1

IAeANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai?  ?.?. IA*IEEIAA

A?AE*AIEI Na?oeaia Eaii?ae?aia

OAeE 801.313.1.:808.3 (477.74)

AIO?IIII?I?*I? OIIAeIAAIIss IAOEAIOe?A

IAeANUeEI? IAEANO? OE?A?IE: E?IAA?NOE*IEE

AIAE?C

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.01 – oe?a?inueea iiaa

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Iaeana – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?
?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ea?iaiei

TH??e Ieaenaiae?iae/, Iaeanueeee
aea?aeaaiee

oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa,
caa?aeoaa/

eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? iiae

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?ieie/

Aieiaeeie? Ieaenaiae?iae/,
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee

aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e

oe?a?inueei? iiae

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio Aooeiaa

Aaeeia Aanee?aia, ?cia?euenueeee
aea?aeaaiee

iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e

oe?a?inueei? iiae

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: *a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
?i. TH. Oaaeueeiae/a, eaoaae?a oai??? oa ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? iiae.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 28 aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 1330 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee, oeo? E 41.051.02 a Iaeanueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa (270058, i. Iaeana,
O?aioeocueeee aoeueaa?, 24/26, aoae. 91).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa (270057, i. Iaeana,
aoe. I?aia?a-aeainueea, 24).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 6 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
*a?ii?aaiaiei ?.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

I?iiiiiaaia aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?enay/aia e?iaa?noe/i?e
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? no/anieo aio?iiii?i?/ieo oiiaeiaaiue oe?a?ioe?a
Iaeanueei? iaeano?.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Oi/ nenoaiaoeciaaia iaoeiaa aea/aiiy
no?aeiineia’yinueei? aio?iiii?i?? ?icii/aeiny ii??aiyii iaaeaaii – a
inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy – aio?iiii?i?ea ia?aaeeaa? iei? ia??iae ao?oeeaiai
?icaeoeo. A aaeocue aea/aiiy iniaiaeo ?iai na?eiciee aianie c?iaeee
i?aoe? A.A. Ieeiiiaa, A.Ae. Aiiaeaeaoiaa, I.A. Noia?ainueei?,
I.A. Iiaeieuenueei?, N.?. C?i?ia, A.E. *e/aaiaa, E.I. Uaoei?ia,
A.A. ?aaoea oa ?i.

Ca ii??aiyii ei?ioeee ia??iae aeinyaea cia/ieo oni?o?a oe?a?inueea
aio?iiii?i?ea. Aeoeaii ? ie?aeii aea/a?oueny eean iniaiaeo ?iai,
cie?aia oaeeie iiaiciaaoeyie, ye N.I. Aaacaiei, I.I. *o/ea, I.E. Ooaeao,
E.E. Aoiaoeueea, A.I. Ai?ieie/, TH.I. Ea?iaiei, ?.Ae. Nooiieei,
?.E. Ea?noa, E.A. Ne?eiiee, I.I. Aecyoe?anueea, I.I. Aeai/oe,
A.I. I?aoi?ae, E.O. Ianaiei, A.I. Eiaaeue, A.?. Ao/ei, E.A. E?aeae?y,
O.Ae. Einiaeiaa, E.I. Aaeae oa ?i.

Inoaii?i /anii o aeine?aeaeaiiyo aio?iiii?i?no?a aeaaeae? /?oe?oa
aeae?ey?oueny nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iee aniaeo aea/aiiy iniaiaeo iaca, ui
aeiaaa? niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue. *eiaei ?o i?aoeue i?enay/aii
aiae?co ?aaeueii aaeeaaieo ?iai, ye? ethaeeia io?oe?eii iaea?aeo? i?e
ia?iaeaeaii?. Aea ine?eueee aio?iiii?ie – neeaaeiee nioe?aeueiee
oaiiiai, oi oea aeiaaa? e ?ioeo i?aeoiae?a aei ?o aea/aiiy. Iaie
aea/athoueny ia ?aaeueii aaeeo? ?iaia, a o?, ui iiaeiaathoueny ethaeyi ?
noa’?eoeaii ioe?iththoueny ye iaee?au?.

Iaoa e iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa aeaii? ?iaioe –
i?iaiae?coaaoe ?iaia ca nooiaiai ?o noni?eueii? ioe?iee, iiaeath/e
eiiieaeniee nioe?i-? ineoie?iaa?noe/iee aiae?c oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue
ia noaaeaiiy aei ?iai oe?a?ioe?a ??ciiai a?eo iai?ee?ioe? XX no. Aeey
aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aaoi?ii ae??oothoueny oae? iniiai?
caaaeaiiy: 1) aeyaeoe neeaae no/anieo aio?iiii?i?/ieo neiiao?e
iaoeaioe?a Iaeanueei? iaeano?; 2) anoaiiaeoe ni?eueia oa a?aei?iia o
iiaeyaeao ia ?iaia ?ioi?iaio?a ??ciiai a?eo, aeyaeyth/e niaoeeo?eo
?aia?ooa?o oiiaeiaaiue eiaeii? a?eiai? a?oie; 3) i?iaiae?coaaoe ?iaia a
nioe?aeueiiio eiioaeno? ye nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/io oa eoeueoo?io
eaoaai??th ? aeeiiaoe ?o e?iaainoaoenoe/iee aiae?c; 4) c?noaaeoe ea?oeio
?aaeueiiai ?i’yaaeeoeo i?ioyaii XX no. (?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy ?aaeueii?
aeeiai?ee ?iai o /an?) ?c no/aniei noaaeaiiyi aei iaeiaioaaiue;
5) ?icaeyiooe nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/io, nioe?ieoeueoo?io oa ineoieia?/io
coiiaeai?noue iiioey?iino? a?aeiia?aeieo ?iai; 6) i?iaiae?coaaoe
cia/aiiy e no?oeoo?o aa??aio?a ?iai o eie? no/anieo oiiaeiaaiue,
a?aecia/ath/e ?o nioe?aeueii-ioe?ii? oa aeni?aneaii-aiioe?ei? ooieoe?? a
nioe?ieoeueoo?iiio aniaeo?; 7) aeyaeoe nioe?aeueio aaaii?noue ?ie?
no/anieo oiiaeiaaiue oe?a?ioe?a o caaaa/aii? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aio?iiii?i?/iiai oiiaeo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiiaia o iaaeao oaie “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy oe?a?inueeiai neiaioai?o oa
iiiianoeee”, ui ?ic?iaey?oueny eaoaae?ith oe?a?inueei? iiae Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oiiaeiaaiiy oe?a?ioe?a Iaeanueei? iaeano?.
Aeey c?noaaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ?iaiieee i. Iaeane, Iaeanueei?
iaeano? oa i?eeaaeeo aei ia? ?aa?ii?a.

Anueiai iaie cao?eniaaii 1122 ??ci? ?iai? (654 ae?ii/? oa 568
/ieia?/eo), aa??aioe yeeo ia ia’?aeiothoueny ? ?aoothoueny ca ie?ai?
iaeeieoe?. O noeoiiino? ?o aoei iacaaii 49055 ?ac?a.

Aeaea?aeii oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo noaee ?acoeueoaoe nioe?ie?iaa?noe/ii?
i?aeoeee nooaeaio?a o?eieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo o 1993-1996 ??. Eiaeai o/aniee i?aeoeee c?a?aa a?ae 50-oe
?ioi?iaio?a aeai? i?i aeanyoue ?iai, ye? eiio iiaeiaathoueny iaea?eueoa.
Anueiai aoei i?iaiae?ciaaii 5 000 aieao.

Iaoiaee oa iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo o
aeena?oaoe?? caaaeaiue canoiniaothoueny eiiieaeni? iaoiaee/i? i?eeiie,
ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iiio ? niaoeeo?/ii iiiianoe/iiio,
aio?iiii?i?/iiio aniaeoo: 1) iieniaee o ii?aeiaii? c oe?iei
canoiniaaiith e?euee?nii-ye?niith ?ioa?i?aoaoe??th iaoa??aeo, ui
aeicaieeei aeyaeoe niaoeeo?/i?noue aio?iiii?i?/ieo niae?a i?aaenoaaiee?a
??ciiai a?eo oa ieoiio aaao eiaeiiai c ?iai. Aiae?c /anoioiino? ?iai
ni?eya aeae?eaiith oanoe a?oi aio?iiii?i?a c o?aooaaiiyi nooiaiy ?o
noni?eueii? ioe?iee: iiioey?i? (??aaiue aeoeaiino? yeeo ia?aaeuo? 1,0
%), iii??ii iiioey?i? (a?ae 0,5 aei 1,0 %), iaeiiiioey?i? (a?ae 0,1 aei
0,5 %), iaiiioey?i? (a?ae 0,05 aei 0,1), iaeeie/i? (a?ae 0,01 aei 0,05
%) oa ?acia? ?iaia (oae?, ui o?aieyeeny eeoa iaeei ?ac ia iaaiiio
a?eiaiio c??c?); 2) iaoiae o?iiieia?/ieo c??c?a, yeee iieyaa? o oiio, ui
an? ?iaia ?iciiae?eai? ca a?oiaie a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ieo ia?iaeaeaiiy
?ioi?iaio?a, o ?acoeueoao? /iai aoei aeae?eaii o?noue a?eiaeo c??c?a
(I-20-o? ??.; II-30-o? ??.; III-40 ??.; IV-50 ??.; V-60 ??.;
VI-70 ??.); 3) c?noaaiee iaoiae aeicaieea aeyaeoe ia eeoa ni?euei?noue ?
a?aei?ii?noue i?ae ?aaeueiei ?iaiieeii ? ?aia?ooa?ii no/anieo
oiiaeiaaiue, a e eiiiiiaioe niaoeeo?/iiai ? ni?eueiiai a neiiao?yo
i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oi. A iniia? ?iaioe eaaeeoue
aieaooaaiiy. Ca aeiiiiiaith aieao aoee iaea?aeai? aeiaeaoeia?
a?aeiiino? i?i ?iaia.

Iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui a iaoeiaee ia?a
oaaaeaii ? i?iaiae?ciaaii oe?eeiaeoi iiaee aio?iiii?i?/iee iaoa??ae;
aia?oa ?icaeyiooi aeani? ?iaia ethaeae e??cue i?ecio oiiaeiaaiue;
i?iaaaeaii c?noaaeaiiy c?a?aiiai iaoa??aeo ?c ?acoeueoaoaie
aeine?aeiee?a ?aaeueiiai ?i’yaaeeoeo.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, ui iaoa??aee e
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiooue o iaaiae? i?e ?ic?iaoe? oai?aoe/ieo
? i?aeoe/ieo i?iaeai iiiianoeee. Aiie ni?eyoeiooue ie?aneaiith
caaaeueii? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? aio?iiii?i??, iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny i?e iiaeaeueoiio aea/aii? iniaiaeo ?iai ethaeae, o
?ic?iaoe? caaaeueii? aio?iiii?i?/ii? oai???, aeicaieyth/e i?iaiicoaaoe
aeeiai?eo aaeeaaiino? iniaiaeo ?iai ia iaeaooi?. Iaea?aeai? iane?aeee
aoaeooue ei?enieie o aeine?aeaeaiiyo c eaeneeieia??, ae?aeaeoieia??,
neiaioai?o; i?e /eoaii? niaoeeo?n?a c iiiianoeee; i?e aena?oeaii? oaeeo
aaaeeeaeo i?iaeai, ye iiaa ? noni?euenoai, aca?iiae?y iia. C?a?ai?
iaoa??aee noaiiaeyoue ?ioa?an aeey oeeaaea/?a neiaiee?a aeanieo ?iai
ethaeae oa neiaieea ii?oai oe?a?inueei? iiae; iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny
o i?aeoeoe? ?i’yia?a/aiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “??aeia
iiaa – caii?oea aacnia?oy iaoe??” (Iaeana, 1998), a oaeiae ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? iiae Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (1998, 1999).

Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii i’youe iaoeiaeo noaoae.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c “Anooio”, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, i?enay/aieo /ieia?/ei oa ae?ii/ei ?iaiai ? aeeiai?oe?
aio?iiii?i?/ieo oiiaeiaaiue, oa “Aeniiae?a” /176n./. Aei ?iaioe
aeiaea?oueny nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e (254
iaeiaioaaiiy), aeiaeaoee (aeiaeaoie A. *ieia?/? ?iaia; aeiaeaoie A.
AE?ii/? ?iaia). Caaaeueiee ia’?i ?iaioe – 247n.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O “Anooi?” ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue, iiaecia oaie, aecia/athoueny
iaoa ? caaaeaiiy i?aoe?, iaoiaee oa iaoiaee/i? i?eeiie aeine?aeaeaiiy, a
oaeiae iiaeeea?noue oai?aoe/iiai oa i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy iaoa??ae?a
aeena?oaoe??.

Ia?oee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? “*IEIA?*? ?IAIA: ???A?O?ss OIIAeIAAIUe”
i?enay/aiee aea/aiith noni?eueii? ioe?iee /ieia?/eo ?iai, ui ??ciith
i??ith iiaeiaathoueny i?aaenoaaieeai oanoe a?eiaeo a?oi.

?aia?ooa? no/anieo oiiaeiaaiue, a yeiio ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy neeaaei?
i?ioeane noni?eueiiai aeeooy, aaaaoi a /iio a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
ieioeiai oa iei?oiueiai ?aaeueiiai ?iaiieea. ?c cao?eniaaieo iaie 568
/ieia?/eo ?iai o?eueee 301 – iiaia iaeiaioaaiiy, ?aooa – a?iiei?enoeee,
aeai?iooeae e iaeiaeeo?eiaai? oi?ie ?iai.

Ia /anoioiino? aio?iiii?i?a o iao /an, iai?ee?ioe? XX no.,
i?iaeiaaeothoue iicia/aoeny ?acoeueoaoe aeaiie?aoecaoe?? o aeai?? ?iai,
yea iai?oeeany ua ia ii/aoeo XIX no. Neeaae no/anieo oiiaeiaaiue
/ieia?/eo ?iai oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oaeeie iniaeeainoyie:

1. Iaeiii?oi?o? c?ooaiiy a aio?iiii?i?/ieo neiiao?yo oe?a?ioe?a
a?aeaoaathoueny aiane?aeie ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i, oiaoi ci?i
iiioey?iino? ?iai, a no?oeoo?ia iiiaeaiiy oiiaeiaaiue (iiyaa aaniethoii
iiaeo aio?iiii?i?a ? ao?aoa o?aaeeoe?eieo) iayaia eeoa ia ia?eoa??? –
na?aae ?iai iecueei? /anoioiino?: iaiiioey?ieo, iaeeie/ieo, ?aciaeo
(??aeoa – iaeiiiioey?ieo).

2. Na?aae /ieia?/eo iaeiaioaaiue /?oei ie?aneth?oueny a?oia e?aea??a,
?iai-oethaeaioe?a: Na?a?e, Ieaa, Ieaenaiae?, Aiae??e, Ieeiea,
Aieiaeeie?, ye? i?ioyaii oanoe a?eiaeo c??c?a aeiaeiiai ?aco ia caeeoaee
iaae aeanyoee iaee?aueo.

3. Niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei caoiieaiiy ?ioi?iaio?a ?iaiaie
noa?iai eaeaiaea?iiai oiiaeo, ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue c yeeo
a?oa?coaaeany ? i?ioyaii XX no. aeeoea c oaeeoeo a ?aaeueiiio
?i’yia?a/aii?; aeoea?co?oueny iiaaaeia noaaeaiiy aei aoeiieia?/ii
i?ici?eo neia’yinueeeo aaoiooiiieo iaeiaioaaiue; /eiaei aieaoiaaieo
a?aeaeathoue ia?aaaao iiaei ?iaiai, cie?aia e aecioe/iei ?ioiiiaiei. Ia
Iaeauei? – a ?aa?ii? aeoeaiiai i?aeiiaiiai eiioaeooaaiiy – no/ani?
aio?iiii?i?/i? neiiao?? oe?a?ioe?a oa?a?aee ie?ai? ?iaia /e
iaoe?iiaeuei? aa??aioe ?iai non?aei?o ia?iae?a, cie?aia aieaa?, iieye?a,
/ao?a, ?oioi?a, a iaea?eueoa – ?in?yi (Ao?ae, I?e?oa, Inei, Oaaeaoo,
Oiaei?, THe?an, THcao, ssioo, ssiae oiui).

O iaoeo iaoa??aeao eiaeia c a?eiaeo a?oi oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
??ciiiai?oi?noth ?aia?ooa?o /ieia?/eo ?iai ye ia ye?niiio, oae ? ia
e?euee?niiio ??aiyo. Neiiao?? eiaeii? c ieo caeaaeaoue a?ae
noni?eueii-?noi?e/ieo, eoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a, n?iaeieo o?aaeeoe?e oa
anoaoe/ieo niae?a aieaoiaaieo. Niinoa?aaeaiiy iieacaee, ui o?eaae?noue
iaaiiai aio?iiii?ia o ?ic?yae? iiioey?ieo iaeaea caaaeaee aecia/a?oueny
nooiaiai eiai o?aaeeoe?eiino?, ??aeoa – iiaeith.

Iniae, ui ia?iaeeeeny o 20-o ??., iacaaee 287 ?iai 5862 ?ace.
Iaeoethaeai?o? aeanyoue ?c ieo ianeoaiaothoue ?ioa?ane iaeaea o?aoeie
aieaoiaaieo ? ianooue iaea?eueoa ooieoe?iiaeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy. Ia
ia?oa i?noea ca oiiaeiaaiiyie aeeoei ?i’y 1. ?aai (5,7 %), ui aae aei V
c??co aeeth/ii aeiiaaaeiny aenieeo iiceoe?e o aeanyooe? iaee?aueo.
Aa?o?aea neiiao?e aeaii? a?eiai? a?oie ia? oaeee aeaeyae: 2. Na?a?e
(4,0 %); 3. Aaneeue (4,0 %); 4. Ieeiea (3,8 %); 5. Ieaenaiae? (3,2 %);
6. Ieoaeei (3,2 %); 7. Aiae??e (3,1 %); 8. Iao?i (3,0 %); 9. Aieiaeeie?
(3,0 %); 10. Ieaa (2,9 %). I??a i?eaaaeeaino? eiaeiiai ?icoaoiaaiiai
ieae/a aio?iiii?ia ciaioo?oueny, coiiaethth/e eiai aeeth/aiiy aei
a?aeiia?aeiiai ?ic?yaeo. Aei neeaaeo iiioey?ieo iio?aieei 27 ?iai oa ?o
aa??aio?a, ui noaiiaeoue 65,2 % caaaeueiiai ianyao oiiaeiaaiue aeaii?
a?eiai? a?oie; aei iii??ii iiioey?ieo – 20 (13,7 %); iaeiiiioey?ieo – 37
(12,0 %); iaiiioey?ieo – 51 (5,4 %). On? oe? ?ic?yaee oeiiieaeoiaai?,
aieiaiei /eiii, noa?eie eaeaiaea?ieie ?iaiaie oa ?o ia?iaeii?iciiaieie
a?aeiia?aeieeaie. Cono??einy ooo ? /eiaei neia’yinueeeo aaoiooii?i?a.
Iaeia’?ii?oei ca e?euee?noth ? iae??ciiaa?ai?oei ca neeaaeii aeyaeany
?ic?yae iaeeie/ieo ?iai, ui i?noeoue 104 iaeeieoe?, aea, e??i aeaai?o
eaeaiaea?ieo, o?aieeany e a?oia iiaeo iaeiaioaaiue, cie?aia yaieo
?ioiiiaieo caiice/aiue. Ia aeaiiio c??c? ca?a?no?iaaii 52 ?aciaeo
?iai?, ui iaeaea an? ciaoiaeyoueny o ianeaiiio oiiae? ?aaeueiiai
?i’yaaeeoeo.

