EUeA?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? ?AAIA O?AIEA

I?enoao E?ae?y Oeoii?aia

OAeE 340.0 (477)

Aia?ao oi?aae?iiy Cao?aeiith Oe?a?iith a neeaae? Iieueu? (1921-1939 ??.)

12.00.01 ( oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa;

?noi??y iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Euea?a ( 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? oa oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo?
?i.?aaia O?aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee ( *eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie,
aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe Eoeue/eoeueeee Aieiaeeie? Naiaiiae/, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e ?noi??? oa oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.?aaia O?aiea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe ( Aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe Aeoeaiei A?oae?e ?aaiiae/,
i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i.
A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe Neeaea Noaiai Noaiaiiae/, aeioeaio eaoaae?e
?noi??? oa oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Euea?anueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o
ni?aa i?e Iaoe?iiaeuei?e aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y ( Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie
?i.ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 28 a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.35.051.03 i?e Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i.?aaia O?aiea ca aae?anith: 290000, i. Euea?a,
aoe. Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?aaia O?aiea (290005,
i. Euea?a, aoe. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii  ”23” eenoiiaaea  1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A.I.EINNAE

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. A no/aniee ia??iae anaa?/ieo ?aoi?ia oe?e
cia/ii c?inoa? ?ioa?an aei iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy i?ioean?a
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? i?aaioai?aiiy ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo a ieioeiio.
Aaaaoia?eiaee oeyo Oe?a?ie aei aeanii? aea?aeaaiino? iicia/aiee
ia?aiiaaie ? ii?aceaie. Iei?oi? aea?aeaaia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae ia? a?oiooaaoenue ia ia’aeoeaii-iaoeiaiio ia?ainieneaii? ??
ieioeiai aea?aeaaioai?/iai i?ioeano, iniaeeai oeo eiai aoai?a, ye?
ei?aaoaaee o?ae iaoe?iiaeueiiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a Oe?a?i?.

C iaeyaeo ia aeuaneacaia, aeooaeueiith iio?aaith aenooia? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaiai aeina?aeo ae??oaiiy i?iaeai oa?eoi??aeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? ii/eiaoe o?aaa ?c ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai
aea/aiiy i?aaiaiai noaiiaeua oeo caiaeue, ye? nueiaiaei? neeaaeathoue
oa?eoi??th Oe?a?ie. Iaei??th c oaeeo caiaeue ? Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia.

I?ney Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie cao?aeiei oe?a?ioeyi, ye? i?aaioee aei
naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ia aaeaeiny caaithaaoe iacaeaaeiino?. Ie?, oeeaaeaiee a
?ec? 1921 ?ieo i?aaenoaaieeaie o?yae?a O?N?, ??ON? — c iaeiiai aieo oa
o?yaeo Iieueu? — c ae?oaiai, ea?aeeiaeueii ae??oea ni?aao oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino?: eiai noaoo? noaa?aeeee i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaee noaoon O?N?
ye ?aeeiiai ?ai?acaioaioa Oe?a?ie ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai? ? aiaeii/an
c?oeioaaee i?aaia? i?aenoaae ooaa?aeaeaiiy ?ioeo oe?a?inueeeo aea?aeaa —
Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee oa Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii?
?anioae?ee.

Iieuenueea aeaaea i?iaiaeeea a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? iie?oeeo a?ooaeueiiai
iiiaaieaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy, aaeueioaaea ?icaeoie aeiiii?ee,
ianaaeaeoaaea eieii?no?a-inaaeiee?a, e?ea?aeiaoaaea iaoe?iiaeueio
eoeueoo?o. Iaeaaaeeea?oei cia?yaeaeyi oaei? iie?oeee iieuenueeeo
ieoiaio?a o Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? aoa aeania iaoai?ci Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae.

?ice?eooy oaeaaaii? iieuenueei? aeaiie?ao?? uiaei oe?a?inueeiai
ianaeaiiy, aena?oeaiiy oi?i ? iaoiae?a eieii?aeueiiai ?aaeeio
oi?aae?iiy, anoaiiaeaiiai iieuenueeeie i?aaey/eie eieaie a Cao?aei?e
Oe?a?i? i?ioyaii 1921-1939 ??., aecia/aiiy anaa?/ii-ia’?eoeaii? ioe?iee
ae?yeueiino? aia?aoo oi?aae?iiy ia ieoiiaaieo cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caieyo a eiioaeno? no/anieo i?aeoe/ieo aea?aeaaioai?/eo caaaeaiue
iaaoaa? aeiyoeiaiai cia/aiiy ? aeooaeueiino?.

I?i aeooaeuei?noue ?noi?eei-i?aaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue eaeaoueny a
Iinoaiia? I?aceae?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie a?ae
30.11.94p. ca ? 269. A?aecia/ath/e aeaye? oni?oe a ?ic?iaoe?
?noi?eei-i?aaiaeo i?iaeai, eiinoaoo?oueny, ui a oe?eiio a Oe?a?i? noai
?noi?eei-i?aaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ua caeeoa?oueny iacaaeia?eueiei. C
oe??th iaoith caoaa?aeaeaii i??i?eoaoi? iai?yie ?noi?eei-i?aaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue a IAI Oe?a?ie aei 2000 ?ieo ? ia iiaeaeueoo ia?niaeoeao.
C iaoith a?ae?iaeaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai ?noi?e/iiai
i?aaiciaanoaa oa iie?ioaiiy eii?aeeiaoe?? ?noi?eei-i?aaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue noai?aii i?e I?aceae?? IAI Oe?a?ie eii?n?th c aea/aiiy
?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai i?aaa.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ae?yeuei?noue Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae noiniaii
oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy ia oa?eoi??? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie, yea ia?aaoaaea a
neeaae? Iieueu? ca ?ecueeei ie?iei aeiaiai?ii 1921 ?ieo ? aei ii/aoeo
Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie a 1939 ?ioe?.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ioean i?aai?caoe?? oa no?oeoo?a
oeaio?aeueieo ? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy,
noaeiai-i?ieo?i?nueeeo i?aai?a oa i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy Iieueu? ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? c’ynoaaiiy oa?aeoa?ieo ?en ? iniaeeainoae
i?ioeano i?aai?caoe?? oa ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa
naiia?yaeoaaiiy a Iieueu? a ia??iae 1921-1939 ??., cie?aia a Cao?aei?e
Oe?a?i?, a eiioaeno? ?ioa?ano oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy uiaei
naiiaecia/aiiy.

Aeoiaey/e c iinoaaeaii? iaoe caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy ?:

i?iaiae?coaaoe ia?aaeoiiae ?ecueeiai ie?o ye oeyoe noaiiaeaiiy ?
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? oa ai?ioueae ca ??
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaa aeciaiiy;

aeaoe aea?aeaaii-i?aaiao ioe?ieo iieiaeaiue i?ae?i?ia?iiai ? inoaoi/iiai
?ecueeiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?o a eiioaeno? aea?aeaaieo ?ioa?an?a Oe?a?ie, a
o./. ? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie;

aena?oeeoe iaeiaea/ai? ie?ai? i?aaia? iiiaioe o i?ioean? i?e?aeiaiiy
Aaee/eie aei Iieueu?;

c’ynoaaoe i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? oiiae noai?aiiy ? ?nioaaiiy
ai?aiaenueei? aaoiiii??;

i?iaiae?coaaoe aoceia? ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe?? oa ae?yeueiino? iieuenueeiai
ia?eaiaioo a eiioaeno? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a eiai i?aeoe/iiio ooieoe?iioaaii?
aeaiie?aoe/ieo canaae, cie?aia uiaei caaacia/aiiy i?aa oe?a?inueei?
iaioino?;

?ice?eoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ooieoe?e ? eiiiaoaioe?? i?aai?a o?yaeiai?
aaei?i?no?aoe?? oa i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, a?aecia/eoe iniaeeaino?
?o i?aaiai? ?aaeaiaioaoe??;

aecia/eoe i?noea ? ?ieue i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo o nenoai? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a Iieueu?;

c’ynoaaoe iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a i?aainoaeaey oa
iie?oe?? ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo ca oiia iineeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y iaienaia ia iniia?
eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy i?aaeiaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aeei?enoaii nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee, ?noi?eei-i?aaiaee, eia?/iee,
ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae iaoiae
e?euee?niiai oa ye?niiai aiae?co aeieoiaio?a.

