Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

EIEIIAA ??EIA AIAAeAI?AIA

OAeE 551. 4 (477.82)

AIO?IIIAAIIA O?AINOI?IAOe?ss EAIAeOAOOIEO

NENOAI CAO?AeII? *ANOEIE AIEEINUeEIAI IIE?NNss

11.00.11 – eiino?oeoeaia aaia?ao?y ? ?aoe?iiaeueia

aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo
?ano?n?a ? ioi?iie i?e?iaee Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? ?aaia O?aiea I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Eoeo?oaeca Naiai ?ee?/,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy

i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a ? ioi?iie
i?e?iaee

Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iieue/ae ss?ineaa Ieaenaiae?iae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?ce/ii?
aaia?ao??

Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee

eaiaeeaeao aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

Oea?ee Ethaiie? Iao?iae/,

aeaeai aaia?ao?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo

Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo aaia?ao?? IAI Oe?a?ie i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «24» /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 15.00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.35.051.05 o Euea?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio

oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290000, i.Euea?a, aoe. Aei?ioaiea, 41)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?

Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

(i.Euea?a, aoe.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 23 o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Aeoa?n E.O.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Eiioeaioe?y noaeiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie ii?yae ?c
ae??oaiiyi aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai ia?aaeaa/a? caaacia/aiiy ?aiaoo?ae?caoe??
i?e?iaee oa iinooiiaa iie?ioaiiy aeieia?/iiai noaio aeiae?eey, ui iiaea
aooe ?aae?ciaaia oeyoii ii?ioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia
eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii, uia ia?aiao?e
aio?iiiaaiiiai aieeao ia aeiae?eey anoaiiaethaaeenue ia aacia/ieo aeey
aeeooy ethaeeie ??aiyo, ca yeeo aa?aioo?oueny ooieoe?iioaaiiy aainenoai
o c??aiiaaaeaieo noaiao. Aeey ?ic?iaee ii?i aio?iiiaaiieo iaaaioaaeaiue
ia eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie iaia’yceiaei ? aeine?aeaeaiiy aio?iiiaaiii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? oeyoii aeyaeaiiy ?o no/aniiai aeieia?/iiai noaio,
anoaiiaeaiiy caeaaeiino? ci?i a?ae ?ioaineaiino? aio?iiiaaiieo
iaaaioaaeaiue ?iaeea?aeoaeueii aeey eiaeiiai i?e?iaeiiai ?aa?iio.
Ioe?iea ianooaa?a oa aeeaeie aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? eaiaeoaooieo
nenoai aea? ciiao aecia/eoe i??i?eoaoi? caoiaee (caeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy
o?ainoi?iaoe??) c ioi?iie, i?aeo?eiee oa a?aeoai?aiiy ?o aeieia?/ii?
no?eeino?. Oaea ioe?iea iiaeeeaa eeoa ia i?aenoaa? iaeaaeii
i?aai?ciaaiiai eiio?ieth ca noaiii aeiae?eey ? noai?aiiy nenoaie
caaeainiaaiiai aeieiai-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo oa?eoi???.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? eaiaeoaooieo
nenoai cao?aeio /anoeio Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny ia?aii c aeae?eueeio
i?e/ei: ooo nai???aeii ii?aeiai? oeiia? ? oi?eaeuei? aeaee eaiaeoaooieo
nenoai Oe?a?inueeiai Iie?nny; aeaoaeuei? iiene aeaii? oa?eoi??? a/aieie
c e?ioey O?O ? aei iaoiai /ano — aeicaieeei i?inoaaeeoe iniiai?
oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oa aeeiai?eo ci?i eaiaeoaooieo nenoai o OO
noie?oo?; ooo ?niothoue eiio?anoi? aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie, eiaeia c yeeo
iio?aao? ??cieo oeyo?a ?ica’ycaiiy, caeaaeii a?ae eiie?aoieo oiia ?
i?iya?a ??cieo aeae?a aio?iiiaaiieo iaaaioaaeaiue; oa?eoi??y aoiaeeoue
aei ?a?i?aa?iio Aoa, oiio ?aa?iiaeuei? aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie noathoue
o?ainei?aeiiieie ? iiaeooue aooe ae??oai? oeyoii ?ic?iaee oa ?aae?caoe??
ni?eueii? aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee oa aeei?enoaiiy ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo
?aiaoo?ae?caoe?? eaiaeoaoo?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee iai?yi
aeine?aeaeaiue iia’ycaiee c oaiaoeeith, yeo ?ic?iaey? eaoaae?a.
?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeei?enoai? i?e aeeiiaii? aea?aeathaeaeaoieo ?ia?o:
“Eaiaeoaooi? iniiae oa aai?ioi?iaoe?eia caaacia/aiiy iioei?caoe??
i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie” oa “?ic?iaea nenoaie
iao?ecaoe?? i?e?iaeieo eiiieaen?a aeey ioe?iee aeieia?/ii? neooaoe??
?aa?iio” o 1996-1999 ??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeei?enoai? i?e aeeiiaii? i?aeia?iaeiiai aeine?aeiiai
i?iaeoo ?AZ-059-01 ?a?i?aa?ii Aoa, a yeiio aaoi?ea a?aea o/anoue ye
aenia?o c oe?a?inueei? noi?iie.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — ?ioaa?aeueia ioe?iea aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
eaiaeoaooieo nenoai aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei iioei?caoe??
aeiae?eey a ?aieao ?aae?caoe?? eiioeaioe?? noaeiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