Oiiaeiaaiiy in?a, ui ia?iaeeeeny o 30-o ??., i?noyoue 281 ?i’y, ui
caaaeoaaeeny 6300 ?ac?a. I/ieth? nienee neiiao?e ?i’y Na?a?e. Neeaae
ia?oi? aeanyoee aeaui ci?ieany: aio?iiii?ie Iao?i ? Ieoaeei iacaaaeaee
aeeoee ca ?? iaae?, canooiath/enue ?iaiaie ?ai? oa A?eoi?. Ona?aaeei?
aeanyoee aeoeai?oa iiaiaeyoue naaa ?iaia Ieaa oa Aiae??e, ianeai?oa –
?aai oa Aaneeue. Ii??aiyii c iiia?aaei?i c??cii i?eaaaeea?oeie noaee
aio?iiii?ie A?eaae?e, A?oai, A?oo?, Aiaaeai, Aaaeei, Aaea??e, A?oae?e,
Ae?a, Aeaien, Aaeoa?ae, ?oneai; ciaioeee eiei i?eoeeueiee?a ?iaia
Aa?anei, A?eai??e, Eaii?ae, Iaea?, Iaaei, Oa?an, Oaae??.

I?aaenoaaieeai 40-o ??. ia?iaeaeaiiy ??ciith i??ith iiaeiaathoueny 280
?iai (8641 o?enaoe?y). ?c ieo eeoa 190 – io?oe?ei? iaeiaioaaiiy, ?aooa
– ?o aa??aoeai? oi?ie. Ii??aiyii ?c iiia?aaei?i c??cii neeaae ?ic?yaeo
iiioey?ieo ?iai cian?i ia ci?ieany, ui na?ae/eoue i?i noaa?e?caoe?th o
noaaeaii? aei ieo in?a 30-o oa 40-o ??. ia?iaeaeaiiy. O iaaeao aeanyoee
i?aeaeueee ?aiaia? iiia?e ?iaia ?ai?, Ieaa, Aiae??e, Aieiaeeie?;
cieaeeee – ?aai, Aaneeue, Ieeiea, A?eoi?. sse ? ?ai?oa, i/ieth? nienee
neiiao?e Na?a?e. C a?eueoith iiaaaith ooo noaaeyoueny aei ?iai A?oo?,
Ie?ineaa, Oae?en, Oeeei oa ?iciiaieo aa??aio?a Aeee, Aaaeee, Aaeee,
Iaoa, Naoei, Neaaee, ui aeoeaii aieeaathoue ia nooi?iue iiioey?iino?
a?aeiia?aeieo ?iaa??aio?a; iaioith i??ith neiiaoecothoue ?iaiai Aaa?eei,
Aai?a?e, Aeaieei, Iaca?, O?ioei, I?io??, Oaae?? oa ?iciiaiei oi?iai
Eiey, Oo?a.

Oiiaeiaaiiy in?a, ui ia?iaeeeeny o 50-o ??., oeiiieaeoiaai? iaea?eueoith
e?euee?noth iaeeieoeue – 307 ?iaiaie, ui iacaaii 9628 ?ac?a. Neeaae
ia?oi? aeanyoee caeeoeany iaii?ooiei, i?e/iio, ye ? ia iiia?aaeiueiio
c??c?, ?? i/ieththoue ?iaia Na?a?e oa Ieaa. Aio?iiii?ie ?aooe ae
?ic?yae?a iiaiaeyoue naaa aeineoue aeeiai?/ii: ni?eyoeeai neeaaeathoueny
oiiae aeey ?iai Aaiiaae?e, Aeaien, Einoyioei, ?iiai, ?oneai, Oeio?,
eieeoiuei? ?iciiaii? oi?ie ?ai? oa aeaaiuei?onueeeo iaeiaioaaiue Aaaeei,
Ethaiie?, Inoeneaa, ?inoeneaa, Noai?neaa, ss?ineaa; ianeai?oeie noathoue
?iaia A?eaae?e, Aiao, A?eai??e, Ia?ei, Ieeeoa, Ie?ii, Ieeei, Naaa,
Noaiai, Oa?an, Oeiio?e, Oaae??, THoei, sse?a.

Iaoa??aee V oa VI a?eiaeo c??c?a aaaaea?ii aieiaieie, aaeaea noaaeaiiy
aei ?iai ?ioi?iaio?a iieiaeoiai iieie?iiy cia/iith i??ith aecia/a? noai
iaeaooiueiai ?iaiieea oe?a?ioe?a.

?aia?ooa? oiiaeiaaiue in?a, ui ia?iaeeeeny o 60-o ??., i?noeoue 258
aio?iiii?i?a, ye? caaaeoaaeeny 7568 ?ac?a. Eiioeiaaio ?iai ia?oi?
aeanyoee iiiaeany eeoa iaeiei aio?iiii?iii Aeieo?i, ui aia?oa iio?aiea
aei neeaaeo iaeoethaeai?oeo, iio?nieaoe Aaneey. ?i’y Na?a?e ia ao?a/a?
iiceoe?th e?aea?a.

A?eueoith i??ith, i?ae iiia?aaeieeai, iiaeiaathoueny ?iaia A?oo?,
Aaiiaae?e, Aeaieei, Aaeoa?ae, ?aaai, Ee?eei, Eaii?ae, Iaenei, Ie?ineaa,
Nayoineaa oa ?iciiai? aa??aioe A?oaeee, Aeaae, Ae?ia, Aaeee, AEi?a,
Einoy, Iaoa, ?iia, Neaaa; ao?a/athoue i?eaaaeea?noue ?iaia Aioii, Ai?en,
Aaneeue, Anaaieiae, Aai?a?e, ?eey, Einei, Iao?i, Noaiai, TH??e oa
ciaiooaaeuei? oi?ie Aany, A?oy, Aieiaey, A?eoa, Eiey, Eueiiy, Ieoy,
Ieoa, Oiey.

Ani?oeiaio inoaiiueiai a?eiaiai c??co oeiiieaeoiaaiee 272 iaeeieoeyie
(11038 o?enaoe?e). Eiioeaio?aoe?y ?iai ooo aeinyaea naiai i?eo, a naia,
ii??aiyii c iaoa??aeaie ? c??co ca?eueoeeany iaeaea aaea?/?. Neeaae
ia?oi? aeanyoee, yeo i/ieth? ?i’y Na?a?e, iiiaeany aio?iiii?iaie A?oae?e
? ?oneai, ui caeiyee i?noey ?aaia oa Aeieo?a.

Iii?oii ca?eueoeany aaoi?eoao ?iai A?eaae?e, A?oai, Aiaaeai, Aaaeei,
Aeaaeeneaa, A’y/aneaa, Ae?a, ?eey, Einoyioei, Ieaen?e, ?inoeneaa,
Nayoineaa, ssi, ss?ineaa, ui aea? ciiao niiae?aaoeny ia ?o aeoea?caoe?th
? a iaeaooiueiio; cai?ioith aeeiai?eo aeaiiino?othoue iiioey?i? aeaai?oa
?iaia A?eai??e, Iaaei, Noaiai, Oa?an, Oaae??. Oa ana ae ia?aaoaaiiy
oeeo aeaai?o o?enoeyinueeeo aio?iiii?i?a aeiaaee /an o iaoeo iaoa??aeao
na?aae iiioey?ieo na?ae/eoue i?i ?o iioaioe?eio iiooao, aenieee ?aca?a
i?oeiino?.

Ii??aithth/e no/ani? iiaeyaee ia ?iaia ?c ea?oeiith ?aaeueiiai
?i’yaaeeoeo i?ioyaii XX no. o ??cieo ?aa?iiao Iaeanueei? iaeano?, ie
iii?oeee iaiaeiaeiaa noaaeaiiy aei a?eueoino? ?iai o ??ciee /an. Ia
oi?eioeeny ci?ie neiiao?e eeoa oaeeo ?iai-e?aea??a, ye Na?a?e,
Ieaenaiae?, Aieiaeeie?, Ieeiea, A?eoi?. C /anii caoceee eiei
i?eoeeueiee?a aio?iiii?ie Aiaoie?e, Ai?en, Aaeaioei, Aai?a?e, ?aaai,
?eey, Eaii?ae, sse?a; cia/ii iiioey?i?oeie o 90-o? ?iee noaee noa??
eaeaiaea?i? ?iaia A?eaae?e, A?oai, Aaea??e, A?oae?e, Aaiiaae?e, Aeaien,
Aeieo?i, ?ai?, Iaenei, Ieaa, ?iiai, ieeicao/i? neia’yinuee? Aiaaeai,
Aaaeei, Aeaaeeneaa, Noai?neaa, ss?ineaa oa iia? iaeiaioaaiiy A?oo? ?
?oneai.

Aiae?c e?euee?nii? aeeiai?ee on?o /ieia?/eo ?iai iieacaa, ui i?ioyaii
oanoe a?eiaeo c??c?a o ?ic?yae? iiioey?ieo ia?aaoaaei 40 aio?iiii?i?a.
Eieeaaiiy /anoioiino? an?o iiioey?ieo ?iai neeaaeathoue 65,2 – 70,8 %;
ia?oi? aeanyoee – 33,2 – 36,4 %; ?iai ieae/a aeanyoee – 28,9 – 34,9 %.
Ia inoaii?o a?eiaeo c??cao ieoiia aaaa ia?oi? aeanyoee ?iai a?aeia?aaea?
oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? oiiaeiaaiue. Oey oaiaeaioe?y
?icoe?ith?oueny ye iiceoeaiee oaeo. ?acii c oei oey oaiaeaioe?y
no?eio?oueny ?ioith iniaeea?noth – o?aaeeoe?ei?noth no/anieo neiiao?e,
ui i?ecaaei aei aenieiai caaaioaaeaiiy iaaaeeei? a?oie ?iai, ia’?aeiaieo
o ?ic?yae? iiioey?ieo.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “AE?II*? ?IAIA: ???A?O?ss OIIAeIAAIUe” i?iaiaeeoueny
aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeo oa ?ooo ca a?eiaeie c??caie ae?ii/eo ?iai ?c
canoinoaaiiyi oeo aea iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui ? aeey aiae?co
/ieia?/iai ?aia?ooa?o.