Aeaea?aeueiith aacith aeena?oaoe?? ? a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee
Euea?anueeiai iaeaniiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao, eiinoeoooe?? Iieueu? 1921
?. ? 1935 ?., ca??ieee caeii?a ? ?icii?yaeaeaiue Iieuenueei? ?anioae?ee
ia??iaeo 1921-1939 ??., iieuenuee? ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy 20-30-o ?ie?a,
iiiia?ao?? ye a?o/eciyieo oae ? iieuenueeeo aaoi??a (I.Aa?aneiaiea,
N.A?iaec?nueeiai, A.Aeoaeeeaae/a, I. ?aanthoe, I.Eaeeyna, TH.Neeaee,
I.Uaiaoeueeiai oa ?i.).

Oaeoe/iee noai ?ic?iaee.

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia oa iie?oe/ia noaiiaeua Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie o
neeaae? Iieueu? a ia??iae 1921-1939 ??. ciaeoei nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
i?aoeyo oe?a?inueeeo ?noi?ee?a: A.Aeoaeeeaae/a, I.?aanthoe,
?.Eioa?iiai, ?.E?ei’yeaae/a, N.Iaea?/oea, A.Ina/einueeiai,
I.Iieiinueei?-Aaneeaiei, TH.Neeaee, I.*aeaea, I.Oeeaea oa ?i.

C ?noi?ee?a i?aaa iaae aeaiith i?iaeaiith i?aoethaaee: aeaaeai?e
A.Aaa?e, i?ioani?e: A. Eoeue/eoeueeee, A.Oeuee oa ?io?.

I?ioa aaciina?aaeiuei aeine?aeaeoaaa aeaio oaio A.Eaeeiiae/. Iaeaea
i?anoie?ooy oiio a?i caoenoea eaiaeeaeaonueeo aeena?oaoe?th. Aeey ia?
oa?aeoa?i? eeaniaee i?aeo?ae, iiceoe?y canoaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiae?cio ye ao?aeoaciiai.

Aaaaoi aeyaeaieo i?ci?oa iaoa??ae?a ia noaee i?aaeiaoii eiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a iioae?eiaai? ia aac? aeena?oaoe?? noaoo? i?noyoue
aeniiaee ? ioe?iee, c?iaeai? ca?aeii c aeiiaaie iaioth/i? ia oie /an
ia?enenonueei-eai?inueei? ?aeaieia??.

Na?aae ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiue oe??? oaiaoeee, aaoi?e yeeo i?eae?eyee
oaaao ?icaeoeia? aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeo ?inoeooo?a Iieueu?, iio??aii
aeae?eeoe i?aoe? i?ioani??a: TH.Aa?aeaoa, A. E?niiaei?nueeiai,
I.I??o?/aea, I. Eaeeyna.

Aa?oi cacia/eoe, ui ia aeaiee /an o a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo?? i?aeoe/ii,
e??i i?aoeue A.Eaeeiiae/a, a?aenooi? niaoe?aeuei? eiiieaeni?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaiai ?icaeoeo Iieueu? a iacaaiee ia??iae,
cie?aia uiaei aia?aoo oi?aae?iiy Cao?aeiith Oe?a?iith.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui: cae?eniaii aiae?c
?ai?oa ia aeine?aeaeaieo a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a oa aia?oa aaaaeaii? a
iaoeiaee ia?a e?oa?aoo?e; e?eoe/ii ia?aaeyiooi ?nioth/? a e?oa?aoo??
ioe?iee iieiaeaiue ?ecueeiai aeiaiai?o oa iane?aee?a ?o ?aae?caoe?? aeey
ni?aae oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?; oeyoii ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaiai aiae?co
iaio iieuenueeeo eiinoeoooe?e 1921 ?. ? 1935 ?. c’yniaaii iaaaoeaio
?ieue eiinoeoooe?? 1935 ?. uiaei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aaiao i?aeoeeo
Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae canaae oeea?e?ciaaiiai ia?eaiaioa?ecio ye
iaa?ae’?iiiai aeaiaioo aeaiie?aoe/iiai i?ioeano aeaaea?thaaiiy; ?ice?eoi
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ooieoe?e ? eiiiaoaioe?? i?aai?a o?yaeiai?
aaei?i?no?aoe?? ? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy oa aecia/aii ia oe?e iniia?
ae?oai?yaeio ?ieue inoaii?o; aeyaeaii aca?iica’ycie iineeaiiy
aeene?ei?iaoe?eii? iie?oeee Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae uiaei oe?a?inueei?
iaioino? ?c caa?aaeaiiyi eo??aeueii? nenoaie aeai??a aei i?aai?a
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy; c’yniaaii ia i?aenoaa? a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a
iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ea?aeueii? iie?oeee a ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a
i?aainoaeaey oa iie?oe?? Iieueu? ia ieoiiaaieo cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caieyo.

Iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy eiie?aoeco?oueny a iniiaieo
iieiaeaiiyo oa aeniiaeao, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

a?aoiaoth/e iaaeinoaoi?e noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee ? iaeiaeine?aeaeai?noue
iecee ieoaiue aeaii? i?iaeaie oa ia i?aenoaa? aia?oa aaaaeaieo a
iaoeiaee ia?a iiaeo a?o?aieo oa aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a no/anieo
a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iieacaii ae?enia noaiiaeua
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue o neeaae? Iieueu?;

aiae?c ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a, cie?aia caeiio a?ae 26 aa?aniy 1922
?ieo i?i iaaeaiiy iieuenueeei o?yaeii no?aeiei ai?aiaenoaai aaoiiii??, ?
na?ae/aiiyi eiai iaiaaaiue aaanoe a iiaio na?oiao a?iiaaenuee?noue uiaei
aeeiiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue iieuenueeeo aeanoae ca ?ecueeei ie?iei
aeiaiai?ii noiniaii iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei c iaoith inoaoi/iiai
aeeth/aiiy Aaee/eie aei neeaaeo Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae;

aiae?c iaio iieuenueeeo eiinoeoooe?e 1921 ?. ? 1935 ?. uiaei ?aae?caoe??
?o iniiaieo iieiaeaiue i?i aea?aeaaia aoae?aieoeoai ? aeieacii
ae?aiao?aeueii-i?ioeeaaeieo iiceoe?e i?aaey/eo e?e noiniaii oi?i ?
iaoiae?a ae?yeueiino? oa neoaeaiai? ?ie? oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a
aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo Iieueu?. Aeaye? aeaiie?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiiy
eiinoeoooe?? 1921 ?ieo i?ney o?aaiaaiai ia?aai?ioo 1926 ?ieo aoee cia/ii
o??cai?, a ianooiiith eiinoeoooe??th 1935 ?ieo- e?ea?aeiaai?;

ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co iieuenueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa i?aeoeee eiai
canoinoaaiiy iieacaii oaeoe/ia onoiaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei a?ae
o/ano? a ?iaio? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a ? ianaiia?aae o ia?eaiaio?
aea?aeaae;

iiae?e ia i?aaie o?yaeiai? aaei?i?no?aoe?? oa i?aaie naiia?yaeoaaiiy iaa
oi?iaeueiee oa?aeoa?, ine?eueee inoaii? aoee oaeoe/ii i?eaeaoeii aei
ia?oeo;

aioeaeaiie?aoe/iee oa?aeoa? iie?oe/iiai ?aaeeio i?aeai?iii? Iieuenueei?
aea?aeaae yne?aai i?iyaeyany a iaaeiiouaii? i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueeiai
ianaeaiiy aei iinaae ai?aiae, iia?oiaeo noa?ino, a?eo?a, noaeae?a ? o.i;

aeayeee aeinooi oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy aei o/ano? a i?aaiao i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ye na?ae/aoue a?o?ai? iaoa??aee, ia ci?ithaaa eiai
eieii?aeueiiai noaiiaeua ? oaeoe/iiai aaci?aa’y;

ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ae?th/eo ia oie /an a Iieuenuee?e aea?aeaa?
aeaea?ae i?aaa (aano??enueeiai, ?in?enueeiai, i?iaoeueeiai)
aena?oeth?oueny i?ioean noai?aiiy iieuenueei? i?aaiai? nenoaie, yea aei
oeueiai /ano ia aoea i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a
oe?a?inuee?e ?noi?eei-i?aaia?e e?oa?aoo??;

oa?aeoa?iith ?enith i?aai?a thnoeoe?? (noae?a, i?ieo?aoo?e) oa iie?oe??
i?aeai?iii? Iieueu? ? iaaoooy ieie iciae ea?aeueieo i?aai?a, iaea?eueo
i?eoaiaiia yeei aoei aeei?enoaiiy o ?oi?e ?iaio? aeayeeo niaoeeo?/ieo,
o?eueee ?i aeanoeaeo, ?ai?aneaieo oi?i ? iaoiae?a ae?yeueiino? uiaei
iaiieuenueeiai ianaeaiiy;

ae?yeuei?noue ia/eneaiiiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy a
iieuenueeiio naei? ? naiao? ia iiaea aieeaaoe ia ?o yne?aai ae?aaeaiee
aioeoe?a?inueeee oa?aeoa?;

iieuenueeee o?yae noai?thaaa ia?aoeiaee oe?a?inueeiio ianaeaiith a
i?aai?oe?? aoaeue-yeeo oi?i ciaaaiue ca nai? i?aaa a iaaeao iieuenueei?
eiinoeoooe??, cie?aia oeyoii caa?aaeaiiy i?ioyaii aeayeiai /ano
eo??aeueii? nenoaie aeai??a i?e oi?ioaaii? i?aai?a i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy, oeneo ia aeai?oe?a oa iao?iaoe?e i?ae /an aeai??a aei
ia?eaiaioo, ui ni?eyei iacia/iiio i?aaenoaaieoeoao a ieo oe?a?ioe?a.

Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Iieiaeaiiy, ye? iaa?oioiaai? a
aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii?, oa aeniiaee, ye? c?iaeaii ia ?o iniia?,
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue, a
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? o th?eaee/ieo oa ?ioeo niaoe?aeueieo caeeaaeao,
cie?aia a eaeoe?eieo eo?nao c ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oe?a?ie,
i?iaaaeaii? nai?ia?nueeeo caiyoue, iaienaii? aeeieiiieo, eo?niaeo ?
eiio?ieueieo ?ia?o. Ie?ai? iaoa??aee ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai?
i?e i?iaaaeaii? eaeoe?eii-i?iiaaaiaeenonueei? ?iaioe na?aae ianaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? ?aea? aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?thaaeenue
ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? oa oai??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?aaia O?aiea, a oaeiae ia iaoeiaeo ca?oieo
eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1994, 1995, 1996 ? 1997 ??.).

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a iioae?eiaaieo
i?ioyaii 1995-1998 ?ie?a noaooyo o iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao, cie?aia o A?nieeo
Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? coiiaeaia iaoith, caaaeaiiyi oa i?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aiia neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, .o?ao?e ?
/aoaa?oee c yeeo iiae?eai? ia /ioe?e ia?aa?aoe, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e.

Ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii nooi?iue ??
?ic?iaee o a?o/eciyi?e ? ca?oa?aei?e e?oa?aoo??, aecia/aii iaoo ?
oa?aeoa? aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoeiao iiaecio oa iieiaeaiiy,
ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, aena?oeaii iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae
aeena?oaoe??, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe, a oaeiae iieacaii
ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? (Caoiieaiiy cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue Iieueuath(
aaoi? iaiaaa?oueny c’ynoaaoe iniiai? oaeoi?e oeueiai i?ioeano a aeaio
ieiueiao: c oi/ee ci?o iie?oeei-i?aaiai? neooaoe?? a
cao?aeii-oe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii? a 1919-1923 ?ieao oa c oi/ee ci?o
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo oiia ianeeueieoeueeiai i?e?aeiaiiy Aaee/eie aei
Iieueu?.

I?ney Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie, a i??o oiai, ye ia i?noe? iauiaeaaii
iiaooi?o ?iia??e iinoaaaee iaoe?iiaeuei? aea?aeaae, o No?aei?e ?a?ii?
oi?ioaaany iiaee iie?oe/iee ii?yaeie. Oi/a i?eioeei naiiaecia/aiiy
iaoe?e ae?noaa caaaeueia aeciaiiy, a?i, iaeiae, canoiniaoaaany ia
caaaeaee, aiane?aeie /iai ia an? ia?iaee caeiaoee aea?aeaai?noue.
Cao?aei? oe?a?ioe?, eieeoi? i?aeaeai? Aaanao?cueei? iiia?o??, i?aaioee
aei naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Iaeiae ?o niiae?aaiiy iaooiaoioeenue ia
anei?eyoe?eio iie?oeeo aea?aeaa, o yeeo aiie i?iaeeaaee. Caaithaaiiy
cao?aeieie oe?a?ioeyie i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai aeciaiiy ca oaeeo oiia
aoei a?oeneeaaeiei caaaeaiiyi, ai ia oeyoo eiai ae??oaiiy noaei
c?oeiaiiy ?ioa?an?a oe?a?inueeeo (OI?, COI?, O?N?) ? Iieuenueei?
aea?aeaa. ?icaeyaeath/e aea?aeaaioai?/? i?ioeane a Oe?a?i? a eiioaeno?
aca?iei oe?a?inueei? oa iieuenueei? aea?aeaaiino?, aaoi? aiae?co? oeyoe,
ye? i?eaaee aecaieuei? ciaaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo 1917-1921 ??. ca
naith iacaeaaei?noue aei caaa?oaeueiiai aoaio — ?ecueeiai ie?o.

Iane?aeee oeeaaeaiiai a ?ec? 12 aeiaoiy 1920 ?. aeiaiai?o i?i ia?aie?’y
? i?ae?i?ia?iee ie? aoee iaiaeiicia/ieie, ye aeey ia?aaiai?thth/eo
noi??i, oae ? aeey oeo, /e? aea?aeaai? ?ioa?ane a?i ca/?iaa. I?eeiyooy
i?ae?i?ia?ieo oiia ia a?aaoethaaei ?nioth/ee
oe?a?inueei-?in?enueei-iieuenueeee eiioe?eo, a iaaiaee iiaeeaeei eiai.
*an a?ae i?ae?i?ia?iiai aei inoaoi/iiai ie?o aoa ia??iaeii aino?i?
ai?ioueae ca ia?aaeyae eiai iieiaeaiue.

Inoaoi/iee aeiaia??, i?aeienaiee o ?ec? 18 aa?aciy 1921 ?ieo, ia aeoieo
aeena?oaioa, ? noia?a/eeaei ? iaiaa?oioiaaiei aeieoiaioii ye ca
th?eaee/iith oi?iith, oae ? ca ci?noii eiai iieiaeaiue:

O?N? a ia?aaiai?ao a?aeaaaeaii ?ieue noa’?eoa i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, ui
?ai?acaiooaaa anth Oe?a?io, ?aii?oth/e ?io? aea?aeaai? ooai?aiiy, ye?
?nioaaee ia oe?a?inueeiio oa?ai? ? ni?aaaaeeeai a?aenoithaaee nai?
caeiii? i?aaa (OI? ? COI?);

oa?eoi??aeueia ?iciaaeoaaiiy i?ae Oe?a?iith ? Iieueuath cae?enithaaeinue
anoia?a/ c aaea ?nioth/eie i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeie aeoaie uiaei
aecia/aiiy e?i?? no?aeiiai ei?aeiio Iieueu? — “e?i?? Ea?ciia” .

Oaeei /eiii, ?ecueeee ie?iee aeiaia?? aecia/ea oae? i?aenoaae ?nioaaiiy
Oe?a?ie ye i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiai? iaeeieoe?, ye? a?oai ii?oooaaee /eii?
ia oie /an ii?ie i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, aieiaiei c yeeo aoa i?eioeei
naiiaecia/aiiy ia?iae?a.

15 aa?aciy 1923 ?ieo ?aaea iine?a O?aioe??, ?oae??, Aiae?? ? ssiii??,
ciaoooaaaoe i?aaii oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ia naiiaecia/aiiy, i?eeiyea
??oaiiy i?i ia?aaea/o Aaee/eie Iieueu? c oiiaith iaaeaiiy ?e
oa?eoi??aeueii? aaoiiii??, yeo iieuenueeee o?yae i?eiee ia cae?aany
aeeiioaaoe.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? (Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie
o neeaae? Iieueu?( aaoi? iieaco? aeene?ei?iaoe?eio iie?oeeo iieuenueeiai
o?yaeo uiaei oe?a?ioe?a, yeee ae?ya oae, ia/aaoi Aaee/eia aoea oe?eeii
iieuenueeei e?a?i, i?aeii?yaeeiaoth/e nia? eiai iie?oe/ia, eoeueoo?ia oa
aeiiii?/ia aeeooy e iiai?noth ?aii?oth/e iio?aae oe?a?ioe?a.

