Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

AeAIENEE A?EAI??E ?AAIIAE*

OAeE 911.2:551

AIO?IIIAAII? EAIAeOAOOE I?AAIAAA?AAEII? OE?A?IE:

?noi?eei-aaia?ao?/iee aiae?c, ?aa?iiaeuei? no?oeoo?e, iioei?caoe?y

11.00.11 — eiio?oeoeaia aaia?ao?y oa

?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o A?iieoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Ieoaeea Eioethaeinueeiai, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oeuaiei Iao?i
A?eai?iae/, Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, aeaeai
aaia?ao?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Iauaiei
Aieiaeeie? Ieoaeeiae/, ?inoeooo aaia?ao?? IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaein Aieiaeeie? THoeiiae/,
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?eth

Aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Noaiaiaiei Aiaoie?e Aaneeueiae/,
?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?ee?
Ia/ieeiaa, aaieiai-aaia?ao?/iee oaeoeueoao, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie,
i.Iaeana.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 23 /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 14.00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.07 i?e Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252022, i.Ee?a-22,
aoe.Aaneeuee?anueea, 90, aoae.212.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252017, i.Ee?a,
aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 22 o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
?uoe N.?.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie. A/aiiy i?i aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe —
iaeei c iaeaieueo aeeneonieieo i i?iaeaiieo ?icaeieia o?aaeeoeieiiai
eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa eiioey XX noieiooy. Oea iiynith?oueny ye iieiaeinoth
naiiai a/aiiy (ioi?ieeiny ia ii/aoeo 70-o ?ieia XX no.), oae i
iaaeinoaoiueith ?ic?iaeith eiai oai?aoe/ieo iniia, aiaenooiinoth
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ocaaaeueithth/eo i ?aaiiiaeueieo i?aoeue.

No/ania caaaeueia aio?iiioeaio?e/ia ia?ai?i?ioaoeiy
naioiaeyaeo, oa?aeoa?ia i aeey i?aaenoaaieeia i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe, ni?ey?
?icaeoeo aeineiaeaeaiue ?acoeueoaoia aieeao ethaenueei? aeiyeueiinoi ia
aeiaeieey, cie?aia iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy i ooieoeiiioaaiiy
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia. Ca inoaiii o?e aeanyoe?i//y ?ic?iaeaii iniiae
oai?i? caaaeueiiai aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa1 (O.I. Iieueeia,
1973); ?aaiiiaeueia aio?iiiaaiia eaiaeoaooiciaanoai ciaoiaeeoueny ia
noaaei? aeoeaieo iaoeiaeo iiooeia. O iai?yieo ?icaeoeo ?aaiiiaeueiiai
aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa aaoi?ii i?ioyaii 1976-1984 ?ieia
aeineiaeaeoaaeenue ?aaiiiaeueii iniaeeainoi oi?ioaaiiy i ooieoeiiioaaiiy
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia Iiaeieey, a c 1985 ii 1997 ?iee —
I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie.

I?aaiaa?aaeia Oe?a?ia — oiieaeueiee iiaeaeueiee ?aaiii aeey
aea/aiiy aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia. Oea iaiaeii?aciai aiaeii/aii a
i?aoeyo O.I.Iieueeiaa (1973; 1986), E.i.Ai?iiae (1975; 1982),
E.i.Aa?ai/oea (1978) oa ii. Aeaeiaooie ei?enieo eiiaeei ooo ?icii/aany a
iaeaieioi (40 — 35 oen. ?ieia oiio); aieueoa naie oeny/ ?ieia oiio
noi?ioaaeanue ia?oa a Oeaio?aeueiie i Noiaeiie ?a?iii iaieioe/ia
caiea?ianueea Aoai-Aeiino?ianueea eoeueoo?a; i?ioyaii inoaiiueiai
oeny/ieiooy iaeaea iiaiinoth cieuaii einiai oa inai?ii aiaeii ?ano?ne.

Iai?eeiioei XX no. aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe caeiathoue 92-95
aiaenioeia oa?eoi?i? I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. ?o aeineiaeaeaiiy i?ioyaii
aeaio inoaiiio aeanyoe?i/ /anoeiai aenaioeththoue inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/ii
iniaeeainoi aio?iiiaaiicaoei? iaoo?aeueieo, oi?ioaaiiy oa no?oeoo?o
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia ?aaiiio. Aeaoaeueiioa ?icaeyiooi eeoa ie?aii
iiaeeeane — nieuenueei naeeoaaii (E.i.Ai?iiae, I.I.Eoieoey, 1982),
ai?ie/ii?iieneiai (A.i.Aeaienee, 1984), nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei
(O.I.Einaoeueeee, 1994). Aeieeea iaiaoiaeiinoue o oi?ioethaaiii oai?i?
oa iiaeaioiaoei ocaaaeueithth/i? i?aoei c eiiieaenieo aeineiaeaeaiue
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aeey ae?ioaiiy
i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue, iia’ycaieo c ?o iioeiicaoei?th oa ?aoeiiiaeueiei
aeei?enoaiiyi.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.
Aeena?oaoeiy aeeiioaaeanue o ?aieao eiiieaenii? iaoeiai? i?ia?aie
Aiiieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaiai/iiai oiiaa?neoaoo «Ioi?iia
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua i caei?ia’y ethaeeie». Ie?aii iieiaeaiiy
noi?ioeueiaaii o ca’yceo c o/anoth aaoi?a o iaoeiaeo i?ia?aiao i oaiao,
yei ?ic?iaeyeenue o Aiiieoeueeiio, Oiaeueieoeueeiio i Oa?iiiieuenueeiio
iaeanieo oi?aaeiiiyo ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Iaoa i caaaeaiiy ?iaioe. Aieiaia iaoa — ia iniiai
inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/iiai aiaeico ?ice?eoe nooue ?aaiiiaeueieo i ciiaeueieo
iniaeeainoae no?oeoo?e aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie,
aca?iica’ycee iiae ieie oa iai?yiee iioeiicaoei?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe iinoaaeaii i ae?ioaii oaei caaaeaiiy:
i?iaiaeicoaaoe ?icaeoie iaeae oa i?aeoe/ieo aeinyaiaiue o noa?i
eiiieaenieo i?e?iaeie/eo aeineiaeaeaiue oa?eoi?i? I?aaiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie, oi?ioaaiiy ia ?o iniiai a/aiiy i?i aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe;
aeineiaeeoe inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/iee i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie, ?o no/aniee noai oa ?ene no?oeoo?e;
i?iaiaeicoaaoe ia?aaeeiaii/ii oa ia?aaaiaoe/ii aca?iica’ycee iiae
aio?iiiaaiieie eaiaeoaooaie; aeineiaeeoe ciiaeueii iniaeeainoi ?o
ooieoeiiioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo; ?ice?eoe nooue ?aaiiiaeueieo no?oeoo?
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia i i?iaanoe ?o ?aeiioaaiiy; i?iaiaeicoaaoe
?icaeoie oa ciino iioeiicaoei? aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie.

Ia’?eo oa i?aaeiao aeineiaeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeineiaeaeaiy ? aio?iiiaaiii
eaiaeoaooe I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie, a no?oeoo?io i?aaiicaoeith yeeo
aoiaeyoue: aeania aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe, eaiaeoaooii-iiaeaia?ii oa
eaiaeoaooii-oaoiiaaiii nenoaie. I?aaeiaoii aeineiaeaeaiiy ?
inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/iee aiaeic aio?iiiaaiicaoei? iaoo?aeueieo i oi?ioaaiiy
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie, ?o no/anii
aeanoeainoi.

Iaoiaeieiaiy oa iaoiaee aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoiaeieiai/iith iniiaith ?iaioe
? iaea? oa iieiaeaiiy no/anii? aaia?aoi? i?i iioeiicaoeith aca?iiaei?
ethaeeie i i?e?iaee, yei ?ic?iaeee oe?a?inueei oa ca?oaiaeii aaia?aoe,
oaoiaoei c eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa i aeieiai?. Iaeaieueoee aieea ia
noaiiaeaiiy iaoeiaeo iiceoeie aaoi?a ni?aaeee iaea?, aeneiaeaii a
i?aoeyo E.i.Ai?iiae, I.Ae.A?iaeceinueeiai, A.N.AEaeoeiia,
ss.i.AEoiainueeiai, O.Ae.Canoaaiiai, A.A.ina/aiea, I.I.Ia?eie/a,
O.I.Iieueeiaa, A.TH.Iaeina, ?.Ia?oa, A.I.Iieiea?aa, A.I.Iauaiea,
I.Ae.Iinooia, A.A.Noaiaiaiea, Ae.Oi??anoa?a, A.Oaaca, Ae.Oa?aay,
I.i.Oaaeiy, A.i.Oaaana, I.A.Oeuaiea.

Iaoiaeieiaiy aeineiaeaeaiue aeeth/aea inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/iee aiaeic,
no/anii oyaeaiiy i?i ?icaeoie eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia, aiinaieiai/ii
iniiae ii?iaiyeueii-aaia?aoi/iiai, ii?iaiyeueii-inoi?e/iiai i
aaiaoeei-aaiethoeieiiai iaoiaeia i iiaeoiaeia aea/aiiy eaiaeoaooia. I?e
oeueiio aeei?enoaii eiiieaen o?aaeeoeieieo iieueiaeo, ii?oieiai/ieo,
aenia?eiaioaeueieo, aiaeioe/ieo, iaoaiaoe/ieo oa niaoeeoi/ieo —
inoi?eei-a?oaieiai/ieo, inoi?eei-aaiaoe/ieo ?yaeia ea?oia?aooaaiiy,
iaoo?aeueieo aiaeiaia oa iioeo iaoiaeia aeineiaeaeaiue.

iioi?iaoeieia aaca aeineiaeaeaiue aoea noi?iiaaia ia iniiai iaoa?iaeia
a?oiaia iino Ee?aa, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa, Iineae, iaeanieo oeaio?ia
I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie, aeaieo noaoenoe/ieo ui?i/ieeia Oe?a?ie,
iaoa?iaeia aiaeii/eo i?aaiicaoeie i eiiioaoia, a oaeiae
aeaaaeoeyoe?i/ieo (1977-1997) iieueiaeo aeineiaeaeaiue aaoi?a. Iiae /an
i?iaaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiue oa iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoaoia ei?enii ii?aaee
aoee iaaeaii aeieoi?ii aaia?aoi/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?ii, caneoaeaiei
aeiy/ai iaoee ?ini? O.I.Iieueeiaei (Ai?iiacueeee oiiaa?neoao).

Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy, ui caoeuathoueny.

1. Aio?iiiaaiia eaiaeoaooiciaanoai a Oe?a?ii ca?iaeeeiny a i?ioeani
eiiieaenieo aeineiaeaeaiue aca?iiaei? i?e?iaee i noniieuenoaa oa
ioi?ieeinue ia iniiai oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie A.A. Aeieo/a?aa, I.A.
Oooeianueeiai, N.E. ?oaeieoeueeiai, O.I. Iieueeiaa. A eiai no?oeoo?i
aeoeaii ?icaeaa?oueny ?icaeie ?aaiiiaeueiiai aio?iiiaaiiiai
eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa, ui aeeth/a? a naaa: aecia/aiiy ?aeiiia
niiaaiaeiioaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo i iaoo?aeueieo eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia,
inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/iee aiaeic no/anii? no?oeoo?e aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia oa ?o ?aeiioaaiiy.

2. Ooieoeiiioaaiiy oa iniaeeainoi no?oeoo?e eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie a no/anieo oiiaao, e?ii iaoo?aeueieo eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia,
aecia/athoue ainii eeania aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia: naeeoaaii,
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei, einiai, aiaeii, i?iieneiai, aei?iaeii,
?ae?aaoeieii oa aaeiaa?aoeaii.

3. ?aaiiiaeueii no?oeoo?e aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia aeioeieueii
aeaeieyoe ca oa?aeoa?ieie iciaeaie iaoo?aeueieo eaiaeoaooia i
nioeiaeueii-inoi?e/ieie (o?aaeeoei?, nenoaie caiea?ianoaa, ?iaaiue
?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e oiui) oiiaaie, ui ciaoiaeyoue nai? aiaeia?aaeaiiy o
i?inoi?iai-/aniaiio ii?aeiaiii eeania i iiaeeeania aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia. ?aaiiiaeueii no?oeoo?e ? iniiaith
i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueeiai ?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi?i? I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie.

4. A ?acoeueoaoi aaaaoiaieiaiai i ?iciiai/iiai aieeao ainiiaea?nueei?
aeiyeueiinoi ethaeeie ia i?e?iaeo cii I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie o ?o iaaeao
noi?ioaaeenue aio?iiiaaii eaiaeoaooe ciiaeueieo i aciiaeueieo oeiia.
Ciino iioeiicaoei? oa ?aoeiiiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aecia/a?oueny
iniaeeainoyie ?o ooieoeiiioaaiiy. Iioeiaeueieie caoiaeaie ? eieaeicaoeiy
ooieoeiiioaaiiy iinueeeo naeeoaaieo, i?iieneiaeo i aiaeieo aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia oa aecaaieo ieie iani?eyoeeaeo i?ioeania, oi?ioaaiiy ?aeeii?
ia?aaei ioi?iiieo ia’?eoia.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. O oai?aoe/iiio i iaoiaee/iiio aniaeoao: iaa?oioiaaii
ia?iiaeecaoeith ?icaeoeo eiiieaenieo aeineiaeaeaiue i?e?iaee oa?eoi?i?
I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie; ?ic?iaeaii oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/ii iniiae
aeaeieaiiy i aeineiaeaeaiiy ?aaiiiaeueieo no?oeoo? aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia; iaa?oioiaaia oaeniiiiiy eeaneoieaoei? aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia eieaeueieo ?iaiia.