I?aaenoaaieee ??cieo iieie?iue i?iiiiothoue aeineoue oe?eaaee oa
ia’?iiee ani?oeiaio ae?ii/eo ?iai, ui neeaaea?oueny ?c 660 iaeeieoeue
(434 – io?oe?ei? ?iaia, ?aooa – a?iiei?enoeee oa aeai?iooeae), ? ia?
oae? iniaeeaino?:

1) ye ? o /ieia?/iio oiiae?, na?aae ae?ii/eo neiiao?e iniiaia yae?i
noaiiaeyoue aeaai? o?enoeyinuee? ?iaia. Iaea?eueoa /anoeia aieaoiaaieo
a?aeaea? ia?aaaao o?aaeeoe?eiei ?iaiai (Ieaia, Ienaia, Ieueaa, Ia??y,
??eia, Iaoaey, Oaoyia, Eaoa?eia, Aaiia, Aaeeia, ?iia), neia’yinueeei
(Ethaeieea, Na?oeaia), ye? a iaaieo a?eiaeo a?oiao iiaoaaee o aeanyooe?
iaei?eaaaeea?oeo, i?e/iio ia?o? n?i ?c ieo – aeiaeiiai ?aco ia caeeoaee
?? iaae.

2) No/ani? oiiaeiaaiiy i?noyoue /eneaiio a?oio ?iai-a?oa?ci?a, ui
caeiathoue i?noey na?aae iaeii?iaeoeoeaieo. Na?aae ieo – aaaaoi ia?ieo
eaeaiaea?ieo iaeiaioaaiue, oiaoi a?ae/ieia?/eo ooai?aiue; /eiaei
aieaoiaaieo caoiieththoueny i?ae?anieie neia’yinueeeie aaoiooii?iaie, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i ?o aeoii/aiee ia?iaeiee niae, ii/oooy i?ae?aniiai.

3) O aaeee?e e?eueeino? i?aaenoaaeai? ooo iia? oeueo?aiiaei? ?iaia,
cie?aia caiice/aiiy ?c cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo iia.

4) *eneaiiith ? oaeiae a?oia iaio?oe?eieo oi?i iaeiaioaaiue, ui
ioiieththoue ?ioa?ane iaeaea o?aoeie aieaoiaaieo, na?aae yeeo, e??i
on?/aieo oa eaae?oaoeaieo aa??aio?a, o?aieythoueny e oiiaoe/i?
aeaeici?ie oa ?aa?iiaeuei?, eieaeuei? aa??aioe.

A caaaeii aea no/ani? ae?ii/? oiiaeiaaiiy, ye ? /ieia?/?, a cia/i?e i???
o?aaeeoe?ei?. Aea ia aea?? ae?ii/eo ?iai aeineoue ae?acii aieeaa? ?
iiaea, /ieia?/iai ae ?aia?ooa?o aiia oi?eioeany eeoa iiaa?oiai. A?oia
ae?ii/eo iaeiaioaaiue a?aecia/a?oueny a?eueoei ?icia?ooyi, aeoeai?oith
aeeiai?eith. E??i oiai, aiia aeyaeeany ia’?ii?oith ? ca e?euee?noth
iaeeieoeue, ai?ae /ieia?/a i?aenenoaia.

Aio?iiii?i?/i? oiiaeiaaiiy in?a, ui ia?iaeeeeny o 20-o ??., i?noyoue 328
?iai (5583 o?enaoe??) ? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny noeeuei?noth a?eueoi? /anoeie
aieaoiaaieo aei ?iai noa?iai eaeaiaea?iiai oiiaeo, ye? caeiyee i?noey o
oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? neiiao?e; iia? iaeiaioaaiiy caeiathoue
ae?oai?yaeia i?noea, ?ici?uoth/enue, aieiaiei /eiii, na?aae ?iai
iaeii?iaeoeoeaiiai oa iiiaeeiieiai aaeeoeo. Aei neeaaeo aeanyoee
iaee?aueo oa?eoee oae? ?iaia: 1. Ia??y (4,6 %); 2. Ieaia (3,7 %);
3. Ieueaa (3,5 %); 4. Ienaia (3,1 %); 5. Aaiia (2,9 %); 6. Eaoa?eia
(2,8 %); 7. Oaoyia (2,8 %); 8. ??eia (2,7 %); 9. Iaoaey (2,4 %);
10. Ethaeieea (2,3 %). ?aooa oiiaeiaaiue aeaiiai a?eiaiai c??co
?icoaooaaeany ca ?iciianthaeaeai?noth oaeei /eiii: e??i ia?oi? aeanyoee,
aei neeaaeo iiioey?ieo iio?aieei ua 17 ?iai, ui o noeoiiino? noaiiaeyoue
55,0 % caaaeueiiai ianyao neiiao?e ? c??co; aei iii??ii iiioey?ieo – 26
(19,0 %); iaeiiiioey?ieo – 49 (15,0 %); iaiiioey?ieo – 77 (6,1 %).
Iaea?eueoei ca e?euee?noth ? iae??ciiiai?oi?oei ca neeaaeii aeyaeany
caa?i iaeeie/ieo ?iai, ui i?noeoue 115 aio?iiii?i?a. O?aieeiny ooo ?
/eiaei ?aciaeo ?iai, aea oaaaa aieaoiaaieo a iniiaiiio cina?aaeaeaia ia
iiaeo iaeiaioaaiiyo oa ??cieo ?iaiieo aa??aioao.

I?aaenoaaieee 30-o ??. ia?iaeaeaiiy iacaaee 318 aio?iiii?i?a 6031 ?ac,
na?aae yeeo iaeoethaeai?oei aeyaeeiny ?i’y Ieaia, ui caeiyei i?noea
Ia???. Ia?oa aeanyoea i?eeiyea aeaa aio?iiii?ie – Aaeeia oa Na?oeaia,
iio?nieaoe Aaiio oa Ethaeieeo ca ?? iaae?. Neeaae ?iai ?aooe ?ic?yae?a
ci?ieany iaeaea iaiieiaeio: iaeaeoeai?oith aeyaeeany iiaaae?iea iiaeo
?iai: Ae?na, Ae?ia, A?oae?y, ?eiia, ?iaa, E??no?ia, Iaey, Iiiia, ?ica,
?oneaia, ssia; eieeoi?o aa??aio?a, ui iei? o?enothoueny ye
aeieoiaioaeuei? Any, Eany, E?ia, Ieany; aeaai?o eaeaiaea?ieo
iaeiaioaaiue Aeea, Aiaae?ia, Aio?na, Aa?ii?ea, ?iia, Oa?na, Oaia?a,
THe?y. Na?aae oiiaeiaaiue aeaiiai a?eiaiai c??co ii/eiathoue ?nioaaiiy
?c ii??aiyii /anoei oaeeoeii iia? ?iaia A?ieaoa, Ea?eia, Eao?a, Eo?ca.
Ao?aoeee i?eaaaeea?noue ?iaia Aianoan?y, Aea?’y, ?aaai?y, ?aaeie?y,
Ceia?aea, ?a?na.

?ioi?iaioai 40-o ??. ia?iaeaeaiiy iiaeiaathoueny 346 ?iai, ui iacaaii
8399 ?ac?a. Aei aeanyoee iaee?aueo ciiao iiaa?oa?oueny ?i’y Ethaeieea,
ui caeoei i?noea Eaoa?eie. Ia /ie? oiiaeiaaiue noi?oue ooo Ieueaa. Ia
aeaiiio c??c? ni?eyoeea?oa neeaeeny oiiae aeey ?iai Aiaeaea, Ae?aia,
AEaiia, Ciy, ?aaiia, E?e?y, ?eiia, ?ica, ?oneaia, Ni?aeaia, Noaoai?y oa
ciaiooaaeueieo aa??aio?a Eaoy, Ei?a, Ethaea, Niiy. Iaioa i?eoeeueiee?a
na?aae in?a 40-o ??. ia?iaeaeaiiy ciaeoee aio?iiii?ie A??a, I?ia,
Iie?ia.

Iniae, ui ia?iaeeeeny o 50-o ??., iacaaee 344 aio?iiii?ie (9408
o?enaoe?e). Iaea?eueo aei aiiaeiae ?i noaei ?i’y Ieaia. *anoioia
aeanyoea iiiaeeany eeoa iaeiei aio?iiii?iii – ?iia, ui caeiya i?noea
Aaeeie. Cia/ii /ano?oa, i?ae ia iiia?aaeiueiio a?eiaiio c??c?,
caaaeothoueny ooo ?iaia Aa?aa?a, Aea?’y, E??no?ia, Eaaea, Oeyia,
ss?ineaaa oa a?iiai?enoeee Na?oa, THey; ao?aoeee iiioey?i?noue
aio?iiii?ie A??a, ?aaai?y, C?ia?aea, Ciy, E?e?y.

?aia?ooa? in?a 60-o ??. ia?iaeaeaiiy i?noeoue 326 aio?iiii?i?a (7417
o?enaoe?e). Ooo iaee?auei aeyaeeiny ?i’y Ienaia. O ia?o?e aeanyooe?
cao?eniaaii eeoa iaeia iiaa ?i’y – Iaae?y (oea eiai i?e iiioey?iino?),
ui iio?nieei Ethaeieeo. Cia/ii a?eueoa i?eoeeueiee?a na?aae in?a 60-o
??. ia?iaeaeaiiy ciaeoee ?iaia Ae?na, Aiaeae?ea, Aioii?ia, Aaea??y,
A?ieaoa, A?oa, A?oae?y, Aeaaea, Ea?eia, ?ica oa ?iciiai? aa??aioe A?ea,
?eoa, THey; iineaaeee iiceoe?? aio?iiii?ie Ae?ia, Ethaia, Iie?ia, Nio?y.

Oiiaeiaaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a 70-o ??. ia?iaeaeaiiy i?noyoue iaea?eueoo
e?euee?noue aio?iiii?i?a – 360, ui caaaeoaaeeny 10578 ?ac?a. Aeanyoea
iaeoethaeai?oeo ?iai ia? oaeee aea aeaeyae, ye ? a iaoa??aeao
iiia?aaeiueiai c??co, ca aeiyoeii ?iai? Ethaeieea, ui i?ney ei?ioeiai
ia?aii/eieo ia V c??c? ciiao ?ici?uo?oueny na?aae iaee?aueo, iiaa?ioaoe
Iaae?th ia nai? eieeoi? i?noea. Ia ia?oa i?noea ca oiiaeiaaiiyie ciiao
aeoiaeeoue Ienaia. Ia inoaiiueiio a?eiaiio c??c? aeiiaaathoueny aenieeo
iieaciee?a ?iaia-iiaaoe?? Ae?ia, Aiaeaea, A?oae?ia, Aeea, ?iaa,
E??no?ia, E?e?y, Iaey, Ia??aiia, Ia?oa, noa?? eaeaiaea?i? Ethaia, ?aa?ia
oa iaeaiii?/ia ?i’y Aeuea?ia. I?aeaeuothoue ?aiaia? iiia?e oae?
?iciiai? aa??aioe, ye ?aaiea, E?ey, ?eoa, Oiia, THey. Cian?i ii-?ioiio
neeaeany aeiey noa?eo eaeaiaea?ieo ?iai Aioii?ia, Ciy oa a?iiei?enoee
Aaey, C?ia, Ethaa, Iaaey, ?ay, neiiao?y aei yeeo niaaea?. Nienie
oiiaeiaaiue inoaiiueiai a?eiaiai c??co i?noeoue aaee/acio a?oio iiaeo
iaeeieoeue (120), i?e/iio iaeaea iieiaeia c ieo – oi ?acia? ?iaia.
I?aaio/e o??ciiiai?oieoe oiiaee no/aniiai ?i’yaaeeoeo, ?ioi?iaioe
iaeiieiaeoiai a?eo aeei?enoiaothoue an?eye? iiaeeeaino?: iaei?
a?aeaeathoue ia?aaaao noa?ei eaeaiaea?iei iaeiaioaaiiyi, a?aeae?ath/e c
ieo iaecao/i?o?, ae?oa? caoiieththoueny iiaeie ?iaiaie, o?ao?o
i?eaaaeththoue i?ea?iaeuei? ?ioiiiai?, a aeaye? aaeathoueny aei
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?i’yoai?aiiy.

Ii??aithth/e ?acoeueoaoe iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoa??aeaie ?aaeueiiai
?i’yaaeeoeo i?ioyaii OO no., iii?/a?ii, ui ?c ciaioaiiyi ?ic?eao i?ae
/anii ia?iaeaeaiiy ? /anii iieooaaiiy iiaeyaee ia a?eueoo /anoeio ?iai,
iniaeeai iiioey?ieo, iinooiiai ae??aiththoueny. Ianaiia?ae oea
noino?oueny oaeeo aio?iiii?i?a, ye Ieueaa, Ieaia, Iaoaey, ??eia,
Ethaeieea, Na?oeaia, Oaoyia, A?eoi??y, Aeea, Aaeeia, Ethaia, Iaae?y,
Aioii?ia, E?ae?y, AEaiia, Ciy. Iaeiae aiaeii/an ?nio? e iii?oia
?ica?aei?noue o noaaeaii? aei aeayeeo iaeiaioaaiue: c /anii
i?aeaeuo?oueny aaoi?eoao ?iai Ienaia, Ia??y, Eaoa?eia, THe?y, Aiaeaea,
?iia; iineaaeththoue iiceoe?? aio?iiii?ie Aaeaioeia, Ea?ena, ?aaai?y,
E?e?y. Iia?oth/e oaeeie aeaieie, iiaeia oyaeoe ea?oeio ?aaeueiiai
?i’yia?a/aiiy ? a iaeaooiueiio.

Nie?ath/enue ia ?acoeueoaoe e?euee?nii? aeeiai?ee no/anieo
aio?iiii?i?/ieo oiiaeiaaiue in?a ??ciiai a?eo, aaaaeath/e iniiaieie aeey
i?iaiicoaaiiy noaio iaeaooiueiai ?iaiieea neiiao?? V oa VI c??c?a,
iiaeia oaa?aeeoe, ui ?aaeueiee ae?ii/ee ?iaiiee aeoeaii
?icoe?thaaoeiaoueny (ia inoaiiueiio c??c? cao?eniaaii iaea?eueoo
e?euee?noue ?iaiieo iaeeieoeue), /iai ia iiaeia neacaoe i?i /ieia?/ee
(e?euee?noue aio?iiii?i?a ia VI c??c? aeyaeeany iaea?aei?oith).
Ia?aaaaeii na?aae iaeii?iaeoeoeaieo ae?ii/eo ?iai /?oei ae??ciythoueny
iniiai? iai?yiee i?ney?aaiethoe?eieo iiooe?a aio?iiii?i??, ui iia’ycai?
c oiiaaie a?eueiiai aeai?o iaeiaioaaiue. O iaoeo iaoa??aeao, iniaeeai
na?aae ae?ii/iai ?aia?ooa?o, oe? iiooee aeyaeeeny a?eueo ie?aeieie, i?ae
o ?aaeueiiio ?i’yaaeeoeo a ??cieo ?aa?iiao i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie.

O?ao?e ?icae?e “I?IAEAIE AeEIAI?EE AIO?IIII?I?*IEO OIIAeIAAIUe” i?noeoue
aiae?c ci?i aio?iiii?i?/ieo oiiaeiaaiue ?c ciaioaiiyi a?eo aieaoiaaieo,
c’yniaothoueny iioeae aeai?o ?iai, ?icaeyaeathoueny aa??aioe ?iai, ?o
no?oeoo?a oa iniaeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy, aecia/a?oueny a?aenoaiue i?ae
no/anieie iiaeyaeaie ia ?iaia oa ea?oeiith ?aaeueiiai ?i’yia?a/aiiy
i?ioyaii OO no.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe aio?iiii?i?/i? oiiaeiaaiiy iaoeaioe?a Iaeanueei? iaeano?
??ciiai a?eo, ie ia aeyaeee ??aiii??iiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?iai, ye ia
cao?enoaaee eiai e aeine?aeieee aeeiai?ee ?aaeueiiai ?iaiieea. Ca a?eii
?ioi?iaio?a neeaae no/anieo neiiao?e aeoeaii ci?ith?oueny. Iaea?eueo
oa?aeoa?iei nioe?aeueii-anoaoe/iei e?eoa???i aeae?eaiiy ?iai ye
iaee?aueo i?aaenoaaieeaie an?o iieie?iue ? o?aaeeoe?ei?noue,
ia?iaei?noue, e?oa?aoo?ia oa onii-iiaooiaa iioe?ai?noue.
Ocaaaeueithth/e aeai? an?o oanoe a?eiaeo c??c?a, ie aeyaeee, ui iiaeyaee
ia ?iaia o ethaeae ??ciiai a?eo ci?ithaaeeny, aeaiiino?oth/e /ioe?e oeie
?icaeoeo: 1) ?iaia, neiiao?y aei yeeo ?c ciaioaiiyi a?eo ?ioi?iaio?a
c?inoa?. Oeae oei ?icaeoeo aeaiiino?o? iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue
aio?iiii?i?a – aeanue 50 %; 2) aio?iiii?ie, ?ioa?an aei yeeo ca a?eii
aieaoiaaieo niaaea?; 3) ?iaia, iiaeyaee ia ye? a in?a 20-o oa 70-o ??.
ia?iaeaeaiiy ca?aathoueny, aea ia na?aaei?o a?eiaeo c??cao aiie:
a) ci?oeiththoue iiceoe??; a) ao?a/athoue i?eaaaeea?noue; 4) ?iaia, ui
a?aecia/athoueny noaa?euei?noth o noaaeaii? i?ioyaii on?o c??c?a. Oaea
??ciia?/ia ?ooeea?noue aio?iiii?i?/ieo neiiao?e aea? iiaeeea?noue
i?iaiicoaaoe iaaio iiioey?i?noue a?aeiia?aeieo ?iai o iaeaooiueiio.

Ie iaiaaaeeny anoaiiaeoe i?e/eie ia??aiii??iino? ?iciiae?eo aio?iiii?i?a
o in?a ??ciiai a?eo. A iaoeo iaoa??aeao aeii?ioth/ei e?eoa???i i?e
aeai?? ?iai? ye iaee?auiai ? o?aaeeoe?ei?noue, ia yeo iaaiei /eiii
aieeaa? ? iiaea. Iae/ano?oa iioeae iaeiaioaaiue iia’ycai? ?c
nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/ieie, eoeueoo?ieia?/ieie, anoaoe/ieie,
ineoieia?/ie-ie, ??aeoa – ?ae?a?eieie oaeoi?aie. Na?aae no/anieo
oiiaeiaaiue ?iaiaie-oaai?eoaie noaee ia?o ca ana noa?? eaeaiaea?i?
?iaia, iiioey?ecaoe?? yeeo ni?eythoue e?oa?aoo?ia oa onii-iiaooiaa
iioe?ai?noue, caeaoi?noue ooai?thaaoe eiei?eoi? eaae?oaoeai? oi?ie,
/a?ac oa iaeoethaeai?oeie noaee ?iaia aa?i?a a?aeiieo e?oa?aoo?ieo
oai??a, neaaaoieo ae?y/?a ?noi???, iaoee, ienoaoeoaa. Ia iaio
aaaeeeaith ?enith ?iai? ? eiai ieeicao/i?noue, eaae?noue o aeiia?,
iayai?noue ieaaieo caoe?a / i /, / e /, / i /, ui noai?ththoue eiei?eo
i’yeino?, i?aeiino?. Ca neiaaie “e?ana ?iai?” ia??aeei noi?oue ?
caoiieaiiy i?ea?iaeueieie aecioe/ieie iaeiaioaaiiyie.

