee eai?oae i?aaenoaaeaiee, ii noo?, aeoeaaie i?aei?e?inoaa, ui
a?aeia?aaeathoueny o aooaaeoa?nueeiio aaeain?. E??i oiai, aei neeaaeo
aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo aoiaeeoue oaeiae caiey, aa?o?noue yei? a aeaiee
/an ia ia? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o aooaaeoa?nueeiio aaeain? a?o/eciyieo
i?aei?e?inoa.

Neeaaeia? aeaiaioe aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe ca ??cieie
iciaeaie — ca noa?aie canoinoaaiiy, ca iaeaaei?noth, ca oaeaee?noth
iai?ioo oiui.

Aeey a?eueoi? iai/iino? neeaaeia? aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ca noa?aie ?o
canoinoaaiiy i?aaenoaaeii oaeith noaiith.

Aaainiaaiee eai?oae i?aei?e?inoaa

eai?oae noa?e ae?iaieoeoaa

iniiaiee eai?oae

eai?oae, aaainiaaiee a iniiai? caniae ae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy

eai?oae, aaainiaaiee o caiaeuei? ?ano?ne

eai?oae, aaainiaaiee o iaiaoa??aeuei? aeoeae ae?iaie/i? noa?e

iai?ioiee eai?oae

eai?oae, aaainiaaiee o i?aaeiaoe i?aoe?

eai?oae noa?e ia?ao

oiaa?iee eai?oae

a?ioiaee eai?oae

eai?oae, aaainiaaiee o iaiaoa??aeuei? aeoeae noa?e ia?ao

eai?oae, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a ?ic?aooieao

eai?oae noa?e o?iainiaeo aeeaaeaiue

eai?oae, aaainiaaiee o ei?ioeino?ieia? o?iainia? aeeaaeaiiy

eai?oae, aaainiaaiee o aeiaaino?ieia? o?iainia? aeeaaeaiiy

eai?oae nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? noa?e

?en.1.2(). Eeaneo?eaoe?y neeaaeiaeo aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ca noa?aie ?o
canoinoaaiiy

Ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a a Oe?a?i? ii/aany i?ioean ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee. I?ioa iaiiaia a?aooaaiiy ae?? aeiiii?/ieo caeii?a, niaae
ae?iaieoeoaa, nooo?aa i?aeaeuaiiy aa?oino? iieoiieo aia?aiiin??a,
iaaaeaea o?iainiai-e?aaeeoia oa oe?iiaa iie?oeea o?yaeo i?ecaaee aei
oiai, ui ?ioeyoe?y ia iaaiiio aoai? aoea iaeiio?ieueiaaiith.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? ci?ie aaee/eie aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo aa?a?ieo
i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie anoaiiaeaii, ui ca ia??iae c 1990 ?. ii 1997 ?.
aiia c?inea o 107,5 oen.?ac?a i?e oiio, ui oe?ie ia i?iieneiao
i?iaeoeoe?th (cie?aia ia i?iaeoeoe?th iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy) c?inee a
na?aaeiueiio a 220 oen.?ac?a. Nooo?a? ci?ie ca aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae
a?aeaoeenue ? o no?oeoo?? aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo. Oae, ieoiia aaaa
iniiaieo cania?a c?inea c 55,0-55,4% o 1991-93 ??. aei 86,8-82,1% o
1996-97 ??. Ui noino?oueny iai?ioieo cania?a, oi cieaeaiiy ieoiii? aaae
?o aeaiaio?a o no?oeoo?? aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo iniaeeaith i??ith
oi?eioeinue a?ioiaeo eioo?a oa ae?iaie/eo caian?a — a?aeiia?aeii c 11,5%
oa 19,3% o 1991 ?. aei 0,1% oa 4,3% o 1997 ?.

?icae?e 2. Iaoiaeieia?y aa?o?nii? ioe?iee aeaiaio?a aaainiaaiiai
eai?oaeo oa aeei?enoaiiy ?? aeaieo aeey ioe?iee iiceoe?? i?aei?e?inoaa
ia ?eieo

A ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii iaoiaeieia?/i? aniaeoe aa?o?nii? ioe?iee
aeaiaio?a aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo, ia??oioiaaii iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei
aecia/aiiy ia ?? iniia? iiceoe?? i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo, a oaeiae
c’yniaaii i?eioeeie oi?ioaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae
aeaniei oa iice/eiaei eai?oaeii.

Iniaeeai? oaaae a aeena?oaoe?? i?eae?eaii i?eioeeiai aa?o?nii? ioe?iee
aeaiaio?a aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo, ui a?aeia?aaea?oueny a aaeain?
aooaaeoa?nueei? ca?oiino? i?aei?e?inoaa. Oey ?ioi?iaoe?y ? iaea?eueo
aeinooiiith aeey oe?ieiai eiea ca?ioa?aniaaieo in?a, /ei ?
iaoiiaeth?oueny aaaeeea?noue ia’?eoeaiiai ?? a?aeia?aaeaiiy. Iniiaith
aa?o?nii? ioe?iee aeaiaio?a aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo a?o/eciyieo
i?aei?e?inoa ? i?eioeei a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?o ca oaeoe/ieie aeo?aoaie ia
i?eaeaaiiy /e aeania ae?iaieoeoai. I?ioa a ia??iae ?ioeyoe??
aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai i?eioeeio i?ecaiaeeei aei caieaeaiiy noaoae aeo?ao,
a, ioaea, ? nia?aa?oino? ?aae?ciaaii? i?iaeoeoe??. Iniaeeaith i??ith oea
noinoaaeinue i?aei?e?inoa c o?eaaeei ae?iaie/ei oeeeeii. O oie /an, eiee
i?eaooie a aooaaeoa?nueeiio iae?eo aeyaeyany caaeuaiei, aaaaoi ooi c
ei?enooaa/?a aooaaeoa?nueei? ca?oiino? (iiaeaoeia? i?aaie, aeoe?iia?e,
/eaie o?oaeiaiai eieaeoeao) a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a i?iaeiaaeoaaee
?icaeyaeaoe eiai ye ?acoeueoao i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoaa. Oea ni?e/eiyei ca?eueoaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo ieaoaae?a, iiyao
aeiia aeoe?iia??a uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aaee/eie aeea?aeaiae?a, /eai?a
o?oaeiaeo eieaeoea?a — aei i?aeaeuaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe. O aeiaaeeo
?ico?ao oa ianoa/ oiaa?ii-iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae, aeii?
a?aeoeiaeiaoaaee ?o iae?eiao aa?o?noue, yea aoea iaaaaaoi ieae/ith
?eieiai?. ?, ia?aoo?, o?aaeeoe?ei? iaoiaee ioe?iee aeoea?a a ia??iae
?ioeyoe?? ia noai?thaaee ?aaeueii? oyae uiaei iaeiiaiai caaacia/aiiy
acyoeo e?aaeeo?a oa ieaoini?iiiaeiino? i?aei?e?inoa.