O i?aeoe/iiio aniaeoi: i?iaiaeiciaaii inoi?ith oi?ioaaiiy, iniaeeainoi
eaiaeoaooii? i?aaiicaoei? i no?oeoo?e aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia ainueie
eeania; aeyaeaii oa iaa?oioiaaii inioaaiiy ia?aoiaeieo nioa, aeioiiia i
eaoai iiae aio?iiiaaiieie eaiaeoaooaie ?icieo eeania, aea/aii
ia?aaeeiaii/ii ca’ycee iiae ieie; aeineiaeaeaii aieea aio?iiiaaiiiai
/eiieea ia ?icaeoie i?e?iaeieo cii oa ?o aeeiaiieo i ciiaeueieo oiia ia
oi?ioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia; iaa?oioiaaii i?iaiic ?icaeoeo oa
ie?aii iai?yiee iioeiicaoei? aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie.

O ?aaiiiaeueiiio aniaeoi: aeaeieaii ciiaeueii oeie i iiaeoeie
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia, aeineiaeaeaii neeaaeiai ?icaeoeo aciiaeueieo
?en aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia; iaa?oioiaaii ?aaiiiaeueii
(e?a?, ie?oae i ?aeiie) no?oeoo?e; i?iaaaeaii ?aeiioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie; iaa?oioiaaii noai?aiiy ?aeeii?
nenoaie i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo (iaoo?aeueieo i aio?iiiaaiieo) ia’?eoia, oeyoe
iioeiicaoei? ?aaiiiaeueieo i?iaeai: aio?iiiaaiiiai ea?noo,
?aeoeueoeaaoei? ai?ie/ii?iieneiaeo ?ic?iaie oiui; oeeaaeaia oa
iaa?oioiaaia ea?oinoaia oi?ioaaiiy i ?icaeoeo aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia
I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia oeiiiinoue ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiiy.
?ic?iaeaii oai?aoe/ii iieiaeaiiy oa iaa?oioiaaii aeioeieueiinoue
?aaiiiaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia,
inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/iiai aiaeico ?o no/anii? eaiaeoaooii? no?oeoo?e,
?aeiioaaiiy, aio?iiiaaiii-eaiaeoaooiiai i?iaiico. A iaeaooiueiio oaei
aeineiaeaeaiiy noaiooue iniiaith naiinoieiiai iaoeiaiai iai?yieo —
?aaiiiaeueiiai aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa. ?acii c oei,
?ic?iaeaii eiie?aoii i?eeiie oa iaoiaee inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/ieo
aeineiaeaeaiue, ea?oia?aoi/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy /aniaeo c?icia, aea/aiiy
aca?iica’yceia iiae aio?iiiaaiieie eaiaeoaooaie oa canoinoaaiiy ?o
eeaneoieaoeie aeey ae?ioaiiy i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue ? iaaiei aianeii o
?icaeoie o?aaeeoeieiiai eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa, oice/ii? oa inoi?e/ii?
aaia?aoi?.

I?aeoe/ia ?aaeicaoeiy iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue
aeei?enoaii i?e ?ic?iaoei i iaa?oiooaaiii ieaiia, i?iaeoia i noai c
aeieiai?, ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, ?aeiiieo ieaioaaiue
iaeanoae Iiaeieuenueeiai i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueeiai ?aaiiio. O
aiaeiiaiaeiinoi c eii?aeeiaoeieieie iaoeiaeie ieaiaie Iiiinaioe Oe?a?ie
iiae iaoeiaei ea?iaieoeoaii i i?e iniaenoie o/anoi aaoi?a c aeaii?
i?iaeaie aeeiiaii aeai aea?aeathaeaeaoii («Aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe
Oe?a?ie: aeineiaeaeaiiy aeieiai/ieo i?iaeai ?o ooieoeiiioaaiiy»,
1991-1993 ?.?. ? ae/? 0186-002138, «Aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe Oe?a?ie:
oiii/ii iniiae aea/aiiy aeieiai/ieo i?iaeai», 1995-1997 ?.?. ? ae/?
0196-002206 ) oa aeai ainiaeiaiai?ii oaie («Aio?iiiaaiii ciiie
a?oioiaiai iie?eao I?aoianueeiai ?aeiio Aiiieoeueei? iaeanoi ca ia?iiae
1968 — 1988 ?iee», 1989-1990 ?.?. oa «Ianoaaeaiiy aaieiai/ieo aeoiaeia
e?enoaei/ieo ii?iae a aeieeii ?i/ee Iiaaeaiiee Aoa c iaoith noai?aiiy
caiiaiaeieo ia’?eoia», 1994 ?.).

Iaoeiai ?ic?iaee ca oaiith aeena?oaoei? aeei?enoaii i?e: neeaaeaiii
iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai c oice/ii? aaia?aoi? Oe?a?ie aeey nooaeaioia
aaia?aoi/ieo i i?e?iaeie/i-aaia?aoi/ieo oaeoeueoaoia iaaeaocia oa
oiiaa?neoaoia (caaaeaiiy Iiiinaioe, 1993 ?.); iiaeaioiaoei aoeania
Aiiieoeueei? i Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeanoae, aeeiiaieo ia caiiaeaiiy
iaeanieo aea?aeaaieo aaeiiiino?aoeie; /eoaiii eo?nia «Oice/ia aaia?aoiy
Oe?a?ie», «Aeiiiii/ia i nioeiaeueia aaia?aoiy Oe?a?ie»,
«Eaiaeoaooiciaanoai». Ia iniiai aeineiaeaeaiue aaoi?ii neeaaeaii
i?ia?aie i /eoathoueny niaoeeo?ne «Aio?iiiaaiia eaiaeoaooiciaanoai»,
«I?e?iaeie/a aaia?aoiy Iiaeieey» aeey nooaeaioia
i?e?iaeie/i-aaia?aoi/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Aiiieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaiai/iiai oiiaa?neoaoo.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iniiaii oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/ii
iieiaeaiiy i i?aeoe/ii ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiiaiaeaeenue,
iaaiai?thaaeenue oa aoee iioaeieiaaii o iaoa?iaeao 5 c’?caeia
aaia?aoi/iiai oiaa?enoaa, 4 iiaeia?iaeieo, 22 Ananithcieo, 28
Anaoe?a?inueeeo i ?aaiiiaeueieo iaoeiaeo neiiicioiao, eiioa?aioeiyo oa
naiiia?ao, a oaeiae 4 eiioa?aioeiyo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
neeaaeo Ai?iiacueeiai aea?aeoiiaa?neoaoo oa 16 — Aiiieoeueeiai
iaaeoiiaa?neoaoo.

Ioaeieaoei?. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue aeeeaaeaii o aeaio aaoi?nueeeo
iiiia?aoiyo (21,0 ae.a.), 2 a?ioo?ao (5,0 ae.a.), inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/ieo
ia?enao (3,0 ae.a.), o aaia?aoi/iiio aoeani Aiiieoeueei? iaeanoi (o
niiaaaoi?noai), 38 noaooyo (caaaeueiei ianyaii 20,5 ae.a.), c ieo 26
iniaenoeo, Aaia?aoi/iie aioeeeeiiaaei? Oe?a?ie (26 noaoae), 72 oacao
aeiiiaiaeae ia iaoeiaeo oi?oiao.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a o ?iaioo. Aaoi? ?ic?iaea caaaeueio eiioeaioeith
aeineiaeaeaiue, iniiaii oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/ii iieiaeaiiy ?aaiiiaeueiiai
inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/iiai aiaeico oa ?aaiiiaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia, ocaaaeueiea oiiaeiai e eioa?aoo?ii aeaii,
i?iaia aenia?eiaioaeueii oa aeniaaeeoeieii aeineiaeaeaiiy, aiaeic aeaieo
67 eeth/iaeo aeieyiie, ia?iaeo oa iioa?i?aoaoeith io?eiaieo
?acoeueoaoia, noi?ioethaaa aeniiaee oa i?aeoe/ii i?iiiceoei?.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoei?. Aeena?oaoeiy neeaaea?oueny ic anooio, 7
?icaeieia, aeniiaeia, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoeia. Aiia
aeeeaaeaia ia 300 noi?iieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, aeeth/a? 95 ?enoieia,
8 oaaeeoeue, 6 aeiaeaoeia. Nienie aeei?enoaieo eioa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae
ia?aoiao? 409 iaeiaioaaiue.

O ia?oie aeaai ?icaeyiooa inoi?iy ?icaeoeo eiiieaenieo aeineiaeaeaiue
i?e?iaee a iaaeao I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. Noaiiaeaiith aio?iiiaaiiiai
eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa a Oe?a?ii, ieoaiiyi oai?i? i iaoiaeeee ?aaiiiaeueieo
aeineiaeaeaiue aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia i?enay/aia ae?oaa aeaaa. O
ianooiieo aeaaao ( 3 i 4) i?iaiaeiciaaii inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/ii
iniaeeainoi oi?ioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia, ?o no/ania no?oeoo?a,
ia?aaaiaoe/ii oa ia?aaeeiaii/ii aca?iica’ycee iiae ieie. O i’yoie aeaai
aeaeieaii i ?icaeyiooi ciiaeueii oa aciiaeueii oeie aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia, a o oinoie — ?o ?aaiiiaeueii no?oeoo?e oa i?iaaaeaii
i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueea ?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi?i? I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. O
caeeth/iie, nueiiie aeaai, ?icaeyiooa niaoeeoiea
aio?iiiaaiii-eaiaeoaooiiai i?iaiico, i?iaiaeiciaaii iniaeeainoi ?icaeoeo
aio?iiiaaiieo i?ioeania oa eaiaeoaooia o iaaeao I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie
ia ianooiii 10-15 ?ieia, a oaeiae iai?yiee ?o iioeiicaoei?.

Iniiaiee ciino aeena?oaoei?

inoi?iy ?icaeoeo eiiieaenieo aeineiaeaeaiue i?e?iaee oa?eoi?i?
I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie

Aeineiaeaeaiiy i?e?iaee oa?eoi?i? I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie, iinooiiaa
?icoe?aiiy i iiaeeaeaiiy yeeo i?eaaei aei ca?iaeaeaiiy a/aiiy i?i
aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe, ?icii/aoi c iaeaeaaiioeo /ania. Aiaeic
a?oaieiai/ii? oa inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/ii? iioi?iaoei? aeicaieea
o?iiieiai/ii aeaeieeoe 3 aoaie i 6 ia?iiaeia o ?icaeoeo oaeeo
aeineiaeaeaiue.

Aoai ii/aoeiaiai iiciaiiy i?e?iaee (40-35 oen. ?ieia oiio — IV no. aei
i.a.). I?yieo, ienueiiaeo aeaieo, yei a eiai oienoaaee, iaia?.
Iina?aaeiuei aoai iiaeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aaaaoei a?oaieiai/iei iaoa?iaeii.
Aeey iueiai oa?aeoa?ii: anaai/ia iiciaiiy oieueee oeo i?e?iaeieo
eiiiiiaioia oa yaeu, yei iaee i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy; ?aaiiiaeueiee
(oa?eoi?iy ooieoeiiioaaiiy) oa?aeoa? iiciaiiy i?e?iaee; ia?aaea/a
i?e?iaeie/eo ciaiue a oniie oi?ii oa i?aeoe/ieo iaae/eao; iiyaa ia?oeo
a?aoi/ieo cia?aaeaiue i?e?iaeieo ia’?eoia.

Iieniaee aoai (V no. aei i.a. — na?aaeeia XVIII no.). inoi?e/iee aiaeic
iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo i ainiiaea?nueeiai inai?iiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?nia,
i?eaiiaeueii aioe/ii oa eioiienii i /enaeueii na?aaeiueiai/ii iiene
i?e?iaee I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aeaee iiaeeeainoue aeaeieeoe a iaaeao
oeueiai aoaio o?e ia?iiaee:

1. Aioe/iee (V no. aei i.a. — ii/aoie I oen. i.a.). Oieno?oueny
a?aoeueeeie oa ?einueeeie aioe/ieie aeaea?aeaie. Aeey ia?iiaeo
oa?aeoa?ii: iiyaa ienueiiai? iioi?iaoei? i?i i?e?iaeo i ainiiaea?noai
I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie; ii?iaiyii aeaoaeueiee iien i?e?iaee iiaaeaiieo
noaiiaeo, /anoeiai eininoaiiaeo i aiaenooiinoue aeaieo i?i iiaii/ii
einiai ?aeiie; iiyaa ia?oeo iienia aio?iiiaaiiciaaii? i?e?iaee.

2. Eioiieniee (na?aaeeia I oen. i.a. — XIII no.). Iniiaa — o?iiiee,
iiaei?iaeii iioaoee i eioiiene. Inoaiii — yeinii iiaa oi?ia aaia?aoi/ii?
iioi?iaoei?. A eioiienao i?e?iaea Oe?a?ie iienaia ?iaeiith iiaith i
iinoeaaeie aaoi?aie; caii/aoeiaaii inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/iee iaoiae iieno
i?e?iaeieo i noniieueieo yaeu; o?iiieiai/ia aeinoiai?iinoue; ia?oi
ni?iae aiaeico ciii i?e?iaee iiae aieeaii ainiiaea?nueei? aeiyeueiinoi
ethaeae (Neiai i iieeo iai?aaii).

3. Na?aaeiueiai/iee (XIV — XVIII no.). Aiaeiii aeecueei 60
caoiaeii?a?iiaenueeeo (caeaaieueoiai o?aioeoce, ioaeieoei, iiioei i
iieyee) aaoi?ia i?eaiiaeueieo iienia i?e?iaee I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie.
Iiene ocaaaeueiaii: i?e?iaea, ianaeaiiy, ainiiaea?noai, /anoi c
ea?oia?aoi/iith iioi?iaoei?th. Iai?eeiioei ia?iiaeo ?icii/eiathoueny
iaoeiai aeineiaeaeaiiy i?e?iaee ie?aieo ?aaiiiia I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie.

Aoai iaoeiaeo iiooeia (XIX — ii/aoie XXI no.). Oa?aeoa? iaoeiaeo
aeineiaeaeaiue oa ei?aeoeae, ui aianee a ieo aeai naioiaeo aieie, aeaee
iiaeeeainoue ?icaeieeoe aoai ia o?e ia?iiaee.