Iinooiiai, ?c ciaioaiiyi a?eo ?ioi?iaio?a, ia?anoathoue iiaeiaaoeny
nioe?aeueii caaa?aeai? ?iaia, ia?aaeon?i oae?, ui iathoue yeonue
onoaeaio a?ae’?iio eiiioaoe?th: Eocueia (ii?. Eocueeeia iaoe), Neae??
(Neaei?iaa eica) oa ?i.; aeani? ?iaia c iai?eaaoaiei aiaeyoeaiei
cia/aiiyi oeio Ci?y, ?ne?a, Iaeeia, ui nei??oa iaaaaeothoue i??caenueea;
?iaia-?aaeyi?cie, oae caai? ?aaiethoe?ei?, iia?o? ia a?eueoiaeoeueeo
ao?eaooeeo; ?iaia c iaoeiiaeie aeey oe?a?inueei? iiae o?iaeueieie
caoeaie oeio AEaiiao, Eaoo?, Iaee? oa ?ioiiiai? caiice/aiiy, iiaaii
ocaiaeaeai? c ii?iaie no/anii? oe?a?inueei? iiae. Ia?aoeiaeith ia oeyoo
iioe?aiiy ?iai? ? ? eiai aeiaaeeia. I?eaaaeth? oaeiae aieea cao/aiiy
?iai?. A iaoeo iaoa??aeao aa?iii?y cao/aiiy ? cia/aiiy ?iai? aeiiiiaaa?
?i ooieoe?iioaaoe a?eueii e oe?iei.

Ca?? iaoa??ae?a, ui i?iaiaeeany aieaoiei oeyoii, aeicaiey? cai?iiiioaaoe
?aoaeueiee ?a?no? ? aeaoaeueiee aiae?c on?o iaio?oe?eieo oi?i ?iai, ui
o?aieeeny o nieneao oiiaeiaaiue in?a ??ciiai a?eo. Oae? oi?ie
noaiiaeyoue 30 % ?o caaaeueiiai ianyao. Iaeiioe?ai?o? ?iaia
ooai?ththoue ?iaii? ai?caea /e neiii?i?/i? ?yaee. Aaeeaaiiy ?iaiieo
aa??aio?a iiynith?oueny ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei aaaeaiiyi ?ioi?iaioa, eiai
niaeii. Aaeaea iaaeiaaeeiai /eiaei aieaoiaaieo ?c 10 ?iai, ye? ?i
iiaeiaathoueny iaea?eueoa, ia?aee ia io?oe?eio, a ciaioaio oi?io
iaeiaioaaiiy, yea ia i?inoi aeaco? ia iniao iaaii? noao?, a e aea? ?e
ioe?ieo, ooai?thth/e aeiaeaoeiaee a?aeo?iie “??aeiino?”, ianoeeaino?,
??aeoa – ciaaaae, ui aoiaeeoue aei ci?noiai? no?oeoo?e ?iaiieo
aa??aio?a. *a?ac oa, i/aaeaeii, a?aeaeath/e ia?aaaao iaei?e ?c oaeeo
oi?i, ?ioi?iaio ia? ia oaac? ia?o ca ana yeonue eiie?aoio iniao, cie?aia
aeeoeio. A iiaeeeai, i?inoi anoaoe/ii aeyaeeany aei aiiaeiae naia
ciaioaia, a ia io?oe?eia oi?ia ?iai?. *a?ac oa o caaaeueiiio /anoioiiio
nieneo ae?ii/i? i?aea?oie o?aieythoueny aeiaaeee, eiee nooi?iue
iiioey?iino? iaio?oe?eiiai iaeiaioaaiiy ia?aaeuo? ??aaiue aeoeaiino?
io?oe?eii? oi?ie. Cao?eniaaii oaeiae ? ?ica?aei?noue o aeeiai?oe? i?ae
iiaieie ?iaiaie oa ?o aa??aioaie. Oae, ao?a/athoue i?eaaaeea?noue ?iaia
?aai, Ieoaeei, Iaaei; Ia??y, Eaoa?eia, Enai?y, ?eecaaaoa, i?ioa ?o
iaio?oe?ei? a?aeiia?aeieee, iaaiaee, aeaiiino?othoue c?inoath/o
aeeiai?eo (Aaiy, Ieoa, Iaoa; Ia??/ea, Eaoy, Enthoa, E?ca).

Ca no?oeoo?ieie iniaeeainoyie on? cao?eniaai? iaie aa??aioe iiae?ey?ii
ia oae? a?oie: 1) iaio?oe?ei? oi?ie, ooai?ai? niiniaii on?/aiiy
(39,5 %); 2) ?iaii? aa??aioe, ooai?ai? noo?enaeueiei niiniaii (60,0 %);
3 ) iaeiaeeo?eiaai? oi?ie ?iai oa oiiaoe/i? aa??aioe (0,5 %).

A ooai?aii? on?/aieo oi?i aa?ooue o/aoue aoa?acen, neieiia e aiieiia.
I?ioa iaeiioe?ai?oei oeiii on?/aiiy a iaoeo iaoa??aeao ? aiieiia
(iiouaiiy e?ioeaai? /anoeie ?iai?). Iaeaaaaooei ?c on?o oei?a
?i’yoai?aiiy aeyaeeany noo?enaoe?y. Na?aae c?a?aieo iaie oiiaeiaaiue ca
?? aeiiiiiaith iiaoaeiaaii iiiaae 240 iio?aeieo. Aeey ooai?aiiy oaeeo
?iaiieo oi?i ?ioi?iaioe aeei?enoaee a?eueoa 30 ??ciiiai?oieo noo?en?a.
Aeey oai?aiiy eaae?oaoea?a aeei?enoiaoaaeeny o?e oeie iniia: iiaiiai,
on?/aiiai oa aeai?iooeaiiai ?iai?. Eiia?iaoe?y oeeo oei?a iniia ?c
aaeeeith e?euee?noth noo?en?a ioe?iee aea? aaaaoi neiaioa??ieo oei?a oa
iiaeaeae, ca yeeie cae?enith?oueny i?ioean ?i’yoai?aiiy a no/anieo
aio?iiii?i?/ieo neiiao?yo.

Iaeaeoeai?oeie aeey oai?aiiy ?iaiieo aa??aio?a aeyaeeeny noo?ene -e-,
-ee- (-/ee-), -o-, -oo- (-tho-), -ao- (-yo-); iai?iaeoeoeaieie – -ii-,
-o?- (-th?-), -ie-, -?y-, -?oe-, -?o- oa iaei?aoeai? noo?ene -tho-,
-ia-.

C?a?ai? iaie iaio?oe?ei? iaeiaioaaiiy yaeythoue niaith oe?eaao ?
nai???aeio a?oio. Aaeaea /eiaei c ieo, i?ieoiaoe o?eaaeo ai?iaaoe?th a
e?oa?aoo?? oa iiaooiaiio iiaeaii?, ciiaee iaea?aeaoe io?oe?eiee noaoon,
/eiaei c ieo ua /aeathoue ia io?oe?eia aeciaiiy. Oe?eeii iiaeeeai, ui
/a?ac aenieo caoe?eaaeai?noue o no/anieo oiiaeiaaiiyo on?/aieie oa
aeai?iooeaieie iaeiaioaaiiyie a iaeaooiueiio ?i’yia?a/aii? iaaoaaoeiooue
iaaii? iiioey?iino? ? a?aeiia?aei? ?i iiai? ?iaia.

?icaeyioaoe cia/aiiy oa no?oeoo?o ?iaiieo aa??aio?a, ie iii?oeee oaeoi?,
ui cana?ae/o? nenoaiio i?aai?caoe?th aio?iiii?i?/iiai i?inoi?o no/anii?
oe?a?inueei? iiae oa iaeii??aei?noue oe??? i?aai?caoe?? ia eaene/iiio ?
neiaioa??iiio ??ai?.

?icaeyaeath/e a?aenoaiue i?ae no/anieie oiiaeiaaiiyie oa ea?oeiith
?aaeueiiai ?i’yia?a/aiiy i?ioyaii OO no., ie iaiaaaeeny c’ynoaaoe, yeee
ca’ycie ? yea ?ica?aei?noue ?niothoue o iiaeyaeao ia ?iaia. Cae/aeii,
ethaee, ye? aeaaaee ?iaia iiaiia?iaeaeaiei ia eiaeiiio o?iiieia?/iiio
c??c?, ? ethaee, ye? oe? ?iaia iaea?aeoaaee, — oi ??ci? ethaee. ?
c’yniao?oueny, ui i?ae /anoioiei ?iciiae?eii ?aaeueiiai ?iaiieea
eiaeiiai c??co ? no/anieie aio?iiii?i?/ieie neiiao?yie iin??a oeueiai
?iaiieea ?nio? iii?oia ??cieoey, oi/ ?nio? aiaeii/an ? aacia?a/iee
ca’ycie. ?ica?aei?noue niinoa??aa?oueny ? a e?euee?niiio, ? a ye?niiio
a?aeiioaiiyo.

I?e ii??aiyii? ?aaeueieo iniaiaeo ?iai Iaeane ?c neiiao?yie iaoeo
?ioi?iaio?a aeae?eaii oae? a?oie aio?iiii?i?a: 1) ni?euei? ?iaia,
cao?eniaai? a oiiaeiaaiiyo oa ?aaeueiiio ?iaiieeo: /ie. – 37,1 %; ae?i.
– 34,3 %; 2) ?iaia, i?enooi? eeoa a oiiaeiaaiiyo: /ie. – 31,1 %; ae?i. –
46,1 %; 3) ?iaia, iayai? o?eueee a ?aaeueiiio ia?a/aii?: /ie. – 10,2 %;
ae?i. – 10,8 %; 4) aio?iiii?ie, cao?eniaai? a ?aaeueiiio ?iaiieeo a
ia??iae, ui ia?aaeo? o?iiieia?/iei iaaeai iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy (oiaoi
aei 20-o ??. OO no.): a) a?aenooi? a iaoeo iaoa??aeao: /ie. – 11,8 %;
ae?i. – 5,3 %; a) ca?a?no?iaai? a no/anieo oiiaeiaaiiyo: /ie. – 9,7 %;
ae?i. – 3,5 %. Eiaeia c oeeo a?oi oa?aeoa?eco?oueny niaoeeo?/ieie
iniaeeainoyie, iana iaaia ooieoe?iiaeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy ? a cia/i?e i???
aea? ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i iaeaooi?e oaeeoie ?iai.

