Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 902

O?ao?iee TH??e Noaiaiiae/

A?oa?/i? aeaiaioe eoeueoo?e eicaoeoaa

a eiioaeno? oe?a?iiciaanoaa

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.12-oe?a?iiciaanoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii o a?aeae?e? ?noi??? oa oai??? oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?inoeoooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Cae?ciye Eaii?ae Eueaiae/ –
i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo aoiieia?? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, Na?a?e/oe Aieiaeeie?
?aaiiae/ i?ioani? eaoaae?e aeaaiuei? ? iiai? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Aaeooie Aaneeue A?eai?iae/ – noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, oieueeei?enoeee oa aoiieia??
?i. I.?eeuenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo
oaoiieia?e, eaoaae?a oe?a?iiciaanoaa. i. Ee?a.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “5” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 15 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.01 ?inoeoooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca
aae?anith: 252033, Ee?a-33, aoe. O. Oaa/aiea, 14 (eiioa?aioe-cae, ??-e
iiaa?o).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (Ee?a,
aoe. O. Oaa/aiea, 14, e.97 ).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “3” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
A.I.I?neoi

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe??

Anooi. Oe?a?inueea eicaoeoai – neeaaeia ? aaaaoia?aiia yaeua, yea
a?ae?a?aei aaaeeeao ?ieue o aeie? Oe?a?ie oa ?? ia?iaeo. Naia caaaeyee
eiio o na?aaeei? OVII no. aoea ooai?aia oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa –
Aaoueiaiueia, yea i?iaeiaaeeea aea?aeaaioai?/o o?aaeeoe?th oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo o i?ciueiio na?aaeiueia?//?. Caaaeyee eicaoeoao ? eiai aieeao
ia oe?a?inueeo eoeueoo?o i?ioyaii aacaea?aeaaiiai ? eieii?aeueiiai OIO
no., a iaioaeueiino? oe?a?ioe?a aeeei i?aaiaiiy aei aie? ? naiaiaee, a
eicae aoa oiniaeaiiyi oe?a?inueeiai ?aeaaeo /ieia?ea-ai?ia. Aacnia?oiee
eicaoeueeee aeoo ni?eya noaiiaeaiith oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? a OO no.

Oe?a?iiciaanoai ye oe?e?nia nenoaia ciaiue i?i Oe?a?io ? oe?a?inoai a
i?inoi?? ? /an? ia?aaeaa/a? eiiieaeniee, ?ioaa?aoeaiee i?aeo?ae a
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo. sse cacia/a? I. Eiiiiaiei: “Caaaeaiiyi
oe?a?iiciaanoaa ? ia o?eueee a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iai’yo? ?noi???, a e
noai?aiiy ia a?oio? o?ie?a ieioeiai ia?aaeoiia aeey inieneaiiy i?iaeai
no/aniino? oa aecia/aiiy ia?niaeoea ? oeyo?a aeinyaiaiiy iaoe o
iaeaooiueiio”. ?ioaa?aoeaio nooue oe?a?iiciaanoaa i?aee?aneth? ? o?einio
A. E?ena/aiei: “… oe?e?nia aa/aiiy Oe?a?ie ye iaaiiai nenoaiiiai
ooai?o, a ia aeiaaeeiai? oi?iaoe??, iiaea aeaoe eeoa eiiieaenia,
neioaoe/ia iaoea, yeith ? oe?a?iiciaanoai”.

Ioaea, o?eueee /a?ac i?ecio oe?a?iiciaanoaa ye ?ioaa?aoeaii? nenoaie
iaoeiaeo ciaiue ?, aeei?enoiaoth/e aeaea?aea oa iaoiaee oaeeo
aeenoeeie?i ye a?oaieia?y, aoiia?ao?y, aoiieia?y, ?noi??y,
oieueeei?enoeea, iiaiciaanoai oiui, iiaeia aeine?aeeoe eicaoeueeo
eoeueoo?o, cie?aia ?? aeoiee, noaiiaeaiiy, ??ciiiai?ooy oi?i ? aeeaeio
ci?noo, aieea ia oe?a?inueeo iaoe?iiaeueio ?noi??th oa eoeueoo?o.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i? c?icoi?eee ?ioa?an aei
oaeiai yne?aaiai oaiiiaio ?? ?noi???, ye eicaoeoai. ?acii c oei, iica
oaaaith aeine?aeiee?a caeeoa?oueny i?iaeaia aaiace eicaoeueei?
eoeueoo?e, cie?aia aeayeeo ?? a?oa?/ieo aeaiaio?a, ye? iia’ycothoue
eicaoeoai c i?iyaaie a?enueeiai? eoeueoo?ii? o?aaeeoe?? aaaaoueio
?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo ia?iae?a. Aac aena?oeaiiy oeeo a?oa?/ieo aeaiaio?a
eicaoeueei? eoeueoo?e ia oe?ieiio oe? caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenueeiai
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano iaiiaeeeai a??ii c?icoi?oe aeoiee e nai
oaiiiai eicaoeoaa, ui a?ae?a?aa cia/io ?ieue ia o?eueee o oi?ioaaii?
i?ciueina?aaeiueia?/ii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, a e o noaiiaeaii?
iaoa??aeueii? oa aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e naiiai oe?a?inueeiai aoiino. Oiio
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy eicaoeueei? eoeueoo?ii? o?aaeeoe?? ?
aeooaeueiei caaaeaiiyi.

O XVII-XVIII no. oe?a?inueea eicaoeoai aoei ia o?eueee iaoe?iiaeueieie
ca?ieieie neeaie, aea e aieiaiei ooiaeaoi?ii oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.
Aeine?aeaeoth/e eiai, ie ia i?inoi caaaa/o?ii iao? ?noi?e/i? ciaiiy, aea
e iaaiith i??ith ci?oeith?ii iaoeiaee ooiaeaiaio no/aniiai i?ioeano
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy. Ia?iae, yeee ia? aaaeeo, aea aeanio a?aeio ?noi??th,
iai’yoa? i?i nai? ieioea, aa?oee ? caneoaiao? ia aeinoieia iaeaooi?.
Aaeaea iniiaith ye aoi?/ii?, oae ? iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? ?, ye
a?aeiii, ?noi?e/ia iai’youe, eieaeoeai? oyaeaiiy i?i ni?eueiee oeyo, ui
eiai i?ieoee ?acii /eaie oiai /e ?ioiai aoiino, a aeaiiio ?ac? —
oe?a?inueeiai.

Aeoeaiooth/e oaaao ia oe?a?inueeiio eicaoeoa? ye nai???aeiiio i?iya?
caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenueei? a?enueeiai? eoeueoo?e, ie ia o?eueee ia
i?eiaioo?ii eiai naiiaeinoaoiino? oa ?ie? a ?a?ac?enueeiio ?noi?e/iiio
i?ioean?, a, iaaiaee, iaiaaa?iiny /a?ac ia’?eoeaia aea/aiiy iinoaaeoe
eiai ii?yae c oaeeie oaiiiaiii ?a?iiaenueei? oeea?e?caoe??, ye
na?aaeiueia?/ia eeoea?noai. Ia oa?aiao Oe?a?ie eicaoeoai oi?io?oueny
nii/aoeo o a?enueeiaee, a iio?i ? o a?enueeiai-oeyoaonueeee noai
i?iaeiaaeoth/e ae?oaeeiii-eeoea?nuee? o?aaeeoe?? Ee?anueei? ?on?.

?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa oa eiai eoeueoo?? i?enay/ai? aaaaoi
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue: A.Aiieaia, (1990), A.-O. I?eea?a (1760), I.
??aaeueiaia (1847), N. Ieoaoeueeiai (1847), A.Neaeueeianueeiai (1885,
1994), I. Eoe?oa (1856-1857, 1868), A. Aioiiiae/a (1912),
Ae.ssai?ieoeueeiai (1888, 1892, 1894, 1895, 1897, 1898, 1903), I.
A?ooaanueeiai (1912), I.Iieiinueei?-Aaneeaiei (1926), ?. E?ei’yeaae/a
(1954), A. Aieiaooeueeiai (1957, 1961, 1994), I. Aiaiiae/ (1961, 1969),
TH. Ieoeeea, N. Ieio?y, ?. Noi?iaeaiea (1990), A.Na?a?e/oea (1991,
1996), I. sseiaaiei (1993), A. Eocy, TH. ?oaeaiea, I. Aoaea (1995) oiui.

Cia/ii iaioa i?aoeue i?enay/aii iiooeai aeoie?a a?oa?/ieo aeaiaio?a
eicaoeueei? eoeueoo?e. Aei ?o /enea iaeaaeaoue aeine?aeaeaiiy E.
Cae?ciyea (1994), A. Aaeooea (1998).

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Eaiaeeaeaonueea
aeena?oaoe?y cae?eniaia a ?aieao i?ia?aie “Oe?a?iiciaanoai a nenoai?
ina?oe, iaoee ? eoeueoo?e”, ui aeeiio?oueny a ?inoeooo? oe?a?iiciaanoaa
a?aeiia?aeii iai?yieo ?iaioe a?aeae?e?a aoiieia?? oa ?noi??? ? oai???
oe?a?iiciaanoaa.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aieiaiith iaoith aeena?oaoe?? ? aiae?c
noeoiiino? a?oa?/ieo aeaiaio?a a eoeueoo?iiio eiiieaen? oe?a?inueeiai
eicaoeoaa, ye neeaaeiai? ? iaa?ae’?iii? /anoeie ?iaei?a?iiaenueei?
i?e?oa?ii? o?aaeeoe??, a eiioaeno? oe?a?iiciaanoaa .