Iiaiooai?aia Iieuenueea aea?aeaaa iaea iaeaeuee a?aenioie iaoe?iiaeueieo
iaioei o an?e ?a?ii?. Ca ia?aienii 1921 ?ieo Iieueua iae?/oaaea 27,2
iei., a a 1939 ?. — 35,1 iei. /ieia?e. O 1921 ?ioe? iieyee noaiiaeee
69,2 %, oe?a?ioe? — 14,3 %, ?a?a? — 7,8 %, a?ei?one — 3,9 % ? i?ioe? —
3,9 %. ?acii iaioeie noaiiaeee 29,8 % anueiai ianaeaiiy Iieueu?.
*enaeueia ia?aaaaa iieuenueei? a?eueoino? ia aoea oaeith aaeeeith, uia
aeicaieeoe ?i oe?eeiaeoi e nenoaiaoe/ii ?aii?oaaoe i?aaiaiiy iaiieueneeo
ia?iae?a.

Oe?a?ioe? a Iieueu? neeaaeaee aea? ie?ai? a?iiaaee, e o?yae ?iaea ona
iiaeeeaa, uia i?aee?aneeee a?aei?ii?noue i?ae ieie. A?eueo?noue
oe?a?ioe?a i?iaeeaaea ia eieeoi?o aaanao?cueeeo caieyo Aaee/eie, aai
No?aeii? Iaeiiieueu?, ye ?? iaceaaee. O 1920 ?ioe? oeae ?aa?ii
?icae?eeee ia o?e ai?aiaenoaa: Euea?anueea, Oa?iii?euenueea ?
Noai?neaanueea. Iiiaae 3 iei. aaeeoeueeeo oe?a?ioe?a, ui ia?aaaaeii
iaeaaeaee aei a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae, aoee iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiieie
e a?aeiinii aeia?a i?aai?ciaaieie. ?aooa oe?a?ioe?a ianaeyea Cao?aeio
Aieeiue, Iie?nny oa Oieiueio — ?aeiie, ui ?o Iieueua caaa?aaea o ?in??.
Aiie iae?/oaaee i?eaeecii 2 iei. /ieia?e ? aoee a iniiaiiio
i?aaineaaieie, aei oiai ae iie?oe/ii, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii e
eoeueoo?ii ia?icaeiaieie.

Iii?e aaee/aci? iie?oe/i? ia?aoai?aiiy, yeeo caciaee cao?aei? oe?a?ioe?
a ?acoeueoao? ?iciaaeo Aano??enueei? oa ?in?enueei? ?iia??e,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oiiae ?o aeeooy ii noo? caeeoaeenue aac ci?i.
Ianaeai? oe?a?ioeyie caie?, ui neeaaeaee aeecueei 25 % oa?eoi???
Iieueu?, aoee ia?icaeiaieie aa?a?ieie ie?a?iaie, aai aioo??oi?ie
eieii?yie, ui iinoa/aee oeaio?aeueiei ?aa?iiai Iieueu? aeaoaao ne?iaeio.

Iaa?oue ca io?oe?eieie aeaieie iieuenueei? noaoenoeee Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia
aoea aa?a?iith: aeecueei 80 % ?? ianaeaiiy neeaaeaee naeyie (o iieye?a
aeecueei 50 %), ? eeoa 8 % i?eiaaeaei ia i?iieneiaeo ?ia?oiee?a (i?e 20
% o iieye?a).

Iniiai? aeiiii?/i? o?oaeiiu? e?eeeny a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, aea
caeeoeeeny oae? aeaai?, ua ia?aaeai?ii? i?iaeaie, ye ia?aianaeai?noue
n?e, e?eo?oi? caiaeuei? iaae?ee. Iiiaae 60 % naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo iaee iaioa, ye ii 2 aa, a 16 % ainiiaea?noa
aoee aaccaiaeuei?.

Iaeicaiaeey ? aaccaiaeey naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa ni?e/eieee ianiao
ai?a?aoe?th cao?aeieo oe?a?ioe?a.

I?iaaaeaia iieuenueeei o?yaeii a 1923-1925 ??. aa?a?ia ?aoi?ia ia
i?eianea ei?eno? oe?a?inueeei naeyiai, ai a?eueo?noue iiae?eaieo caiaeue
a?aeoiaeeea aei iieuenueeeo naeyi oa iiaii?eaoeeo inaaeiee?a.

Ia no?aei? ie?a?ie i?eiaaeaa iai?iii?oe?eii iaeee a?aenioie ? aac oiai
neaai?icaeiaii? i?iieneiaino? Iieueu?. Eeoa aeecueei 135 oen. cao?aeieo
oe?a?ioe?a i?aoethaaee ?ia?oieeaie a e?nia?e oa iaooiaeiaoai?e
i?iieneiaino?.

Ia /eneaiieo i?eeeaaeao c a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a aeena?oaio aeiaiaeeoue, ui
iieuenueeee o?yae i?iaiaeea uiaei oe?a?inueei? iaioino? iie?oeeo
eiio?iioaoe??. O 1924 ?ioe? aoei i?eeiyoi caeii, ui caai?iiya
ei?enooaaoenue oe?a?inueeith iiaith a aea?aeaaieo onoaiiaao. Oiai ae
?ieo Noai?neaa A?aanueeee, i?i?no? ina?oe e i?eoeeueiee a?aeaa?oi
aioeoe?a?inueeeo iiaeyae?a, cae?eniea ?aoi?io (noiiica?niee lex Grabski
), ui ia?aoai?eea a?eueo?noue oe?a?inueeeo oe?e ia aeaiiiai?
(oo?aea?noe/i?) caeeaaee c ia?aaaaeaiiyi iieuenueei? iiae. Oe?a?ioe?a ia
aeiioneaee aei Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, a iueiio aoei neaniaaii
noai?ai? ua ca /an?a Aano??? oe?a?inuee? eaoaae?e, a ia?oeyiea canioaaoe
ca ?aooiie aea?aeaaieo eioo?a oe?a?inueeee oi?aa?neoao oae ? caeeoeeanue
iaaeeiiaiith. Iaeiei ?c eoeuei?iaoe?eieo iiiaio?a aeene?ei?iaoe?eii?
iie?oeee Iieueu? uiaei oe?a?ioe?a, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aoea i?ia?aia
eieii?caoe??, ca yeith o 1920 ?ioe? aeey ci?oeiaiiy iieuenueei?
i?enooiino? ia no?aeieo ei?aeiiao o?yae cai?iooaaa aei Aaee/eie ? Aieei?
ia?anaeaioe?a — oae caaieo inaaeiee?a. Iiaii?eaoe? io?eioaaee aaeee?
iaae?ee iaee?aueo caiaeue ? uaae?? o?iainia? noaneae??, ui caaino?thaaei
iaaaeiaieaiiy oe?a?inueeiai naeyinoaa oa aaaeaiiy /eieoe ii??
iieuenueeiio iaioaaiith. Ca oeeo ianoaaei ae?oeo 1930 p. Aaee/eiith
i?ieioeeanue oaeey iaiaae?a ia iieuenuee? ia?oee, ia ui iieuenueeee
o?yae a?aeiia?a eaiiai??th “iaoeeo?eaoe??” (“oie?ioai?aiiy”)- aino?eie
?ai?an?yie uiaei oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy neeaie a?i?? ? iie?oe??.

?icae?e o?ao?e (Oeaio?aeuei? i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy
Iieueu?( iiae?eaii ia aeaa ia?aa?aoe.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? (Ca Eiinoeoooe??th 1921 ?ieo( aeena?oaio aiae?co?
no?oeoo?o oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy ca
Aa?aciaaith eiinoeoooe??th Iieueu?, i?eeiyoith 17 aa?aciy 1921 ?ieo, yea
aeciaaaea ia?iae iniiaith ? iin??i aa?oiaii? aeaaee a e?a?i?. Aa?aciaaa
eiinoeoooe?y aeciaaaea ?aeath i?aaenoaaieoeueei? aeaiie?ao??, iaeiae
eeoa noiniaii caeiiiaeaa/eo i?aai?a.

Aecia/aiee Aa?aciaaith eiinoeoooe??th aeaiiaeaoiee ia?eaiaio c ia?oeo
aei?a naiai ooai?aiiy ia a?ae?a?aaaa iaeaaeii? ?ie? a nenoai? i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. Ia?aaaao a ia?eaiaio? iaea ieae/a iaeaoa — naei,
oi/a oe?ea iecea iieiaeaiue eiinoeoooe?? iaaeaaaea naiaoia? cia/i?
ia?aaaae ia?aae naeiii. Iai?eeeaae, i?aceaeaio aea?aeaae i?a ?icionoeoe
naei ca caiaeith 3/5 caaaeueiiai /enea naiaoi??a.