1. Ca?iaeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo iniia eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy i?e?iaee (ae?oaa
iieiaeia XIX — ii/aoie XX no.). Aeey ia?iiaeo oa?aeoa?ii: i?aaiicaoeiy
aaia?aoi/ieo eaoaae? a oiiaa?neoaoao i e?a?ciaa/eo oiaa?enoa;
i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaenieo aeniaaeeoeieieo aeineiaeaeaiue; ca?iaeaeaiiy
eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa i oiceei-aaia?aoi/iiai ?aeiioaaiiy; aea/aiiy aieeao
ethaeeie ia i?e?iaeo, ui i?eaaei aei oi?ioaaiiy iniia aio?iiiaaiii?
aaia?aoi?.

2. ?icaeoeo i?e?iaeie/iai ?aeiioaaiiy (20-oi — ii/aoie 50-o ?ieia XX
no.). Ia?iiae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny: aeoeaiei ?icaeoeii aaeocaaeo iaoe;
ia?aaaaeaiiyi aaiii?oieiai/ieo oa aiiaaia?aoi/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue;
?icaeoeii ia ?o iniiai i?e?iaeie/iai ?aeiioaaiiy, cie?aia i aeey iio?aa
nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, naaeiaieoeoaa oiui; ca?iaeaeaiiyi iniia
aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa.

3. Eaiaeoaooiciaa/ee (na?aaeeia 50-o ?ieia XX no. — ii/aoie XXI no.).
Oa?aeoa?ii iciaee ia?iiaeo: ?icaeoie iieueiaeo eaiaeoaooiciaa/eo
aeineiaeaeaiue i i?iaaaeaiiy ia?oeo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioeie c
eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa; ?ic?iaea iiaeo iaoiaeia i i?eioeeiia eiiieaenieo
i?e?iaeie/eo aeineiaeaeaiue; aeoeaia oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo iai?yieia a
eaiaeoaooiciaanoai, cie?aia aio?iiiaaiiiai; ?icaeoie a no?oeoo?i
inoaiiueiai ?aaiiiaeueiiai aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa.

Ia ii/aoeo XXI no. oiniee ca’ycie eaiaeoaooiciaa/eo aeineiaeaeaiue c
i?aeoeeith ciaiaio? niaith ia?aoiae a iiaee eiino?oeoeaiee ia?iiae,
caaa?oaeueiee a iiooeiaiio aoaii ?icaeoeo eiiieaenieo aeineiaeaeaiue
i?e?iaee I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie.

Iniiae oai?i? i iaoiaee ?aaiiiaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia

Iaoea i?i eaiaeoaooe ca?iaeeeanue iai?eeiioei XIX no. oa?eoi?iaeueii a
Oe?a?ii i /anoeiai a ?ini? caaaeyee ocaaaeueiaiith A.A.Aeieo/a?aei
?acoeueoaoia cainueeeo aeniaaeeoeie (1882-1916 ?.?.) i aenia?eiaioia, ui
ai?ii?ii c ii/aoeo XIX no. i?iaiaeeee oe?a?inueei caiea?iae i einiaieee
(A.ss.Eiieeianueeee, i.A.Ianeinueeee, A.A.A?aoo, A.I.Nea?aeeinueeee oa
ii.), a oaeiae iiiaoeueei eieiiinoe a iaaeao I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie (n.
Oa?oeecia Iiai?inienueei?, n. Oieeia Iiaeieuenueei? aoaa?iie oa ii.).
Ca?iaeeeany ia a i?ioeani aea/aiiy iaoo?aeueii? i?e?iaee, a ia ?ici?aiie
noaiiaie ieai. I?aeoe/ii o?aaeeoeieia (iaoo?aeueia) i aio?iiiaaiia
eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa ii/aee oi?ioaaoeny a Oe?a?ii iaeii/anii. Ia?ainiee
ca?yae aa?ioieueiinoi (a oi/iioa aio?iiioieueiinoi) i ?aaiiiaeueiee
oa?aeoa? aeineiaeaeaiue iinoieii noi?iaiaeaeoaaa ?o ?icaeoie.

O?aaeeoeieia eaiaeoaooiciaanoai a Oe?a?ii c aeiiiiiaeiiai /eiieea
oiceei-aaia?aoi/iiai ?aeiioaaiiy (20-50-oi ?iee XX no.), iiney ii
Ananithcii? ia?aaee c eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa o Eueaiai (1956 ?.)
?icaeaa?oueny a nenoaii i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe iainiaeaii. Aio?iiiaaiia
eaiaeoaooiciaanoai ii/aei ioi?ieyoeny a 30-40, a ye naiinoieiee iai?yiie
o?aaeeoeieiiai eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa ?icaeaa?oueny eeoa c na?aaeeie 70-o
?ieia XX no. Ca ieioei aeanyoe?i//y a eiai no?oeoo?i aeaeieeeeny
caaaeueia i ?aaiiiaeueia aio?iiiaaiia eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa. Iniiae oai?i?
caaaeueiiai aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa ?ic?iaeaii O.I.Iieueeiaei
(1973, 1986), ?aaiiiaeueia eaiaeoaooiciaanoai — ia noaaei? noaiiaeaiiy.
Aiii oi?io?oueny caaaeyee ?aaiiiaeueiei aeineiaeaeaiiyi aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia, nooue yeeo o ae?ioaiii o?ueio iniiaieo caaaeaiue:

1. Aiaeici no/anii? no?oeoo?e aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia i iia’ycaieo c
?o ?icaeoeii aio?iiiaaiieo i?ioeania. Iioaeieiaaii iaoa?iaee oa
aaaaoi?i/ii iieueiai aeineiaeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui a i?aaiicaoeieiie
no?oeoo?i aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aeioeieueii
aeaeieyoe aeania aio?iiiaaiii, eaiaeoaooii-iiaeaia?ii oa
eaiaeoaooii-oaoiiaaiii nenoaie. Ani aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe — nenoaie,
aea nenoaie ?icii? i?aaiicaoei?. ?o aeineiaeaeaiiy iaiaoiaeii i?iaiaeeoe
ia eaiaeoaooiiio, aaia?aoi/iiio i aaioaoii/iiio ?iaiyo.

Aeania aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe — eiiiiiaioii nenoaie. Iiney oi?ioaaiiy,
aiie, ye i iaoo?aeueii, naii?icaeaathoueny ca i?e?iaeieie
caeiiiii?iinoyie. Caaaeyee oaeei iniaeeainoyi ?icaeoeo aea/aiiy aeania
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia aaaeaoueny ia eaiaeoaooiiio ?iaii,
caeaaieueoiai iaoiaeaie o?aaeeoeieiiai eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa c iaia’yceiaei
a?aooaaiiyi ?o aaiaceno.

Ia aaia?aoi/iiio ?iaii aeineiaeaeothoueny aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe,
ooieoeiiioaaiiy yeeo o cia/iie ii?i caeaaeeoue aiae ia?iiaee/iiai
ao?o/aiiy ethaeeie. Aei oaeeo aiaeiinyoueny aeania
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei eaiaeoaooe, nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei
eaiaeoaooii-iiaeaia?ii nenoaie, einieoeueoo?e, /anoeiai ?ae?aaoeieii
eaiaeoaooe oiui. Ooo aeineiaeaeaiiy i?e?iaeieo caeiiiii?iinoae
aeiiiaith?oueny aeiiiii/iei aiaeicii eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia i nenoai,
ui e?ii oiceei-aaia?aoi/ieo, aeiaaa? aiaeiiaiaeieo ciaiue o noa?i
nieuenueeiai i einiaiai ainiiaea?noa, aeiiiiiee oiui.

Eaiaeoaooii-oaoiiaaiii, ye i eaiaeoaooii-iiaeaia?ii nenoaie ia
eiiiiiaioii, a aeieiai nenoaie. Aiie oi?iothoueny i?e?iaeiei i oaoii/iei
aeieaie (iiaenenoaiaie), ?icaeoie yeeo iiaeii?yaeeiaaiee aeaii
caeiiiii?iinoyi — i?e?iaeiei i noniieueiei. Aieiaio ?ieue aiaeia?a?
oaoii/iee aeie, caaaeyee /iio eaiaeoaooii-oaoiiaaiii i
eaiaeoaooii-iiaeaia?ii nenoaie ia caeaoii aei i?e?iaeiiai naii?icaeoeo.
Oaeeie ? aeania i?iieneiai, aei?iaeii, cia/ia /anoeia naeeoaaieo
eaiaeoaooia oiui. ?o aea/aiiy iiaeeeaa eeoa ia aaioaoii/iiio ?iaii, aea
aaia?aoi/ii ciaiiy i?i ia’?eoe aeeth/athoue a naaa oaeiae ?o
iiaeaia?ii-oaoii/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee.

2. Aecia/aiiy ?aeiiia niiaaiaeiioaiiy (?N) aio?iiiaaiieo i iaoo?aeueieo
eiiieaenia oeyoii aeaoaeueiiai iiciaiiy inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/ieo
iniaeeainoae ?o oi?ioaaiiy i ?icaeoeo.

Ca oa?aeoa?ii eiioo?ia aeaeieythoueny ?N aeaio oeiia:
aaeiiiino?aoeaii-ainiiaea?nueei i eaiaeoaooii-aaia?aoi/ii. O ia?oiio —
?N niiaiaaeathoue c iaaeaie aaeiiiino?aoeaieo ?aeiiia aai iaeanoae. Aei
oeueiai oeio ?N aiaeiinyoueny, cie?aia, i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueei ?aaiiie
I.I.Ia?eie/a i A.I.Iauaiea (1990 ?.). Aiie c?o/ii oei, ui aeey ?o
oa?aeoa?enoeee inio? aieueoa aeoiaeieo iaoa?iaeia. Ae?oaee,
eaiaeoaooii-aaia?aoi/iee oei ?N iaiaaeaiee ?aieaie eaiaeoaooieo
eiiieaenia — aiae oiceei-aaia?aoi/iiai ?aeiio aei i?e?iaeii? nioae i
e?a?ie. ?N oeueiai oeio aieueoa aiaeiiaiaeathoue aaia?aoi/iei caieoai,
aea ?o aeaeieaiiy iio?aao? aeiaeaoeiaiai /ano aeey ii?aoethaaiiy
aeoiaeieo, caeaaieueoiai iieueiaeo iaoa?iaeia, caiaeii iiaeo
eaiaeoaooieo iaae. I?ioa, iaaioue iath/e aeaii i?i caiaeueiee oiiae, ia
caaaeaee iiaeia aecia/eoe /anoeo aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia o no?oeoo?i
aeineiaeaeoaaiiai ?aaiiio. Oae, o noaoenoe/ieo i oiiaeiaeo iaoa?iaeao
ooo/ii ianaaeaeaiiy eino, caeaaieueoiai, ia aiaeie?aieaii aiae
iaoo?aeueieo, a niiaaiaeiioaiiy iiae iaoo?aeueieie i aio?iiiaaiieie
ianiaeuaie a noaiiaeo ?aeiiao iiaeia aecia/eoe /anoi oieueee a iieueiaeo
oiiaao. O oaeeo aeiaaeeao aeey aeaeieaiiy ?N iaiaoiaeii ooeaoe iieaciee,
yeee aoa ae ia oieueee c?o/iei o aeei?enoaiii, aea e noaa iioaa?aeueiei
ae?acieeii nooiaiy aio?iiiaaiicaoei? (I.A.Oeuaiei, 1985 ?.).

?N aenieiai oaeniiiii/iiai ?aiao neeaaeathoueny c iaioeo ?N, ui
aiaeiinyoueny aei ?icieo oeiia. Cie?aia, a iaaeao Iieinueeiai e?ath
I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie, yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaie ye iaeei
iaoo?aeueii-aio?iiiaaiiee oei ?N, ia ?iaii oiceei-aaia?aoi/ieo aai
aaeiiiino?aoeaieo ?aeiiia aeaeieythoueny iaoo?aeueii,
iaoo?aeueii-aio?iiiaaiii i aio?iiiaaiii i?e?iaeii ?aeiie.

3. Ae?ioaiiy i?iaeai ?aeiioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia.
?ic?iaethth/e iniiae oai?i? aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa
O.I.Iieueeia (1973 ?.) /anoeiai iaa?oiooaaa iiaeeeainoue ?aeiioaaiiy
ie?aieo eeania i noaaea iiae noiiia aeioeieueiinoue caaaeueiiai
?aeiioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia. Iiaeaeueoa ?ic?iaea oai?i?,
iniaeeai aeaeieaiiy ?aaiiiaeueieo no?oeoo? aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia,
iaeiie/aiiy iiaiai oaeoe/iiai iaoa?iaeo, aeaee iai iiaeeeainoue
i?iaanoe, aeei?enoiaoth/e a eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo ?icii iaoiaee
i iiaeoiaee, caaaeueia ?aeiioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia oa ?o
eeania.