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe ae??oothoueny oae? caaaeaiiy: 1) eiiieaenia
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeaieeo ei?ai?a oaeeo aecia/aeueieo aeaiaio?a
eicaoeueeiai eoeueoo?iiai eiiieaeno, ye eoeueo eiiy oa oaae?,
eicaee-oa?aeoa?ieee, eiaca?? – ni?aoe? eicaoeueei? neaae, /a?aiiee
eie??, aeaeo?e — iieiaeeee, ca’ycie aeoae c aaieaoii, iniaeeaa noaaeaiiy
eicaea aei ae?iee, iia?aoeinoai oiui; 2) ie?aneaiiy oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y
aeayeeo oth?enueeeo aieea?a a o?aaeeoe?ei?e eicaoeuee?e eoeueoo??; 3)
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c eoeueoo?e eicaoeoaa oa i?ciueina?aaeiueia?/iiai
eeoea?noaa Cao?aeii? ?a?iie; 4) aiae?c aoai?a oi?ioaaiiy
?iaei?a?iiaenueei? a?enueeiai? o?aaeeoe?? ? oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa, ye
?? neeaaeiai? /anoeie.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeoiee eicaoeueei? o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e a
eiioaeno? oe?a?iiciaanoaa. I?ae oa?i?iii “eicaoeueea eoeueoo?a” ie
?icoi??ii ana oa ??ciiiai?ooy oei?a ? oi?i i?aai?caoe?? aeeooy ?
ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa, a oaeiae noai?aieo iei
iaoa??aeueieo ? aeooiaieo iaaeaaiue. I?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy ? i?iyae
a?oa?/ieo (noa?iaeaai?o) aeaiaio?a a eicaoeuee?e eoeueoo??. I?ae
iiiyooyi “a?oa?/i? aeaiaioe” iathoueny ia oaac? iaeaeaai?o? neeaaeia?
o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e eicaoeoaa, oniaaeeiaai? c iiia?aaei?o ia??iae?a
oe?a?inueei? oa caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenueei? ?noi???.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e eoeueoo?o oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa, ie aeyaey?ii
/enaeuei? i?iyae a?oa?/ii? caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?ii?
o?aaeeoe??. Eaeaoueny i?i eoeueoe ia/a-oaae?, eiiy, naiaioeeo
/a?aiiiai eieuei?o, nae?aeueii-?eooaeueiee ca’ycie i?ae aeoaith ?
aaieaoii, eoeueo ai?ia-ca??a, oa?aeoa?ieee-aa?na?ea?e oa ?io?.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ? nenoaiia canoinoaaiiy
?acoeueoao?a ? iaoiae?a aaaaoueio iaoeiaeo aeenoeeie?i. Ianaiia?aae,
a?oaieia??, aoiia?ao??, ?noi???, oieueeei?enoeee, e?iaa?noeee oa
oe?a?iiciaanoaa ye oe?e?nii? ?ioaa?aoeaii? nenoaie iaoeiaeo ciaiue i?i
Oe?a?io ? oe?a?inoai a i?inoi?? ? /an?. A ?iaio? canoiniaaii
ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee, ?noi?eei-?ao?iniaeoeaiee, oeiieia?/iee,
eiiieaeniee, e?iaai-iaeaiioieia?/iee iaoiaee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. A aeena?oaoe??, yea ? ii noo? iaeiei c
ia?oeo niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeoie?a aaaaoia?aiiiai eiiieaeno
oe?a?inueei? eicaoeueei? a?enueeiai? eoeueoo?e, a naia ?? a?oa?/ieo
aeaiaio?a, i?iiiio?oueny nai???aeiee i?aeo?ae aei inyaiaiiy oaiiiaio
oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa oeyoii aea/aiiy eiai aeeaeiieo
?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo aeaea?ae. A?oa?/i? aeaiaioe eicaoeueei? eoeueoo?e
aia?oa ?icaeyaeathoueny ia oe?ieiio eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiio oe?
??ciiiai?oieo i?iya?a caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?ii? o?aaeeoe??
aaaaoueio ia?iae?a ?a?iie oa Ac??. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai a aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio? noi?ioeueiaai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? i?noyoue a nia? aeaiaioe iaoeiai?
iiaecie ? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

– eoeueo eiiy, ye i?aai?/ia neeaaeiaa o?aaeeoe?eii? eicaoeueei?
eoeueoo?e oa eeoea?nueeiai eoeueoo?iiai eiiieaeno na?aaeiueia?//y ?
?ae?eoii caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenueei? i?e?oa?ii? o?aaeeoe??;

– eoeueo eicaoeueei? oaae? oaeiae yaey? niaith caeeoee aeoaea
ae?aaiueiai ?iaei?a?iiaenueeiai a?enueeiaiai eoeueoo ia/a oa aieiaiai
iiyno, ui a?aeia?aaea?oueny a eoeueoo?? aaaaoueio ia?iae?a
?iaei?a?iiaenueei? iiaii? n?i’?;

– a ?iaei?a?iiaenuee?e a?enueeia?e o?aaeeoe?? ae?acii i?inoaaeo?oueny
nooi /ieia?/ee a?enueeiaee eoeueo ai?ia-ca??a. Eiio aeanoea? oaee
aecia/aeuei? aeaiaioe: ia?aaa?oieoeoai, iinayoa /a?ac iia?acoaaiiy
aieiaei iiynii, iaoaeaaa a?eaia, aaethoeeiiaaie, aee?aaeaiiy ae?iie,
iaa?aceea?noue ia?aaa?oiy cae?ciith ca?i?th oiui. ?aooee oeueiai
a?oa?/iiai eoeueoo ai?ia-ca??a i?inoaaeothoueny a i?oieia?? aaaaoueio
?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a, a oiio /ene? ? a oe?a?ioe?a (ianeaieiaoe?, aiaeoeaee,
ia?aaa?oi?, eicaee-oa?aeoa?ieee);

– eiaca?noai ia o?eueee oa?a?aei a naaa o?aaeeoe?? ni?aoe?a eiyaeeo
ae?oaeei Ee?anueei? ?on?-Oe?a?ie, a ca nai?th noooth ia? i?yi? ia?aeae?
c oai?/?noth a?aoiai?a-??o? aaae?enueeeo /an?a, aaae?a aiia??anueei?
A?aoe??, neaeueae?a ? o?oaa??a na?aaeiueia?/iiai eeoea?noaa;

– /a?aiiee eie?? a ?iaei?a?iiaenuee?e i?e?oa?i?e ? eoeueoo?ie
o?aaeeoe?yo ? oiniaeaiiyi e?ia?, aiaith, a?eie, iciaeith i?eiaeaaeiino?
aei noaio ai?i?a-i?ioan?iiae?a, neiaieii i?ia?aeii?
a?enueeiai-a?enoie?aoe/ii? aa?noae. A Oe?a?i? oey o?aaeeoe?y iiaoooaaea
a Ee?anuee?e ?on? ? aeiaeeea aei eicaoeueeeo /an?a;

– eicaoeueea nenoaia a?enueeiai? i?aeaioiaee iieiaeeo ai?i?a, /a?ac
o?aaeeoe?? eiyaei? Ee?anueei? ?on?, nai?i aeeaieei ei??iiyi nyaa?
i?aaeaai?o ?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo /an?a, eiee thiaee aiooaaee naaa aei
ia?yaeo iinay/aiiy o ai?ie. Nai???aeiei i?iyaii oe??? aeaaiuei?
o?aaeeoe?? aoa ?inoeooo aeaeo??a-iieiaeee?a oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa;

– o?aaeeoe?eiee ?eooaeueiee ca’ycie i?ae aeoaith ? aaieaoii, oa?aeoa?iee
aeey eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa, ? iaei??th c neeaaeiaeo /anoei
caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenueeiai i?e?oa?iiai eoeueoo?iiai eiiieaeno;

– nai???aeia noaaeaiiy eicaea-caii?iaeoey aei ae?iee, ?eooae aee?aaeaiiy
ae?iie, ? ?ae?eoii cae/a?a /ieia?/eo a?enueeiaeo a?iiaae noa?iaeaai?o
?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a;

– iia?aoeinoai, ei??iiy yeiai ciaoiaeeii a ?iaeiaiio i?eioeei?
oi?ioaaiiy ia?a?nieo a?enueeiaeo aaoaa. Oeae cae/ae iiaoooaaa a
na?aaeiaeu? ai?i?a-ae?oaeeiiee?a Ee?anueei? ?on?-Oe?a?ie, ca?aeee ? aoa
oniaaeeiaaiee oe?a?inueeei eicaoeoaii;

– aeaye? aeaiaioe eicaoeueeiai eoeueoo?iiai eiiieaeno, ye? o?aaeeoe?eii
aaaaeaeeny caiice/aiiyi ?c oth?enueeeo noaiiaeo eoeueoo?, iathoue aeaai?
?iaei?a?iiaenueea iioiaeaeaiiy;

– ia?aeae? i?ae eoeueoo?aie Caii?icueei? N?/? oa aeooiaii-eeoea?nueeeo
/a?ia/eo i?aeai?a Cao?aeii? ?a?iie OII-OIV no., a naia: ?ae?a?ei?noue ?
aneaoeci, iia?aoeinoai, eieaeoeaia caieaaieiae?iiy, eoeueoe Ae?ae
Ia???-Iie?iae, nayoeo Ieoa?ea oa Aai?a?y (na. TH?a). ?iia??ii, ui aeaye?
c oeeo aeaiaio?a aoee caiice/ai? eicaoeoaii a?ae ?a?iiaenueeiai
eeoea?noaa;

– ia??iaeecaoe?y aieiaieo aoai?a ?icaeoeo ?iaei?a?iiaenueei?
a?enueeiai? eoeueoo?e a?ae ?? ca?iaeaeaiiy a e?ioe? iaie?oo aei
i?ciueiai na?aaeiueia?//y.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoa??aee oa aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey aea/aiiy ?noi???
ca?iaeaeaiiy ? noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa, aeine?aeaeaiiy
eicaoeueeiai iiaooo ? cae/a?a, aeeaieiai ?icoi?iiy oaiiiaio eicaoeoaa ia
oe? na?oiai? ?noi??? oa eiai ?ie? o oi?ioaaii? oe?a?inueeiai aoiino ?
noaiiaeaiiy eiai aea?aeaae. E??i oiai, aeaia ?ic?iaea aeiiiiiaea iiai?oa
inyaiooe eicaoeueeo a?enueeiao eoeueoo?o ye neeaaeiao /anoeio
caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenueeiai i?e?oa?iiai eoeueoo?iiai eiiieaeno, a
oaeiae e?aua c?icoi?oe i?noea aaaaoi? eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie a nenoai?
na?oiaeo oeea?e?caoe?e. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? a eaeoe?eieo eo?nao c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai
a?enueea, ?noi??? oa iaoiaeieia?? eoeueoo?e, a oaeiae i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaie oa iin?aiee?a c oe?a?iiciaanoaa, ?noi???
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?enueea, a?o/eciyii? eoeueoo?e oa ?ioeo aeenoeeie?i.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?y ? naiino?eiei iaoeiaei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi aaoi?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ui
aeeth/ai? aei aeena?oaoe?? ii?eethaeiaii ? iaaiai?aii: ia i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Eoeueoo?a ? ina?oa: i?iaeaie, iiooee, oai?/?
ciao?aeee” (A?iieoey 1995?.), ia 4-e i?aeia?iaei?e a?oaieia?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? nooaeaio?a ? iieiaeeo a/aieo (Ee?a 1996?.), ia 4-e
iaoeiai-ina?oyinuee?e eiioa?aioe?? i?enay/ai?e I.I.Iaeneiiae/o (Ee?a
1994?.), ia 6-e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo «?noi??y iaoee,
ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i?: o?aaeeoe?? ? no/ani?noue» (Ee?a 1995?.),
ia i?aeaoc?anuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? i?enay/ai?e 400-??//th a?ae
aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy A.Oiaeueieoeueeiai (Ee?a 1995?.), oa iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo ?inoeoooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoa ?iai?
O.Oaa/aiea (1994 — 1999??.), ? ia can?aeaiiyo ? ia?aaeao a?aeae?e?a
oieueeei?o, aoiieia??, ?noi??? oa oai??? oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?inoeoooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeeny o iaienaii?
noaoae aei neiaieeiai-aeia?aeieeiaeo aeaeaiue.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? a iiiia?ao?? (9
ae?.a?e), a aeaio noaooyo a oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo /aniienao, a aeaio noaooyo
o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo iaoa??ae?a ? o o?ueio oacao a ca??ieeao iaoa??ae?a
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y (160 n.) neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a. Aei ?iaioe aeiaeathoueny nienie aeei?enoaieo oa
caaaeueiici???ioiaaieo ia i?iaeaiaoeeo aeena?oaoe?? aeaea?ae (300
iaeiaioaaiue).

Ci?no ?iaioe.

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny noai ?? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee aecia/a?oueny iaoa ?
oi?ioeththoueny caaaeaiiy, ye? iathoue aooe aeeiiai? aeey ??
aeinyaiaiiy, ?ice?eaa?oueny iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aena?oeththoueny iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a.

Ia?oee ?icae?e. Aeaea?aeueia aaca oa ?noi??y aea/aiiy ieoaiiy.

A ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny aeaea?aeiciaa/a aaca aeoie?a eicaoeueei?
o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e oa ?noi??y aea/aiiy ieoaiiy iioiaeaeaiiy oeeo
noa?iaeaai?o eiiiiiaio?a o eicae?a.