Oi?iaeueii ia?eaiaio cae?enithaaa eiio?ieue ca ae?yeuei?noth o?yaeo. O
aeiaaeeo aeyaeaiiy naeiii iaaeia??’y o?yaeo, inoaii?e iiaeaaaa o
a?aenoaaeo.

Aeaiooaoe naeio ? naiaoo ei?enooaaeenue aeaiooaonueeith
iaaeioi?eai?noth. Naei i?a aooe ?iciouaiee eeoa ia i?aenoaa? aeanii?
iinoaiiae aai (ye oaea aeacoaaeinue) ca caiaeith 3/5 caaaeueiiai /enea
naiaoi??a. Iacaai? oa ?io? iieiaeaiiy Aa?aciaai? eiinoeoooe?? aecia/aee
oi?iaeueii oe?ieo eiiiaoaioe?th ? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia?eaiaioo a nenoai?
oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee a Iieueu?. A ae?eniino?
i?aeoeea ia?eaiaioa?iiai ?aaeeio a Iieueu? ana a?eueoa iaiaaeoaaea ?ieue
ia?eaiaioo, ia?aoai?thth/e eiai c ia?oeo aei?a a ia??iiaoeo o?iainiaeo
iiiiiie?e, a a?aio an?eyeeo eiia?iaoe?e i?aaey/eo ia?o?e.

O?noue ?ac?a a aeiaa?aniaa?e Iieueu? a?aeaoaaeenue aeai?e aei
ia?eaiaioo, aea aeiaeiiai ?aco ?acoeueoaoe aeai??a ia i?aaenoaaeyee
ni?aaaeiuei? aie? ianaeaiiy. Ia?o? aeai?e o 1919 ?ioe? ia aoee
caaaeueieie, ine?eueee ianaeaiiy Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie ia a?aei a ieo
o/ano?. Aeai?e 1922 ?ieo oe?a?ioe? aieeiooaaee, i?ioanooth/e i?ioe
ianeeueieoeueeiai caaa?aaiiy Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie Iieueuath. Ia?aiee a 1922
?ioe? aeaiiaeaoiee ia?eaiaio i?ioyaii naiai i’yoe??/iiai ?nioaaiiy
i?aeo?eioaaa ?aaeoe?eio iie?oeeo iaioth/eo aa?noa Iieueu?.

I?ney o?aaiaaiai ia?aai?ioo 1926 ?. aoei aianaii ci?ie aei Aa?aciaai?
eiinoeoooe?? ? anoaiiaeaii ia?aaaao o?yaeo iaae ia?eaiaioii. I?aceaeaioo
iaaeaaaeinue i?aai ?icioneaoe naei ? naiao, aeaeaaaoe aeae?aoe c neeith
caeiio. Iaiaaeaii eiiiaoaioe?th naeio uiaei ooaaeaiiy athaeaeaoo,
aeyaeaiiy iaaeia??’y o?yaeia?, neaniaaii i?eioeei a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
o?yaeo ia?aae ia?eaiaioii.

I?ney ooaaeaiiy caeiio 1926 ?ieo ?aaeoe?ei? eiea Iieueu? iiaaee ??oo/ee
ianooi ia caeeoee aeaiie?ao??, cie?aia ia ia?eaiaio. Iieuenueea
?anioae?ea aoea ia?aoai?aia a oioae?oa?io aea?aeaao.

Aa?aciaaa eiinoeoooe?y iaea ie?aiee ?icae?e i?i caaaeuei? o6oa’ycee ?
a?iiaaeyinuee? i?aaa, ui iae?/oaaa 38 noaoae. Aea iaaeai? a?iiaaeyiai
i?aaa ia aoee ?aae?ciaai? ia i?aeoeoe?. Iaiaaeaiiy, ye? aeieeaaee c
?nioth/eo caeii?a ? iie?oeee aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, aoee ni?yiiaai? i?ioe
?aaiethoe?eiiai ?ooo ? iie?oe/ieo i?aaiaiue iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei.

Oei ia iaioa oi?iaeueii caaeaeea?iaai? a Aa?aciaa?e eiinoeoooe??
aeaiie?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aoee aaeeeei aeinyaiaiiyi i?ia?aneaieo nee, aea
aac e?ea?aeaoe?? nioe?aeueii? ? aeiiii?/ii? ia??aiino? ia iiaee
caaacia/eoe a?iiaaeyiai ni?aaaeiuei? ??aiino? a i?aaao, ?aae?caoe??
?aeae ia?iaeiaeaaeaey. Aei oiai ae aianai? caeiiii 1926 ?ieo ci?ie aei
Aa?aciaai? eiinoeoooe?? ci?oeithaaee noaiiaeua aeeiiaa/eo i?aai?a,
i?aceaeaioa ? ?aaee i?i?no??a ca ?aooiie iaiaaeaiiy eiiiaoaioe??
caeiiiaeaa/eo i?aai?a — naeio ? naiaoo. Ca?aene iieiaeaiiy Aa?aciaai?
eiinoeoooe?? c ieeiii /ano caeeoaeenue a ui?ac a?eueo?e noia?a/iino? c
iianyeaeaiiith i?aeoeeith. Acaaae? a 30-o ?ieao a Iieueu? c?inoaee
aioeia?eaiaionuee? ? aioeaeaiie?aoe/i? oaiaeaioe??. Aaoi?e iiai?
eiinoeoooe?? iaiaaaeeny ii?aeiaoe canaaee neeueii? aeaaee c naiaiaeith
iniae .

A ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? (Ca Eiinoeoooe??th 1935 ?ieo( aaoi? aiae?co?
i?ioean ia?aoai?aiiy aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee a Iieueu? a inia? i?aceaeaioa ?
o?yaeo, aiane?aeie yeiai aiia noa? iacaeaaeiith a?ae ia?eaiaioo.
A?eueo?a oiai, nai ia?eaiaio aoei i?aeii?yaeeiaaii i?aceaeaioia? ?
o?yaeo. 23 ea?oiy 1935 ?ieo aoei i?eeiyoi a Iieueu? eiinoeoooe?th, ui
ae?noaea iacao Ea?oiaai?. Ia ?? i?eioeeie ? ci?no iaeeaee a?aeaeoie
oai?aoe/i? eiioeaioe?? ? i?aeoe/i? c?acee oioae?oa?ii? aea?aeaae, yea
neeaeanue a ?oae??, I?ia//ei?, Ii?ooaae??. Oiio iaaaci?aenoaaieie ?
oaa?aeaeaiiy, ui eiinoeoooe?y 1935 ?ieo oi?iaeueii cae??ieea
anoaiiaeaiiy a Iieueu? oaoenonueei? aeeeoaoo?e ca c?aceii a?oea??anueei?
I?ia//eie.

Aeaea?aeii ? iin??i aea?aeaaii? aeaaee Ea?oiaaa eiinoeoooe?y aeciaaaea
i?aceaeaioa. O?yae, naei, naiao, ca?iei? neee, noaee, aea?aeaaiee
eiio?ieue i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeenue i?aceaeaioia?.

Ea?oiaaa eiinoeoooe?y a?aeaiaeeea caeiiiaeaa/ei iaeaoai ae?oai?yaeio
?ieue o nenoai? oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee a Iieueu?. I?i
cia/aiiy ia?eaiaioo a Iieueu? aiai?eoue oi/a a oaeee oaeo, ui eiai
no?oeoo?a ? eiiiaoaioe?y aecia/aeenue eiinoeoooe??th 1935 ?ieo o?eueee
i?ney aecia/aiiy eiiiaoaioe?? i?aceaeaioa e o?yaeo, i?e/iio ?c cia/ieie
iaiaaeaiiyie eiiiaoaioe?? ia?eaiaioo. Ia?eaiaio ia aoa ?aeeiei
caeiiiaeaa/ei i?aaiii, ine?eueee aeae?aoe i?aceaeaioa iaee oaeiae neeo
caeiio. Ieoaiiy athaeaeaoo, eiioeiaaioo a?i??, ?aoeo?eaoe??
i?aeia?iaeieo oaiae iaeaaeaee aeeeth/ii aei eiiiaoaioe?? o?yaeo.
I?aceaeaio iaa aaniethoia i?aai aaoa. O?yae i?ecia/aany ? ?icioneaany
i?aceaeaioii aac caiaee ia?eaiaioo. Aea?aeaaiee o?eaoiae ia iae?aany, ye
?ai?oa, naeiii, a i?ecia/aany i?aceaeaioii. Caeiiiaeaa/? iaeaoe ia iiaee
aiineoe ci?i aei eiinoeoooe?? aac caiaee i?aceaeaioa.