Iaoiaee aeineiaeaeaiiy. Caaaeyee oiio, ui aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe
noi?ioaaeenue ia iniiai i?e?iaeieo, ia aiae?eaathoueny, a oei aieueoa ia
i?ioenoaaeythoueny ?i, iaeaaaeeeaioeie aeey iaoiaeeee aea/aiiy
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia ? aeei?enoaiiy i?eioeeiia
i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiiai noiinieoeoaa, inoi?ecio, aeia?aaeaeoth/iai
aea/aiiy iiia?aaeiio aio?iiiaaiiei eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia,
no?oeoo?ii-nenoaiiiai oa iioeo. I?e aea/aiii aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia
aiie ia?aaeaa/athoue a?aooaaiiy ye iaoo?aeueieo, oae i
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo /eiieeia. O aeineiaeaeaiiyo aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aeei?enoaii oaeiae o?aaeeoeieii
(aeniaaeeoeieii, aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoeiiia?ii, nooeieueiiai ciiiaiiy i
eeth/iaeo aeieyiie, aaioice/ii, aaioiii/ii) oa niaoeeoi/ii i?eeiie i
iaoiaee. Na?aae niaoeeoi/ieo iaoiaeia iaeaieueo ?acoeueoaoeaieie ?:
inoi?eei-a?oaieiai/iee, ui ia?aaeaa/a? noiiniee aiaeic inoi?e/ieo i
a?oaieiai/ieo iaoa?iaeia, /ei oinii iia’yco? aio?iiiaaiia
eaiaeoaooiciaanoai c a?oaieiai?th i aoiia?aoi?th; iaoiae
inoi?eei-aaiaoe/ieo ?yaeia, ui aiaeia?aaea? aeeiaiieo oa inoi?ith
?icaeoeo aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia o iaeaieueo oa?aeoa?ii aiioe oa
ia?iiaee; ii?iaiyeueiee iaoiae iaoo?aeueieo aiaeiaia, ui aeiiiiaaa?
aeynieoe noiaeinoue oa aiaeiiie aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia c ?o e?aua
aea/aieie iaoo?aeueieie aiaeiaaie; a?aieiai/iee, ui aea? iiaeeeainoue
i?iaiaeicoaaoe i?inoi?iaa ?icoaooaaiiy i aeeiaiieo oeiieiai/ieo i
?aaiiiaeueieo iaeeieoeue aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia. Aeei?enoaii oaeiae
iaoiaeeeo aeineiaeaeaiiy aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooo ye neeaaeiai?
aca?iiaeith/i? ia?aaaiaoe/ii? nenoaie, caaaeyee /iio anoaiiaeaii oa
aea/aii aca?iica’ycee iiae aio?iiiaaiieie i iaoo?aeueieie eaiaeoaooieie
eiiieaenaie.

Eeaneoieaoeiy i no?oeoo?a aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie

Aaaaoiaieiaa oa ?iciiai/ia aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?nia
I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie i?eaaei aei caiiie iaoo?aeueieo eaiaeoaooia
aio?iiiaaiieie. Ia?oi aio?iiiaaiii eiiieaene ooo c’yaeeeny o iiciueiio
iaeaieioi (35-10 oen. ?ieia oiio). Ca /ania O?eiieey (VI — III oen. aei
i.a.) ?o ieiui cia/ii c?inee, i?ioa aiaenioie o no?oeoo?i iaoo?aeueieo
eaiaeoaooia aoa ua iaaaeeeee. VII — XII no. — ia?aoiaeiee aoai aiae
iaoo?aeueieo aei aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia, a ii/eiath/e c XVII no.
/anoea inoaiiio iinoieii caieueoo?oueny. Iai?eeiioei XX no. aio?iiiaaiii
eaiaeoaooe caeiathoue aiae 75-80 aei 90-96 % oa?eoi?i? I?aaiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie. Iaoo?aeueii eaiaeoaooe caa?aaeeny i?eaeecii ia 5-8 %:
caiiaiaeieee i ?aca?aaoe — 2,5, iainooaii aieioa — 2-3, iacaeiyoi e?ooi
noeee — 1,5-2 %.

inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/ii iniaeeainoi oi?ioaaiiy oa nai??iaeii aeanoeainoi
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia aeaee iiaeeeainoue ?o eeaneoieoaaoe. Aieiaiee
iaaeieie iiia?aaeiio ni?ia (A.A.Cieueaa?, 1957; E.i.Aa?ai/oe, 1967,
1978; N.A.O?ioei/oe, 1968, E.i.Ai?iiae, A.i.Aeaienee, 1978 oa ii.) o
ciiooaaiii aeaio oeieeii ?icieo iiiyoue — eeaneoieaoei? aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia oa ?aeiiia niiaaiaeiioaiiy iaoo?aeueieo i aio?iiiaaiieo
eiiieaenia. Eeaneoieaoeiy aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia ia?aaeaa/a? ?o
iiaeie ia a?oie ca iaaiith iciaeith — aai iaeaieueo nooo?aith o naiie
no?oeoo?i eiiieaeno, aai aaaeeeaith aeey iio?aa i?aeoeee. Oaeeo
eeaneoieaoeie iiaea aooe aaaaoi. O.I.Iieueeia (1973 ?.) iaaiaeeoue
oinoue, A.N.AEaeoeii (1982 ?.) — /ioe?e, E.i. Ai?iiae (1975 ?.) — o?e.
Aeciaiiy oa oe?iea canoinoaaiiy o i?aeoeoei iaoeiaeo iiooeia io?eiaee
aeai c ieo: ca ciinoii, ui aecia/a?oueny ?iaeii ainiiaea?nueei?
aeiyeueiinoi oa ca aaiacenii.

Ia?oa, aeiiiaiaia inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/iei aiaeicii c a?aooaaiiyi
?aaiiiaeueii? niaoeeoiee aio?iiiaaiieo eiiieaenia, aeei?enoaia iaie i?e
eeaneoieaoei? aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie.
Aeaeieaii ainii eeania aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia (iinoea aecia/a?
iineiaeiaiinoue oi?ioaaiiy, cia/aiiy a aio?iiiaaiicaoei? iaoo?aeueieo
eaiaeoaooia ?aaiiio oa ?o ieiua): naeeoaaiee, nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeee,
einiaee oa aiaeiee aio?iiiaaiii, i?iieneiaee, aei?iaeiee, ?ae?aaoeieiee
i aaeiaa?aoeaiee. inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/iee aiaeic iieaco?, ui caaaeyee aei?
aeaio /eiieeia — i?e?iaeiiai i noniieueiiai, ?o oi?ioaaiiy i?ioiaeeei
iaiaeiaeiai. ?acii c oei, aeey ?icaeoeo eiaeiiai eeano aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia oa?aeoa?ii o?e /aniai c?ice: ca?iaeaeaiiy, noaiiaeaiiy i
ooieoeiiioaaiiy a yeinoi aio?iiiaaiieo (oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1

*aniai c?ice ?icaeoeo aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia

I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie

Ca aeaeaie ainiiaea?nueei? aeiyeueiinoi aeaeieaii iiaeeeane
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia. O iaaeao I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie ?o 15. Aieea
ciiaeueieo /eiieeia ia oi?ioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia
aiaeia?aaeaiee o ?o ciiaeueieo oeiao. A iiaeaeueoiio niinoa?iaa?oueny
noiaeinoue a i?eioeeiao aeaeieaiiy oeiieiai/ieo oaeniiia iaoo?aeueieo i
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia (?en. 1).

?en.1 Oaeniiiii/ia nenoaia nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eaiaeoaooieo
eiiieaenia I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie (oei iieueiaiai o?i/eua aecia/a?oueny
ca oi?iith ?aeue?oo i ca oa?aeoa?ii a?oioiaiai iie?eao, aeae —
?ineeiiinoi, oeio niaiciii)

Iniaeeainoi oa niaoeeoieo eaiaeoaooii? no?oeoo?e aeaeieaieo eeania
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia aeineiaeaeaii ia 52 eeth/iaeo aeieyieao cii
iioaieo einia, eininoaio i noaio ca aeiiiiiaith inoi?eei-aaiaoe/ieo
?yaeia eaiaeoaooieo ea?oinoai. Caaaeyee oeueiio a iaaeao I?aaiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie, cie?aia, a no?oeoo?i ai?ie/ii?iieneiaiai iiaeeeano i?iieneiaeo
eaiaeoaooia aeaeieaii o?e oeie (ea?’??ii-aiaeaaeueiee, oi?oiai-aieioieo
ionoe?ia i oa?eeiiii-inaaaeiea?noiaee) i aeaa iiaeoeie (?aeoeueoeaiaaiee
i ia?aeoeueoeaiaaiee) eaiaeoaooia, 34 oeie ai?ie/ii?iieneiaeo
iinoeaainoae oa ?o aa?iaioia.

Aca?iica’ycee iiae iniiaieie eeanaie aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia

Eaiaeoaooii iaaei. Eaoaie i aeioiie. Iieueiai aeineiaeaeaiiy
iieacothoue, ui aeioeieueii ?ic?iciyoe o?e a?oie eaiaeoaooieo iaae —
iiae iaoo?aeueieie, iaoo?aeueieie i aio?iiiaaiieie, a oaeiae
aio?iiiaaiieie eaiaeoaooieie eiiieaenaie.

Iaaei iiae iniiaieie eeanaie aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia, ui oiciiiiii/ii
oa yeinii aiae?iciythoueny iiae niaith, /anoi oi?iothoueny o aeaeyaei
ia?aoiaeieo nioa — aeioiiia. Ca eaiaeoaooieie iniaeeainoyie aeioiie
iiaeooue aiae?iciyoeny aiae eiioaeooth/eo eeania aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia. Oae, caaaeyee iiaeoiieaiith i?eeaaeeo oa?eoi?ie aai
ca?inoaiiy iieeiaiaeieo aeieyiie iiae aiaeinoiaeuaie, noaaeaie i
aeiaeieeyi oi?iothoueny nai??iaeii caiiiaiaeii aeioiie, i?aaenoaaeaii
nioaith aiaeii-aieioieo eiiieaenia. sseui i?e aca?iiaei? aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia oi?iothoueny, aai ooo/ii noai?ththoueny eaoaie (?en. 2) —
caeiiiii?ia noeoiiinoue ia?aoiaeieo i oinii aca?iiiia’ycaieo iiae niaith
nioa, oi iaaeo iiae ieie aeioeieueii i?iaiaeeoe ii iaeaieueo eiio?anoiie
nioci.

Iiaeoiaee i e?eoa?i? aecia/aiiy iaae ?aaiiiaeueieo iaeeieoeue
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia ?iciiai oaeniiiii/iiai ?iaiy iathoue nai?
iniaeeainoi i ?icaeyiooi a iiaeaeueoiio. Aianeiaeie oiai, ui
aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe aiae?iciythoueny aiae iaoo?aeueieo eeoa
aaiacenii, oi iaaei iaeeieoeue oeiieiai/iiai ?iaiy (oeiia iinoeaainoae
oa ?o aa?iaioia, eaiaeoaooieo aeieyiie i o?i/eu) /anoi aecia/athoueny ca
oeie ae e?eoa?iyie, ui e iaoo?aeueieo.

Cia/ii neeaaeiioee i?ioean aeaeieaiiy iaae eaiaeoaooii-oaoiiaaiieo i
eaiaeoaooii-iiaeaia?ieo nenoai, iniaeeai a iinoao i i?iieneiaeo
oeaio?ao. Ooo aeineoue /anoi iaeia oaoii/ia nii?oaea aaciina?aaeiuei
eiioaeoo? c iioith. O oaeeo aeiaaeeao eiioo?e oaoii/ieo nii?oae iiaeooue
aecia/aoe iaeii/anii i iaaei ani?? eaiaeoaooii-oaoiiaaiii? nenoaie.

Anoaiiaeaiiy iaae oa aeineiaeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ooieoeiiioaaiiy i
eaiaeoaooii? no?oeoo?e ia?aoiaeieo nioa, eaoai i aeioiiia aeicaieeee
aea/eoe aca?iica’ycee iiae eeanaie aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia, cie?aia
naeeoaaieie, nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie, einiaeie, /anoeiai
?ae?aaoeieieie. Oae, i?e aea/aiii aca?iica’yceia naeeoaaieo (iinueeeo)
eaiaeoaooia c aeiaeieeyi anoaiiaeaii, ui ciaiioith iaaeo i?eiinueei?
ciie aeioeieueii aeaeieyoe, acyaoe ca iniiao i?inoi?iaa ?icoaooaaiiy
naiiai oa?aeoa?iiai aeey ia? eeano aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia. O
i?eiinueeie ciii aeiiiiothoue naeeoaaii, aei?iaeii i /anoeiai i?iieneiai
eaiaeoaooe, aea aiie ia oa?aeoa?ii i ia oiiiai. Oa?aeoa?ii eaiaeoaooe
i?eiinueei? ciie — ?ae?aaoeieii. A aeiaeieeyo aaeeeeo iino (iaeaniiai,
aea?aeaaiiai iiaeii?yaeeoaaiiy) aiie — iniiaa aeey aeaeieaiiy aeaio iiae
cii — aioo?ioiuei? i ciaiioiuei?. Aioo?ioiy i?eiinueea iiaeciia — oea
iinoea iioioiaeiiai iaeiiaeaiiiai oo?ecio i aiaeii/eieo, a oaeiae
?iciiuaiiy ae?iaieoeoa, oaoiieiai/ii oinii iia’ycaieo c iinoii. Oe?eia
?? ia ia?aaeuo? 5-10 ei. A eaiaeoaooiie no?oeoo?i ?ieue oiiiaeo ooo
aiaeia?athoue ?ae?aaoeieii eiiieaene, a iaoo?aeueii eaiaeoaooe
caeiathoue eeoa 6-8 % oa?eoi?i?. Ciaiioiy i?eiinueea iiaeciia aeeth/a?
oa?eoi?i? aaaaoiaeaiiiai «iniaeeiai» aiaeii/eieo. Caaaeyee ?icaeiooie
ia?aaei aei?ia i iayaiinoi o?ainii?oo, ciaiioiy iaaea i?eiinueei? ciie
iino I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie ciaoiaeeoueny ia aiaeaeaei 35-40 i aieueoa
eieiiao?ia. ?ae?aaoeieii eaiaeoaooe ciaiioiuei? i?eiinueei? iiaeciie,
caeeoath/enue oa?aeoa?ieie, ao?a/athoue cia/aiiy oiiiaeo. Aiie ooo
?icoaoiaaii ia ?iaiiii?ii, a o aeaeyaei «aiicae», i?eo?i/aieo aei aeieei
?i/ie, einiaeo ianeaia, noaaeia oa ica?. Caaaeyee oeueiio ciaiioiy
iiaeciia /anoi aneiao?e/ia. E?ii ?ae?aaoeieieo eaiaeoaooia ooo oe?iei
?iciianthaeaeaii aio?iiiaaiii eiiieaene iioeo eeania — naaeiai,
iieueiai, ianiaeuii, einieoeueoo?ii. *anoioa, iiae o aioo?ioiie
iiaeciii, cono?i/athoueny caeeoee iaoo?aeueieo eaiaeoaooia.