?icii/eiath/e aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oa?/ieo ?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo aeaiaio?a o
eoeueoo?iiio eiiieaen? oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa ye nai???aeiiai i?iyao
?iaei?a?iiaenueei? i?e?oa?ii? eoeueoo?e acaaae?, o?aaa iae?aco ae
a?aecia/eoe o?aaiaioa?i?noue aeaea?aeueii? aace i?iaeaie. Oea iiee ui
ia aeicaiey? a iiai?e i??? ?aeiino?othaaoe aaiaoe/io niaaeei?ii?noue ?
iaia?a?ai?noue ?icaeoeo ?iaei?a?iiaenueei? a?enueeiai? eoeueoo?e
aaciina?aaeiuei a?ae i?a?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a IV-III oen. aei i. a. Iaeiae
i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iee i?aeo?ae aea? ciiao i?inoaaeeoe aeeaeii? aeoiee
?noi?e/iiai ei??iiy eicaoeueei? a?enueeiai? eoeueoo?e. Ana ae iayaieo
a?oaieia?/ieo, oieueeei?ieo, e?iaa?noe/ieo, ?noi?e/ieo aeaea?ae
aeinoaoiuei aeey oiai, uia aaaaeaoe oe?a?inueea eicaoeoai oeiiaei
i?iyaii caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenueei? i?e?oa?ii? eoeueoo?ii? o?aaeeoe??,
oa nai???aeiei ??ciiaeaeii a?enueeiai-eeoea?nueei? eoeueoo?e
na?aaeiueia?/ii? ?a?iie.

Ia?oi?yaeio ?ieue o ni?aa? aea/aiiy aaiaoe/iiai ei??iiy
?iaei?a?iiaenueei? i?e?oa?ii? eoeueoo?e a?ae?a?athoue aeai? a?oaieia??
oa e?iaa?noeee. A a?eueo i?ci? /ane, a naia a II — ia ii/aoeo I oen. aei
i. a. a?aeaoaa?oueny ?icoe?aiiy aeaea?aeueii? aace. Ie??i aeuaiacaaieo
a?oaieia?? oa e?iaa?noeee, iaaoaathoue aaeeeiai cia/aiiy aeai? ?noi???,
oieueeei?o oa aoiia?ao??. Naia c ae?oai? iieiaeie II oen. aei i. a.
a?aeii? iaeaeaai?o? ?iaei?a?iiaenuee? ienueiia? na?ae/aiiy, ui
noinothoueny i?aaeiaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iathoueny ia oaac? ??aaaaea oa
Aaanoa ?iaei-a???a, aiin Aiia?a oiui.

Eeoea?nueeee a?enueeiai-eoeueoo?iee eiiieaen ?icaeaaany ? caaaa/oaaany
i?ioyaii onueiai na?aaeiueia?//y. Na?oei ia oe? i?ioeane i?ieeaathoue
o?ii?ee, e?oiiene, eeoea?nuee? aiine (“Aaiaoeueo”, “Noa?oa Aaea”,
“I?niy i?i I?aaeoia?a”, “I?niy i?i ?ieaiaea”, “Neiai i iieeo ?ai?aa?i”)
? aaaaoi neaiaeeiaanueeeo aa?i?/ieo naa, o?aioeocueeeo na?aaeiueia?/ieo
aaeaae ? aeeei Ee?anueei? ?on?-Oe?a?ie.

Eicaoeueeee iiaoo oa cae/a? oe?iei a?aeia?aceeeny o oieueeei?ieo
aeaea?aeao, oe?a?inueeeo aeoiao, ?noi?e/ieo i?niyo, eaaaiaeao ?
ia?aeacao, o ienaiieo caaaeeao no/aniee?a, a iaoa??aeuei?e eoeueoo?? o
aeaeyae? iai’yoie a?oaieia??, iocaeieo c?a?aiiyo iai’yoie noa?iaeie,
?noi?e/ieo i?aoeyo ? aeine?aeaeaiiyo, a?o?aieo aeieoiaioao (cie?aia
a?o?ae Eioa Iiai? Caii?iaenueei? N?/? oa Aaia?aeueii? A?enueeiai?
Eaioeaey???), aoiia?ao?/ieo oa iiaiciaa/eo iaoa??aeao.

Iacaaaeath/e ia cia/iee ??aaiue aeine?aeaeaiino? ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai
eicaoeoaa, aea/aiith eicaoeueei? eoeueoo?e oa ?? aaiace ia oe?
o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e ?ioeo ia?iae?a ia i?eae?eyeiny aeinoaoiuei?
oaaae. Iaoeia? ?iaioe c oe??? oaiaoeee i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?, ca aeiyoeii
o?aa ui iioae?eiaaii? 1994 ?. iiiia?ao?? Eaii?aea Cae?ciyea “Ia?ene
noa?iaeaaiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie”, a ye?e aecia/aii
caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenueea ei??iiy aeayeeo aeaiaio?a eicaoeueeiai
eoeueoo?ii-a?enueeiaiai eiiieaeno. Iaeiae, oey i?aoey, caii/aoeoaaaoe
iiooee aeoie?a neeaaeiaeo /eiiee?a eicaoeueei? i?e?oa?ii? eoeueoo?e,
caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenuee?e niaaeuei?, ia oi?ea?oueny onueiai aaaaonoaa
eicaoeueeiai eoeueoo?iiai eiiieaeno. ?acii c oei, ?nio? aaeeea
niaoe?aeueia e?oa?aoo?a, i?enay/aia ie?aiei aeaiaioai
?iaei?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?ii? o?aaeeoe??, ye? i?ci?oa oniaaeeoaaei
oe?a?inueea eicaoeoai. A oeueiio aniaeo? ie ?icaeyiaii i?aoe? oeo
iaoeiaoe?a, ye? caeiaeeny aea/aiiyi iaaieo i?iaeai
caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenueei? i?e?oa?ii? eoeueoo?e acaaae? ? eicaoeueeiai
a?enueeiaiai eoeueoo?iiai eiiieaeno cie?aia.

Ae.Oaeaa?i aeine?aeaeoaaa eieaeoeai? iiaeeueieee ia??oiieuenueeiai oeio,
ye? iaeaaeaee iauaaeeai ieaiai aei?i?i-aeiiaoeueei? eoeueoo?e. Aaea o V
oen. aei i. a. aiie caneiaee nai? iioiaaiiy /a?aiiith aio?ith. Oey
o?aaeeoe?y aoea i?iaeiaaeaia ai?iaie-neioa?yie na?aaeiueinoia?anueei?
eoeueoo?e, ye? iaoeaee a oe?a?inueeeo noaiao o IV oen. aei i. a. E??i
oiai, Ae.Oaeaa?i (1973 ?.) iaaiith i??ith aeine?aeaeoaaa eoeueo eiiy, ai
naia na?aaeiueinoia?aoe? aia?oa i?e?o/eee eiiy ia oa?aiao ?a?iie.
I?ci?oa a oe?a?inueeeo noaiao iioe?th?oueny eie?niee o?ainii?o,
aa?oieoeoai, ui noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue oi?ioaaiiyi nae?aeueii-i?e?oa?iiai
eoeueoo eiiy.

I.Eocuei?ia (1974, 1986 ?.) aea/aea oeyoe noaiiaeaiiy o ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a
eoeueoo eiiy. Iaaecae/aeii aaaaoi oe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe?? c oe??? i?iaeaie
aaaee a iaoeiaee ia?a O.Aaie?ae?aeca ? A.?aaiia (1984 ?.) Cie?aia, ia
iniia? e?iaa?noe/iiai aiae?co noa?iaeaai?o oaoonueeeo oaeno?a oe?
iaoeiaoe? c?iaeee aeniiaie i?i aeeeth/ii aenieee ??aaiue eiiy?noaa o
a??eoe?a acaaae? ? oe?iea a?enueeiaa canoinoaaiiy oa ?nioaaiiy eoeueoo
eiiy cie?aia.

Cia/iee aianie o aea/aiiy ?iaei?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?e oeyoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy ??aaaaee oa Aaanoe c?iaeea O. ?e?ca?aieiaa (1972, 1989).

?icaeoie ?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo a?enueeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e o?eaaa o
ne?oi-na?iaonueeo aeiao (I oen. aei i. a.) a Oe?a?i?. N.Aanniiiaa (1983
?.) aeine?aeaeoaaea ?noi??th aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo eoeueoo ia/a o
ne?oi-na?iaonueeo aeiao (I oen. aei i. a.) a Oe?a?i?. A?aeiiee
o?aioeocueeee a/aiee AE.Aethiac?eue (1986, 1990 ?.) iine?aeiaii
i?iaiaeeoue aeoieo, ui inaoeinueeee aa?ie-ia?o Aao?aaec — oea
i?oieia?/iee, aa?i?/iee i?iya ne?onueeiai aiaa a?eie, neiaieii ?
oiniaeaiiyi yeiai aoa naia ia/. Oe? aeniiaee aeine?aeiee c?iaea,
a?oiooth/enue ia ia?onueeiio aa?i?/iiio aiin? inaoei, a, ye a?aeiii, a?i
? aeaeaeei a?aeaiiiiii ne?oi-na?iaonueei? i?oieia??.

Eoeueo ai?ia-ca??a ??ciith i??ith aeine?aeaeoaaee A.?aaiia (1975, 1977,
1991-1992) O.Aaie?ae?aeca, A.?aaiia (1984 ?.), O.Ea?ae?i? (1987 ?.),
A.?aai/ee (1988 ?.), E. Cae?ciye (1994 ?.), A. Aaeooie (1998).

O?aaeeoe?? iia?aoeinoaa aeine?aeaeoaaee O. Aiae (1891), I. A?iieei
(1984).

Aecia/iee aianie a ?icoi?iiy aaiace eeoea?nueei? eoeueoo?e c?iaeee
E.?aaiia (1901 ?.), N. ?o?iiaa (1914 ?.), A. Aeaeuea?the (1933 ?.),
O. Ea?ae?i? (1987 ?.), E. Oaec?iaa (1988 ?.), A. Ia/i?eia (1991 ?.),
AE. ?oa (1996 ?. ) oa aaaaoi ?ioeo.

I?iaeaiaie eeoea?nueei-ae?oaeeiii? eoeueoo?e Ee?anueei? ?on?-Oe?a?ie
caeiaeeny A.Oai?ioeei (1891 ?.), A.A?oeeoianueeee (1944 ?.), Ae.E?oa/ia
(1950), O.Eieanna (1969 ?.), A.?eaaeia (1981 ?.), I. sseiaaiei (1993),
I. Oiei/ei (1996) oa aaaaoi ?ioeo.

*eneaii? iaoeia? ?ic?iaee c ?iaei?a?iia?noeee aeiiiiaaathoue a
inieneaii? a?oa?/ieo aeaiaio?a a eicaoeueeiio eoeueoo?iiio eiiieaen?.
?acii c oei, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe a?aenooi?noue ocaaaeueithth/eo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeoie?a o?aaeeoe?eii? eicaoeueei? eoeueoo?e ia oe?
eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e non?aei?o ia?iae?a. Aaoi? ia i?aoaiaeo? ia
anainyaeia aena?oeaiiy aeeaeiieo aeoie?a eicaoeoaa. A ?iaio?
aiae?co?oueny iioiaeaeaiiy oa naiaioeea eeoa aeayeeo a?oa?/ieo
?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo aeaiaio?a a eoeueoo?iiio eiiieaen? oe?a?inueeiai
eicaoeoaa.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e. Noa?iaeaai? aeaiaioe o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e
oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa.

A ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeothoueny aeoiee noa?iaeaai?o aeaiaio?a o
eicaoeuee?e eoeueoo??: eoeueo eiiy, eoeueo ia/a-oaae? oa aieiaiai iiyno,
eicaee-oa?aeoa?ieee, eiaca?? – ni?aoe? eicaoeueei? neaae, neiaie?ea
/a?aiii? eeoaeee, aeoe?e iieiaeeo ai?i?a, ca’ycie aeoae c aaieaoii,
iniaeeaa noaaeaiiy caii?iaeoey aei ae?iee, eicaoeueea iia?aoeinoai oiui.

Iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo a?oa?/ieo aeaiaio?a o eoeueoo?iiio eiiieaen?
oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa ? eoeueo eiiy. Eoeueo eiiy ye aieiaiai
eicaoeueeiai iia?aoeia ia ? nai???aeiei iaaeaaiiyi oe?a?inueeeo eicae?a,
a yaey? niaith aeaeaeee a?aeaii?i nae?aeueii-a?enueeiai?
?iaei?a?iiaenueei? o?aaeeoe?? iieeii?iiy eiith. Oe?a?inuee? noaie –
aaouee?aueia na?enueeiai eiiy. Naia ooo aia?oa aeei?enoaee eiiy ia
o?eueee a ainiiaea?noa?, aea e o a?enueei-o?ainii?oieo oe?eyo (aice c
iioiaaiue yiii? eoeueoo?e, a?enueeia? eie?nieoe?). Ca?aene ?icnaeyeeny
ieaiaia, ye? iioe?eee ia aaee/acieo iaoe?ao ?a?ac?? iaae/ee eiiy?noaa,
a?enueeia? eie?nieoe? ? eoeueo eiiy.

Nae?aeueii-i?e?oa?iee eoeueo eiiy ?nioaaa o noa?iaeaai?o oe?a?ioe?a.
Iaeei c ?oi?o aieiaieo aia?a, aia a?iiiaeoe? ? aeeneaaee Ia?oi, aoa
aa?oieeii (ye ? aa?iainueeee Iae?i, inaoeinueeee Oanoe?aeae?,
o?enoeyinueeee nayoee TH??e-Aai?a?e). E?iue ye nayuaiia ?noioa i?a
i?eianoe ? oni?o, ? nia?oue (caaaeaeii eaaaiaeo i?i nia?oue eiycy Ieaaa
a?ae naiai eiiy). ?iiae? a?i noi?iaiaeaeoaaa naiai ainiiaea?y a
iioiea?/iee na?o. Naia a oeueiio aeiaaeeo aenooia? i?aecaiia, ooii?/ia
iaee//y eoeueoo eiiy, ni?eueia aeey aaaaoueio ?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo
ia?iae?a. Oe?a?inueea eicaoeoai oaae aoei iin??i ?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo
a?enueeiai-nae?aeueieo o?aaeeoe?e, aeaeaeei a?aeeoiiyi yeeo ? aoa o
eicaoeuee?e eoeueo eiiy. Naia ia aeaai?o ?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo o?aaeeoe?yo
aa?oieoeoaa, eoeueoo eiiy oi?io?oueny a eicaoeuee?e eoeueoo?? nai???aeia
iia?aoeinueea noaaeaiiy aei eiiy, yea oae yne?aai ? c ethaia’th ini?aaii
a oe?a?inueeiio oieueeei??. A aaaaoueio eicaoeueeeo i?niyo, aeoiao,
ia?aeacao e?iue ? a?aoii oa aieiaei oiaa?eoai eicaea.

Oaeei /eiii, eoeueo eiiy oe?iei a?aeia?aceany a ?iaei?a?iiaenuee?e
a?enueeia?e oa nae?aeuei?e o?aaeeoe?yo. Naia ?iaei?a?iiaeoe? ia?o?
i?e?o/eee eiiy, ? naia e?iue aeaa ?i ciiao iiaioaaoe ? caaithaaoe
aaee/aci? i?inoi?e ?a?ac?enueeiai eiioeiaioo. Eoeueo eiiy
i?inoaaeo?oueny o na?aaeiueinoia?aoe?a, a???a ??aaaaee ? Aaanoe,
noa?iaeaai?o a?ae?a, oaoo?a, ??aioe?a, ne?o?a ? na?iao?a, o ca?iaeaeaii?
(noa?iaeaai? aa?iaioe?) ? noaiiaeaii? cao?aeiiai, i?ai?/iiai ? no?aeiiai
?a?iiaenueeiai eeoea?noaa, a oaeiae o eoeueoo?iiio eiiieaen?
oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa, aea a?i, ye iaa?ae’?iia /anoea
caaaeueii?a?iiaenueei? eeoea?nueei? eoeueoo?e, iia’yco? eicaoeueea
na?oiaa/aiiy c caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenueeei eoeueoo?iei eiiieaenii.

Ii/ania i?noea iin?aea? o eicaoeuee?e a?enueeia?e o?aaeeoe?? oaaey. I?i
oea na?ae/aoue ye eicaoeuee? e?oiiene, oae ? aaaaothuee oe?a?inueeee
oieueeei?. Iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui na?aae oe?a?inueeeo eicae?a
?nioaaa eoeueo oaae? ye aeaeaeee a?aeaii?i i?aaeaaiueiai a?enueeiaiai
eoeueoo ia/a ? aieiaiai iiyna. sse ia/ o na?aaeiueia?/i?e ?a?ii? aoa
iciaeith i?eiaeaaeiino? aei eeoea?nueeiai noaio, oae ? oaaey ia
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie a XVI-XVIII no. aoea neiaieii iacaeaaeii? eicaoeueei?
aa?noae. Oaaey ye aeae oieiaeii? ca?i? ? aeaeaeith ?iaee/eith ia/a.
?noi??y ia/a nyaa? nai?i aeeaieei ei??iiyi noa?iaeaai?o /an?a.
C’yaeaoenue o a?iiciaiio a?oe? (II oen. aei i. a.), ia/ c?aco ae
iin?aea? oe?eueia i?noea na?aae oieiaeii? ca?i? ? eeoa a iia?oi? /ane
iinooia?oueny nai?i aeaeici?iai, a oiio /ene? ? oaae?.

Oaeei /eiii, eoeueo oaae? o eicae?a ? ?ae?eoii aeoaea ae?aaiuei?
caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenueei? nae?aeueii? o?aaeeoe??. Eiai iaia?a?aiee
?icaeoie i?inoaaeo?oueny ii a?oaieia?/ieo, ienaiieo, oieueeei?ieo
aeaea?aeao a?ae ai?i?a ia?oeo ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a, oaoo?a, ne?o?a, na?iao?a
(aeai?a), a?ae?a, ?eieyi, aa?iainueeeo ? neia’yinueeeo ieaiai,
?a?iiaenueeiai eeoea?noaa, aae aei oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa. Oaaey, ye ?
ia/, — oea ?noeiii eeoea?nueea ca?iy, iciaea i?eiaeaaeiino? ye aei
na?aaeiueia?/iiai eeoea?nueeiai noai?, oae ? aei eicaoeueei-oeyoaonueei?
eeoea?nueei? aa?noae. Ua i?ae /an o?enoeyi?caoe?? ?a?iie oea?eaa
aeeth/eea aa?aa?nueeee ii nai?e noo? eoeueo ia/a ? aieiaiai iiyna a
nenoaio o?enoeyinueeeo oe?iiinoae, eaiii?coaaaoe eiioeaioe?th O?enoiaiai
ai?inoaa. O i?ciueiio na?aaeiueia?//? iinayoa a eeoea?? a?aeaoaaeany a
oea?ea? ca aeiiiiiaith ia/a.

Cia/io /anoeio ei?iono oe?a?inueeiai oieueeei?o noaiiaeyoue /eneaii?
eacee, eaaaiaee, ia?aeace i?i ianeaieiaoe?a, aiaeoeae?a, ia?aaa?oi?a,
eicae?a-oa?aeoa?iee?a oiui. An? aiie ? ia /ei ?ioei, ye ?aooeaie
ae?aciiai ?iaei?a?iiaenueeiai eoeueoo ai?ia-ca??a oa iia’ycaieo c iei
oyaeaiue oa i?o?a. Naia ai?ie-ca??? a?ae?a?aee aaaeeeao ?ieue o
oi?ioaaii? i?e?oa?ii-nae?aeueiiai ?iaei?a?iiaenueeiai eoeueoo?iiai
eiiieaeno. C ai?i?a-ca???a o i?aaeaai? /ane neeaaeaeeny oa?ii?
a?enueeia? /ieia?/? ia’?aeiaiiy ia?a?nieo ieaiai. Oe? a?enueeia? ni?eee
noi?ioaaee aeaniee ?eooaeueiee eiiieaen oa nai???aei? a??oaaiiy, a yeeo
/?eueia i?noea a?aeaiaeeeiny ca??o-oeaeaeo.

Ia?ac eicaea-oa?aeoa?ieea noi?ioaaany i?ae aieeaii caeeoe?a
noa?iaeaaiueiai caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenueeiai eoeueoo ai?ia-ca??a
(ai?ia-aiaea). A?aoiaoth/e noiae?noue eacie, eaaaiae oa ia?aeac?a i?i
aiae?a, ia?aaa?oi?a o ??cieo aaeoi-neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a a?ae
Aaeo?enueeiai aei *i?iiai ii??a ? ?o aeaai? i?noeaaa ei??iiy, iiaeia
aaaaeaoe, ui oe?a?inueea eicaoeoai ia caiice/eei ?o a?ae non?ae?a, a
i?eeiyei o niaaeie a?ae eoeueoo?e Ee?anueei? ?on?. I?i oea na?ae/eoue
aacia?a?ai?noue ?icaeoeo ia?aco ai?ia-ca??a a oe?a?inuee?e i?oieia??
a?ae yce/ieoeueeeo /an?a, /a?ac eoeueoo?o Ee?anueei? ?on?, aei i?ciueiai
na?aaeiueia?//y. Iaaiee ca’ycie i?inoaaeo?oueny i?ae ia?acaie
aeaaiuei?onueeiai eiycy-aieoaa XI no. Ananeaa Iieioeueeiai oa
eicaoeueeiai ioaiaia-oa?aeoa?ieea ?aaia N??ea. I?oei?noue oa
niaaeei?ii?noue ca’yce?a eicaoeueei? i?oieia?? c aeooiaiith
o?aaeeoe??th eiyaeeo ae?oaeei O-O?? no., ui aoee ??ciiaeaeii
?aiiueina?aaeiueia?/ieo aaoaa ?a?iiaenueeeo eeoea??a, aeaco? ia aeeaieee
aaiaoe/iee ca’ycie oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa c a?enueeiaith eeoea?nueeith
?a?iiaenueeith eoeueoo?ith.

A?oa?/iei aeaiaioii eicaoeueeiai eoeueoo?iiai eiiieaeno aoee eiaca?? —
a?enueeia? ni?aoe? neaae oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa. Eiaca?noai ia ?
aeeeth/ii oe?a?inueeei oaiiiaiii, a aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith
?iaei?a?iiaenueeiai i?e?oa?ii-eoeueoo?iiai eiiieaeno, iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo
aeaiaio?a yeiai ? aoee a?enueeia? ni?aoe?. A noa?iaeaai? /ane oea aoee
a??enuee? ??o?, aeaaiueia?aoeuee? aaaee ? ?ainiaee, yne?aaei oiniaeaiiyi
yeeo noaa Aiia?. Ni?aoeyie eeoea?nueei? neaae o na?aaeiueia?/i?e ?a?ii?
ieie aoee aa?aee, neaeueaee, o?oaa?e, iaiano?ae?, i?iaceiaa?e. A /ane
Ee?anueei? ?on? i?e eiyae?e ae?oaeei? oaae aoee a?enueeia? ni?aoe?,
iaea?aeii?oee c ieo – Aiyi.