Ioaea, i?aceaeaio cai?iea “noaa?aiee ia?iae”, a?i ia i?n aeiaeii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ca aeiyoeii a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? “ia?aae Aiaii oa
?noi???th” ? cina?aaeea o nai?o ?oeao ?aeeio ? iaiiae?eueio aea?aeaaio
aeaaeo.

Ai?ioueaa aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee c ia?eaiaioii i?iyaeeanue o aino??e oi?i?
a?ae?aco ae i?ney ia?aai?ioo 1926 ?ieo, eiee “naiaoe?eiee” o?yae ae?noaa
iiaio ia?aaaao iaae ia?eaiaioii. Ia?eaiaio, oi/a aoa ia?aiee ua aei
aea?aeaaiiai ia?aai?ioo, aeeiioaaa neooiyii an? aeiiae o?yaeo noiniaii
ci?i eiinoeoooe?? ? oe?ieeo iiaiiaaaeaiue o?yaeo. Oeyoii
i?aceaeaionueeeo aeae?ao?a “naiaoe?eiee” o?yae i?iaiaeea oaoecaoe?th
an?o ae?eyiie noni?eueiiai aeeooy. Oae aoei cae?eniaii aeiei??iio
ia?aaoaeiao iie?oe/iiai, aeiiii?/iiai, eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy Iieueu? a
iai?yi? e?ea?aeaoe?? ?aooie aeaiie?ao?? ? ia?aoai?aiiy Iieueu? ia
a?enueeiai-iie?oeaenueeo aea?aeaao ia c?acie oaoenonueei? I?ia//eie.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e. (I?noeaa? i?aaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy( iiae?eaii
ia aeaa ia?aa?aoe.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? (I?aaie o?yaeiai? aaei?i?no?aoe??( ioa?aeoa?eciaaii
no?oeoo?o, oi?ie ? iaoiaee ae?yeueiino? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo.

Anoia?a/ iieiaeaiiyi Aa?aciaai? eiinoeoooe?? i?i i?aai?caoe?th i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy ia iniia? aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??, oe?ieiai
oa?eoi??aeueiiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, aoei i?iaaaeaii noai?o
oeaio?ae?caoe?th anueiai aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo. Ia ia?oa i?noea aenooieea
aeeiiaa/a aeaaea c oe?ieeie iiaiiaaaeaiiyie, nenoaia ia?eaiaioa?ecio
aoea cai?iaia i?i?noa??ae?ciii. I?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy
ye ia?oi?, oae ? ae?oai? ?inoaioe?e ia i?noeyo (a iia?oao ?
ai?aiaenoaao) aoee i?aeii?yaeeiaai? i?aaiai i?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o
ni?aa (noa?inoaai ? ai?aiaenoaai) i?ae iacaith caaaeueii? aai
ia’?aeiaii? aaei?i?no?aoe??. Eeoa aeaye? aaeoc? oi?aae?iiy (cae?cieoe?,
oeiee, ca’ycie, a?i?y) iaee ia i?noeyo nai? aeani? i?aaie ia?oi? ?
ae?oai? ?inoaioe?e, aaciina?aaeiuei i?aeii?yaeeiaai? a?aeiia?aeiei
aaeocaaei i?i?noa?noaai i?ae iacaith iaia’?aeiaii? aaei?i?no?aoe??.
I?aaie ia’?aeiaii? ? iaia’?aeiaii? aaei?i?no?aoe?e eiaioaaeenue i?aaiaie
o?yaeiai? aaei?i?no?aoe??. A ae?eniino? any ia’?aeiaia ? iaia’?aeiaia
aaei?i?no?aoe?y a iia?oao oa ai?aiaenoaao i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeanue i?aaiai
i?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa a inia? noa?ino ? ai?aiae.

Aia?ao oi?aae?iiy noa?inoa ? ai?aiaenoa neeaaeaany c naeoi??a
(?aoa?ao?a) ? a?aeae?e?a. Aieiaia i?noea a oeueiio aia?ao? caeiaee
a?aeae?ee aaciaee, ye? ni?eueii c iie?oe??th iiaeii? aoee i?eaeoooaaoe
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy.

Ae?oai?yaeia noaiiaeua a aia?ao? noa?inoa ? ai?aiaenoa caeiaee naeoi?e ?
a?aeae?ee ioi?iie caei?ia’y, nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy, yeei o?yae
Iieueu? i?eae?eya iaei oaaae.

A?aeae?ee i?aoe? ? nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy iaiaaaeenue iii’yeoeoe
eiioe?eoe o oi?i? no?aee?a ? aeaiiino?aoe?e aac?ia?oieo, i?aai?ciaoth/e
“aieiaei? eooi?”, “oiiaee i?aoe?”, “ceiia? eii?oaoe aeiiiiiae
aac?ia?oiei”, aea ana oea ia iiaei ae??oeoe i?iaeai eieii?aeueiiai
noaiiaeua oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? (I?aaie naiia?yaeoaaiiy( iieacaii i?aai?caoe?th
oa?eoi??aeueiiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?.

I?aaiaie oi?aae?iiy a i?noao ? naeao aoee aeai?i? i?aaie
oa?eoi??aeueiiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy: n?euenuee? (a?iiaaenuee?), aieini?,
i?nuee? ?aaee ? i?aae?iiy, ye? i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeenue noa?inoai ?
ai?aiaeai. Aeuith eaieith i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy aoee iia?oia? oa
ai?aiaenuee? ?aaee ? aeae?ee ia /ie? c noa?inoaie ? ai?aiaeaie, ye? aoee
oaeoe/ii aei?aae/eie i?aaiaie inoaii?o. I?aaie i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy ? i?aaie o?yaeiai? aaei?i?no?aoe?? neeaaeaee aia?ao
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ia i?noeyo a oe?eiio. Aeeiiaa/eie i?aaiaie
naiia?yaeoaaiiy (i?ney eiai oi?o?eaoe?? ia i?aenoaa? caeiio 1933 ?ieo)
ia i?noeyo aoee: a?iiaaenuee? i?aae?iiy a neeaae? nieoena ? i?aenieoena,
aieini? i?aae?iiy a neeaae? a?eoa, i?aea?eoa ? aeaio-o?ueio eaaiee?a,
i?nuee? i?aae?iiy a i?noao c ianaeaiiyi aei 25000 (i?noa ia aeae?eai? c
iia?oiaiai i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy) — a neeaae? ao?aii?no?a, eiai canooiieea ?
aeaio-i’yoe eaaiee?a, a i?noao c ianaeaiiyi a?eueoa 25000 (i?noa
aeae?eai? c iia?oiaiai i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy)- a neeaae? i?aceaeaioa, eiai
canooiieea ? eaaiee?a, iia?oia? ? ai?aiaenuee? aeae?ee (eii?oaoe) ia
/ie? c noa?inoaie ? ai?aiaeaie.

Aeeiiaa/? i?aaie naiia?yaeoaaiiy iae?aeenue a?aeiia?aeieie ?aaeaie, aea
?o aeai?i?noue aoea o?eoeaiith a ca’yceo c aeiiaaie aieiae?iiy
iieuenueeith iiaith oa caoaa?aeaeaiiy ?o noa?inoith, ai?aiaeith ?
i?i?no?ii aioo??oi?o ni?aa.

Ooieoe?? i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy ia i?noeyo caiaeeeenue aei
ae?oai?yaeieo ainiiaea?nueeeo ni?aa.

Aei 1933 ?ieo aeai?e i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy a Aaee/ei? a?aeaoaaeeny ia
iniia? oaiaeaeueii? aano??enueei? nenoaie, yea caaacia/oaaea ia?aaaao
iii?ueeai, nayuaieeai, iieuenuee?e ?ioae?aaioe?? oa caiiaeiei naeyiai.
Caeii 1933 ?ieo aa?a ?aeeio i?aai?caoe?eio no?oeoo?o i?aai?a i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy. E?ea?aeiaoth/e eo??aeueio nenoaio aeai??a, caeii 1933
?ieo iaeii/anii ia?aaeaa/aa ath?ie?aoecaoe?th i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy —
iiaia ?o i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy noa?inoai ? ai?aiaeai.