Niaoeeoiea i?eiinueei? ciie aeeeoo? aeaioieaiiainoue ii?iaiyeueiiai
aiaeico ?? eiiiiiaioia i eaiaeoaooia — nooiiiue o?aaiicaoei? o
aiaeiioaiii aei iinoa i ?iaaiue aio?iiiaaiicaoei? a ii?iaiyiii c
iaoo?aeueieie eaiaeoaooaie. Oea aeiaaa? aeaoaeueiioiai, iiae a iioeo
aeiaaeeao, aeei?enoaiiy i?e aea/aiii i?eiinueeeo cii iaoiaeo
inoi?eei-aaiaoe/ieo ?yaeia. ?acii c oei, iieueiai aeineiaeaeaiiy
iieacothoue, ui i?eiinueei ciie iaaeioeieueii aeaeieyoe a iniaeeaee oei
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia. I?eiinueea ciia- ?aaeueiinoue i?e
aeiiiiiei-aaia?aoi/iiio aea/aiii iino, ?o ooieoeiiiaeueiiio ciioaaiii,
aea aiia ia ? ia’?eoii ea?oia?aooaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo eiiieaenia o
eaiaeoaooii-oeiieiai/iiio aniaeoi. A i?eiinueeeo ciiao o ?icieo
niiaaiaeiioaiiyo cono?i/athoueny oaea aiaeiii oeie iinueeeo i
nieuenueeeo naeeoaaieo, aiaeieo, einiaeo, nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo,
aei?iaeieo oa ?ae?aaoeieieo eaiaeoaooia.

Aca?iica’ycee iiae oiiiaei nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeei oa iioeie eeanaie
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia ciaoiaeyoue nai? aiaeia?aaeaiiy o
aca?iii?iieeiaiii eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia oa ciiii ?o no?oeoo?e. Oae,
i?e aca?iiaei? c naeeoaaieie (iinueeeie) eaiaeoaooaie a no?oeoo?i
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ciaioo?oueny aeiey iieueiaeo i
eo/ii-ianiaeuieo eaiaeoaooia, i caieueoo?oueny — naaeiaeo; c?inoa? ?ieue
oa cia/aiiy nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eaiaeoaooii-iiaeaia?ieo nenoai —
c?iooaaeueieo, inoooaaeueieo, oaiee/ieo, a oaeiae oaoiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia-oa?aniaaieo noeeia, ?aeoeueoeaiaaieo ea?’??ia i
aiaeaaeia oiui. Nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei eaiaeoaooe noathoue aieueo
iica?/ieie, ?o no?oeoo?a iiiy?oueny, iieiee oneeaaeith?oueny. Nai??iaeio
iio?ano?oeoo?o nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eaiaeoaooia ooai?ththoue
iieacaoenoii i i?ey?oaeii einiai nioae, noaaee, iieueiai aei?iae, naea i
oaa?eiieoeueei eiiieaene. Aiie, oi/a i aiaeiinyoueny aei iioeo eeania,
ca nai?i ooieoeiiiaeueiei i?ecia/aiiyi ? aeaiaioaie
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai eaiaeoaooo. ?o ?aoeiiiaeueia ?icoaooaaiiy i
aeei?enoaiiy, i?iaeoiaia niiaaiaeiioaiiy — aaaeeeaa iciaea
iioeiiciaaiiai nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai eaiaeoaooo.

Ia?aaeeiaii/ii aca?iica’ycee ?icaeyiooi ia i?eeeaaei aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia aeaio iaeaieueo aeeiaii/ieo eeania aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia — i?iieneiaiai (ai?ie/ii?iieneiai eaiaeoaooe) i aiaeiiai
(aiaeinoiaeua). Iaiianoaoeiiia?ieie aeineiaeaeaiiyie (1986-1996 ?.?.) ia
ainueie eeth/iaeo aeieyieao anoaiiaeaii, ui oa?aeoa? oa ooieoeiiioaaiiy
ia?aaeeiaii/ieo aca?iica’yceia caeaaeaoue aiae aeeiaii/iinoi oeio
iinoeaainoae, ia yeiio aoa noi?iiaaiee aio?iiiaaiiee eiiieaen i noaaei?
eiai ?icaeoeo — ?aiiuei? aai c?iei? (A.i. Aeaienee, 1986).

Ciiaeueiinoue aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia

Aieea ethaeeie ia eaiaeoaooe i?e?iaeieo cii I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie
i?ioyaii aieia aoa iaiaeiaeiaee. Aeoeaia aio?iiiaaiicaoeiy eininoaio
iaea i?ioyaii 4 oeny/ieioue c oa?aeoa?ieie /aniaeie c?icaie
-O?eiieuenueei? ( IV-III oen. aei i.a.) i *a?iyoianueei? (II-I oen. aei
i.a.) eoeueoo?, ?aiiio neia’yi (IV-VIII no.), Ee?anueei? ?oni (IX-XIII
no.), na?aaeiueiai//y ( XVI-XVIII no.), iaaei XIX-XX no., na?aaeeie —
eiioey XX no.; noaio — 2,5 oeny/ieiooy, iniaeeai a aioe/ii /ane (V-IV
no. aei i.a.), ia iaaei XIX-XX co., na?aaeeia — eiiaoeue XX no.; ciie
iioaieo einia — oeny/ieiooy: ca /ania Ee?anueei? ?oni, /anoeiai
na?aaeiueiai//y (XVI-XVIII no.), iaaea XIX-XX no. i, iniaeeai, na?aaeeia
— eiiaoeue XX no. Aio?iiiaaiicaoeiy i?e?iaeieo cii I?aaiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie i?eaaea aei ?o ciiuaiiy a iiaii/iiio iai?yieo. A ?iaioi oea
iieacaii ia i?eeeaaei eininoaio. ?acoeueoaoe i?ioeano aio?iiiaaiicaoei?
ciaeoee nai? aiaeia?aaeaiiy o ?ic?iaoei niaoeeoi/ieo iaoiaeia aaaeaiiy
ainiiaea?noaa i nenoai caiea?ianoaa, yei i?eaaee aei oi?ioaaiiy
ciiaeueieo oeiia aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia. Oae, a iiaeeeani iieueiaeo
eaiaeoaooia aeaeieaii i aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea o?ueio ?o ciiaeueieo oeiia:
iioaiieiniaiai, eininoaiiaiai i noaiiaiai. E?ii ciie iioaieo einia,
ia?oee, iioaiieiniaee oei iieueiaeo eaiaeoaooia, cono?i/a?oueny a
ie?aieo ?aaiiiao eininoaio: Iiaocueeiio Iieinni, ia oa?anao Aeiii?a.
Noi?ioaaany ia iniiai iiaeni/ii? (ae?oaii?), aiaiaai? oa /anoeiai i?ii?
nenoai caiea?ianoaa. Caeia? 5,2-5,3 iei.aa. Eiai oa?aeoa?ia iciaea —
iane/aiinoue inoooaaeueieie eaiaeoaooii-iiaeaia?ieie nenoaiaie oa
iayaiinoue iieueaea?ia. Oe?iea ?iciianthaeaeaiiy einia, /aaa?ieeia i
aieio, ui aeeeiththoueny a iieueiai eaiaeoaooe, coiiaeththoue ?o
ae?iaiieiioo?iinoue i iica?/iinoue. A ciiaeueieo noa?ii?ieo
aea?iiai-iiaecieenoeo a?oioao niinoa?iaa?oueny iaeaea iiaia i?eieiaiiy
iiaecieenoiai i aeoeaicaoeiy aea?ieiiiai ia?aaiieii-aeoioeyoeaiiai
i?ioeano. A ?acoeueoaoi oi?iothoueny iiai aea?ieiii ieoeueoo?aii a?oioe,
yei aac iiaeo?eiee ethaeeie ooieoeiiioaaoe ia iiaeooue. Ua aeeaoa
ia?aaoaeiaa a?oioiaiai iie?eao niinoa?iaa?oueny a iieueiaeo
eaiaeoaooii-iiaeaia?ieo nenoaiao. Ia iinoei oi?oiaeo a?oioia ooo
oi?io?oueny iiaee oei ieoeueoo?aiiai oi?oiaiai a?oioo c /ioeei iiaeieii
i?ioieth ia aeaa ai?eciioe: aa?oiie — ia?aaiieii-oi?oiaee (noiio) i
ieaeiie — neaai ciiiaii iiuaii aiaeeeaaee. Aiaeiiaiaeii ciiie
oiceei-oiii/ieo aeanoeainoae a?oioia coiiaeththoue ooo no?oeoo?o oa
iaai? iieueiaeo oaoii/ieo i ieieieo eoeueoo?, ao?’yiiaeo oa?oioaaiue oa
oeiaeieeia.

Eininoaiiaee oei iieueiaeo eaiaeoaooia. E?ii eininoaiiai? ciie caeia?
iiieey iioaieo einia, iiaii/ii (ia?aoiaeii aei eininoaio) ?aeiie noaio.
Noi?ioaaany a ?acoeueoaoi ?icaeoeo ae?oaii?, i?ii? i, /anoeiai, aiaiaai?
nenoai caiea?ianoaa. inio? aieueoa 6 oen. ?ieia. No/aniee a?oioiaee
iie?ea aeiei?iiii aiae?iciy?oueny aiae nai?o iaoo?aeueieo aiaeiaia:
oaiii-ni?i einiai a?oioe ao?a/athoue aieynoee ai?eciio, noathoue
oaiiioeie i ca iniiaieie iciaeaie aiaeiiaiaeathoue iiiaecieaiei aai
aeeoaiaaiei /i?iicaiai. Aianeiaeie ia?aiiooaaiiy a ?aeeio ieeoaaoo iano
aoioniaiai i aethaiaeueiiai ai?eciioia ni?eo einiaeo a?oioia, ?o
a?oioiciaaoei iacaaee ni?eie aio?iiiaaiieie a?oioaie. ?icei ciiieeeny
oiceei-oiii/ii aeanoeainoi ?ici?aieo a?oioia: ?iaaiue ea?aiiaoia a ni?eo
einiaeo a?oioao Na?aaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey iiaeaeueany ia 30-70 ni, aiino
aoiono cieceany ia 18-28 % i i?iaeiaaeo? iaaeaoe. A eininoaiiaiio oeii
iieueiaeo eaiaeoaooia a?iaeiaaiinoue caiaeue aeinyaa? 35-65 %. Ciea oa
aeoioeyoeiy ?iaeth/eo a?oioia a aaeeao, caieaaao aeieei ?i/ie
i?ecaiaeeoue ooo aei caieueoaiiy ia 27-53 % aeaeiaeo i aeathaaoeo
a?oioia; ia aiaeiaeieao I?eaeiino?ia’y, a iinoeyo c iaaeeaieei
caeyaaiiyi aiaeio?eaeeo ai?eciioia, caioeaiiy iiieaeaiue i?eaaei aei
oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo aio?iiiaaiieo o?i/eu — ii/a?ia. Ia?aaoaeiaa
iiaa?oiaaiai noieo ni?eyea ai?iaaaeaeaiith ia?aoeiiiaeueii? eiioo?ii?
nenoaie caiea?ianoaa, noai?aiith oaoiiaaiieo oi?i ?aeue?oo (ooo/ieo
oa?an, aeiieiaeaieo noeeia, iio oiui), ai?iaaaeaeaiith iieeaieo
eaiaeoaooii-iiaeaia?ieo nenoai. Aeey eininoaiiaiai oeio iieueiaeo
eaiaeoaooia oa?aeoa?iee naie iaai? ca?iiaeo i oaoii/ieo eoeueoo?,
no?oeoo?a iiniaia i iia’ycaieo c ieie ao?’yiiaeo anioeiaoeie oa
oeiaeieeia.

Noaiiaee oei iieueiaeo eaiaeoaooia. I?e oyaiie iaeiiiaiioiinoi no?oeoo?a
eiai iaaecae/aeii ?iciiiaiioia. A oeaio?aeueieo ?aaiiiao noaio iaiothoue
aeania iieueiai eaiaeoaooe. Ianooaaiinoue oa cia/aiiy ?o oi?ioaaiiy,
iniaeeainoi ia?aaoaeiae ooo a?oioiaiai iie?eao aiaecia/ea ua
A.A.Aeieo/a?a (1894 ?.), oa I.I.iciaieuenueeee (1892 ?.). Iieueiai
eaiaeoaooii- iiaeaia?ii nenoaie ooo caeiathoue anueiai 6-8 % oa?eoi?i?.
A iiaaeaiieo ?aaiiiao ?o ?ieue oa cia/aiiy a eaiaeoaooiie no?oeoo?i
iiiioii c?inoa? — caeiathoue aei 32 % oa?eoi?i?. Iieeaii
eaiaeoaooii-iiaeaia?ii nenoaie noeioeththoue ?icaeoie ooo oaeeo
iaaaaeaieo i?ioeania ye iiaeaeuaiiy ?iaiy a?oioiaeo aiae, iiaeoiieaiiy,
canieaiiy a?oioia oiui. A ?o no?oeoo?i c?inoathoue ieiui iaieaiaeoaooieo
eiiieaenia — caeeaieo ?eniaeo ieaioaoeie, caaiei/aieo iiaeia oiui.

?aeiioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia

Nooue ?aeiioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia — oea iaa?oiooaaiiy oa
aeaeieaiiy ?icieo ca ciinoii oa ?aiaii ?o oa?eoi?iaeueieo no?oeoo?.
No/aniee ?icaeoie oai?i? aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa i iayaiee
oaeoe/iee iaoa?iae aeaaaee iiaeeeainoue i?iaanoe ?aeiioaaiiy eeoa
naeeoaaieo, i?iieneiaeo i ?ae?aaoeieieo eaiaeoaooia ie?aieo (cie?aia
Iiaeieey) oa?eoi?ie I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. Ni?ia caaaeueiiai
?aeiioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia aei oeueiai /ano ia aoei. Iao
aeinaiae i aiaeic iioaeieiaaieo i?aoeue iieaco?, ui i?e ?aeiioaaiii
eeania aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia iiaeeeai ?icii iiaeoiaee.