Eiaca?noai oa?a?aei a naaa caeoyaei? o?aaeeoe?? ni?aoe?a a?enueeiaeo
ae?oaeei Ee?anueei? ?on?-Oe?a?ie ? a?ae?a?aei aaeeeo ?ieue o oi?ioaaii?
oe?a?inueeiai aoiino. C /anii a?aeaoeany o?ainoi?iaoe?y eiaca?noaa a?ae
ni?aoe?a aocueeinoaiiaeo ?ioa?an?a eicaoeoaa aei ni?aoe?a on??? Oe?a?ie,
onueiai oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo — ? nai???aeii aeeeeany a na?aaeei? XIX
no. a oai?/ino? Aaeeeiai Eiaca?y — Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. Oaeei /eiii,
iaei??th c canaae oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaioaeueiino? aoea eiaca?nueea
i?niy oa aeoia, a eiaca?noai a?ae?a?aei aecia/io ? ?ieue o oai?aii?
oe?a?inueei? iaioaeueiino?.

O a?enueeiai-eoeueoo?iiio eiiieaen? oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa neiaie?ea
/a?aiiiai eieuei?o a?aeo?ieii yeiai ? ? iaeeiiaee, iin?aea? ii/ania
i?noea. sse na?ae/aoue a?oaieia?/i?, ?noi?e/i? oa oieueeei?i? aeaea?aea,
oe?a?inuee? eicaee oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaee oeae eie?? o iianyeaeaiiiio
aeeoo? (iaeya), o a?enueeiaeo iioiaeao (i?aii?e, aieiaa nii?yaeaeaiiy),
i?ae /an iioiaaiue caaeaeeo eicae?a (iie?eaaee ia?oaiai eeoea?y-eicaea
/a?aiiith eeoaeeith).

Aeaea?aea na?ae/aoue, ui a ieioeiio o ??cieo ia?iae?a ?iaei?a?iiaenueei?
n?i’? /a?aiiee eie?? aoa neiaieii a?eie oa a?enueea. A /a?aiia
aaeyaaeeny ai?ie noa?iaeaai?o a??eoe?a, ia?n?a, ne?o?a, a?ae?a, ?eieyi,
eaeueo?a, aeaaiuei?onuee? ae?oaeeiieee. O Ee?anuee?e ?on? /a?aiiee
eie??, ye eie?? a?enueeiai? aa?noae ai?i?a-i?ioan?iiae?a, iaioaaa ia
o?eueee ia aieiaeo noyaao, aea e aeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaany aeey
oa?aoaaiiy ca?i?, a?enueeiaiai nii?yaeaeaiiy, eiyc?anueeiai ?
ae?oaeeiiiai iaeyao. A oe?a?inueeeo eicae?a-i?ioan?eieo ai?i?a, /a?aiiee
eie?? oaae aoa oiniaeaiiyi a?enueeiai? aa?noae. Oea i?iyaeyeiny a
/a?aiii-iaeeiiaeo ciaiaiao, a eicaoeueeiio iaeyc?, a ?eooaeuei?e oa
neiaie?/i?e iane/aiino? /a?aiii? aa?ae ye eieuei?o i?ioan?eiiai
a?enueeiaiai noaio oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa.

Ioaea, a?enueeiaa neiaie?ea /a?aiiiai eieuei?o, aa?o/e ii/aoie ua o V
oen. aei i. a. ? iaiiaithth/enue ia eiaeiiio ?noi?e/iiio aoai? ?icaeoeo
a?enueeiai? aa?noae ai?i?a-i?ioan?iiae?a iiaei nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iei
ci?noii, iaia?a?aii ?icaeaaeany i?ioyaii on??? ?noi???
?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo ia?iae?a. *a?aiiee eie?? a ?iaei?a?iiaenuee?e
i?e?oa?i?e ? eoeueoo?i?e o?aaeeoe?yo ? oiniaeaiiyi e?ia?, aiaith, a?eie,
iciaeith i?eiaeaaeiino? aei noaio ai?i?a-i?ioan?iiae?a, neiaieii aiaa
a?eie oa i?ia?aeii? a?enueeiai-a?enoie?aoe/ii? aa?noae. A Oe?a?i? oey
o?aaeeoe?y aeiaeeea aei eicaoeueeeo /an?a.

A eoeueoo?iiio eiiieaen? oe?a?inueeeo eicae?a aeoe?e iieiaeeo ai?i?a ?
iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo a?oa?/ieo aeaiaio?a. Eicaoeueea o?aaeeoe?y
a?enueeiai? i?aeaioiaee iieiaeeo ai?i?a nai?i aeeaieei ei??iiyi nyaa?
oeo i?aaeaai?o ?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo /an?a, eiee thiaee aiooaaee naaa aei
ia?yaeo iinay/aiiy o ai?ie, iineeaii caeiaeeny o?ce/iith ? a?enueeiaith
i?aeaioiaeith, uia i?ieoiaoe ?i?oe?aoe?th noaoe iiaiioe?iiei /eaiii
noni?euenoaa. O an?o ?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo ia?iae?a aaeeea oaaaa
i?eae?eyeany noaiiaeaiith iieiae?, io?eiaiith iath ii/aoeiai?
a?enueeiai? i?aeaioiaee, ui aeaaaei iiaeeea?noue ?? i?aaenoaaieeai noaoe
ni?aaaei?ie oaoiaeie ai?iaie. Aeey cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai eeoea?noaa
aoea aeanoeaa eiiieaenia i?aeaioiaea iieiae?, o?eaaea iaa/aiiy iaeaooi?o
ai?i?a (c 7 aei 19-21 ?ieo), ui cae?i/oaaeiny nayoeiaei ia?yaeii
iinay/aiiy o eeoea??.

Eeoea?noai Ee?anueei? ?on?-Oe?a?ie oaae i?eae?eyei aaeeeo oaaao
a?enueeia?e i?aeaioiaoe? ae?oaeeiii? iieiae?. O?aaeeoe?? noa?iaeaaiueiai
oe?a?inueeiai eeoea?noaa ia caaeioee, a aoee c /anii oniaaeeiaai? iiaith
a?enueeiaith aa?noaith Oe?a?ie — eicaoeoaii. Oe?a?inuee? eicaee noai?eee
naith nenoaio a?enueeiai? i?aeaioiaee iieiae? — oae caaiee “?inoeooo
aeaeo??a-iieiaeee?a”. Eiai oa?aeoa?i? ?ene — e?ii?oea, noai?a,
eiiieaenia, aaaeea iaa/aiiy a?enueeia?e ni?aa? (yea o?eaaei c 7-9 aei
20-21 ?ieo, ui iiai?noth a?aeiia?aea? ?a?iiaenuee?e eeoea?nuee?e
o?aaeeoe??), iino?eia aaeineiiaeaiiy eicaoeueei-eeoea?nueei? a?enueeiai?
iaenoa?iino? ?, ianaiia?aae, iiaia i?ioiaeaeaiiy thiaeii oa?ienoiai ?
iaeaaeiai oeyoo — a?ae aeaeo?e aei oaoiaiai eicaea-ai?ia.

Iaeiei c a?oa?/ieo aeaiaio?a o eoeueoo?iiio eiiieaen? oe?a?inueeiai
eicaoeoaa ? ca’ycie aeoae oa aaieaoo. A oni?e ia?iaei?e iiaoe/i?e
oai?/ino?, a naia a oai?ao, iia’ycaieo c eicaoeoaii, oe?iei iiaoooaaea
o?aaeeoe?y ii??aithaaoe ? iia’ycoaaoe eica/ee aaieao c e?iaii?ieeoiith
aeoaith. E??i oiai, a eicaoeueeiio na?oini?eeiaii? aeoaa ? aaieao
iaaoaaee iniaeeaiai i?noe/ii-aa?i?/iiai caaa?aeaiiy. Oieueeei?i?
iaoa??aee na?ae/aoue, ui aeoaa ? aaieao aeey eicae?a iaa?oue iaee
nae?aeueiee oa?aeoa?.

O?aaeeoe?eiee ?eooaeueiee ca’ycie i?ae aeoaith ? aaieaoii, ui aoa
oa?aeoa?iei aeey eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa, ? iaei??th c
neeaaeiaeo /anoei ?iaei?a?iiaenueeiai i?e?oa?iiai eoeueoo?iiai eiiieaeno
ai?i?a-i?ioan?iiae?a. A?i oa?aeoa?ecoaaany, ianaiia?aae, oei, ui
ca?iaeeany ua a noa?iaeaai? /ane ?iaei?a?iiaenueei? ni?eueiioe ? aia?oa
aoa cao?eniaaiee o nayuaiieo a?iiao ??aaaaee. Ai?iaeiaae oeny/ie?oue
a?aeaoaa?oueny o?nia caeeaeaiiy iiiyoue-neiaie?a “aeoae” ? “aaieaoo”. A
na?oini?eeiaii? ai?i?a-i?ioan?iiae?a aiie yaeythoue niaith ?aeeia
aca?iiiia’ycaia oe?ea. Aeoaa — oea aieiaia iiea ?o ae?yeueiino?, aaieao
— oea iaai?iaea ca ?o ioaeith a?enueeiao i?aoeth. I?ae /an aeoae ai?i —
aieiaia ae?th/a iniaa-aeeiiaaaoeue. A aaea i?ae /an aaieaoo a?enueeiaee
e?aea? (aaoaa, eiioia, nthca?ai) a?aeaey/o? nai?th uaae??noth,
aaaaonoaii ? iie?iaeoaeuenoaii ca a?aeaeai?noue ? aa?i?/io caeoyaei?noue
ai?i?a-ae?oaeeiiee?a. Ca’ycie aeoae ? aaieaoo iaaoaa?, e??i
?eooaeueii-aa?i?/iiai, ua e ooii?/iiai (i?aecaiiiai) ci?noo, oiio ui
caaeae? ia iie? aith ai?ie-aa?i? i?iaeiaaeoaaee ? a iioiea?/iiio na?o?
aanoe a?/io a?eio ? a?/ii aaieaooaaoe. Oeae a?oa?/iee aeaiaio
?iaei?a?iiaenueei? a?enueeiai? eoeueoo?e caa??any a o?aaeeoe?yo
oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa. Oea a?aeia?aceeiny ye a oyaeaii? ia?iaeo i?i
eicae?a, oae ? a ?oiueiio aeaniiio na?oiaa/aii?. AEeooy eicae?a iiaeia
neiaie?/ii ?icae?eeoe ia aeaa aieiaieo ia??iaee-oeeeee, ui iino?eii
ci?ithaaee iaeei iaeiiai: a?enueeiaee (aeoaa) ? ie?iee (aaieao).

Iaeiei c a?oa?/ieo aeaiaio?a eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa ?
nai???aeia noaaeaiiy eicaea aei ae?iee. Naia oa, ui caii?icuee? eicaee
ioneee caeeoaoeny iaiae?oaeaieie, oi/a e na?aae ieo aoee aeiyoee
(n?iaei? eicaee). Oea aaaeeeaee i?iya ?iaei?a?iiaenueeiai a?enueeiaiai
eiiieaeno.