Ana oea ? i?ecaaei aei iaiao?aeiino? ia??iaee/iiai i?iaaaeaiiy
ia?aioe?iie aeaiaio?a aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo. Oae, iinoaiiaaie Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie ? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie a?ae 19 ea?oiy
1993 ?ieo ? 279 “I?i ii?iaoeae caian?a oiaa?ii-iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae
aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e oa aeaea?aea ?o iie?eooy” oa
a?ae 13 aa?aciy 1995 ?ieo ? 173 “I?i ia?aioe?ieo caeeoe?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??, iieiaeiyea ooaeiae ? ioeoe?,
oaa?ei ia a?aeaiae?ae? oa iacaaa?oaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa” i?aei?e?inoaai
aoei aeicaieaii i?iaaaeaiiy ia?aioe?iee oiaa?ii-iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae
ia 1 /enei i?nyoey a?aeiia?aeii aei ?inoo oe?i ia ieo. Ui noino?oueny
iniiaieo cania?a, oi ca?aeii c i.8.3.3 Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i aianaiiy ci?i
aei Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?eaooeo i?aei?e?inoa” a?ae
22 o?aaiy 1997 ?ieo ? 283/97-A?, i?aei?e?inoaa i?e iayaiino? ?ioeyoe??
iiaeooue canoiniaoaaoe ui??/io ?iaeaenaoe?th ?o aa?oino?. Oae?
ia?aioe?iee aeaiaio?a aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo oi/ ? aeicaieythoue iaoe a
aooaaeoa?nuee?e ca?oiino? ?o aa?o?noue aeecueeo aei ?aaeueii?, noie
aeiioe?iie iaeaaeaoue iiiaeaoeoaaiith iiaeaoeii c i?eaooeo (noiniaii
iniiaieo cania?a ? oiaa?ii-iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae a?aeiia?aeii i.8.3.3
oa i.5.9 Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i aianaiiy ci?i aei Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?eaooeo i?aei?e?inoa” a?ae 22 o?aaiy 1997 ?ieo
? 283/97-A?), ui, cae/aeii, iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia iiaeeeaino?
i?aei?e?inoa uiaei a?aeoai?aiiy niiaeeoeo o i?ioean? ae?yeueiino?
aeaiaio?a aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo.

Ia iniia? aeaieo aa?o?nii? ioe?iee aeaiaio?a aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo
aecia/athoue iiceoe?th i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo, yeo a aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii ?icaeyaeaoe c oi/ee ci?o eiai iaeiiaiai oa
o?iainiaiai noaio. I?e c’ynoaaii? iaeiiaiai noaio aeioe?eueii
aiae?coaaoe caaacia/ai?noue i?aei?e?inoaa iniiaieie oa iai?ioieie
caniaaie, a i?e c’ynoaaii? o?iainiaiai noaio — ni?iiiaei?noue
i?aei?e?inoaa iiaaneoe ai?ae oa iiaeeea?noue i?iaeiaaeaiiy iei i?ney
oeueiai i?ioeano ae?iaieoeoaa. Iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy iiceoe??
i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe ca aeiiiiiaith oaei? noaie.

Aecia/aiiy
iiceoe??

i?aei?e?inoaa
ia ?eieo

Aiae?c iaeiiaiai
Aiae?c o?iainiaiai

noaio
noaio

Aiae?c caaacia/aiino? Aiae?c ieaoi-
Aiae?c caeaoiino?

oa no?oeoo?e ni?iiiaeiino?
i?iaeiaaeaiiy i?i-

oeano ae?iaieoeoaa

iniiaieo iai?ioieo Aiae?c
iieacie-

cania?a cania?a
e?a e?ea?aeiino?

oiiaeiiniauai?noue oiiaeiiniauai?noue

oa oiiaeiica?i?i?noue oa oiiaeiica?i?i?noue eiao. aan.

e?ea?aeiino?

ci?ia ieoiii? ci?ia ieoiii?

aaae a aeoeaao aaae a aeoeaao eiao. oaeaeei?
e?ea?aeiino?

ci?ia ieoiii? ci?ia ieoiii?

aaae aeaea?ae aaae aeaea?ae
eiao. iie?eooy

oi?ioaaiiy oi?ioaaiiy

iieacieee noaio ci?ia no?oeoo?e

oa ?ooo ini. can. iai?. eai?oaeo

?en.2.6. Aecia/aiiy iiceoe?? i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo

I?iaiae?coaaaoe aeai? ca?oiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa
Oe?a?ie, aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui ca ia??iae c 1990 ?. ii 1997 ?.
a?aeaoeinue nooo?aa iia??oaiiy iaeiiaiai e o?iainiaiai noaio ia?aaaaeii?
?o a?eueoino?. I?aeaeueany ??aaiue ciino iniiaieo cania?a (c 0,218 o
1991 ?. aei 0,377 o 1997 ?.). Nooo?ai cieceeanue caaacia/ai?noue
iai?ioieie caniaaie. O aeaea?aeao oi?ioaaiiy iniiaieo cania?a o aeaiee
/an iaeaea iiai?noth a?aenooi? caeo/ai? aeaea?aea. Niinoa??aa?oueny
cieaeaiiy ieoiii? aaae aeanieo aeaea?ae o no?oeoo?? aeaea?ae oi?ioaaiiy
iai?ioieo cania?a. Iia??oaiiy iaeiiaiai noaio aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa ia
iiaei ia aieeiooe iaaaoeaii ia ?o ieaoini?iiiaei?noue. Oae, ca ia??iae c
1990 ?. ii 1997 ?. a?aeaoeinue cia/ia cieaeaiiy iieaciee?a e?ea?aeiino?
(iieacieee aaniethoii? e?ea?aeiino?, oaeaeei? e?ea?aeiino? oa iie?eooy
ei?ioeino?ieiaeo ai?a?a cieceeenue a?aeiia?aeii c 1,022, 1,246, 3,738 o
1990 ?. aei 0,012, 0,215, 1,034 o 1997 ?.).

Iiceoe?th i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo cia/iith i??ith oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?
iieacieee aoaeoeaiino? eiai ae?yeueiino?. Ia ieo oaaaa aoaea
cina?aaeaeaia ieae/a.