Ca nooiaiai aio?iiiaaiicaoei? aaia?aoi/ieo iaeeieoeue. Iniiaa —
niiaaiaeiioaiiy ieiu aeineiaeaeoaaiiai eeano aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia i
iaeeieoeue inioth/i? noaie oiceei-aaia?aoi/iiai ?aeiioaaiiy. A
iiaeaeueoiio iaeaieueo aio?iiiaaiiciaaii oa?eoi?i? ia’?aeiothoueny a
ie?aii e?a? i ?aeiie. Oeae iiaeoiae ia a?aoiao? niaoeeoiee oiai /e
iioiai eeano aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia i iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee eeoa c
iiciaaaeueiith, iaeyaeiaith iaoith. Canoiniaaiee iaie i?e ?aeiioaaiii
naeeoaaieo, ?ae?aaoeieieo oa aaeiaa?aoeaieo eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie.

Ca i?e?iaeieie i oaoiieiai/ieie iniaeeainoyie oi?ioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia. Canoiniao?oueny i?e ?aeiioaaiii eeania
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia, yei ca nai?i iioiaeaeaiiyi aiaeiinyoueny aei
a?oie oaoiiaaiieo — naeeoaaieo, i?iieneiaeo, aei?iaeieo i aiaeieo. Ooo
aio?iiiaaiii eiiieaene ?icaeyaeathoueny ye no?oeoo?ia neeaaeiaa
inioth/eo ?aaiiiaeueieo iaeeieoeue. Iieueiai aeineiaeaeaiiy iieacothoue,
ui aiie iiaeooue iiiyoe ia oieueee eaiaeoaooio no?oeoo?o, aea, iiiaei, i
iaaei oiceei-aaia?aoi/ieo ?aeiiia. Oeae iiaeoiae aeei?enoaiee iaie i?e
?aeiioaaiii ai?ie/ii?iieneiaeo eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie (A.i.
Aeaienee, 1984, 1987).

Ca i?e?iaeieie i nioeiaeueii-inoi?e/ieie iniaeeainoyie oi?ioaaiiy
?aaiiiaeueieo no?oeoo? aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia. Caaaeueia ?aeiioaaiiy,
a oaeiae eeania nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i einiaeo aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia i?iaaaeaii c a?aooaaiiyi ?o ?aaiiiaeueieo no?oeoo?.
?aaiiiaeueia no?oeoo?a aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooo aecia/a?oueny
iniaeeainoyie iaoo?aeueiiai eaiaeoaooo i nioeiaeueii-inoi?e/ieie
oiiaaie. Iiae ?aaiiiaeueiith no?oeoo?ith aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooo
ia?oueny ia oaaci i?inoi?iaa niiaaiaeiioaiiy iniiaieo eiai eeania , a
oaeiae ii?aeiaieo c ieie o?aaiaioia iaoo?aeueieo eaiaeoaooieo
eiiieaenia. Na?aae ?aaiiiaeueieo no?oeoo?, ye i?e caaaeueiiio
?aeiioaaiii, oae i eeania nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i einiaeo
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia, /ioei aeaeieythoueny ciie, e?a? i ?aeiie.
E?eoa?i? ?o aeaeieaiiy ?icaeyiooi ia i?eeeaaei ?aaiiiaeueieo no?oeoo?
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eaiaeoaooia.

?aaiiiaeueii no?oeoo?e oa ?aeiioaaiiy nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eaiaeoaooia. I?inoi?iaa aeeoa?aioeiaoeiy nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eaiaeoaooia i?inoaaeo?oueny ia oieueee a oeiieiai/ieo (o?i/eua,
iinoeaainoue), aea i ?aaiiiaeueieo no?oeoo?ao. ?aaiiiaeueia no?oeoo?a
eeano nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eaiaeoaooia — oea i?inoi?iaa (iinoeaaa)
ii?aeiaiiy eiai iiaeeeania — iieueiaiai, eo/ii-ianiaeuiiai i naaeiaiai —
i ooieoeiiiaeueii iia’ycaieo c ieie iioeo aio?iiiaaiieo, a oaeiae
caa?aaeaieo iaoo?aeueieo eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia.

A nenoaii ?aaiiiaeueieo no?oeoo? nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eaiaeoaooia
I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aeaeieaii ciie, e?a? i ?aeiie. Aiaeiiie iiae
ciiaeueieie no?oeoo?aie iaeaieueo nooo?ai. Aiie i?iyaeythoueny: o
niiaaiaeiioaiii ieiu iiaeeeania nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eaiaeoaooia oa
a eaiaeoaooieo iniaeeainoyo ?o ciiaeueieo oeiia; a inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/ieo
iniaeeainoyo ?icaeoeo nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, o?aaeeoeiyo,
ciiaeueieo nenoaiao caiea?ianoaa i nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, a oeeaaei nieuenueeiai aeeooy. A iaaeao ciiaeueieo
no?oeoo? aeaeieythoueny e?aeiai no?oeoo?e nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eaiaeoaooia. Iiae niaith ?o aiae?iciythoue i?e?iaeii iniaeeainoi e?a?a,
o?aaeeoei? i iaae/ee aaaeaiiy nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa,
iia’ycaii c ieie aiaeiiie a oeiao nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eaiaeoaooia
(?o niiaaiaeiioaiiyi, iayaiinoi oaoiiaaiieo aeaiaioia, einiaeo ianeaia,
caiiaiaeieo ia’?eoia oiui). Iaaei e?aeiaeo no?oeoo? iieiee
niiaiaaeathoue c iaaeaie oiceei-aaia?aoi/ieo i?iaiioeie, aea /anoioa
inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/ieo e?a?a. Aiaeiiie iiae e?aeiaeie no?oeoo?aie
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eaiaeoaooia iiaeia i?ineiaeeoaaoe iaaioue ia
iaaaeeeeo aiaenoaiyo. Oae, ?icoaoiaaii ii?yae Iiaeieey i Iaea Iieinny
/ioei aiae?iciythoueny iiae niaith no?oeoo?aie
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai eaiaeoaooo. A eininoaio oaei ae /ioei
aiaeiiie iiae e?aeiaeie no?oeoo?aie iniothoue ia iaaei
Aeiino?ianueei-Aeiii?ianueeiai i Eiaiaa?aaeii-Aeiii?ianueeiai
oiceei-aaia?aoi/ieo ?aaiiiia.

No?oeoo?e ?aeiiia nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eaiaeoaooia /anoi
niiaiaaeathoue c eiioo?aie oiceei-aaia?aoi/ieo iaeanoae. Iaeanoi
aiae?iciythoueny iaeia aiae ae?oai? aiiniiao?e/ieie iciaeaie, oa?aeoa?ii
?ic/eaioaaiiy ?aeue?oo, eeiiaoe/ieie oiiaaie, ii?aeiaiiyi
a?oioiai-?ineeieo oa?oioaaiue, — ana oea ciaoiaeeoue nai? aiaeia?aaeaiiy
a no?oeoo?i nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai eaiaeoaooo: eiioiao?aoei? iieia,
no?oeoo?i oaiaeue i aa?ioioioeaiicia oiui. Cie?aia a iaaeao Iiaeieey
aeaeieaii no?oeoo?e ?aeiiia nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eaiaeoaooia
I?eaeiino?ia’y, Oeaio?aeueiiai Iiaeieey i Iiaoaeaey. A?aoiaoth/e
?iciiiaiioiinoue oa aeanoeainoi iaoo?aeueieo eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia,
inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/ii iniaeeainoi ?o nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai inai?iiy
i oa?aeoa?ii iciaee noi?iiaaieo i?e oeueiio ?aaiiiaeueieo no?oeoo?
i?iaaaeaii ?aeiioaaiiy nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eaiaeoaooia oa?eoi?i?
I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. Aeaeieaii 3 nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei ciie, 10
e?a?a, 34 ?aeiie.

I?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueei ciie. Aaaaoiaieiaa i ?iciiai/ia ainiiaea?nueea
inai?iiy, caiiia iaoo?aeueieo eaiaeoaooia i?e?iaeieo cii aio?iiiaaiieie
i?eaaee aei oi?ioaaiiy a iaaeao I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie
i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueeeo cii: einiianiaeuii?, einiiieueiai? i
iieueiai?. Iaaei aiaeiiaeaieo i?e?iaeieo i no/anieo
i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueeeo cii ia caaaeaee niiaiaaeathoue. O oi?ioaaiii
inoaiiio, e?ii i?e?iaeieo, aa?ooue o/anoue ?iaiioeiiii, a iieiee i
ia?aaaaeath/i ?o aio?iiiaaiii /eiieee. Iaaei i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueeeo
cii aecia/athoueny nooiaiai aio?iiiaaiicaoei? (I.A.Oeuaiei, 1985), aai
aeaeii ?N, a ?o iacaa aeiiiioth/eie ciiaeueieie oeiaie aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia. sse i iaoo?aeueieo — iaaei i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueeeo cii
iiaeooue aooe aeaiyeiai ?iaeo: aai ia/ioeeie «?icieoeie» o aeaeyaei
?icii? oe?eie ia?aoiaeieo nioa, aai /ioeeie, c iaeaea eiiieieie
?oaaaeaie. Aiie iinoieii ciiiththoueny. C /anii aio?iiiaaiicaoeiy
i?e?iaeieo nioa I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aoaea ia?inoaoe. ?o ia?aaoaeiaa i
ooieoeiiioaaiiy nueiaiaeii a yeinoi i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueeeo i?eaaea
aei caaino?aiiy aeieiai/ieo i?iaeai oa i?iaeai ?o ?aoeiiiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy i ioi?iie.

?aeiioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie i?iaaaeaii
c a?aooaaiiyi noai ?aeiioaaiiy ie?aieo eeania aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia
oa ?o iinoeaaei niiaaiaeiioaiiyi, oiaoi ?aaiiiaeueieie no?oeoo?aie.
A?aoiaaii oaeiae oaea inioth/i noaie oiceei-aaia?aoi/iiai i
i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueeiai ?aeiioaaiiy Oe?a?ie. Ia aeaiee /an o iaaeao
I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aeaeieaii 3 i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueeeo ciie, 10
e?a?a i 24 ?aeiie (?en. 3). Aeaeieaii i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueei ciie,
e?a? i ?aeiie, ?o eieueeinoue oa iaaei aoaeooue a iaeaooiueiio,
caeaaieueoiai caaaeyee aio?iiiaaiiiio /eiieeo, ciiithaaoeny.
Cai?iiiiiaaio noaio iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye iniiao iiaeaeueoeo
aeineiaeaeaiue ?aaiiiaeueieo no?oeoo? aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia,
i?iaiico ?o ooieoeiiioaaiiy oa ae?ioaiiy i?iaeai iioeiicaoei?.

Aio?iiiaaiii-eaiaeoaooiee i?iaiic. Iioeiicaoeiy

Aio?iiiaaiii-eaiaeoaooiee i?iaiic — iaoeiaa ia?aaeaa/aiiy ciii o
no?oeoo?i i ooieoeiiioaaiii aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia iiae aei?th
iaoo?aeueieo oa aio?iiiaaiiiai /eiieeia.Niaoeeoiea
aio?iiiaaiii-eaiaeoaooiiai i?iaiico — a ia?aaeaa/aiii iaeaooiio ciii ia
ie?aieo eiiiiiaioia, aai aio?iiiaaiiciaaiiai aeiaeieey, a «ia?aco» oaea
inioth/eo aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia, iniaeeai ca?iaeaeaiiy i
noaiiaeaiiy iiaeo. Eiai oneeaaeith? iaeii/ania aca?iiaeiy ?icieo ca
i?iyaaie i ianeiaeeaie /eiieeia — iaoo?aeueieo i aio?iiiaaiiiai. sseui
iaoo?aeueii(oaeoiaaiiee, eeiiaoiaaiiee, aiiaaiiee) /eiieee aeithoue
caeaaieueoiai ?iaiiii?ii, oi aio?iiiaaiii «iiooiaoe» —
iiioeueneaii-eieaeueii, ia?iaiiii?ii i ?iciianthaeaeothoueny ia
i?yiieiiieii i c iaiaeiaeiaith oaeaeeinoth a ?icieo ?aaiiiao. ?acii c
oei, aio?iiiaaiii-eaiaeoaooia i?iaiicoaaiiy aeaui iieaaoo?oueny
inioth/eie i?iaiicaie ?icaeoeo ie?aieo aaeocae i ainiiaea?noaa ?aaiiio a
caaaeueiiio. Oea aea? iiaeeeainoue iiia?aaeiuei aecia/eoe ?aeiie
?icaeoeo oeo /e iioeo aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia. Oaei
iiaeeeai ciiie no/anieo eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia iiae aei?th
aio?iiiaaiiiai /eiieea, o iaeaeeae/i 10-15 ?ieia aiaeia?aaeaiii ia
i?iaiiciie eaiaeoaooiie ea?oinoaii I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. ?? iniiaa —
ea?oa no/anieo eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia i noaia
i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueeiai ?aeiioaaiiy ?aaiiio. Iiae aei?th
aio?iiiaaiiiai /eiieea o eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenao oa?eoi?i?
I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aiaeaoaeooueny ciiie ?iciiai ?iaeo: c’yaeyoueny
iaieaiaeoaooe, ui aeieeiooue ca ei?ioeie oa?iii, /anoioa ia ?iaii
o?i/eu, eaiaeoaooieo aeieyiie i eiie?aoieo iinoeaainoae; aiaeaoaeaoueny
aeaeiaa o?ainoi?iaoeiy, ui ioiieoue eiiieaene ?iciiai ianooaao — aiae
eiie?aoieo o?i/eu aei oiceei-aaia?aoi/ieo ?aeiiia i iaaioue iaeanoae;
ciiieoueny no?oeoo?a inioth/eo iaoo?aeueieo oa aio?iiiaaiieo eiiieaenia
iiae aieeaii ?iciiai ?iaeo noiooieo yaeu i i?ioeania. Oea naiae/eoue
oaeiae i?i oa, ui i?iaiicoaaiiy ?icaeoeo inioth/eo eaiaeoaooieo
eiiieaenia iaiiaeeeaa eeoa ia iniiai aeineiaeaeaiue ?o no/aniiai noaio.
Aio?iiiaaiii-eaiaeoaooiee i?iaiic — neeaaeiaa /anoeia aieueo caaaeueieo
eaiaeoaooiiai (?en. 4) i aaia?aoi/iiai i?iaiicia. ?acii c oei, aii
iaeia c iniiaieo eaiie i?ioeano iioeiicaoei? aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia.