Oae, eia?/ii i/?eoaaoe, ui aio?iiii?ie, ni?euei? aeey ?aaeueiiai
?i’yia?a/aiiy (??) oa no/anieo oiiaeiaaiue (NO), aoaeooue
oa?aeoa?ecoaaoeny aenieith (oa a?aeiinii aenieith) /anoioi?noth e aeae?.
Aei neeaaeo oe??? a?oie, aieiaiei /eiii, oa?eoee caaaeueiia?aeii? noa??
eaeaiaea?i? ?iaia, ui c’yaeeeny ?c cai?iaaaeaeaiiyi o?enoeyinoaa ?,
i?ieoiaoe aeiaaee ?noi?e/iee oeyo, aeo?eiaaoe eiieo?aioe?th iiaeo
aio?iiii?i?a, ia ao?aoeee ?aiooaoe?? iiioey?ieo, ianeoaiaoth/e ia ??cieo
??aiyo ?ioa?ane ye ??, oae ? NO. Ianoaaeaiiy a?oie ?iai, i?eoaiaiieo
o?eueee ??, aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe ?o ?a?eoaoia aaeeaaiiy, a iiaeeeai,
ui oae? aio?iiii?ie, a?oa?coth/enue, acaaae? ia aoaeooue ei?enooaaoeny
iiieoii aeey ia?a/aiiy o iaeaooiueiio. Neeaae oe??? a?oie
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth noa?eo oea?eiaieo ?iai, ye? aeeoee ?c
oaeeoeo, iaeiaioaaiue ?c ae?acii ?ioiiiaiei caaa?aeaiiyi, ui ia
a?aeiia?aeathoue oiiaoe/i?e ? a?aiaoe/i?e aoaeia? iaoi? iiae, oa
“?aaiethoe?eieo” ?iai, ui i?oee a ?noi??th ?acii c aiioith.

Iniaeeai? oaaae caneoaiao? ?aia?ooa? ?iai, ye? cono??/aeeny a ?iaiieeo
Iaeane o?eueee aei 20-o ??., caoa o?eno?oueny na?aae NO. An? aiie –
noa?? eaeaiaea?i? iaeiaioaaiiy, i?enooi?noue yeeo na?ae/eoue i?i
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aeaaiueiai aio?iiii?i?/iiai oiiaeo, /iio ni?eythoue
n?iaei? o?aaeeoe?? oa e?oa?aoo?ia iioe?ai?noue.

I?ioa aaaaea?ii, ui iaeoe?eaa?oith ? a?oia ?iai, i?eoaiaiieo eeoa NO.
Aaeaea oe?eeii iiaeeeai, ui /eiaei c ieo cono??/aoeiooueny iaeaeeae/ei
/anii ? a ?aaeueiiio ?iaiieeo. I?aaenoaaieee ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oi
iai?ee?ioe? OO no. i?iiiiothoue aeineoue oe?eaaee ?aia?ooa? ?iai.
A?eueo?noue ?c ieo o iaoeo iaoa??aeao ia a?aecia/a?oueny aenieith
aeoeai?noth aaeeaaiiy, a caeia? i?noey ia ia?eoa???. Ca nai?i neeaaeii
oey a?oia ?iai aeyaeeany ??ciiiai?oiith, i?noy/e noa?? eaeaiaea?i?
iaeiaioaaiiy, ye? a iao /an iaeaea i?eiio ia iaa’ycothoueny; ieeicao/i?
neia’yinuee? aaoiooii?ie, a?ae yeeo aeineoue a?ae/ooiee a ??, oa
?iaia-iaieia?cie. sse?niee oa e?euee?niee aiae?c aeaii? a?oie
cana?ae/ea aeinoaoiuei aei?aaaeaia aaaeaiiy no/aniee?a ?icoe?eoe,
iiiaeoe ?iaiiee oe?a?ioe?a.

O AENIIAEAO ocaaaeueith?oueny iaoa??ae, aeeeaaeaiee o aeena?oaoe??.

1. Aea/aiiy no/anieo aio?iiii?i?/ieo neiiao?e in?a ??ciiai a?eo, ui
??oioo?oueny ia iaoa??aeao aieao, aeicaieeei aeyaeoe ?yae
aio?iiii?i?/ieo caeiiii??iinoae ? iniaeeainoae. Iniaia? ?iaia
oe?a?ioe?a neeaaeathoue no?eeee, iaoe?iiaeueii naiiaooi?e oiiae
iaeeieoeue.

2. I?e ioe?ioe? ?iai? ye iaee?auiai ?ioi?iaioe ea?othoueny aeaiia
iniiaieie oaeoi?aie: nioe?aeueiei ? ineoieia?/iei, aea a?aoiao?oueny ?
nooi iiaiee a?e. Iaoiae aieaooaaiiy aeicaieea iaea?aeaoe /eiaei
aeiaeaoeiaeo a?aeiiinoae i?i ?iaia, aeiiiiaaath/e ae?ciaoeny, ui i?i ieo
aeoiathoue ethaee.

3. C?a?ai? iaie /ieia?/? ?iaia yaeythoue niaith /eneaiiee eiiieaen, ui
i?noeoue io?oe?ei? oa iaio?oe?ei? oi?ie aeio?enoeyinueeeo,
o?enoeyinueeeo oa iiaeo iaeiaioaaiue. A?eueo?noue ?c ieo o iaoa??aeao
eiaeiiai a?eiaiai c??co aeaiiino?o? ??ciee nooi?iue aeoeaiino?. I??a
i?eaaaeeaino? eiaeiiai ?iai? aecia/a?oueny ia?o ca ana o?aaeeoe?ei?noth,
iiaooiaith oa e?oa?aoo?iith iioe?ai?noth.

4. AE?ii/ee ?aia?ooa? aeyaeany ia’?ii?oei ca e?euee?noth ?
??ciiiai?oi?oei ca neeaaeii, i?ae /ieia?/ee. Cia/ii aeaaa?oith
aeyaeeany ? eiai aeeiai?ea. sse ? a /ieia?/eo oiiaeiaaiiyo, o ae?ii/iio
oiiae? iiiaeaiiy neiiao?e eiaeiiai c??co a?aeaoaa?oueny, a iniiaiiio, ca
?aooiie ia?eoa??eii? /anoeie ?iai, ae?ii/ee oiiae aeyaeany a?eueo
i?iieeiei aeey iiaeo iaeeieoeue, a caaaeii, ye ? /ieia?/ee, i?noeoue
??ciiaa?ai? ?iaia: aeaai? eaeaiaea?i?, iia? oa ae?acii ?ioiiiai?.
No/ani? aio?iiii?i?/i? niaee aeineoue iiaeaaeeea? aei i?ea?iaeueieo,
??aee?nieo ae?ii/eo ?iai, oiae? ye iaee?au? /ieia?/? iaeiaioaaiiy
iae?athoueny c-iii?ae o?aaeeoe?eieo, caeaaia a?aeiieo.

5. ?c ciaioaiiyi a?eo ?ioi?iaio?a neeaae neiiao?e aeoeaii ci?ith?oueny:
iaei? ?iaia iinooiiai aeo?niythoue ?io?; i?noey a?oa?ciaaieo caeiathoue
iia? iaeiaioaaiiy. Iniaeeai ae?acii iii?oia ?ica?aei?noue o niaeao in?a
iioeeiai a?eo oa iieiae?. I/aaeaeii, ia oi?ioaaiiy aio?iiii?i?/ieo
niae?a in?a iieiaeoiai iieie?iiy cia/ii a?eueoith i??ith aieeioea
aeaiie?aoecaoe?y o aeai?? ?iai. Oea aeyaey?oueny o ?o caoiieaii? iiaeie
?iaiaie, iae/ano?oa – ae?acii ?ioiiiaieie. A?aeiiaeththoueny o
neiiao?yo iieiae? e aeaaiuei?onuee? iaeiaioaaiiy. Iniae ae iioeeiai
a?eo, iaaiaee, a?aenoithth/e noa?iaeio, a?aeaeathoue ia?aaaao noa?ei
eaeaiaea?iei ?iaiai.

6. Iioeae aeai?o ?iai? ye iaee?auiai a iaoeo iaoa??aeao aeyaeeeny
??cieie. Aeaeaei ia any ?ioi?iaoe?y, ui oa?oueny a ?iai?, aieeaa? ia
i?eoeeuei?noue aei iueiai, ai aeaeaei ia any oey ?ioi?iaoe?y ?iai?
i?enooiia aeey aieaoiaaieo. Aieiaiith i?e/eiith, ui aieeaa? ia nooi?iue
iiioey?iino? iaeoaeeaai?oeo ?iai, ? o?aaeeoe?y, ia yeo iaaiei /eiii
aieeaa? ? iiaea. Niaae iiioey?iino? ?iai? iiaea aooe aeeeeeaiee ? eiai
iaaaoeaieie eiiioaoe?yie. Ia nooi?iue i?eaaaeeaino? ?iai? aieeaa? e
oiiineiaie?ea, oiiaoe/ia oi?ia aio?iiii?ia.

7. Aeniea caoe?eaaeai?noue ?iaiieie aa??aioaie, a yeeo a?aeia?aaea?oueny
iiaia niaoeeo?ea inieneaiiy ?iai, aieeaa? ? ia nooi?iue iiioey?iino?
a?aeiia?aeieo ?i iiaieo iaeiaioaaiue. ?ioi?iaioe aeei?enoiaothoue
eiei?eoi? ?iaii? oi?ie, ui aeicaiey? ni?eeiaoe ?i’y a?eueo
ia?niiae?ciaaii. Ooai?aiiy iio?aeieo ciaioaieo iniaiaeo ?iai o iaoeo
iaoa??aeao nenoaiaoeciaaia ? ?aaeaiaioiaaia iiaiith eia?eith. Oea
na?ae/eoue i?i no?oieo i?aai?caoe?th aio?iiii?i?/iiai i?inoi?o no/anii?
oe?a?inueei? iiae.