Ca aeaea?aeaie oi?ioaaiiy ?ic??ciythoue aeaniee oa iice/eiaee eai?oae.
Aeaniee eai?oae — oea /anoeia cania?a i?aei?e?inoaa, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a
eiai aeaniino?. Aeaea?aeaie oi?ioaaiiy aeaniiai eai?oaeo iiaeooue aooe
iaeia? aianee o/aniee?a oa aeione aeoe?e, i?eaooie, iaea?aeaiee a
?acoeueoao? i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, i?eeiyooy aei neeaaeo
aeoe?iia??a i?aei?e?inoaa e?aaeeoi??a ii ei?ioeino?ieiaeo oa
aeiaaino?ieiaeo ai?aao, a?ioia? eiooe, ui iaaeoiaeyoue ca ?aooiie
iiaea?oaoaaiue, aeaaiae?eieo oa niiini?nueeeo aiane?a, a?ae i?iaeaaeo
caeeaaeaiiai iaeia ai?aeieea oiui. Aea i?aei?e?inoai, ui aeei?enoiao?
eeoa aeaniee eai?oae, iicaaaeaia iiaeeeaino? oaeaeeiai ca?eueoaiiy
ianooaa?a ae?iaieoeoaa i?e iiya? ni?eyoeeai? eii’thieoo?e ?eieo. E??i
oiai, aeaye? aaeoc? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa (?, cie?aia, n?euenueea
ainiiaea?noai) iathoue naciiiee oa?aeoa? ae?iaieoeoaa, a, ioaea, e ??cio
iio?aao a caniaao ae?iaieoeoaa i?ioyaii ?ieo, ui aeiaaa? aeiaeaoeiaiai
?o caeo/aiiy a ia??iaee i?aeaeuaiiy ae?iaie/i? aeoeaiino?.

Ona oea ? ni?e/eiy? iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy iice/eiaiai
eai?oaeo — /anoeie cania?a i?aei?e?inoaa, noi?iiaaieo ca ?aooiie
caeo/aieo aeaea?ae, aa?o?noue yeeo iiaeiia aooe a?aeoeiaeiaaia aeanieeo
/a?ac iaaiee no?ie a iaoiiaeai?e oi?i?.

Iiae?e aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ia aeaniee oa iice/eiaee aeineoue iai/ii
a?aeia?aaea?oueny a ianea? aooaaeoa?nueeiai aaeaino i?aei?e?inoa e?a?i c
?icaeiooith ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith. Ui ae noino?oueny a?o/eciyii?
aooaaeoa?nueei? ca?oiino?, oi a aeaiee /an niinoa??aa?oueny iaaeeaeaiiy
?? aei i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a. Oae, inoaii?i /anii c ia?oiai ?icae?eo
ianeao aaeaino aaea ia?aianai? noaoo? “?ic?aooiee c o/anieeaie”,
“?ic?aooiee ca iaeii”, “Caai?aiaai?noue ca iaeii a i?aiae?”,
“?ano?oeoo?eciaaiee ai?a”, “A?aeno?i/aia iiaeaoeiaa caai?aiaai?noue” aei
?icae?e?a ianeao, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ciaia’ycaiiy (aei?a/?
iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy oaeeo ci?i o ianea? aaeaino ia(?oioiaoaaeanue
a aeena?oaoe?? oa iioae?eiaaieo iaoeiaeo noaooyo). I?ioa c iaoith a?eueo
oi/iiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ia?oiio ?icae?e? ianeao aaeaino a?o/eciyieo
i?aei?e?inoa aeaniiai eai?oaeo, ia iaoo aeoieo, iaiao?aeia ia?aianaiiy c
iueiai oaeiae “Oe?eueiaiai o?iainoaaiiy ia iniia? iiaa?iaiiy”, “?aca?ao
ianooiii? iieaoe a?aeionoie”, “Aeioiae?a, iaea?aeaieo o ca?oiiio
ia??iae?, ui a?aeiinyoueny aei iaeaooi?o ia??iae?a”.

Iaeiei ?c aieiaieo ieoaiue o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee i?aei?e?inoaa
? iioei?caoe?y no?oeoo?e eiai aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo c oi/ee ci?o
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeaniei oa iice/eiaei eai?oaeii. C oe??th iaoith
aaaeeeai aecia/eoe e?eoa???, ye? ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe i?e oi?ioaaii?
no?oeoo?e eai?oaeo i?aei?e?inoaa.

Iniiaiei e?eoa???i, ui oa?aeoa?eco? aeioe?euei?noue aeiaeaoeiaiai
caeo/aiiy eai?oaeo, ? ??no ii?ie i?eaooeo ia aeaniee eai?oae ye
?acoeueoao oaeiai caeo/aiiy. Oiaoi aeiaeaoeiaa caeo/aiiy eai?oaeo
aeioe?eueia ca oiiae, ui aiii caaacia/o? ??no ii?ie i?eaooeo ia aeaniee
eai?oae.

I?ae iieacieeii ii?ie i?eaooeo ia aeaniee eai?oae (IAE) oa noaaeith
ieaoe ca aeiaeaoeiaa caeo/aiiy eai?oaeo (II) ?nio? ca’ycie, yeee iiaeia
a?aeia?aceoe ca aeiiiiiaith oaei? oi?ioee:

, (2.7)

aea IAE — ii?ia i?eaooeo ia aaainiaaiee eai?oae;

IE — aaee/eia iice/eiaiai (caeo/aiiai) eai?oaeo;

AE — aaee/eia aeaniiai eai?oaeo.

Oaeei /eiii, iiceoeaiee aoaeo aeiaeaoeiaiai caeo/aiiy eai?oaeo aoaea
iaoe i?noea eeoa ca oiiae, eiee ii?ia i?eaooeo ia aaainiaaiee eai?oae
ia?aaeuoaaoeia noaaeo ieaoe ca caeo/aiiy eai?oaeo.

sseui a?aoiaoaaoe ?nioaaiiy iiaeaoeo c i?eaooeo, oi i?e anoaiiaeaii?
ca’yceo i?ae ieaoith ca caeo/aiiy eai?oaeo oa ii?iith i?eaooeo ia
aeaniee eai?oae ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe aeaa aa??aioe — a?aeianaiiy ieaoe ca
caeo/aiiy eai?oaeo ia nia?aa?o?noue oa a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy ieaoe ca
caeo/aiiy eai?oaeo ca ?aooiie i?eaooeo, ui caeeoa?oueny i?ney
cae?eniaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo ieaoaae?a.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeieacaii, ui i?e a?aeianaii? ieaoe ca caeo/aiiy eai?oaeo
ia nia?aa?o?noue (oeae aa??aio oa?aeoa?iee aeey iaoi? e?a?ie noiniaii
??ciiai aeaeo e?aaeeo?a) ii?ia i?eaooeo ia aeaniee eai?oae aoaea
aei??aithaaoe:

, (2.9)

aea NI- noaaea iiaeaoeo c i?eaooeo, eiao.

Oi?ioea ii?ie i?eaooeo ia aeaniee eai?oae aeaui ci?ieeanue. I?ioa
aeniiaie uiaei aoaeoo o?iainiaiai e?aa?eaeaeo caeeoa?oueny oie
naiee — ca?eueoaiiy /anoee iice/eiaiai eai?oaeo aoaea aea?aeia eeoa
oiae?, eiee ii?ia i?eaooeo ia aaainiaaiee eai?oae ia?aaeuoaaoeia noaaeo
ieaoe ca caeo/aiiy eai?oaeo.