?en.4 Aio?iiiaaiii-eaiaeoaooiee i?iaiic a no?oeoo?i eaiaeoaooiiai

i?iaiico

A iioaeieiaaieo i?aoeyo (A.i. Aeaienee, 1979, 1988, 1990, 1998)
?icaeyiooi iai?yiee iioeiicaoei? nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo, i?iieneiaeo,
aiaeieo i /anoeiai ?ae?aaoeieieo oa aaeiaa?aoeaieo aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia. O aeena?oaoei? iniiaia oaaaa caa?iaia ia ae?ioaiiy
caaaeueieo i?iaeai iioeiicaoei? aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia. Oae, caaaeyee
iiaeaeueoie aeoeaiie aio?iiiaaiicaoei? i?e?iaeieo cii iniaeeai aino?i
noa? ieoaiiy ioi?iie i?e?iaee, caa?aaeaiiy inioth/eo i noai?aiiy iiaeo
caiiaiaeieo ia’?eoia o iaaeao I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. A aeena?oaoei?
?icaeyiooa iiaeeeainoue noai?aiiy ?aeeii? nenoaie i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
ia’?eoia, yea aeeth/a? a naaa e?ii iaoo?aeueieo, aeania aio?iiiaaiii,
eaiaeoaooii-iiaeaia?ii i eaiaeoaooii-oaoiiaaiii nenoaie. Aeieacaia
aeioeieueiinoue canoinoaaiiy aio?iiiaaiii-eaiaeoaooiiai i?iaiicoaaiiy a
i?ioeani iioeiicaoei? ie?aieo ?aaiiiaeueieo i?iaeai aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia, cie?aia, ?aeoeueoeaaoei? ai?ie/ii?iieneiaeo ?ic?iaie
Iiaeieey. Iniaeeainoi iioeiicaoei? iaaacia/ieo aio?iiiaaiieo i?ioeania i
iia’ycaieo c ieie oi?ioaaiiy eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia ?icaeyiooi ia
i?eeeaaei aio?iiiaaiiiai ea?noo i inaaaeiea?noo I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie.

Aeniiaee

1. A inoi?e/iiio i?ioeani ?icaeoeo eiiieaenieo aeineiaeaeaiue i?e?iaee
oa?eoi?i? I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aeioeieueii aeaeieyoe o?e aoaie:
ii/aoeiaiai iiciaiiy, iieniaee oa iaoeiaeo iiooeia. Ia ?o iniiai
ca?iaeeeinue, ioi?ieeinue i ?icaeaa?oueny ye iiaee iaoeiaee iai?yi
a/aiiy i?i aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe. Aieiaieie iciaeaie inoaiiueiai aoaio
eiai ?icaeoeo ?: aeei?enoaiiy i?iaiaeieo iaoiaeia aaia?aoi? i
o?aaeeoeieiiai eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa aeey aea/aiiy aio?iiiaaiieo
eiiieaenia; ?ic?iaea iiaeo iaoiaeia i i?eioeeiia aeineiaeaeaiue a
aio?iiiaaiiiio eaiaeoaooiciaanoai; aeaeieaiiy a eiai no?oeoo?i aeaio
?icaeieia — caaaeueiiai i ?aaiiiaeueiiai aio?iiiaaiiiai
eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa.

2. Cai?iiiiiaaii oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/ii iniiae ?aaiiiaeueieo
aeineiaeaeaiue aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia aacothoueny ia
aio?iiioeaio?e/iiio iiaeoiaei aei aea/aiiy i?ioeania oa ?acoeueoaoia
aca?iiaei? ethaeeie i i?e?iaee. Oeae iiaeoiae icia/a?, ui o oi?ioaaiii
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia aa?ooue o/anoue aeaa /eiieee — i?e?iaeiee i
aio?iiiaaiiee, a niaoeeoieo aecia/athoue ?aaiiiaeueii iniaeeainoi ?o
aca?iiaei?. ?aaiiiaeueii aeineiaeaeaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia
aeeth/athoue: aecia/aiiy ?aeiiia niiaaiaeiioaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo i
iaoo?aeueieo eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia; aiaeic ciinoo i nooi ?aaiiiaeueii?
i?aaiicaoei? aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia, oeyoii aeineiaeaeaiiy inoi?i?
oi?ioaaiiy i no?oeoo?e aeania aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia,
eaiaeoaooii-iiaeaia?ieo i eaiaeoaooii-oaoiiaaiieo nenoai; ae?ioaiiy
i?iaeai eeaneoieaoei? oa ?aeiioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia; ?ic?iaeo
iaoiaeia aeineiaeaeaiue oa niiniaia ?o i?aeoe/iiai caeieniaiiy.

3. Iniiaith eeaneoieaoei? aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia ?
inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/iee aiaeic i?ioeano ?o oi?ioaaiiy oa iniaeeainoi
no/anii? no?oeoo?e. ?acoeueoaoe aiaeico aeaee iiaenoaae aeey aeaeieaiiy
a iaaeao I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie ainueie eeania aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia: naeeoaaiiai, nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai, einiaiai,
aiaeiiai, i?iieneiaiai, aei?iaeiiai, ?ae?aaoeieiiai, aaeiaa?aoeaiiai oa
i’yoiaaeoeyoe ?o iiaeeeania. *aniai c?ice ca?iaeaeaiiy aiaeiiaiaeieo
a?oi eaiaeoaooia nyaathoue aei inoi?e/ieo aiio; c oeo ii? i?ioyaii
aieioeaio aiaeaoaaeiny noaiiaeaiiy i ooieoeiiioaaiiy eaiaeoaooia anio
aeaeieaieo eeania oa iiaeeeania.

4. Aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooii eiiieaene oi?iothoueny a iayaiiio
i?e?iaeiiio i?inoi?i — /ani, oniaaeeiaoth/e neeaaeio iica?eo inioth/eo
eaiaeoaooia. I?e oeueiio noai?th?oueny iiaa ia?aaea
iaoo?aeueii-aio?iiiaaiieo i aio?iiiaaiieo iaae, yeeie i?aaenoaaeaii
neeaaeii eaiaeoaooii no?oeoo?e — aeioiie, eaoaie, ?iciiooieoeiiiaeueii
i?eiinueei nioae oa ciie. A oiiaao aio?iiiaaiiiai iineeaiiy
eiio?anoiinoi na?aaeiaeua aeoeaicaoeiy iaiiiii ?a/iaeiith oa aia?ai?th
i?eaiaeeoue aei oi?ioaaiiy neeaaeieo ia?aaeeiaii/ieo aca?iica’yceia iiae
aio?iiiaaiieie eaiaeoaooieie eiiieaenaie. No?oeoo?a aca?iiaeith/eo
eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia noa? aieueo iica?/iith, iieiee
oii?yaeeiaaiioith.

5. Aieea ainiiaea?nueei? aeiyeueiinoi ethaeae ia eaiaeoaooe i?e?iaeieo
cii I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie i?ioyaii aieia aoa iaiaeiaeiaee. Aeiy
aio?iiiaaiiiai /eiieea i?ineiaeeiao?oueny ia oieueee a caiiii
iaoo?aeueieo eaiaeoaooia aio?iiiaaiieie, aea i o ciiuaiii iaae
i?e?iaeieo cii. ?acii c oei, iiae aei?th ciiaeueieo /eiieeia o
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooao nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai, einiaiai,
aiaeiiai, ?ae?aaoeieiiai oa aaeiaa?aoeaiiai eeania, o no?oeoo?i yeeo
aeiiiiothoue aeania aio?iiiaaiii eiiieaene, noi?ioaaeenue ciiaeueii ?ene
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia. Ia aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe iinueeiai
naeeoaaiiai i?iieneiaiai i aei?iaeiiai eeania, iniiao no?oeoo?e yeeo
oi?iothoue eaiaeoaooii-iiaeaia?ii i eaiaeoaooii-oaoiiaaiii nenoaie,
ciiaeueii /eiieee aeithoue oieueee /anoeiai.

6. ?aeiioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia aeeth/a? a naaa iaa?oiooaaiiy i
aeaeieaiiy ?icieo ca ciinoii i ?aiaii ?o oa?eoi?iaeueieo no?oeoo?.
Aieiaii e?eoa?i? a ?aeiioaaiii aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia: ca nooiaiai
aio?iiiaaiicaoei? ?aaiiiaeueieo eiiieaenia; ca i?e?iaeieie i
oaoiieiai/ieie aieeaaie ia oi?ioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooieo
eiiieaenia oa ?oiiie ?aaiiiaeueieie no?oeoo?aie. Inoaiiie e?eoa?ie ?
iaeaieueo oiiaa?naeueiei. Eiai aeei?enoaii i?e caaaeueiiio ?aeiioaaiii
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie oa ?o oiiiaeo eeania —
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i einiaiai. ?aaiiiaeueia no?oeoo?a
aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooo aecia/a?oueny iniaeeainoyie iaoo?aeueiiai
eaiaeoaooo i nioeiaeueii-inoi?e/ieie oiiaaie.

7. Aio?iiiaaiii-eaiaeoaooiee i?iaiic — iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaia
ia?aaeaa/aiiy iiaeeeaeo ciii o no?oeoo?i oa ooieoeiiioaaiii
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia iiae aieeaii iaeii/anii aeith/eo aeaio ?icieo
ca i?iyaaie i ianeiaeeaie /eiieeia — i?e?iaeiiai oa aio?iiiaaiiiai. Eiai
iniiaa — inoi?eei-aaiaoe/iee ?yae ea?o aiae i?iaiico ?icaeoeo
iaoo?aeueieo, /a?ac oa?aeoa?ii inoi?e/ii c?ice aei no/anieo
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia. Canoinoaaiiy aio?iiiaaiii-eaiaeoaooiiai
i?iaiico o ii?aeiaiii c aeeiiaiei inoi?eei-aaa?aoi/iei aiaeicii ?
iaiaoiaeieie i aeinoaoiii aeey oeeaaeaiiy ea?oinoai oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia oa ?icaeoeo iani?eyoeeaeo
aio?iiiaaiieo i?ioeania o iaaeao I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie ia ianooiii
10-15 ?ieia.

8. Iiaeaeueoa aeoeaia aio?iiiaaiicaoeiy eaiaeoaoia I?aaiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie ia?aaeaa/a? ae?ioaiiy i?iaeai iioeiicaoei?, iia’ycaieo ye c
?icaeoeii aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia caaaeii, oae i ?o ie?aieo
eeaneoieaoeieieo a?oi. I?ioyaii ianooiieo 10-15 ?ieia aaaeeeaeie
iai?yieaie ae?ioaiiy oeeo i?iaeai, e?ii oaea aeciaieo, aoaeooue:
noai?aiiy ?aeeii? ia?aaei ioi?iiieo ia’?eoia, aei no?oeoo?e yei?, e?ii
iaoo?aeueieo, aoiaeeoeiooue aeania aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe,
eaiaeoaooii-iiaeaia?ii oa eaiaeoaooii-oaoiiaaiii nenoaie; iioeiicaoeiy
iaaacia/ieo i?ioeania, aecaaieo ?icaeoeii aio?iiiaaiieo ea?noiaeo i
inaaaeiea?noiaeo, a?icieieo oa aeoioeyoeaieo i?ioeania, iiaeoiieaiiy
oiui, a oaeiae noi?iiaaieo ieie eaiaeoaooieo eiiieaenia; eieaeicaoeiy
aeieiai/ieo i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo a ia?oo /a?ao c ooieoeiiioaaiiyi
iinueeeo naeeoaaieo, ai?ie/i-i?iieneiaeo i aiaeieo aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie.

Iniiaii ioaeieaoei? ca oaiith aeena?oaoei?.

Iiiia?aoi?, a?ioo?e.

1. Aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. — Aiiieoey: A?aao,
1998. — 289 n.

2. I?e?iaeie/a aaia?aoiy Iiaeieey. — Aiiieoey: AeiAicianOeaio?, 1998. —
184n.

3. Aiiie//eia. inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/ii ia?ene. — Aiiieoey: Oiiae eoeueoo?e,
1997. — 80 n.

4. Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eco/aieth oaoiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia. —
Aeiieoea: AAIE, 1984. — 24 n.

5. Aoean Aeiieoeeie iaeanoe. — I.: AOAE, 1987. — 32n. (6,0 ae.a. o
niiaaaoi?noai c ?ie/aieii A.i., Neeaeith I.I., Ia?aeueiooa?ii TH. A.,
Iaianaieii A.Ae., aaoi?nueeeo- 0,7 ae.a.).

6. I?e?iaea: o?aaiae e iaaeaaeaeu (iooe ?aoaiey yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai a
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo). — Aeiieoea: AAIE, 1988. — 46 n. (o niiaaaoi?noai
c Iaianaieii A.Ae., Ia?aeueiooa?ii TH.A., Noaoaieiaei E.i., aaoi?nueeeo
— 0,7 ae.a.).