8. Ii??aithth/e no/ani? aio?iiii?i?/i? niaee c ?aaeueiei ?i’yaaeeoeii
i?ioyaii OO no., ie iii?oeee aeineoue ae?acio a?aei?ii?noue, ui ?nio?
i?ae ieie. I?ioa ? i?ae ieie ? iaaiee ca’ycie. Oaea ii??aiyiiy ? naia
aea/aiiy aio?iiii?i?? oeyoii aiae?co no/anieo oiiaeiaaiue ia?
i?iaiinoe/io neeo ? aea? oyaeaiiy i?i aaeeoie ?icaeyiooeo ?iai o
iaeaooiueiio.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe?? AEEEAAeAI? A OAEEO IOAE?EAOe?ssO:

1. Oethaeai? /ieia?/? ?iaia iaoeaioe?a Iaeanueei? iaeano? //
Iiaiciaanoai. – 1998. — ? 4-5. – N.8-21.

2. Oethaeai? ae?ii/? ?iaia iaoeaioe?a Iaeanueei? iaeano? // Ui??/i?
caienee c oe?a?inueeiai iiaiciaanoaa: 3a. iaoe. i?aoeue / Iaeanueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao. – Iaeana, 1998. – Aei.5. – N.58-63.

3. Aa??aioe ?iai o eie? no/anieo oiiaeiaaiue iaoeaioe?a Iaeanueei?
iaeano? // Caienee c iiiianoeee: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue / Iaeanueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao. – Iaeana: Ano?ii?eio, 1999. – Aei.1. – N.29-36.

4. No/ani? aio?iiii?i?/i? oiiaeiaaiiy oe?a?ioe?a Iaeaueie oa ?aaeueia
?i’yia?a/aiiy i?ioyaii OO no. (ae?ii/? ?iaia) // Caienee c oe?a?inueeiai
iiaiciaanoaa: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue / Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao. –
Iaeana: Ano?ii?eio, 1999. – Aei. 7. – N.89-94.

5. Iniaia? ?iaia iaoeaioe?a Iaeanueei? iaeano? // ??aeia iiaa – caii?oea
aacnia?oy iaoe??: Ca. noaoae / Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? (Iaeana, 20-23 aeiaoiy, 1998 ?.) – E.:
Eieaeeiaa iaeaoa Oe?a?ie, 1999. – N.180-186.

AIIOAOe??

A?ae/aiei N.E. Aio?iiii?i?/i? oiiaeiaaiiy iaoeaioe?a Iaeanueei? iaeano?
Oe?a?ie: e?iaa?noe/iee aiae?c. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.01 – oe?a?inueea iiaa. – Iaeanueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeana, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iiio aea/aiith iniaiaeo ?iai.
Cae?eniaii iiaee i?aeo?ae aei aiae?co aio?iiii?i?a: iniaia? ?iaia
?icaeyaeathoueny e??cue i?ecio oiiaeiaaiue o ?o a?eia?e aeeiai?oe? ca
o?noueia o?iiieia?/ieie c??caie; iiaea?oueny ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea
no/anieo iiaeyae?a ia ?iaia oa ?aaeueiiai ?i’yia?a/aiiy i?ioyaii OO no.
Aea/aiiy no/anieo aio?iiii?i?/ieo neiiao?e aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe
iaeaooith aeeiai?eo iniaiaeo ?iai. I?iiiio?oueny oaeiae ?a?no? ? aiae?c
no?oeoo?e iaio?oe?eieo oi?i ?iai.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iniaia? ?iaia, aio?iiii?i?/i? oiiaeiaaiiy,
nioe?ie?iaa?noe/ia aea/aiiy, iaio?oe?ei? oi?ie ?iai, i?iaiicoaaiiy,
iaeaooiy aeeiai?ea iniaiaeo ?iai.

A?ae/aiei N.E. Aio?iiiieie/aneea i?aaeii/oaiey aeeoaeae Iaeanneie
iaeanoe Oe?aeiu: eeiaaenoe/aneee aiaeec. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.01 – oe?aeineee ycue. – Iaeanneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. E.E. Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeanna, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eeiaaenoe/aneie eioa?i?aoaoeee iaeiiai ec
iniiaiuo eeannia aio?iiiieiia – ee/iuo eiai, ooieoeeiie?othueo a
?acaiai?iie ?a/e oe?aeioeaa Iaeanneie iaeanoe. Aacie aeey aiaeeca
iineoaeeee 5000 aieao, nia?aiiuo ii niaoeeaeueiie i?ia?aiia nooaeaioaie
ioaeaeaiey oe?aeineiai ycuea e eeoa?aoo?u oeeieiae/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa
IAO a 1993 – 1996 aa.

Aio?iiiieiu eco/athony n nioeeieeiaaenoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey:
aiaeece?othony ia ?aaeueii oiio?aaeyaiua eiaia, a i?aayueany ethaeyi e
noauaeoeaii ioeaieaaaiua eae naiua eo/oea. Yoi – iiaue iiaeoiae e
eco/aieth nia?aiaiiuo i?aaeii/oaiee. Aeaaony nioeei-e
ineoieeiaaenoe/aneee aiaeec oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia ioiioaiea e eiaiai
oe?aeioeaa ?aciiai aic?anoa ia enoiaea OO aaea.

A caaeneiinoe io aiaea ?iaeaeaiey aieaoe?iaaiiuo, ana eiaia ?acaeaeaiu
ii oanoe o?iiieiae/aneei n?acai, ii eaaeaeiio ec eioi?uo ninoaaeaiu
/anoioiua nienee ioaeneeo e aeaineeo eiai. Aiaeec /anoioiinoe
aio?iiiieiia iicaieee onoaiiaeoue iauaa e ?acee/iia ai acaeyaeao ia
eiaia eioi?iaioia ?aciiai aic?anoa, auyaeoue niaoeeoeeo ?aia?ooa?a
i?aaeii/oaiee eaaeaeiai aic?anoiiai n?aca.

Eae a ioaeneie, oae e a aeaineie iiaenenoaia neiiaoee auaeaeyaony
iaaieueoay a?oiia eiai-oaai?eoia, eioi?ay ianeoaeeaaao aieueoa o?aoe
eioa?ania aieaoe?iaaiiuo, ia auoiaey ec /enea naiuo i?eaeaeaoaeueiuo ia
i?ioyaeaiee anao oanoe o?iiieiae/aneeo n?acia. Aeeiaieea aea inoaeueiuo
aio?iiiieiia cia/eoaeueii iiaeaeaeiaa, /oi iniaaiii iuooeii n?aaee
aeaineeo eiai. N oiaiueoaieai aic?anoa eioi?iaioia acaeyaeu ia
aieueoeinoai eiai aeoeaii eciaiythony. I?e yoii auyniythony nouiinoue,
ianooaau, iai?aaeaiey, oa?aeoa? oaeeo eciaiaiee. I?aiaeaaeathuaa
eiee/anoai aio?iiiieiia iieacuaaao i?ia?anne?othuoth aeeiaieeo – yoi
niaea?aeaoaeueiua aeaaicao/iua eaeaiaea?iua iaeiaiiaaiey, neaayineea
aaoiooiieiu e eiaia-iiaaoeee, iniaaiii yaiua caeinoaiaaiey.

A aeenna?oaoeee aiaeece?othony ia oieueei naiinoiyoaeueiua eiaia, ii e
eo iaioeoeeaeueiua oi?iu – ?acaiai?iua e oiaiueoeoaeueiua aa?eaiou.
Cia/eoaeueiiio eiee/anoao eioi?iaioia i?aayony eiaiii oaeea ?acaiai?iua
eee eaneaoaeueiua, a ia ioeoeeaeueiua ( iieiua ) oi?iu eiai. Eco/aaony
eo cia/aiea e no?oeoo?a; ioia/athony eo ooieoeee a nioeeieoeueoo?iii
aniaeoa.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a ?aaeueiii oaeoe/aneii aini?eyoee iineoaeae ycuea
ee/iuo eiai anoue cia/eoaeueii aieueoa, /ai yoi canaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaii
neiaa?yie, iineieueeo nouanoaoao iaiaei oi?i aaiaoe/anee
oiaeaeanoaaiiiai eiaie, aini?eieiathueony oaea eae ?aciua eiaia.

I?aaeeaaaaony n?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea nia?aiaiiuo
aio?iiiieie/aneeo aeonia e ?aaeueiiai eiyia?a/aiey ia i?ioyaeaiee OO
aaea. Aeey n?aaiaiey eniieuecothony eiaiieee a. Iaeannu, Iaeanneie
iaeanoe e aeeaeaeoeo ?aaeiiia. A ?acoeueoaoa niiinoaaeaiey auyaeaia
ianiiiaiiay naycue, ii iaeiia?aiaiii e nouanoaaiiua ioee/ey. Eco/aiea
aio?iiiieie/aneeo i?aaeii/oaiee ioe?uaaao ia?aae iaie ia oieueei
aio?iiiieie/aneia i?ioeia e aio?iiiieie/aneia ianoiyuaa, ii e
aio?iiiieie/aneia aoaeouaa: eca?aiiue iooue enneaaeiaaiey iicaieyao
?aaeueii e aeinoaoi/ii eiie?aoii i?iaiice?iaaoue aoaeouoth aeeiaieeo
eaaeaeiai ee/iiai eiaie. Enneaaeiaaiea nia?aiaiiuo aio?iiiieie/aneeo
neiiaoee iicaieyao auyaeoue nioeeaeueioth aaniiinoue eiai, eo ?ieue a
iaaaauaiee iaoeeiiaeueiiai aio?iiiieie/aneiai oiiaea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ee/iua eiaia, aio?iiiieie/aneea i?aaeii/oaiey,
nioeeieeiaaenoe/aneia eco/aiea, iaioeoeeaeueiua oi?iu eiai,
i?iaiice?iaaiea, aoaeouay aeeiaieea eiai.

Braychenko S.L. Anthroponymic preferences of Odesa region Inhabitants
(Ukraine): linguistic analysis. – Manuscript.

Candidate degree thesis in philology 10.02.01 – the Ukrainian language.
– Odesa Mechnikov State University, Odesa, 1999.

The present thesis is dedicated to socio-linguistic studies of proper
names. A new approach to the analysis of anthroponyms was introduced:
personal names are considered from the viewpoint of their preferences in
age dynamics according to six chronological sections; comparative
charanteristics of modern viaws on names and real process of name giving
within the XX th century is presented. Investigation of modern
anthroponymic preferences allows to forecast the future dynamics of
personal names. Besides the inventory and structural analysis of
non — official name forms fixed in Odesa region are offered.

Key words: personal names, anthroponymic preferences, socio — linguistic
studies, non — official name forms, forecast, future dynamics of
personal names.

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