Ca oiiae a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy ieaoe ca caeo/aiiy eai?oaeo ca ?aooiie
i?eaooeo, ui caeeoa?oueny i?ney cae?eniaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo ieaoaae?a (oaea
nenoaia ae?yea a Oe?a?i? aei ii/aoeo 1995 ?ieo a?aeiinii aeiaaino?ieiaeo
e?aaeeo?a ? c 1 n?/iy 1995 ?ieo ii 1 eeiiy 1997 ?ieo noiniaii o?iainiaeo
e?aaeeo?a, ui ia a?aeiineeenue aei oeo, ye? aoee iaea?aeai? ia
iiiiaiaiiy aeanieo iai?ioieo eioo?a, i?eaeaaiiy iniiaieo ae?iaie/eo
oiiae?a ? iaiaoa??aeueieo aeoea?a aeey iioi/ii? ae?iaie/i?
ae?yeueiino?), ii?ia i?eaooeo ia aeaniee eai?oae aei??aithaaoeia:

(2.11)

Oaeei /eiii, i?e a?aeoeiaeoaaii? aeo?ao ia aeiaeaoeiaa caeo/aiiy
eai?oaeo ca ?aooiie i?eaooeo, iiceoeaiee aoaeo o?iainiaiai e?aa?eaeaeo
aoaea iaoe i?noea eeoa oiae?, eiee

(2.12)

Oi/a o aeaiee /an aei nia?aa?oino? aeeth/athoueny aoaeue-ye? aeo?aoe,
iia’ycai? c aeieaoith i?ioeaio?a ii ai?aiaeo ciaia’ycaiiyo, aeaio
oi?ioeo iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?e aecia/aii? aeioe?eueiino? caeo/aiiy
eioo?a ca ?aooiie aeioneo i?ea?eaeiaaieo aeoe?e, oiaoi, eiee iaia?aae
a?aeiiee i?ioeaio ii aeoe?yo ? aeieaoa eiai i?iaiaeeoueny ca ?aooiie
i?eaooeo, ui caeeoa?oueny o ?icii?yaeaeaii? i?aei?e?inoaa i?ney nieaoe
iiaeaoeiaeo ieaoaae?a.

I?e ii/aoeiaiio oi?ioaaii? aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo (i?e noai?aii?
i?aei?e?inoaa) aeieea? iio?aaa c’ynoaaiiy oiai, ye? aeaea?aea (aeani? /e
caeo/ai?) ne?ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey oeueiai. Aeey ae??oaiiy aeaiiai
ieoaiiy aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe i?eioeei i?i?i?caoe??
na?aaeiueicaaaeaii? aa?oino? aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo().

NAA+NAI min

aea NAA — na?aaeiueicaaaeaia aa?o?noue aeaniiai eai?oaeo;

NAI — na?aaeiueicaaaeaia aa?o?noue iice/eiaiai eai?oaeo.

I?e oi?ioaaii? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeaniei oa iice/eiaei aaaeeeai
oaeiae a?aoiaoaaoe oaeoi? caa?aaeaiiy i?aei?e?inoaii aeinoaoiueiai ??aiy
ieaoini?iiiaeiino?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ye aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai??? c oi/ee
ci?o aeaea?ae eiai oi?ioaaiiy, aa?o?nii? ioe?iee neeaaeiaeo aeaiaio?a,
no?oeoo?e oa aieeao ?? ia ieaoini?iiiaei?noue i?aei?e?inoa aaaeeeai
aeiiiaieoe oaeiae anaa?/iei aea/aiiyi aoaeoeaiino? eiai aeei?enoaiiy.

?icae?e 3. Iaoiaee/i? ieoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aaainiaaiiai
eai?oaeo aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa

O ?icae?e? cai?iiiiiaaii nenoaio iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
aaainiaaiiai oa aeaniiai eai?oaeo, ia??oioiaaii iaoiaeeeo ?o aecia/aiiy,
anoaiiaeaii iayai?noue oa aaee/eio ca’yceo i?ae oaeoi?aie, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue no?oeoo?o aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo oa caaacia/ai?noue
ae?iaieoeoaa ie?aieie eiai neeaaeiaeie, ? ?acoeueoaoeaieie iieacieeaie
ae?yeueiino? aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa.

I?e aecia/aii? i?noey iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aaainiaaiiai
eai?oaeo a nenoai? ?acoeueoaoeaieo iieaciee?a ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoaa, o aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii ?ic??ciyoe ?acoeueoaoeai?
iieacieee ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoaa, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ianooaae
eiai ae?yeueiino?, oa ?acoeueoaoeai? iieacieee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue
aoaeoeai?noue ae?yeueiino? (aeea.?en.3.1).

A aeena?oaoe?? ia??oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ia noaae?? ae?iaieoeoaa, aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ia an?o noaae?yo eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy
oa aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa a oe?eiio.

?acoeueoaoeai? iieacieee

ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa

Iieacieee, ui oa?aeoa?e- Iieacieee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue
i?eaooie ia 1aa n/a oa?aeue

cothoue ianooaae ae?yeueiino? aoaeoeai?noue
ae?yeueiino? ?aioaaaeuei?noue i?iaeaaeo

aaeiaee aeio?ae ia 1aa n/a oa?aeue

ii?ia ?aioaaaeueiino?

i?eaooie ia iaeeieoeth AE*)

Iieacieee Iieacieee Iieacieee
aoaeoeaiino?

ianooaa?a ianooaa?a aeei?enoaiiy
aeei?enoaiiy AE

ae?iaieoeoaa aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo

*anoeia? Caaaeuei? i?eaooie ia iaeeieoeth AE*)

AI ia 1aa n/a oa?aeue aeo?aoe ca?oiiai ?ieo

ia iaeeieoeth AE (AE)
iniiaieo cania?a Aoaeoeai?noue i?eaooie ia iaee-

OI ia 1aa n/a oa?aeue iai?ioieo cania?a aeei?. AE
ieoeth AE

AI, OI ia iaeeie- o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a

oeth AE (AE)
cai. ?ano?n?a Aoaeoeai?noue a?aeiioaiiy AI o

aeei?. AE ia ni?anoaaieo
oe?iao aei

noaae?? ae?iai. AI ca
nia?aa?o?noth

?en.3.1. ?acoeueoaoeai? iieacieee ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa

I?ei?oea.

1. *) A?aei?iiino? i?ae iieacieeaie iieyaathoue o aaee/ei? i?eaooeo, ui
aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey ?o aecia/aiiy.

Aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ia noaae??
ae?iaieoeoaa — oea iaea?eueo aocueea (na?aae cacia/aieo) iiiyooy. Aiii
oa?aeoa?eco? eeoa noa?o ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe??. Iieacieee aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ia noaae?? ae?iaieoeoaa ia caeaaeaoue
a?ae oiai, iane?eueee aoaeoeaiith aeyaeeanue ?aae?caoe?y aioiai?
i?iaeoeoe??, iica?aae?caoe?ei? /e eiia?oe?ei? iia?aoe??. Aeey
oa?aeoa?enoeee aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ia
noaae?? ae?iaieoeoaa cai?iiiiiaaii canoiniaoaaoe iieaciee, ui
aecia/a?oueny a?aeiioaiiyi aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe??, ae?iaeaii? ca
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae, o ni?anoaaieo oe?iao aei aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe??
ca nia?aa?o?noth.

Iiiyooy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ia an?o noaae?yo
eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa?aeoa?eco? ye noa?o ae?iaieoeoaa, oae ? ?io?
noa?e, o yeeo caae?yiee aaainiaaiee eai?oae — ?aae?caoe?th aioiai?
i?iaeoeoe??, iica?aae?caoe?ei?, eiia?oe?ei? iia?aoe?? oiui. E??i oiai,
iieaciee aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ia a?aei?io
a?ae aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa ia caeaaeeoue a?ae oiai, ca
?aooiie yeeo naia aeaea?ae (aeanieo /e caeo/aieo) aoa noi?iiaaiee
eai?oae, oa a?ae iayaiino? aeo?ao, ia iia’ycaieo c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi
aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo (aeo?ao c? no?aooaaiiy iaeia oa a?iaeath,
iiaeaoeiaeo ieaoaae?a oiui). A?aoiaoth/e aeeeaaeaia, aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ia an?o noaae?yo eiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?eaooie aei ae?aooaaiiy
iiaeaoeo c i?eaooeo, aei cae?eniaiiy ieaoe ca ei?enooaaiiy e?aaeeoieie
?ano?naie, ieaoe ca ei?enooaaiiy caniaaie ae?iaieoeoaa, iaea?aeaieie ia
oiiaao i?aiaee, oa no?aoiaeo ieaoaae?a. Aeey aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoaa a oe?eiio (ye ? aeey aecia/aiiy
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aeaniiai eai?oaeo) iaea?eueo aeioe?eueia
aeei?enoaiiy i?eaooeo, ui caeeoa?oueny o ?icii?yaeaeaii? i?aei?e?inoaa
(oiaoi i?eaooeo i?ney iiiaeaoeoaaiiy), ca i?ionii oo?aoieo naieoe?e,
niea/aieo i?aei?e?inoaii.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? aca?iica’yceo i?ae iieacieeaie caaacia/aiino? oa
no?oeoo?e aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ? ?acoeueoaoeaieie iieacieeaie
ae?yeueiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa Eaaa?eeoeueeiai
?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano? anoaiiaeaii ianooiia:

— cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy ieoiii? aaae iaiai?ioieo aeoea?a o no?oeoo??
aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo i?ecaiaeeoue aei iia??oaiiy no?oeoo?e aaainiaaiiai
eai?oaeo, ? o ca’yceo c oeei aei cieaeaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaieo iieaciee?a
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa;

— c i?aeaeuaiiyi /anoee iai?ioieo aeoea?a no?oeoo?a aaainiaaiiai
eai?oaeo i?aei?e?inoa iie?ioo?oueny, ui ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino?
ae?yeueiino?. I?ioa i?eaooie c?inoa? ieae/eie oaiiaie ii??aiyii c ?inoii
aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ? oiio niinoa??aa?oueny cieaeaiiy ii?ie i?eaooeo
ia aaainiaaiee eai?oae;

— i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy caaacia/aiino? iai?ioieie caniaaie a ?ic?aooieo ia
iaeeieoeth iaiai?ioieo aeicaiey? a?eueo aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
inoaii? oa iaea?aeoaaoe aeu? iieacieee ae?yeueiino?. Cieaeaiiy ae ii?ie
i?eaooeo ia aaainiaaiee eai?oae, ui niinoa??aa?oueny ca oeeo oiia,
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e iaeii/aniiio c?inoaii? iieacieea aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ia noaae?? ae?iaieoeoaa. Ioaea,
iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aaaaoi i?aei?e?inoa caciathoue aeiiii?/ieo
ao?ao ia noaae?? ?aae?caoe?? ae?iaeaii? i?iaeoeoe??;

— c i?aeaeuaiiyi ??aiy caaacia/aiino? ae?iaieoeoaa aaainiaaiei eai?oaeii
o ?ic?aooieo ia 1aa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue c?inoa?
ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoe?? (aaeiai?, oiaa?ii?), i?ioa oaea c?inoaiiy
a?aeaoaa?oueny ieae/eie oaiiaie ii??aiyii c ?inoii aaainiaaiiai
eai?oaeo, a ?acoeueoao? /iai niinoa??aa?oueny cieaeaiiy iieacieea
a?aeaea/? aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ca aaeiaith i?iaeoeoe??th;

— i?e i?aeaeuaii? ??aiy caaacia/aiino? ae?iaieoeoaa iai?ioieie caniaaie
a ?ic?aooieo ia 1aa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue niinoa??aa?oueny
i?aeaeuaiiy iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa;

— ia caiaeueieo oa?aeaeyo aeui? aa?oino? niinoa??aathoueny a?eueo aenie?
iieacieee ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa. Iiyniaiiyi oeueiai ? oa, ui
aa?o?noue caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a cia/iith i??ith oa?aeoa?eco? ?o ye?noue, a
aeei?enoaiiy a?eueo ye?nieo ?ano?n?a caaacia/o? a?eueoo eiia??i?noue
iaea?aeaiiy aeueo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ca aeaieie cae?eniaiiai a aeena?oaoe?? ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa?an?eiiai aiae?co
anoaiiaeaii aaee/eio oa ?noioi?noue ca’yceo i?ae iieacieeaie
caaacia/aiino? oa no?oeoo?e aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ? ?acoeueoaoeaieie
iieacieeaie ae?yeueiino? aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa Eaaa?eeoeueeiai ?aeiio
Ee?anueei? iaeano?.

aeniiaee

Iaiao?aei?noue oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy eaoaai??? aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ia
no/aniiio aoai? aeeeeeaia noaiiaeaiiyi ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Aecia/aiiy
neeaaeo oa ?aaeueii? aa?o?nii? ioe?iee aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo aeicaiey?
a?eueo oi/ii anoaiiaethaaoe ieaoini?iiiaei?noue i?aei?e?inoaa oa
aoaeoeai?noue eiai ae?yeueiino?. Ia??oioiaaiee aea?? aeaea?ae eiai
oi?ioaaiiy aea? ciiao iioei?coaaoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeaniei oa
iice/eiaei eai?oaeii, a, ioaea, ? i?aeaeueoe iieacieee aoaeoeaiino?.