Aeoiee oe??? o?aaeeoe?? o?aaa ooeaoe a /ane ca?iaeaeaiiy
?iaei?a?iiaenueei? i?e?oa?ii? eoeueoo?e. Eiia??ii, aiie o?nii iia’ycai?
c? cae/ayie ia?a?nieo /ieia?/eo oa?iieo ia’?aeiaiue, anooi aei yeeo aoa
caai?iiaiee ae?ieai. Iniaeeai oe? cae/a? aoee ?iciianthaeaeai? a
na?aaeiaeu? ai?i?a-ca???a (ai?i?a-aiae?a), ye? ia iae?oaeoaaeeny ?
caeiaeeny aee?aaeaiiyi ae?iie aeey caaeiaieaiiy nai?o nooi /ieia?/eo
i?iaeai. Oe? o?aaeeoe?? aeyaeeeny aeineoue aeeao/eie. Oae, o
noa?iaeaai?o aa?iaioe?a, ie??i ai?i?a-ae?oaeeiiee?a, ?nioaaee oae caai?
aa?na?ea?e. O neaiaeeiaanueeeo naaao ? caaaeee i?i aa?na?ea??a, ye? a
i?enooiao oaeaii? etho? oa?i?ecoaaee i?noeaaa ianaeaiiy, /eieee ??ci?
ianeeuenoaa, aee?aaeaee ae?iie. O na?aaeiueia?/i?e Cao?aei?e ?a?ii? oaae
i?inoaaeo?oueny iniaeeaa noaaeaiiy ai?ia aei ae?iee. Iai?eeeaae,
?nioaaee aeooiaii-eeoea?nuee? i?aeaie o XI? — XIV no., /eaie yeeo,
eeoea??-/aioe?, ye i?aaeei, aoee iaiae?oaeaieie, ine?eueee, ca
?aaiaae??i, “iaiae?oaeaiee aeoia? i?i Ainiiaea, iae?oaeaiee i?i ae?ieo”.
Ioaea ? caii?iaeoe?a, ? eeoea??a-/aioe?a ia’?aeioaaea ia?oieoey
oeae?aaoo (iaiae?oaeaiiy) ? oeiioe.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e aeoiee eicaoeueei? eoeueoo?e iaiiaeeeai caeeoeoe iica
oaaaith oaeee ?? a?oa?/iee aeaiaio ye iia?aoeinoai. O?aaeeoe??
iia?aoeinoaa noi?ioaaeeny ia canaaeao ia?a?nii? ?iaeiai? iaueie ? noaee
oei no?eaeiai iaaeiei yeiai a?aeaoaaeiny noaiiaeaiiy ?aiiueieeoea?nueeeo
a?enueeiaeo ae?oaeei-eii?oao?a. ?eooae ? cae/a? iia?aoeinoaa, ye ?aeaaeo
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ? eieaeoeaii? aca?iiaeiiiiiae, aeooiaiiai ?aeiaiiy
iiaoooaaee ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, ua a noa?iaeaai? /ane, ? aia?oa
ienueiiai cao?eniaai? aaoueeii ?noi??? Aa?iaeioii a ?iciia?ae? i?i
ne?o?a. Iia?aoeinoai oe?iei a?aeia?aceeiny a aeeeiao Ee?anueei? ?on?, a
oe?a?inueeeo eaceao ? eaaaiaeao. Caii??cueea N?/ aoea caniiaaia ia
canaaeao iia?aoeinoaa, ye? aoee oniaaeeiaai? oe?a?inueeei eicaoeoaii
a?ae ae?oaeeiiiai eeoea?noaa eiyaeeo /an?a. Caa?aaeaii? eicaoeoaii
o?aaeeoe?? iia?aoeinoaa noaee i?aai?/iith neeaaeiaith iaioaeueiino?
oe?a?ioe?a.

O?ao?e ?icae?e. Eoeueoo?a oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa, ye nai???aeiee i?iya
?iaei?a?iiaenueei? i?e?oa?ii? o?aaeeoe?? i?ae eeoea?nueeith ?a?iiith oa
noaiiaei na?oii oth?eiiiaieo iiiaae?a.

A ?icae?e? i?iaiaeeoueny aiae?c aeayeeo oth?enueeeo aieea?a a
o?aaeeoe?ei?e eicaoeuee?e eoeueoo??, oaeiae ?icaeyaeathoueny ia?aeae?
i?ae eoeueoo?ith eicaoeoaa oa i?ciueina?aaeiueia?/iiai eeoea?noaa
Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, ? oi?ioeththoueny aoaie neeaaeaiiy ?iaei?a?iiaenueei?
a?enueeiai? o?aaeeoe?? ? ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa a oeueiio
eiioaeno?.

A eoeueoo?iiio eiiieaen? oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa i?inoaaeothoueny
ia?aeae? n eoeueoo?ith noaiiaeo iiiaae?a. sse cacia/aeiny a iiia?aaei?o
?icae?eao, oe?a?inueea eicaoeoai — oea oeiiaee aeya ?iaei?a?iiaenueei?
a?enueeiai? eoeueoo?e ? iaaiith i??ith ? nai???aeiei i?iyaii ia
oe?a?inueeiio a?oio? caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeeo eeoea?nueeeo o?aaeeoe?e.
Oi/a eicaoeoai noi?ioaaeiny ? iinoaei ia ?noi?e/i?e noeai? iai?ee?ioe?
XV — a ia?o?e iieiaei? XVI no., aea eiai a?oa?/i? neeaaeia? aeaiaioe
yaeyee niaith a?aeaieinee aeoaea aeaai?o caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo
a?enueeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e. Aacnoii?aii, i?e?oa?ia o?aaeeoe?y i?ioyaii
anueiai naiai ?nioaaiiy caciaaaea ci?i ? i?aeiaaeaea i?ae /oae? aieeae,
aea no?eaeaiue ?? caeeoaany iaci?iiei.

Ioaea, oae? a?oa?/i? aeaiaioe a eicaoeueeiio eoeueoo?iiio eiiieaen?, ye
ni?aoe? a?enueeiai? neaae, aeoe?e iieiae?, /a?aiiee eie?? ye iciaea
a?enueeiai? aa?noae, noaaeaiiy ai?ia aei ae?iee, nae?aeuei? eoeueoe
ia/a, eiiy, ai?ia-ca??a, ca’ycie aeoae c aaieaoii, iia?aoeinoai, ca
nai?i iioiaeaeaiiyi iaeaaeaoue aei a?oa?/iiai ?iaei?a?iiaenueeiai
eoeueoo?iiai eiiieaeno. Oe? aeaiaioe aeoeaii ?icaeaaeeny a ia?iae?a
?iaei?a?iiaenueei? iiaii? n?i’? a III-I oen. aei i. a., a aeaye? c ieo
ca?iaeeeeny ua a ia??iae V-IV oen. aei i. a., i?ae /an ?nioaaiiy ?
ii/aoeo ?iciaaeo i?a?iaei?a?iiaenueei? iiaii? ni?eueiioe.

Ui ae noino?oueny ia?iae?a aeoaenueei? iiaii? n?i’?, a naia
oth?ei-iiiaie?a, oi a ieo a?eueo?noue oeeo a?oa?/ieo aeaiaio?a, noiaea,
c’yaeeeny i?ci?oa, i?ae o ?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo ia?iae?a. O oth?e?a aiie
iathoue aoi?eiiee oa?aeoa?, caiice/ai? ieie o noa?iaeaai?o
neioa??a-?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a o III-I oen. aei i. a. Noaeiny oea aiane?aeie
i?a?aoe?? ei/iaee?a-?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a, ye? aeecueei 5 oen. ?. oiio
ia?anoaaeeny noaiii ?a?ac?? ia no?ae ? i?eianee a aeoaenuee? noaie
neioa?noai, aa?oieoeoai ? iia’ycaiee c iei eoeueo eiiy, ai?ia-ca??a,
nae?aeueiee ca’ycie aeoae ? aaieaoo, neiaie?eo /a?aiiiai eieuei?o,
iaoa??aeueio eoeueoo?o (iaeya, th?oo, oi?yae, eie?niee o?ainii?o) oiui.

Aiane?aeie i?eoiaeo a oe?a?inuee? noaie ia?iae?a aeoaenueei? iiaii?
n?i’? a na?aaeiueia?/io aeiao ii/aeeny cai?ioi? aieeae. Iino?ei?
a?enueeia? oa iiaooia? eiioaeoe ni?eyee oiio, ui eicaee ia?aeiaee
iaee?aua o naiai niieiia?/iiai ai?iaa — oaoa?i-oo?aoeueeeo iaiaaeiee?a.
Oea noino?oueny ? ca?i? — oaaey (oi/a ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui aieiaiith
oaea?iith neeith o eicae?a aoea aiaiaiaeueia ca?iy — iooeao, ?ooieoey, a
oaaey, ye aeae oieiaeii? ca?i?, ia?aeiyea ia naaa eoeueoiao
nae?aeuei?noue ia/a — nayuaiii? ca?i? ai?i?a-?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a),
a?enueeiaiai nii?yaeaeaiiy (a?eai, eai/oe, eiao?, naaaeaeae),
a?enueeiai? oa?i?iieia??, iiaooiai? eaeneee, ca/?nee (inaeaaeaoeue),
iaeyao. Iaeiae, aaaaoi aeaiaio?a, ye? caiice/eee oe?a?inuee? eicaee o
nai?o oth?eiiiaieo non?ae?a (iaeya, ca/?neo), iaee
aeaaiuei?iaei?a?iiaenueea iioiaeaeaiiy. I?iaeaia
?iaei?a?iiaenueei-aeoaenueeeo aca?iiaieea?a neeaaeia ? aaaaoiieaiiaa.
Aiia iio?aao? iaoeiaeo coneeue ??cieo oao?aoe?a ? ua /aea? ia naiai
aeine?aeieea.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e ??ciiiai?oi? aeaiaioe eoeueoo?iiai eiiieaeno
oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa, iaiiaeeeai caeeoeoe iica oaaaith
cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee? aieeae ia eoeueoo?o oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa. sse
a?aeiii, ia XI no. ?a?iiaenueea eeoea?noai o?enoeyi?coaaeiny.
?icii/eia?oueny iiaee aoai eiai ?icaeoeo, a naia a?aeaoaa?oueny
oi?ioaaiiy ? noaiiaeaiiy aeooiaii-eeoea?nueeeo /a?ia/eo i?aeai?a. Nai?i
?nioaaiiyi oa oni?oiith ai?ioueaith c ai?iaaie oe? /a?ia/? i?aeaie
ni?aaeyee aaeeea a?aaeaiiy ia o?eueee na?aae cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai
iai?aeainueeiai eeoea?noaa, aea ? ia nai?o aeecueeeo oa aeaeaeeo
non?ae?a, a oiio /ene? ? ia no?aeii?a?iiaenuee? a?enueeia? noaie,
aeeth/ath/e eicaoeoai. Oeae aieea ia oe?a?inueea eicaoeoai ciaeoia nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iaeaeuiio eiai i?iya? — Caii?icuee?e N?/? —
“eicaoeuee?e o?enoeyinuee?e ?anioae?oe?”. Iaaea?aiii iaeei ?c
iaea?aeii?oeo ?noi?ee?a ? ?noi??inio?a XX no. A?iieueae Oieia? o nai?e
a?aeii?e i?aoe? “Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi???” ienaa, ui n?/iaa oiaa?enoai
aei?i?ianueeeo eicae?a ooai?thaaei iai?a/a?iaoeueea a?enueeiaa a?aonoai,
iath/e ni?euei? ?ene ye c aee?inueeei a?aonoaii ai?i?a-nia?o?ao?a, oae ?
c i?aeaiaie eeoea??a-o?anoiiinoe?a.