Ia i?aenoaa? caeiio 1933 ?ieo, yeei ia?aaeaa/aii iaia’yceiaa ciaiiy
iieuenueei? iiae /eaiaie aeeiiaa/eo i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy,
a oe? i?aaie, ye i?aaeei, ia aeiioneaeenue a?iiaaeyie oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueiino?. A ?acoeueoao? iaiaeii?aciaeo caaaeueieo aeai??a a

1926-1939 ??. aei i?noeaaeo i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?
aoee ia?ai? noaaeaieee ?nioth/iai ?aaeeio. Aeiiiiaaaee iieuenueeei
eieii?caoi?ai a ni?aa? “i/euaiiy i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy a?ae
iaiaae?eieo aeaiaio?a” ??ci? iie?oe/i? ia?o??, ye? ni?ai?aoethaaee c
“naiaoe?eiei” o?yaeii. Iniaeeai aea?aei? aeey i?aaey/i? aa?o?aee aoee
ia?aaeaa/ai? caeiiii “eiii?ii?ni? nienee”, ca yeeie “iio??ai?”
eaiaeeaeaoe i?ioiaeeee aei neeaaeo i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy aac aeai??a.
Oaeei /eiii, a ?acoeueoao? “eiii?ii?nieo” aeai??a, iao?iaoe?e, oa?i?o,
iie?oeaenueeiai i?aeai?o eaiaeeaeao?a, a oaeiae aiane?aeie oiai, ui
aeeiiaa/? i?aaie naiia?yaeoaaiiy caoaa?aeaeoaaeenue noa?inoaie ?
ai?aiaeaie, a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? aoa noi?iiaaiee ath?ie?aoe/iee aia?ao
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy ia /ie? c nieoenaie, i?ioan?eieie a?eoaie ?
aieinieie iena?yie, ao?aii?no?aie ? i?aceaeaioaie, i?ae?a?aieie c
ai?iaea iaeaooiaaieo aei oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy in?a: eieii?no?a,
eieeoi?o io?oea??a, iie?oeaenueeeo. Ia i?aenoaa? a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a i?i
neeaae i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ?o aeai?e ? ae?yeuei?noue, a
oaeiae ?o athaeaeao, aeena?oaio iieaco?, ui aia?ao naiia?yaeoaaiiy a
Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? aoa cia?yaeaeyi nioe?aeueiiai ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
i?eai?/aiiy, neooiyiei i?eaeaoeii ath?ie?aoe/ii? oeaio?ae?ciaaii? iaoeie
i?aai?a o?yaeiai? aaei?i?no?aoe??.

A i’yoiio ?icae?e? (I?aaie i?aainoaeaey( ?ice?eoi no?oeoo?o oa
ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a thnoeoe?? ? iie?oe??, ye?, ii?yae c i?aaiaie
o?yaeiai? aaei?i?no?aoe??, aoee aeoeaiei cia?yaeaeyi i?eaeooaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy.

A i?ioean? oi?iaeueiiai oaeineiiaeaiiy noaei/einoaa iinooiiai
e?ea?aeiaoaaeenue iieiaeaiiy Aa?aciaai? eiinoeoooe?? 1921 ?ieo i?i
iacaeaaei?noue ? iaci?ii?noue noaeae?a, i?i ?inoeooo aeai?ieo ie?iaeo
noaeae?a oa i?i o/anoue i?aaenoaaiee?a a?iiaaenueeino? a cae?eniaii?
i?aainoaeaey (i?enyaei? can?aeaoae?). Ea?oiaaa eiinoeoooe?y 1935 ?ieo
a?aee?eoi iie?i/eea c i?eioeeiii iacaeaaeiino? noaeae?a,
i?aeii?yaeeiaoth/e ?o, ii?yae c ?ioeie i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ?
oi?aae?iiy, i?aceaeaioo aea?aeaae. A 1938 ?ioe? aeae?aoii i?aceaeaioa
?inoeooo ie?iaeo noaeae?a ? noaee c o/anoth i?enyaeieo can?aeaoae?a aoee
neaniaai?. Oae inoaoi/ii aoee e?ea?aeiaai? caeeoee aeaiie?ao?? a
noaei/einoa?. Ii?yae c oeei a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? aeoea?coaaeanue
ae?yeuei?noue a?enueeiai-iieueiaeo noae?a.

I?aaie i?ieo?aoo?e, i/iethaai? i?i?no?ii thnoeoe?? ye aaia?aeueiei
i?ieo?i?ii, yaeyee niaith ne?ae/ee aia?ao ? aia?ao noaeiaiai
iaaeioaa/aiiy. Ooieoe?th iaaeyaeo ca aeio?eiaiiyi caeiiiino? a
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aaei?i?no?aoe?? iieuenueea i?ieo?aoo?a
ia cae?enithaaea.

Aaaaeaiee a 1931 ?ioe? oth?aiiee noaooo ocaeiithaaa ?ici?aao iaae
iie?oa’yciyie. A 1920 ?ioe? o caa?iaii? a?oie o?aioeocueeeo i?ia?aneaieo
ae?y/?a oa o a?aee?eoiio eeno? i?ia?aneaieo ae?y/?a Iieueu? aiai?eeinue
i?i ?ai?an?? oa ?ici?aae a oth?iao iaae oe?a?inueeeie ? a?ei?onueeeie
aeoeaieie ai?oeyie ca iacaeaaei?noue. Iaa?oue iieuenueea io?oe?eia
noaoenoeea ia?aoiaoaaea a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? a aeaa-o?e ?ace a?eueoa
canoaeaeaieo, i?ae a oeaio?aeueieo ai?aiaenoaao Iieueu?. A Cao?aei?e
Oe?a?i? a 1931-CC ??. a?enueeia? noaee canoaeeee aei no?aoe a/aoaa?i
a?eueoa in?a, i?ae o an?e ei??ii?e Iieueu?.

Caeii 1938 ?ieo i?i ono??e aaeaieaoo?e anoaiiaethaaa iano?eueee neeaaei?
aeiiae aei in?a, ye? iaee iai?? i?aoethaaoe a aaeaieaoo??, ui a
ae?eniino? aeinooi aei ia? aeey th?eno?a-oe?a?ioe?a aoa aeoaea
iaiaaeaiee. Ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai caeiio i?i?no? thnoeoe?? a 1938 ?ioe?
i?ecoieiea ia oa?eoi??? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie i?eeii aei aaeaieaoo?e ia
iaaecia/aiee no?ie. “A?eueia” aaeaieaoo?a a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? c ??
“aeai?ieie i?aaiaie naiia?yaeoaaiiy” aoea ia?aoai?aia a iaeei c i?aai?a
aeeeoaoo?e.

Oaeei /eiii, aaanue aea?aeaaiee aia?ao Iieueu? aoa aia?aoii
eieii?aeueiiai aiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy. Aioeaeaiie?aoe/iee
oa?aeoa? iie?oe/iiai ?aaeeio i?aeai?iii? Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae yne?aai
i?iyaeyany o iaaeiiouaii? oe?a?ioe?a aei ?iaioe a aea?aeaaiiio aia?ao?.
Aeayeee aeinooi oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy aei o/ano? a i?aaiao i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy ia ci?ithaaa eiai eieii?aeueiiai noaiiaeua ? oaeoe/iiai
aaci?aa’y.

O aeniiaeao, ye? caaa?oothoue ?iaioo, iaaiaeyoueny iniiai? aniaeoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioeththoueny iaenooo?a?o? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai?
a ianooiieo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

I?enoao E.O. Ieoiaoe?y Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie Iieueuath i?ney Ia?oi? na?oiai?
a?eie// I?iaeaie aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?.
Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? (ethoee 1995 ?ieo).(Euea?a, 1995. ( N.
49-51.

Eoeue/eoeueeee A.N., I?enoao E.O. Naiia?yaeoaaiiy ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo o neeaae? Iieuenueei? aeaaeaae(1921-1939
??.). // A?niee Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie. ( Oa?e?a, 1996. (? 5. (
N. 120-126.

I?enoao E.O. I?aaie i?aainoaeaey a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?

(1921-1939 ??.). // I?iaeaie aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie
a Oe?a?i?. Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? (ethoee 1996 ?ieo). ( Euea?a,
1996. ( N. 76-77.

I?enoao E.O. I?noeaa? i?aaie o?yaeiai? aaei?i?no?aoe?? ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo (1921-1939 ??.). // I?iaeaie
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?. Iaoa??aee iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe?? (ethoee 1997 ?ieo). ( Euea?a, 1997. ( N.120-121.

I?enoao E.O. No?oeoo?a oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo Iieueu? ca
Eiinoeoooe??th 1921 ?ieo. I?aai Oe?a?ie. ( E.,1998. (

? 9. ( N. 95-97.

I?enoao E.O. Oeaio?aeuei? i?aaie aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy ca Eiinoeoooe??th
Iieueu? 1935 ?ieo. ( Euea?a, 1998.