Noaooi.

7. Eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u aaieiiieaenia iiae aicaeaenoaeai
ai?iiaeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe // Oec. aaia?aoey e aaiii?oieiaey. —
E.: Aeua oeiea, 1977. — Aui. 18. — N.38-47 (niiaaaoi? Ai?iiae E.I.).

8. Aio?iiiaaiiua eciaiaiey i?e?iaeu Aeiieoeeie iaeanoe // Oec. aaia?aoey
e aaiii?oieiaey. E.: Aeua oeiea, 1978. — Aui. 19. — N.13-17 (niiaaaoi?
Ai?iiae E.I.).

9. Aicaeaenoaea ai?iiaeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia aaieiiieaenu aeieeiu
THaeiiai Aoaa a i?aaeaeao Iiaeieueneie aicauoaiiinoe // Oec. aaia?aoey e
aaiii?oieiaey. — E.: Aeua oeiea, 1979. — Aui. 20. — N.65-68.

10. Ea?oia?aoe?iaaiea ai?iii?iiuoeaiiuo eaiaeoaooia // Oec. aaia?aoey e
aaiii?oieiaey. — E.: Aeua oeiea,1980. — Aui.23. — N.36-40 (niiaaaoi?
Oaaeioia A.I.).

11. Oaoiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou Iiaeieueneeo Oieo?, eo no?oeoo?a e
eeanneoeeaoeey // Oec.aaia?aoey e aaiii?oieiaey. — E.: Aeua oeiea, 1981.
— Aui.25. — N.65-69.

12. Yoaiu ea?oia?aoe/aneiai eco/aiey ai?iii?iiuoeaiiuo eaiaeoaooia //
I?eeeaaeiua aniaeou eco/aiey nia?aiaiiuo eaiaeoaooia. — Ai?iiaae: AAO,
1982. — N.107-115.

13. Oaoiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou Iiaeieuey, eo ?aeiie?iaaiea e io?aia //
I?iaeaiu i?e?iaeiiai ?aeiie?iaaiey e io?aia i?e?iaeu. — Ooa: AAO, 1982.
— N.40-45.

14. Iaeioi?ua aii?inu eco/aiey oaoiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia a oeieueiii eo?na
aaia?aoee // Eco/aiea eaiaeoaooia eciaiaiiuo aeayoaeueiinoueth /aeiaaea
a oeiea. — Oaiaia: OAIE, 1983. — N.41-44.

15. Iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey ?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa oaoiiaaiiuo
eaiaeoaooia Iiaeieuey // ?anoaiey e i?iiuoeaiiay n?aaea. — Naa?aeeiane:
NAIE, 1984. — N.121-125.

16. Aio?iiiaaiiue ea?no Iiaeieuey // Aaia?. e i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu. -1984.
— N4. — N.152-154.

17. ?a/iua eaiaeoaoou thai-caiaaea NNN?// Aaia?. e i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu.
-1985. — N4. — N.89-94.

18. Oi?ie?iaaiea e aeeiaieea oaoiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia Iiaeieuey //
Oec.aaia?aoey e aaiii?oieiaey — E.: Aeua oeiea, 1986. — Aui.33. —
N.43-48.

19. Oaoiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou I?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu //Iauea e
?aaeiiaeueiua i?iaeaiu eaiaeoaooiie aaia?aoee NNN?. — Ai?iiaae: AAO,
1987. — N.136-144.

20. Oieo?u thai-caiaaea NNN? // Ecaanoey AAI, 1987. — O.119. — Aui.5. —
N.434-438.

21. O?i/eua «noaiee» eaninoaie Aa?iiaeneie /anoe NNN? // Aaia?. e
i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu. — 1987. — N2. — N.40-45.

22. Aaeeeaa?aoeaiua eaiaeoaoou I?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu // Aio?iiiaaiiua
eaiaeoaoou: no?oeoo?a, iaoiaeu e i?eeeaaeiua aniaeou eco/aiey. —
Ai?iiaae: AAO, 1988. — N.89-97.

23. Iieiu iaeuo ?ae I?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu: inaiaiea e nia?aiaiiia
ninoiyiea // Aaia?. e i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu. — 1988. — ? 2. — N. 56-60.

24. Caiaeueiue oiiae Iiaeieee e iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aai
ieiaei?iaeey // I?iaeaiu caieaiieueciaaiey ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia
ia?ano?ieee. — E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1989. — N. 60-64 (niiaaaoi? Iaianaiei
A.Ae.).

25. Aannaei THaeiiai Aoaa: inaiaiea, ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea e
io?aia // I?e?iaea e oicyenoai: iniiau ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey. — Ai?iiaae: AAO, 1990. — N. 70-75.

26. Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu yeieiae/aneiai ?aeiie?iaaiey eioaineaii inaiaiiuo
oa??eoi?ee // Yeieiae/aneia ?aeiie?iaaiea oa??eoi?ee: iaoiaeu e
?ac?aaioee. — E?eoone: Iaoea, 1991. — N.164-168.

27. Iiuo enoi?eei-aaia?aoe/aneiai aiaeeca ?aiieo yoaiia oi?ie?iaaiey
oaoiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia I?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu // Aaia?. e i?e?iaeiua
?ano?nu. — 1991. — ?2. — N.124-130.

28. Aeoeaecaoeey iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneeo i?ioeannia a
oaoiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooao I?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu // Oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneea
i?ioeannu e io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. — E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1991. —
N.88-92. (niiaaaoi? Iaianaiei A.Ae.).

29. Eeaneoieaoeiy aio?iiiaaiiiai ea?noo I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aeey
iio?aa ?aoeiiiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy // Oic. aaia?aoiy i aaiii?oieiaiy. —
E.: Aeua oeiea, 1992. — Aei. 39. — N.132-138. (niiaaaoi? Iaianaiei
A.Ae.).

30. Ai?e c aeia ii?y // Oe?. aaia?. aeo?i. — 1993. — ? 2. — N.144-148.

31. I?eioeeiu ?aeiie?iaaiey aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia//
Iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiie aaia?aoee. — E.: Iaoe. aeoiea,
1994. — N.48-52.

32. E?ae eaiueeiiia — Na?aaei? I?eaeiino?ia’y //Oe?. aaia?. aeo?i.
-1996.- ?3. — N.60-63.

33. E?aiaiaoeueei ai?e // Oe?. aaia?. aeo?i. — 1997. — ? 2. — N.62-64.

34. Iiaaeaiiee Aoa // Oe?. aaia?. aeo?i. — 1998. — ?1. — N. 55-56.

35. Eaiianueei ai?e // Oe?. aaia?. aeo?i. — 1998. — ?4. — N. 54-57.

36. Iniiaii aoaie ?icaeoeo aaia?aoi? a Oe?a?ii // Aaia?. c iniiaaie
aeiiiiiee a oeiei. — 1998. — ?1. — N.7-9; — ?3. — N.9-14.

37. Aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe Iieinny I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie //
Oe?a?inueea Iieinny. A/i?a, nueiaiaeii, caao?a. — Eooeuee, 1998. —
N.49-51.

Aeaienee A.i. Aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie:
inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/iee aiaeic, ?aaiiiaeueii no?oeoo?e, iioeiicaoeiy. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aaia?aoi/ieo iaoe
ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 11.00.11 — eiino?oeoeaia aaia?aoiy oa ?aoeiiiaeueia
aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?nia. — Ee?anueeee oiiaa?neoao iiaii Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoeith i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi oai?i?, inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/iiio
aiaeico, ?aeiioaaiith i iioeiicaoei? aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia.
Iaa?oioiaaia ia?iiaeecaoeiy inoi?i? eiiieaenieo i?e?iaeie/eo
aeineiaeaeaiue i?e?iaee oa?eoi?i? I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie, noaiiaeaiiy ia
?o iniiai aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa. I?iaaaeaia eeaneoieaoeiy
aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia, aeineiaeaeaia ?o no?oeoo?a, aca?iica’ycee,
ciiaeueii oeie i ?aaiiiaeueii no?oeoo?e. Neeaaeaia noaia
i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueeiai ?aeiioaaiiy, c?iaeaii i?iaiic ?icaeoeo i
?icaeyiooi iiaeeeainoi iioeiicaoei? aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooia
I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie ia ianooiii 10-15 ?ieia.

Inoi?eei-aaia?aoi/iee aiaeic, aio?iiiaaiii eaiaeoaooe, ?aaiiiaeueii
no?oeoo?e, eeaneoieaoeiy, ?aeiioaaiiy, iioeiicaoeiy.

Aeaienee A.E. Aio?iiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou I?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu:
enoi?eei-aaia?aoe/aneee aiaeec, ?aaeiiaeueiua no?oeoo?u, iioeiecaoeey. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a aaia?aoe/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 11.00.11 — eiino?oeoeaiay aaia?aoey e ?aoeeiiaeueiia
eniieueciaaiea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. — Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai oai?ee, enoi?eei-aaia?aoe/aneiio
aiaeeco, ?aeiie?iaaieth e iioeiecaoeee ?aaeiiaeueiuo aio?iiiaaiiuo
eaiaeoaooia. Inouanoaeaia ia?eiaeecaoeey enoi?ee eiiieaeniuo
enneaaeiaaiee i?e?iaeu oa??eoi?ee I?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu e oi?ie?iaaiey
ia eo iniiaa aio?iiiaaiiiai eaiaeoaooiaaaeaiey. I?iaaaeaia
eeanneoeeaoeey aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia, enneaaeiaaia eo no?oeoo?a,
acaeiinayce, ciiaeueiua oeiu e ?aaeiiaeueiua no?oeoo?u. Ninoaaeaia noaia
i?e?iaeii-oicyenoaaiiiai ?aeiie?iaaiey, naeaeai i?iaiic ?acaeoey e
?anniio?aiu aiciiaeiinoe iioeiecaoeee aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia
I?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu ia iineaaeothuea 10-15 eao.

Enoi?eei-aaia?aoe/aneee aiaeec, aio?iiiaaiiua eaiaeoaoou, ?aaeiiaeueiua
no?oeoo?u, eeanneoeeaoeey, ?aeiie?iaaiea, iioeiecaoeey.

Denisik G.I. Anthropogenic landscapes of the Right-bank territory of
Ukraine: historical and geographical analysis, regional structures,
optimization. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor degree (geographical scence) by speciality 11.00.11
— constructive geography and rational use of natural resources. — Taras
Schevchenko Kyiv State University, Kyiv, 1999.

In the historical process of the development of the complex nature
research of the Right bank territory of Ukraine three stages are
distinguished. They are: the stage of primary research, the descriptive
stage and the stage of scientific research. On their bases a new
scientific trend of studies about anthropogenic landscapes appeared and
is being developed. The main indications of the last stage of their
development are: the use of leading methods of geography and traditional
trends of landscape science in order to make the research of
anthropogenic complexes; the development of new methods and principles
of research in anthropogenic landscape science; distinguishing of 2
classes in their structure: the general and the regional anthropogenic
landscape science. The theoretical and methodical bases of regional
anthropogenic landscape research are founded on the anthropogenic
approach to the processes and results of interrelation between people
and nature. This approach means that two factors take part in the
formation of anthropogenic landscapes. The specificity of these factors
is defined by regional peculiarities of their interrelation. Regional
research of anthropogenic landscapes include: defining of the
correlation regions of anthropogenic and natural landscapes complexes;
analysis of content and essence of regional structures of anthropogenic
landscapes by means of history formation and structure research of
antropogenic landscapes, landscape and engeneering as well as
landscape-technogenic systems; solution of the problem of classification
and regional devision of antropogenic landscapes; development of methods
of research and ways of their practical realization.

The basis for the classification of antropogenic landscapes is the
historical and geographical analysis of the formation process and
paculiarities of their modern structure. Due to such approach 8 classes
of antropogenic landscapes are distinguished in measures of the
Right-bank territory of Ukraine such as: urbanized, agricultural,
forest, water, industrial, road, recreational, fortification and their
15 subclasses; the time and historical formation, the development and
fuctioning as antropogenic for the given classes are defined.

During centures the effect of people`s activity in landscapes of natural
zones of the Right-bank territory was not equal. The effect of the
antropogenic factor can be traced not only in the substitution of
natural landscapes by antropogenic one, but also in the displacement of
borders between natural zones. At the same time, under the influence of
zonal factors in subclasses of agricultural; forest, water, recreational
and fortification anthropogenic landscapes with proper anthropogenic
complexes predominating, zonal types of anthropogenic landscapes were
formed. As for urbanized, industrial and road classes, the structural
basis of which is formed by landscape-engeneering and
landscape-technogenic systems, zonal factors have only partial
influence.

Regional devision of anthropogenic landscapes includes distinguishing of
different by content their territorial structures. The main approaches
to regional devision of landscapes are: the level of anthropogenic
influence on geographical units; natural and technologacal peculiarities
of forming anthropogenic landscape complexes and paculiarities of their
structures. The latter is the most universal. It was used while making
the general anthropogenic landscape devision of the Right-bank territory
and their background classes — agricultural and forest. Regional
strucuture of anthropogenic landscapes is defined by peculiarities of
natural landscapes, social and historrical conditions.

Anthropogenic landscape prognosis is a scientificaly grounded prognosis
of possible changes in the structure and functioning of anthropogenic
landscapes under the influence of 2 simultenrouse, but with difference
in (manifistation) display and consequence, factors — natural and
anthropogenic/ Due to anthropogenic landscape prognosis the schematic
map of formation of new anthropological landscape complexes and the
development of unflavourable anthropogenic processes in borders of the
Right-bank territory for the next 10-15 years is made. Their rational
usage is: the development of a single network of protected objects, in
the structure of which, except proper natural anthropogenic landscapes,
landscape-engineering and landscape-technologenic system are included
localisation of ecological problems connected first of all with
fuctioning of city urbanized, mining-industrial and water
anthropological landscapes of the Right-bank territory of Ukraine.

Historical and geographical analysis, anthropogenic landscape, regional
structures, classification, regional devision.

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