Oaeei /eiii, Caii?icueea N?/ iaea aiaeia?? c aeooiaieie
eeoea?nueei-/a?ia/eie i?aeaiaie Cao?aeii? ?a?iie XII-XIV no. C ieie N?/
iia’ycothoue ?ae?a?ei?noue ? aneaoeci eicaoeueeiai iia?aoeinoaa,
eieaeoeaia aieiae?iiy caiaeueieie oa?aeaeyie, eoeueoe Ae?ae Ia???
Iie?iae, iioaioaaiiy nayoeo Ieoa?ea oa Aai?a?y (na. TH?a). Eiia??ii, ui
oe? cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee? i?ciueieeoea?nuee? aieeae ia aoee i?yieie, a
nei??oa anueiai, iiina?aaeeiaaieie, /a?ac Iieueuo, iiaeeeai
Iaeueo?enueeee i?aeai. Aeooiai? eeoea?nueei-/a?ia/? i?aeaie aoee ia
o?eueee c?aceii ? ia’?eoii aeey iane?aeoaaiiy caii?icueeeie eicaeaie.
Cie?aia, ? n?/iaa eicaoeoai ?icaeaaei noa?? eeoea?nuee? ? oai?eei iia?
aeani? o?aaeeoe?? ia ie?aeiiio oe?a?inueeiio a?oio?.

No/aniee noai aeaea?aeiciaa/i? aace aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe oae? iine?aeiai?
aoaie ?icaeoeo ?iaei?a?iiaenueei? a?enueeiai? o?aaeeoe??: 1) iaie?oe/iee
– ca?iaeaeaiiy; 2) aiaie?oe/iee – oi?ioaaiiy noaiiaiai eoeueoo?iiai
eiiieaeno ? oaeeo aieiaieo eiai eiiiiiaio?a, ye ianeiaiue eo?aai?a,
iineiaiiy iaa?ae/ee?a /a?aiiith aio?ith, i?enooi?noue a iioiaaiiyo
ca?i?, eai’yi? aio?iiiii?oi? noaee, eoeueo eiiy oa eie?nieoe? oiui a
aiaie?o?; 3) aeiae a?iice aai ??aaaaei-aiia??anueeee aoai. A oeae /an a
na?aaeiaeu? ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a a?aeaoaa?oueny aeoeaia oi?ioaaiiy
i?e?oa?ii-eoeueoo?iiai eiiieaeno ? i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? a?enueeiai? ae?oe ?
ai?i?a; 4) aeiaa ?aiiueiai cae?ca aai ne?oi-aioe/iee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aeoeaiei ?icaeoeii ?iaei?a?iiaenueei? a?enueeiai? o?aaeeoe??; 5)
?aiiueina?aaeiueia?/iee – ooai?aiiy eii?oao?a, ae?oaeei, noaiiaeaiiy
eeoea?nueeiai eoeueoo?iiai eiiieaeno; 6) i?ciueina?aaeiueia?/iee –
ae?yeuei?noue eeoea?nueei-/a?ia/eo i?aeai?a, iiyaa ? ?icaeoie
oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa ? iaeaeuiai eiai i?iyao — Caii?icueei? N?/?,
oi?ioaaiiy eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa, ye nai???aeiiai i?iyao
?iaei?a?iiaenueei? i?e?oa?ii? o?aaeeoe??.

Aeniiaee.

I?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee.

1. Aaoi? c?iaea ni?iao ?icaeyiooe eiiieaenio i?iaeaio aeoie?a,
ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo aeayeeo a?oa?/ieo aeaiaio?a eoeueoo?e
oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa a eiioaeno? oe?a?iiciaanoaa. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
ioiieth? aaeeeee i?ii?aeie /ano, ii/eiath/e c V oen. aei i.a. ?
cae?i/oth/e ?? oen. i.a. ?icaeyaeathoueny ??ciiiai?oi? i?iyae
?iaei?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?ii? o?aaeeoe?? ia aaee/acieo iaoe?ao ?a?ac??,
ye? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a eoeueoo?? oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa. Aaeee?
/ania? ? i?inoi?ia? aei??e iiyniththoueny, ianaiia?aae, o??th
aeoeai?noth noa?iaeaai?o ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a, c yeith aiie canaeyee ?
iaaeeaaee aaee/aci? i?inoi?e ?a?ac?? oa ?oiueith ?ieeth a ?noi???
ethaenoaa.

2. ?ioaa?aoeaiee i?aeo?ae aea? ciiao i?inoaaeeoe ?icaeoie aeayeeo
aeaiaio?a caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenueei? a?enueeiai? eoeueoo?ii?
o?aaeeoe??, a?ae ?o ca?iaeaeaiiy a aei?noi?e/i? /ane aei i?iya?a a
eoeueoo?? oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa i?ciueiai na?aaeiueia?//y. Oea: eoeueo
ia/a-oaae?, eoeueo eiiy, neiaie?eo /a?aiiiai eieuei?o, nae?aeueiee
ca’ycie i?ae aeoaith ? aaieaoii, eoeueo ai?ia-ca??a,
oa?aeoa?ieee-aa?na?ea?e, aieiaee aeoe?e iieiae?, ni?aoe?a a?enueeiai?
neaae, iniaeeaa noaaeaiiy eicaea aei ae?iee, iia?aoeinoai oa ?io?.

3. Aea?oueny iiaa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y aeayeeo oth?enueeeo aieea?a a
o?aaeeoe?ei?e eicaoeuee?e eoeueoo??. Aaaaoi aeaiaio?a eoeueoo?iiai
eiiieaeno, ye? caiice/eee oe?a?inuee? eicaee o nai?o oth?eiiiaieo
non?ae?a, iaee aeaaiuei?iaei?a?iiaenueea ei??iiy (iaeya, aa?oieoeoai,
eoeueoe eiiy ? oaae?, /a?aiiiai eieuei?o oiui).

Iaaieioo?oueny, ui Caii?icueea N?/ iaea aiaeia?th c aeooiaieie
eeoea?nueei-/a?ia/eie i?aeaiaie Cao?aeii? ?a?iie O?? — O?V no. C ieie
N?/ iica’ycothoue ?ae?a?ei?noue ? aneaoeci eicaoeueeiai iia?aoeinoaa,
eieaeoeaia aieiae?iiy caiaeueieie oa?aeaeyie, eoeueoe Ae?ae Ia???
Iie?iae, iioaioaaiiy nayoeo Ieoa?ea oa Aai?a?y (na. TH?a).

Aiae?cothoueny aoaie oi?ioaaiiy ?iaei?a?iiaenueei? a?enueeiai?
o?aaeeoe?? ? i?inoaaeo?oueny oeyo ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa ye ??
neeaaeiai? /anoeie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

O?ao?iee TH.N. ?noi?e/i? aeoiee a?enueeiai? eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai
eicaoeoaa. – E.: Ee?anueea a?aonoai, 1997. – 124 n.

O?ao?iee TH.N. ?noi?e/i? aeoiee a?enueeiai? eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai
eicaoeoaa, 2-aa aeaeaiiy. – E.: A?ae?ioaea oe?a?ioey, 1999. – 124 n.

O?ao?iee TH. I?aeaioiaea iieiaeeo ai?i?a a oe?a?inuee?e a?enueeia?e
eoeueoo?? // ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. – 1999 ?. – ?29-30. Na?iaiue. – N. 7.

O?ao?iee TH. Ca’ycie aeoae c aaieaoii a oe?a?inueeiio oieueeei?? //
Oe?a?inueea iiaa oa e?oa?aoo?a. – 1999 ?. – ? 30. Na?iaiue. – N. 4-5.

O?ao?iee TH.N. I?i ci?ie a no?oeoo?? eicaoeueeiai a?enueea ca aeiae
Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai. A?enueeiaee oa na?oiaeyaeiee aniaeoe. //
Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeueeee ye ?noi?e/ia iinoaoue ? e?oa?aoo?iee ia?niiaae.
— E.: AEeaeoey, 1996. – N. 167-170.

O?ao?iee TH.N. I.Iaeneiiae/, i?i eiaca??a, ni?aoe?a eicaoeueei? neaae //
Iaaeaaia, o/aiee, iao??io. Iaoa??aee IV, Iaoeiai-ina?oi. Eiioa?aioe??
i?enay/aii? I. Iaeneiiae/ (a?. 1994). – E.: Ee?anueeee oi-o, 1997 .– N.
68-71.

O?ao?iee TH.N. I?aai?caoe?y a?nueeiai-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a oe?a?inueeeo
eicae?a // Eoeueoo?a ? ina?oa: i?iaeaie, iiooee, oai?/? ciao?aeee,
A?iieoey, 1995, oii1. – N. 74-75.

O?ao?iee TH.N. *a?aiiee eie?? — eie?? aa?noae ai?i?a-i?ioan?iiae?a //
Iaoa??aee IV i?aeia?iaeii? a?oaieia?/ii? eiioa?aioe?? nooaeaio?a ?
iieiaeeo a/aieo. — E.: Niai?ia Oe?a?ia, 1996. – N. 71-72.

O?ao?iee TH.N. Noaaeaiiy eicaea-ai?ia aei ae?iee ye iaeei c aaaeeeaeo
aeaiaio?a noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e // Iaoa??aee VI iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo “?noi??y iaoee, ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e a
Oe?a?i?: o?aaeeoe?? ? no/ani?noue”. — Ieeiea?a, 1996. – N.87-89.

Aiioaoe?y

O?ao?iee TH.N. A?oa?/i? aeaiaioe eoeueoo?e eicaoeoaa a eiioaeno?
oe?a?iiciaanoaa. ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy
eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth
09.00.12.-oe?a?iiciaanoai. — ?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny noeoii?noue a?oa?/ieo aeaiaio?a a
eoeueoo?iiio eiiieaen? oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa, ye neeaaeiai? ?
iaa?ae’?iii? /anoeie ?iaei?a?iiaenueei? i?e?oa?ii? o?aaeeoe??. Aeey
oeueiai caeo/a?oueny aaeeea i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?ia aeaea?aeueia aaca;
i?iaiaeeoueny eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeaieeo ei?ai?a oaeeo
aecia/aeueieo aeaiaio?a eicaoeueeiai eoeueoo?iiai eiiieaeno (eoeueoe
eiiy oa oaae?, eicaee-oa?aeoa?ieee, eiaca?? — ni?aoe? eeoea?nueei?
neaae, /a?aiiee eie??, aeaeo?e-iieiaeeee, ca’ycie aeoae c aaieaoii,
iniaeeaa noaaeaiiy eicaea aei ae?iee oiui); aeae?eythoueny oth?enuee?
aieeae a o?aaeeoe?ei?e eicaoeuee?e eoeueoo??, aea/athoueny ia?aeae? i?ae
eoeueoo?ith eicaoeoaa oa i?ciueiai na?aaeiueia?/iiai eeoea?noaa
Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, aiae?cothoueny aoaie oi?ioaaiiy ?iaei?a?iiaenueei?
a?enueeiai? o?aaeeoe?? ? oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa ye ?? neeaaeiai?
/anoeie. ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui aeine?aeaeoth/e eoeueoo?o oe?a?inueeiai
eicaoeoaa, ie aeyaey?ii cia/io e?euee?noue a?oa?/ieo aeaiaio?a
caaaeueii?iaei?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?ii? o?aaeeoe??. Aiie iathoue
/eneaii? ia?aeae? c eoeueoo?ith na?aaeiueia?/iiai ?a?iiaenueeiai
eeoea?noaa ? nyaathoue i?aaeaaiuei? aeeaeie ?iaei?a?iiaenueei?
i?e?oa?ii? o?aaeeoe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: a?oa?/i? aeaiaioe, eoeueoo?iee eiiieaen, oe?a?inueea
eicaoeoai, eicaoeueea eoeueoo?a, caii?iaeoe?, eiaca??, eeoea?noai,
?iaei?a?iiaenueea i?e?oa?ia o?aaeeoe?y.