Aaainiaaiee eai?oae — oea noeoii?noue ?ano?n?a, acyoeo ia an?o noaae?yo
?o e?oaiia?ao, ui caaacia/othoue ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoaa ca an?ia
iai?yiaie eiai ae?yeueiino?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ye?niiai neeaaeo oa e?euee?niiai aei??o aaainiaaiiai
eai?oaeo, i?eioeei?a oi?ioaaiiy eiai no?oeoo?e oa aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe ianooiia:

1. Aaainiaaiee eai?oae a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae eaoaai??? eai?oaeo a ??
eeane/iiio cia/aii?, i?ae yeith ?icoi?thoue noeoii?noue eeoa cania?a
ae?iaieoeoaa. C’ynoaaiiy iniiaieo iciae, yeeie aieiae?thoue aeaiaioe
aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo (iayai?noue aa?o?nii? ioe?iee, iiaeeea?noue
aeeo/aiiy c i?ioeano ae?iaie/iai aeei?enoaiiy, aaciina?aaeiy o/anoue o
ae?iaie/iio i?ioean?, ciin o i?ioean? ae?iaie/iai aeei?enoaiiy,
iaiao?aei?noue a?aeoai?aiiy oa ?i.) ? ia??oiooaaiiy oiai, ui aiie
i?eoaiaii? ye caniaai ae?iaieoeoaa, oae ? caie?, ? ?iai/?e nee?,
aeicaieeei iai ia’?aeiaoe cacia/ai? oaeoi?e ae?iaieoeoaa a iaeio
eaoaai??th — eaoaai??th aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo;

2. Ca noa?aie canoinoaaiiy ie?aieo neeaaeiaeo aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo
iiaeia aeae?eeoe eai?oae noa?e ae?iaieoeoaa (iniiaiee oa iai?ioiee
eai?oae), eai?oae noa?e ia?ao (oiaa?iee ? a?ioiaee eai?oae, eai?oae,
aaainiaaiee o iaiaoa??aeuei? aeoeae noa?e ia?ao, ? eai?oae, ui
ciaoiaeeoueny a ?ic?aooieao), eai?oae noa?e o?iainiaeo aeeaaeaiue
(eai?oae, aaainiaaiee o ei?ioeino?ieia? ? aeiaaino?ieia? o?iainia?
aeeaaeaiiy) oa eai?oae nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? noa?e;

3. E?euee?nii aaainiaaiee eai?oae i?aei?e?inoaa i?aaenoaaeaiee eiai
aeoeaaie, ui a?aeia?aaeathoueny o aooaaeoa?nueeiio aaeain?. Aei neeaaeo
aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo aoiaeyoue oaeiae caiaeuei? ?ano?ne, aa?o?noue yeeo
o aeaiee /an ia iieaco?oueny a aaeain? a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa;

4. Ia?aioe?iea aeaiaio?a aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo, ui cae?enith?oueny
ca?aeii c ae?th/ei caeiiiaeaanoaii, oi/ ? iaaeeaea? ?o aa?o?noue o
aooaaeoa?nuee?e ca?oiino? aei ?eieiai?, noie aeiioe?iie iaeaaeaoue
iiiaeaoeoaaiith iiaeaoeii c i?eaooeo, ui, cae/aeii, iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia
?aaeuei? iiaeeeaino? i?aei?e?inoa uiaei a?aeoai?aiiy niiaeeoeo o
i?ioean? ae?yeueiino? aeaiaio?a aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo;

5. Aeey aecia/aiiy iiceoe?? i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo ne?ae i?iaiae?coaaoe
eiai iaeiiaee oa o?iainiaee noai. Iaeiiaee noai aeioe?eueii ?icaeyaeaoe
c oi/ee ci?o caaacia/aiino? i?aei?e?inoaa iniiaieie oa iai?ioieie
caniaaie, a o?iainiaee — c oi/ee ci?o ni?iiiaeiino? i?aei?e?inoaa
iiaaneoe ai?ae oa iiaeeeaino? i?iaeiaaeaiiy iei i?ioeano ae?iaieoeoaa
i?ney iiaaoaiiy ei?ioeino?ieiai? caai?aiaaiino?;

6. C iaoith a?eueo oi/iiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy aeaniiai eai?oaeo a
aooaaeoa?nuee?e ca?oiino? a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa iaiao?aeia
ia?aianaiiy c ia?oiai ?icae?eo ianeao aaeaino “Oe?eueiaiai o?iainoaaiiy
ia iniia? iiaa?iaiiy”, “?aca?ao ianooiii? iieaoe a?aeionoie”,
“Aeioiae?a, iaea?aeaieo o ca?oiiio ia??iae?, ui a?aeiinyoueny aei
iaeaooi?o ia??iae?a” aei ?ioeo ?icae?e?a ianeao, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue
ciaia’ycaiiy;

7. Iniiaieie e?eoa??yie oi?ioaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e aaainiaaiiai
eai?oaeo (noiniaii aeanieo oa caeo/aieo aeaea?ae) iiaeia aaaaeaoe
iaenei?caoe?th i?eaooeo a ?ic?aooieo ia iaeeieoeth aeaniiai eai?oaeo
(ii?ie i?eaooeo ia aeaniee eai?oae), i?i?i?caoe?th na?aaeiueicaaaeaii?
aa?oino? aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo oa caa?aaeaiiy i?aei?e?inoaii
aeinoaoiueiai ??aiy ieaoini?iiiaeiino?;

8. I?e aiae?c? ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa ne?ae ?ic??ciyoe
iieacieee ianooaa?a ae?yeueiino? oa iieacieee aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino?.
Aeey ia’?eoeaii? ioe?iee ??aiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? e cae?eniaiiy
?? anaa?/iiai aiae?co aeioe?eueii aecia/aoe iieacieee aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ia noaae?? ae?iaieoeoaa, aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ia an?o noaae?yo eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy
oa aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa a oe?eiio;

9. I?e aecia/aii? aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo ia
an?o noaae?yo eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoaa aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?eaooie ia ??cieo noaae?yo
eiai oi?ioaaiiy. Aeey c’ynoaaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aaainiaaiiai
eai?oaeo aei?aaaeaii canoiniaoaaoe i?eaooie aei ae?aooaaiiy iiaeaoeo c
i?eaooeo, ieaoe ca ei?enooaaiiy e?aaeeoieie ?ano?naie, ieaoe ca
ei?enooaaiiy caniaaie ae?iaieoeoaa, iaea?aeaieie ia oiiaao i?aiaee, oa
no?aoiaeo ieaoaae?a. Oea aeicaieeoue aano?aaoaaoenue a?ae aieeao ia
?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino? oaeoi??a, ia iia’ycaieo ?c ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo. Aeey aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoaa a oe?eiio (ye ? aeey aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
aeaniiai eai?oaeo), ia??oioiaaiei ? aeei?enoaiiy i?eaooeo, ui
caeeoa?oueny o ?icii?yaeaeaii? i?aei?e?inoaa (oiaoi i?eaooeo i?ney
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy), ca i?ionii oo?aoieo naieoe?e, niea/aieo i?aei?e?inoaii,
ine?eueee a?i iaea?eueo iiaii oa?aeoa?eco? eiie?aoi? oiiae
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoaa.

Aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a aiae?oe/ieo a?oioaaiue oa
ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa?an?eiiai aiae?co aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe iayai?noue ?
aaee/eio aca?iica’yceo i?ae iieacieeaie caaacia/aiino? oa no?oeoo?e
aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo e iieacieeaie aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? aa?a?ieo
i?aei?e?inoa.

Ioae?eaoe?? ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Aiae??e/oe A.A., Aaeoceinueeee N.A. No?oeoo?a aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo
aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa ? eiai aa?o?nia ioe?iea // Aeiiii?ea
AIE.-1997.-? 6.-C.58-63.- 0,4 ae?.a?e. Aeena?oaioii i?aeaioiaeaii
0,3 ae?.a?e. — ia??oiooaaiiy noo? eaoaai??? aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo,
i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co eiai no?oeoo?e oa ?ice?eooy iaaeie?e?a
a?aeia?aaeaiiy aeaiaio?a aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo a aeoea? aooaaeoa?nueeiai
aaeaino i?aei?e?inoa.

2. Aiae??e/oe A.A., Aaeoceinueeee N.A. Aeaniee ? iice/eiaee eai?oae
i?aei?e?inoa oa e?eoa??? ?o ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy // Aeiiii?ea
Oe?a?ie.-1998.-? 6.-N.15-24.- 0,6 ae?.a?e. Aeena?oaioii i?aeaioiaeaii
0,4 ae?.a?e. — ia??oiooaaiiy e?eoa???a ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
i?ae aeaniei oa iice/eiaei eai?oaeii, o?ainoi?iaoe?y ianeao aaeaino
a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa oa aiae?c iieaciee?a no?oeoo?e aaainiaaiiai
eai?oaeo.

3. Aaeoceinueeee N.A. Aaainiaaiee eai?oae i?aei?e?inoa: nooue, i?iaeaie
no?oeoo?ii? eeaneo?eaoe?? oa aeaea?aea oi?ioaaiiy // I?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee: I?aea?aeii/ee iaoeiaee ca??iee. Aei.5.-E.: EIAO,
1997.-N.28-36.- 0,4 ae?.a?e.

4. Aaeoceinueeee N.A. Aeei?enoaiiy aeaniiai ? iice/eiaiai eai?oaeo o
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio i?aei?e?inoa? // Aeiiii?ea
AIE.-1997.-? 8.-N.31-35.- 0,3 ae?.a?e.

5. Aaeoceinueeee N.A. A?aeia?aaeaiiy aeaniiai oa iiceeiaiai eai?oaeo o
aooaaeoa?nuee?e ca?oiino? a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa // A?niee
AE?O?.-1998.-? 8 / Aeiiii?/i? oa aoiai?oa?i?
iaoee.-N.137-139.-0,2 ae?.a?e.

Aaeoceinueeee N.A. Aaainiaaiee eai?oae aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa:
oi?ioaaiiy, ioe?iea oa aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.07.02 — aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ?
AIE. — Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao. I?i?noa?noai
ina?oe Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ia??oiooaaiith noo? eaoaai??? aaainiaaiiai
eai?oaeo ? iaoiaeieia?/ieo aniaeo?a eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy. O ?iaio?
c’yniaaii a?aei?iiino? aaainiaaiiai eai?oaeo a?ae eaoaai??e ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo oa eai?oaeo, a eiai eeane/iiio cia/aii?. Ia??oioiaaii
iniiai? e?eoa??? oi?ioaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeaniei
oa iice/eiaei eai?oaeii. ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ioe?iee
o?iainiai-iaeiiaiai noaio aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa oa aiae?co aoaeoeaiino?
?o ae?yeueiino?. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny o
?iaio? ?aeiiieo oi?aae?iue n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa,
i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo?ao oa iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaainiaaiee eai?oae, aeaniee eai?oae, iice/eiaee
eai?oae, e?eoa??? oi?ioaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e aaainiaaiiai
eai?oaeo, o?iainiai-iaeiiaee noai, aoaeoeai?noue ae?yeueiino?.

Aaeoceineee N.A. Aaaine?iaaiiue eaieoae aa?a?iuo i?aaei?eyoee:
oi?ie?iaaiea, ioeaiea e yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.07.02 — yeiiiieea naeueneiai oicyenoaa e
AIE. — Eeaaneee iaoeeiiaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee oieaa?neoao. Ieienoa?noai
ia?aciaaiey Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A ?aaioa ii?aaeaeaia nouiinoue eaoaai?ee aaaine?iaaiiiai eaieoaea
i?aaei?eyoey. Auyaeaiu iniiaiua ea/anoaaiiua e eiee/anoaaiiua ioee/ey a?
io eaoaai?ee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai (?ano?niiai) iioaioeeaea. Naeaeai auaiae
i oeaeaniia?aciinoe eniieueciaaiey a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo aeey
oa?aeoa?enoeee anae niaieoiiinoe n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey eaoaai?ee
aaaine?iaaiiiai eaieoaea.

Iainiiaaiu ioee/ey aaaine?iaaiiiai eaieoaea io eaoaai?ee eaieoaea a aai
eeanne/aneii cia/aiee. Ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca oa?aeoa?iuo /a?o
aaaine?iaaiiiai eaieoaea ii?aaeae?i aai ea/anoaaiiue ninoaa.
Enneaaeiaaiea noa? i?eiaiaiey yeaiaioia aaaine?iaaiiiai eaieoaea
iicaieeee auaeaeeoue eo a ioaeaeueiua aa?aae?iaaiiua ninoaaiua — eaieoae
noa?u i?iecaiaenoaa, eaieoae noa?u ia?auaiey, eaieoae oeiainiaie e
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iie noa?.

I?iaiaeece?iaaii aeeyiea eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia ia aeeiaieeo eciaiaiey
aaee/eiu e no?oeoo?u aaaine?iaaiiiai eaieoaea naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee Oe?aeiu ca ia?eiae n 1990 a. ii 1997 a. Onoaiiaeaii
nouanoaaiiia oaaee/aiea oaeaeueiiai aana iniiaiuo n?aaenoa a no?oeoo?a
aaaine?iaaiiiai eaieoaea, a oaeaea nieaeaiea aeiee aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania.