Aiioaoe?y

I?enoao E.O. Aia?ao oi?aae?iiy Cao?aeiith Oe?a?iith a neeaae? Iieueu?
(1921-1939 ??.) ( ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
c? niaoe?aeueiino? 12.00.01 ( oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa;
?noi??y iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue. ( Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?i.?aaia O?aiea, Euea?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith i?ioeano caoiieaiiy
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue Iieueuath, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
noaiiaeua Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie a neeaae? Iieueu?, i?aai?caoe?? ?
ae?yeueiino? oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy ca
eiinoeoooe?yie 1921 ?. ? 1935 ?., i?noeaaeo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy,
aeeth/ath/e i?aaie naiia?yaeoaaiiy, oa i?aai?a i?aainoaeaey.

C?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oaeoe/ia onoiaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei Iieueu?
a?ae o/ano? a ?iaio? i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo ? ianaiia?aae a
ia?eaiaio? aea?aeaae. Ni?iaa o?yaeiaeo e?e ii?iae?coaaoe a?aeiineie c
oe?a?inueeith iaio?noth aoea aeiooaiith iinooieith, yea ia aieeaaea a
oe?eiio ia aioeaeaiie?aoe/iee oa?aeoa? anoaiiaeaiiai ?aaeeio.

Iaaiee aeinooi oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy aei o/ano? a i?aaiao i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy ia ci?ithaaa eiai eieii?aeueiiai noaiiaeua ? oaeoe/iiai
aaci?aa’y.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa, eieii?aeueia noaiiaeua,
eiinoeoooe?y, aeaiie?aoe/i? i?eioeeie, aioeaeaiie?aoe/iee oa?aeoa?,
ia?eaiaio, o?yaeiaa aaei?i?no?aoe?y, i?aaie naiia?yaeoaaiiy, noae,
i?ieo?aoo?a, aaeaieaoo?a, iie?oe?y.

Aiiioaoeey

I?unoao E.O. Aiia?ao oi?aaeaiey Caiaaeiie Oe?aeiie a ninoaaa Iieueoe
(l92l-1939 aa.). ( ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.01. ( oai?ey e enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa;
enoi?ey iieeoe/aneeo e i?aaiauo o/aiee. ( Eueaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue
oieaa?neoao ei.Eaaia O?aiei, Eueaia, 1998 a.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth i?ioeanna caoaaoa
caiaaeiioe?aeineeo caiaeue Iieueoae, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai
iieiaeaiey Caiaaeiie Oe?aeiu a ninoaaa Iieueoe, i?aaiecaoeee e
aeayoaeueiinoe oeaio?aeueiuo i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e
oi?aaeaiey ii eiinoeoooeeyi 1921 a. e 1935 a., ianoiuo i?aaiia
oi?aaeaiey, aeeth/ay i?aaiu naiioi?aaeaiey, e i?aaiia i?aainoaeey.

Naeaeai auaiae i oaeoe/aneii iono?aiaiee iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaioeinoa
Iieueoe io o/anoey a ?aaioa i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa e
i?aaeaea anaai a ia?eaiaioa ainoaea?noaa. Iiiuoea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo
e?oaia ii?iaeeciaaoue ioiioaiea n oe?aeineei iaioeinoaii auea onooieie,
eioi?ay ia aeeyea a oeaeii ia aioeaeaiie?aoe/aneee oa?aeoa?
onoaiiaeaiiiai ?aaeeia. Ii?aaeaeaiiue aeinooi oe?aeineiai ianaeaiey e
o/anoeth a i?aaiao ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey ia iaiye aai eieiieaeueiiai
iieiaeaiey e oaeoe/aneiai aani?aaey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa, eieiieaeueiia iieiaeaiea,
eiinoeoooeey, aeaiie?aoe/aneea i?eioeeiu, aioeaeaii-e?aoe/aneee
oa?aeoa?, ia?eaiaio, i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay aaeieieno?aoeey, i?aaiu
naiioi?aaeaiey, noae, i?ieo?aoo?a, aaeaieaoo?a, iieeoeey.

Annotation

Prystash L.T. Governmental body of Western Ukraine under
Poland.(1921-1939)-Manuscript.

Candidate’s thesis for receiving a Master’s degree in juridical sciences
on speciality -Theory and History of State and law; The History of
Political and juridical sciences- Lviv State University named I.Franko,
Lviv, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to the reseach of process of capturing of
Western- Ukrainian lands by Poland, social and economical situation of
Western Ukraine under rule of Poland, the organization and activity of
the central bodies of state power and administration according to the
Constitution of 1921 and 1939, local authorities, including the bodies
of self- administration and juridical power.

The conclusion was drawn about the factual removing of national
minorities of Poland from participation in the activity of the bodies of
state power and, first of all, from the participation in the work of
Parliament. The attempt of the authorities to normalize the relations
with the Ukrainian minority was a kind of yielding, which made no
influence on the antidemocratic character of the resume. The limited
access of Ukrainian population to participation in the activity of local
self- administration could not bring the cardinal changes into situation
and factual deprivation of civil rights

Bulk terms: The History of State and law, status of colony, the
Constitution, democratic principles, antidemocratic character, state
administration, bodies of self- government, court, procurator’s office,
advocacy, police.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 19.11.98 ?. Oi?iao 60o84/16. Iai?? ae?oe (1. Ae?oe
ionao. Oiiai. ae?oe.a?e.1,25. Iae.-aeae.a?e. 1,25. Oiiai.oi?i.a?aea.
1,3. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Cai. ? 30.

Iaoeii-ionaoia eaai?aoi??y Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
?aaia O?aiea.

290602 Euea?a, aoe. Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 1.

Aaa?e A.I. Aicc’?aeiaiiy Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie c Oe?a?inueeith ?N?.( E.,
1954.

Eoeue/eoeueeee A.N., Ianothe I.?., Oeuee A.E. ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
Oe?a?ie. ( Euea?a, 1996.

Oeuee A.E. Aaeeoeueea Nioe?ae?noe/ia ?aaeyinueea ?anioae?ea(1920 ?.). (
Euea?a, 1972.

Eaeeiiae/ A.E. Eieiieaeueiee ?aaeei oi?aaeaiey caiaaeiioe?aeineeie
caieyie a iaineie Iieueoa (1918-1939aa.) ( Aaoi?aoa?ao aeen.eaiae.th?.
iaoe. ( Eueaia, 1955.

Eaeeiiae/ A.1. I?aaie i?noeaaiai “naiia?yaeoaaiiy” iainueei? Iieueu? a
Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? (1918-1939 ??.) — aia?ao nioe?aeueiiai ?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai iiiaaieaiiy o?oaeyueo // A?niee Euea?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y th?eaee/ia. ( Euea?a, 1956; eiai ae I?aaie thnoeoe??
iainueei? Iieueu? a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? (1918-1939 ??.) — aia?ao
nioe?aeueiiai ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai iiiaaieaiiy o?oaeyueo // Ieoaiiy oai???
? i?aeoeee ?aaeyinueeiai i?aaa. ( Euea?a, 1958.

Aa?aeao TH., Eaniiaei?neee A., Ieao?/ae I. Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa
Iieueoe. ( I., 1980.

Kallas M. Historia ustroju Polski X-XX w. ( Warszawa, 1997.

 Eia?einueea N. ?ecueeee ie? ye caaa?oaeueiee aoai ai?ioueae
(1917-1921 ??. ) ca ooaa?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?. ( E.,
1996. ( N..21.

Kallas M. Historia ustroju Polski X-XX w. ( Warszawa, 1997. ( S.305.

Noaoaeueiee I. Oe?a?ia. ?noi??y. ( E., 1992. ( N.371.

Noaoaeueiee I. Oe?a?ia. ?noi??y. ( E., 1992. – N.375.

Oai aea.

Oai aea.

Oai aea. ( N.373

Rozw(j demokracji socjalistycznej.( Lublin, 1977. ( S.155.

Kallas M. Historia ustroju Polski X-XX w. ( Warszawa, 1997. ( S.320.

Barkowska-Bagienska E., Krasowski K., Lesinski B., Wa(achowicz J.
Historia panstwa i prawa Polski.( Pozna(, 1994. ( S. 238.

Pod rz(dami teroru i bezprawia. Materja(y i dokumenty. ( Warszawa,
1952. (S.41-44.

Ma(y Rocznik Statystyczny. ( Warszawa, 1938. (S.12.

Iao aiein. ( 1936, 9 eeiiy.

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