Aiiioaoeey

Oeao?iue TH.N. A?oae/iua yeaiaiou eoeueoo?u eaca/anoaa a eiioaenoa
oe?aeiiaaaeaiey. ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie
eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.12. —
Oe?aeiiaaaeaiea. — Einoeooo oe?aeiiaaaeaiey Eeaaneiai oieaa?neoaoa eiaie
Oa?ana Oaa/aiei. Eeaa 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaathony a?oae/iua yeaiaiou eoeueoo?iiai
eiiieaena oe?aeineiai eaca/anoaa, eae iaiouaieaiay ninoaaiay
eiaeiaa?iiaeneie ieeeoa?iie o?aaeeoeee. Aeey yoiai i?eaeaeaaony aieueoay
enoi/ieeiaaae/aneay aaca ?aciuo iao/iuo aeenoeeieei, i?iaiaeeony
eiiieaeniia eco/aiea aeoaieeo ei?iae oaeeo ii?aaeaeythueo yeaiaioia
eacaoeeiai eoeueoo?iiai eiiieaena, eae eoeueou eiiy e naaee,
eacaee-oa?aeoa?ieee, eiaca?e — iaaoeu ?uoea?neie neaau, naiaioeea
e?aniiai oeaaoa, aeaeo?u-iieiaeuee, nae?aeueiay naycue aeoau n ie?ii,
iniaaiiia ioiioaiea eacaea-caii?iaeoea e aeaiueia, eacaoeeia
iia?aoeinoai e o.ae.; aeaaony iiaay eioa?i?eoaoeey iaeioi?ui oth?eneei
aeeyieyi a o?aaeeoeeiiiie eacaoeeie eoeueoo?a, i?ineaaeeaathony
ia?aeeaee a eoeueoo?iuo eiiieaenao eaca/anoaa e iicaeian?aaeiaaaeiaiai
?uoea?noaa Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, aiaeece?othony yoaiu oi?ie?iaaiey
eiaeiaa?iiaeneie aiaiiie o?aaeeoeee e oe?aeineiai eaca/anoaa eae aai
ninoaaiie /anoe.

A ia?aie aeaaa enneaaeoaony enoi/ieeiaaae/aneay aaca ei?iae eacaoeeie
o?aaeeoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u, a oaeaea enoi?ey eco/aiey aa enoieia.
Eacaoeeee auo e o?aaeeoeee oe?iei io?aceeenue a oieueeei?iuo enoi/ieeao,
oe?aeineeo aeoiao, enoi?e/aneeo ianiyo, eaaaiaeao e neacaieyo, a
ienueiaiiuo ainiiieiaieyo nia?aiaiieeia. Ii ?acee/iua noi?iiu eacaoeeie
eoeueoo?u io?aaeaiu a enoi/ieeao i/aiue ia ?aaiiia?ii. O?aaiaioa?iinoue
aacu enoi/ieeia a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a eiiiaine?oaony iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iui
iiaeoiaeii e eco/aieth ae?aaieo iauaeiaeiaa?iiaeneeo yeaiaioia eacaoeeie
eoeueoo?u. A ?aaioa eniieueciaaiu aeaiiua e iaoiaeu ?acee/iuo iao/iuo
aeenoeeieei: a?oaieiaee, yoiia?aoee, enoi?ee, oieueeei?enoeee,
eeiaaenoeee e o.ae.

Ai aoi?ie aeaaa eco/athony enoiee a?oae/iuo yeaiaioia eacaoeeie
eoeueoo?u. Eoeueo eiiy, eae i?aaie/iue eiiiiiaio o?aaeeoeeiiiie
eacaoeeie eoeueoo?u e ?uoea?neiai eoeueoo?iiai eiiieaena n?aaeiaaaeiauey
– ?aeeeo iauaeiaeiaa?iiaeneie ieeeoa?iie eoeueoo?u. Eoeueo eacaoeeie
naaee anoue ia /oi eiia, eae inoaoee i/aiue ae?aaiaai eiaeiaa?iiaeneiai
eoeueoa ia/a e aiaaiai iiyna, eioi?ue i?ineaaeeaaaony a eoeueoo?a iiiaeo
ia?iaeia eiaeiaa?iiaeneie ycueiaie iauiinoe. Eoeueo aieia-caa?y a
eiaeiaa?iiaeneie aiaiiie o?aaeeoeee ii?aaeaeytho oaeea aeaaiua yeaiaiou:
iai?ioie/anoai, iinayuaiea /a?ac iiiynuaaiea aiaaui iiynii,
iaoaeee/aneee ia?o/-a?eaia, aaethoeeiiaaiu, oiueaiea aeaiuei e o.ae.
Inoaoee yoeo a?oae/aneeo iau/aaa iaaethaeathony a ieoieiaee iiiaeo
eiaeiaa?iiaeoeaa a oii /enea e oe?aeioeaa (ianeaieiaoeu, aiaeoeaee,
iai?ioie, eacaee-oa?aeoa?ieee). Oaiiiai eiaca?noaa ia oieueei ianeaaeea
o?aaeeoeee iaaoeia eiyaeeo ae?oaeei Eeaaneie ?one – Oe?aeiu, ii e ii
nooe eiaao i?yiua ia?aeeaee a oai?/anoaa a?aoiaiia-?eoe aaaeeeneeo
a?aiai, ayaeia aiia?ianeie A?aoeee, neaeueaeia e o?oaa?ia
n?aaeiaaaeiaiai ?uoea?noaa. E?aniue oeaao a eiaeiaa?iiaeneie ieeeoa?iie
e eoeueoo?iie o?aaeeoeeyo ieeoeaoai?yao niaie e?iaue, iaiiue, aieio e
yaeyaony neiaieii aiaiiie a?enoie?aoee, a ia Oe?aeia yoa o?aaeeoeey
auoiaaea a Eeaaneie ?one e aeiaeeea aei eacaoeeeo a?aiai. A oe?aeineeo
eacaeia nouanoaiaaea nenoaia iiaeaioiaee iieiaeuo aieiia, e /a?ac
o?aaeeoeee eiyaeaneie Eeaaneie ?one iia naieie aeoaieeie ei?iyie
aeinoeaaao ae?aaiaeoeo eiaeiaa?iiaeneeo ieanoia, eiaaea io?iee
iiaeaioaaeeaaee naay e ia?yaeo iinayuaiey a aieiu. Iaia?oaeaii, /oi
o?aaeeoeeiiiay ?eooaeueiay naycue iaaeaeo aeoaie e ie?ii, oa?aeoa?iay
aeey eoeueoo?u oe?aeineiai eaca/anoaa, yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth
iauaeiaeiaa?iiaeneiai ieeeoa?iiai eoeueoo?iiai eiiieaena. Ii?aaeaeaii,
/oi iniaaiiia ioiioaiea eacaea-caii?iaeoea e aeaiueia, a eiaiii oi, /oi
ii inoaaaeny oieinoui, naycaii n o?aaeeoeeyie ia?aiauoiuo ioaeneeo
aiaiiuo nithcia, eoaea aeinooi aeaiuei cai?auaeny. I/aiue ae?aaiae
eiaeiaa?iiaeneie o?aaeeoeeae auei eacaoeeia iia?aoeinoai, a aai enoiee
i?ineaaeeaathony a ?iaeiaii i?eioeeia oi?ie?iaaiey aiaiiuo nithcia
ia?aiauoiinoe.

A o?aoae aeaaa i?iaiaeeony aiaeec iaeioi?uo oth?eneeo aeeyiee a
o?aaeeoeeiiiie eacaoeeie eoeueoo?a, ?anniao?eaathony ia?aeeaee iaaeaeo
eoeueoo?aie eaca/anoaa e iicaeian?aaeiaaaeiaiai ?uoea?noaa Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu, a oae aea auaeaeythony yoaiu noaiiaeaiey eiaeiaa?iiaeneie
aiaiiie o?aaeeoeee ii?aaeaeyaony ianoi oe?aeineiai eaca/anoaa a yoii
i?ioeanna.

A ieeeoa?iie eoeueoo?a oe?aeineiai eaca/anoaa, i?ineaaeeaaaony aieueoia
eiee/anoai ?aeeeoia ae?aaiae iauaeiaeiaa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?iie
o?aaeeoeee. Iiiaea aaaeiua yeaiaiou o?aaeeoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u eacaeia ia
oieueei eiatho iiiai/eneaiiua ia?aeeaee a eoeueoo?a n?aaeiaaaeiaiai
aa?iiaeneiai ?uoea?noaa, ii e aeinoeaatho aeoaei iauaeiaeiaa?iiaeneeo
o?aaeeoeee. Eiaaony a aeaeo eoeueo ia/a-naaee, eoeueo eiiy, e?aniue
oeaao — ii?aaeaeythuee iooaiie e neiaie aieiia-eiaeiaa?iiaeoeaa,
nae?aeueii-?eooaeueiay naycue iaaeaeo aeoaie e ie?ii, eoeueo
aieia-caa?y, aa?na?ea?u-oa?aeoa?ieee, iiaeaioiaea iieiaeuo aieiia,
iaaoeu ?uoea?neie neaau, iniaia ioiioaiea ?uoea?y e aeaiueia,
?aeeaeiciinoue e o.ae. Aaoi? ia noaaee ia?aae niaie caaea/e
en/a?iuaathuaai eco/aiey i?iaeaiu enoieia eacaoeeie eoeueoo?u, a
i?aneaaeiaae oieueei ne?iiioth oeaeue iinoaiiaee aii?ina ia enoieao e
naiaioeea iaeioi?uo i/aiue ae?aaieo eoeueoo?iuo o?aaeeoeee oe?aeineiai
eaca/anoaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: a?oae/iua yeaiaiou, eoeueoo?iue eiiieaen, oe?aeineia
eaca/anoai, eacaoeeay eoeueoo?a, caii?iaeoeu, eiaca?e, ?uoea?noai,
eiaeiaa?iiaeneay ieeeoa?iay o?aaeeoeey.

Annotation

Figurnyi Yu. Archaic Elements of the Culture of Cossacks in the Context
of Ukrainian Studies. Manuscript. The dissertation submitted for the
scholarly degree of a candidate of historical sciences in specialization
09.00.12. — Ukrainian studies at the Institute of Ukrainian Studies of
Kyiv Taras Shevchenko University, Kyiv, 1999.

This dissertation deals with the totality of archaic elements in
cultural complex of Ukrainian kozatstvo (cossacks) as component and
integral part of Indo-European military tradition. For this include
large interdiscipline sources; carry out complex research of profound
roots of basis elements of cossack cultural complex (cult of a horse and
a sabre, kozaky-kharakternyky (Cossacks-sourcerers), kobzari (bards) –
singers of knightly glory, red colour, dzhury-molodyky (young warriors),
connection between a battle and a banquet, specitic cassack’s a attitude
to woman and so on); distinguish Turkish influence in the traditional
cossack culture; study parallels between the culture of kozatstvo and
the late medieval knighthood of Western Europe; analyse the stages of
forming the Indo-European military tradition and Ukrainian kozatstvo as
its component. As for conclusion we discover great quantity archaic
elements of the Indo-European cultural tradition in the culture of
Ukrainian kozatstvo. These elements have numerous parallels with the
culture of medieval European knighthood that lead us to ancient
profundity of Indo-European military tradition.

Key words: archaic elements, cultural complex, Ukrainian kozatstvo,
kozatska culture, zaporozhtsi, kobzari, knighthood, Indo-European
military tradition.

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