?ane?uou iaoiaeieiae/aneea iiaeoiaeu e noieiinoiie ioeaiea yeaiaioia
aaaine?iaaiiiai eaieoaea, i?eiyoua a no?aiao n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie
yeiiiieeie. Iniaaiiia aieiaiea oaeaeaii aaeainiaie ioeaiea
aaaine?iaaiiiai eaieoaea, oae eae iia yaeyaony iaeaieaa aeinooiiie aeey
oe?ieiai e?oaa caeioa?aniaaiiuo eeoe. Oeacaii, /oi aeey oeaeae
yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaiea eo noieiinoiie ioeaiee
iaeaieaa aeeceie e ?uii/iie, /oi iicaieyao aieaa oi/ii ii?aaeaeyoue
?acee/iua aniaeou oeiainiai-eiouanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoee e
yooaeoeaiinoe eo aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ioia/aiu iieiaeeoaeueiua oaiaeaioeee a ioia?aaeaiee noieiinoe yeaiaioia
aaaine?iaaiiiai eaieoaea ioa/anoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee a aooaaeoa?neie
io/aoiinoe, e a /anoiinoe i?aaeinoaaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeyi aiciiaeiinoe
i?iaaaeaiey ia?eiaee/aneie ia?aioeaiee yeaiaioia aaaine?iaaiiiai
eaieoaea. I?e yoii oeacaii i nieaeaiee o i?aaei?eyoee aiciiaeiinoae
aini?iecaiaenoaa iio?aae?iiuo a i?ioeanna eo aeayoaeueiinoe yeaiaioia
aaaine?iaaiiiai eaieoaea a nayce n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth oieaou iaeiaa ia
i?eaueue ec noii oaeeo aeiioeaiie.

Ii?aaeaeaiu io?eoeaoaeueiua iiiaiou iino?iaiey aooaaeoa?neiai aaeaina
ioa/anoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Ioia/aia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ioia?aaeaiey a
aaeaina caiaeueiuo ?ano?nia. N oeaeueth ioia?aaeaiey a ia?aii ?acaeaea
ianneaa aaeaina ioa/anoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea
iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aianaiey ec iaai noaoae “Oeaeaaiai
oeiaine?iaaiey ia aica?aoiie iniiaa”, “?aca?aa i?aaenoiyuae iieaou
ioioneia”, “Aeioiaeia, iieo/aiiuo a io/?oiii ia?eiaea, eioi?ua ioiinyony
e aoaeouei ia?eiaeai” a ae?oaea ?acaeaeu ianneaa, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecotho
iaycaoaeuenoaa.

?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaee/aneea aniaeou aiaeeca iiceoeee i?aaei?eyoey ia
?uiea, eioi?oth i?aaeeiaeaii ii?aaeaeyoue n oi/ee c?aiey aai
eiouanoaaiiiai e oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey. Aeey ioeaiee eiouanoaaiiiai
iieiaeaiey oeacaii i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aiaeeca iaania/aiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey
iniiaiuie e iai?ioiuie n?aaenoaaie, a aeey ioeaiee oeiainiaiai
iieiaeaiey — niiniaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey e iiaaoaieth e?aoein?i/iuo
iaycaoaeuenoa e i?iaeieaeaiey ei iinea yoiai i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa.

?anniio?aia no?oeoo?a aaaine?iaaiiiai eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoee n oi/ee
c?aiey enoi/ieeia oi?ie?iaaiey. Ii?aaeaeaiu e iaoaiaoe/anee iainiiaaiu
e?eoa?ee oi?ie?iaaiey ?aoeeiiaeueiiai niioiioaiey iaaeaeo nianoaaiiui e
ca?iiui eaieoaeii.

I?e aiaeeca ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey i?aaeeiaeaii
ioaeaeueii ?anniao?eaaoue iieacaoaee, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecotho ianooaau e
yooaeoeaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe. E?iia oiai, i?aaeeiaeaia nenoaia
iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey aaaine?iaaiiiai eaieoaea, a
oaeaea iainiiaaia iaoiaeeea eo ii?aaeaeaiey. Aeieacaii, /oi aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey yooaeoeaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aaaine?iaaiiiai eaieoaea
iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaiea i?eauee aei au/eoaiey iaeiaa ia i?eaueue,
no?aoiauo ieaoaaeae, ieaou ca eniieueciaaiea e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia e ieaou
ca n?aaenoaa, iieo/aiiua ia oneiaeyo a?aiaeu, a aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea (eae e aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey) — i?eauee,
eioi?ay inoa?ony a ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey (i?eauee iinea
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey), ca ieionii oo?aoiuo naieoeee, oiea/aiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeai.

N iiiiuueth iaoiaea aiaeeoe/aneeo a?oiie?iaie e
ei??aeyoeeiiii-?aa?anneiiiiai aiaeeca ii?aaeaeaiu iaee/ea e aaee/eia
nayce iaaeaeo oaeoi?aie, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecotho iaania/aiiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa yeaiaioaie aaaine?iaaiiiai eaieoaea e aai no?oeoo?o, e
?acoeueoaoeaiuie iieacaoaeyie aeayoaeueiinoe aa?a?iuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey aeenna?oaoeee eniieuecothony a ?aaioa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo no?oeoo?, ?aeiiiuo oi?aaeaiee naeueneiai oicyenoaa
e a o/aaiii i?ioeanna Eeaaneiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai yeiiiie/aneiai
oieaa?neoaoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaaine?iaaiiue eaieoae, nianoaaiiue eaieoae, ca?iiue
eaieoae, e?eoa?ee oi?ie?iaaiey ?aoeeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?u aaaine?iaaiiiai
eaieoaea, oeiainiai-eiouanoaaiiia iieiaeaiea, yooaeoeaiinoue
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Galuzinskiy S.A. Advanced capital of the agricultural enterprises:
formation, valuation and efficiency of employment. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a the Candidate’s degree in economics by speciality
08.07.02 — aconomy in agriculture and agroindustrial complex. Kyiv
National University of Economics. Education Ministry of Ukraine, Kyiv,
1999.

The thesis is devoted for substantiation of the essence of the category
advanced capital and methodological aspects of its functioning. The
differences of the advanced capital and the categories of potential
production and capital in its classical significance are determined. The
main criterions of the formation rational correlation between the
ownership capital and the borrowed capital are grounded. The author has
elaborated the recommendations about the valuation of financial and
property status of agricultural enterprises and an analysis of its
efficient working. The basic principles of this thesis are using by
Regional agricultural departments, business structures and also for
educational process of the Kyiv National University of Economics.

Key words: advanced capital, ownership capital, borrowed capital,
criterions of formation rational structure of advanced capital,
financial and property status, efficiency of activity.

() Ioia?aoe?y ?enoie?a oa noai a aaoi?aoa?ao? a?aeiia?aea? ioia?aoe?? a
aeena?oaoe??.

() I?ae aa?o?noth eai?oaeo a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ?icoi?thoueny aeo?aoe ia
eiai caeo/aiiy.

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