Ca aeiiiiiaith a?o?aieo, oiiaeiaeo, e?oa?aoo?ieo iaoa??ae?a ? iieueiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaiae?coaaoe ?ioaineai?noue ? aeeiai?eo ??cieo aeae?a
aio?iiiaaiieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie;

Oaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??;

Aeaoe ioe?ieo i?ioeanai aio?ii?caoe?? eaiaeoaooieo nenoai;

Aecia/eoe ?ioaa?aeuei? iieacieee aio?iiiaaiieo iaaaioaaeaiue;

Ioe?ieoe nooi?iue aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? eaiaeoaooieo nenoai;

Eeaneo?eoaaoe eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie uiaei aino?ioe aeieia?/ii? neooaoe??
caeaaeii a?ae ?ioaineaiino? aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??;

Iaa?oiooaaoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey ciaioaiiy aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
a iaaeao oa?eoi??e c ??ciith aino?ioith aeieia?/ii? neooaoe?? aeey
?ic?iaee ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie cao?aeii? /anoeie
Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny. I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni?
iieacieee aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? eaiaeoaooieo nenoai, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?o ci?ie o i?inoi?? e /an?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe:

— aia?oa c?iaeaii eiiieaeniee aiae?c ??cieo aeae?a aio?iiiaaiiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy oa io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ci?i eaiaeoaooieo nenoai cao?aeii?
/anoeie Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny o OO noie?oo?;

— oaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??;

— neeaaeaii ea?oinoaie ?ioaineaiino? oa oa?eoi??aeueiiai iioe?aiiy
??cieo aeae?a aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy;

— anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue aeieia?/ii? neooaoe?? o eaiaeoaooieo nenoaiao
a?ae ?ioaa?aeueiiai aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy oa nooiaiy
o?ainoi?iiaaiino?;

— cai?iiiiiaaii ?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi??? uiaei aino?ioe aeieia?/ii?
neooaoe??;

— ?ic?iaeaii aeaye? aeaiaioe aeiiie?oeee, eio?? aeathoue ciiao ciaioeoe
iaaaoeaiee aio?iiiaaiiee aieea ia eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiai? i?eeeaaei? oa
iaoiaee/i? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
aiae?co aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?ioeo oa?eoi??e c iaoith aecia/aiiy
no/anii? aeieia?/ii? neooaoe?? i?ney ?o aaeaioaoe?? aei
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae i?e?iaeiiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo
eaiaeoaooieo nenoai. ?aeiioaaiiy ?aa?iio ca nooiaiai aino?ioe
aeieia?/ii? neooaoe?? ia? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeey aecia/aiiy
i??i?eoaoieo iai?yi?a ?icaeoeo ainiiaea?noaa, cie?aia i?iaaaeaiiy
a?aeiiaieo (?aeoeueoeaaoe?eieo) caoiae?a ia oa?eoi??yo ?c e?eciaith ?
ia?aaee?eciaith aeieia?/ieie neooaoe?yie oa ii?ioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo
iaaaioaaeaiue o eaiaeoaooieo nenoaiao c eiioe?eoiith, caaeia?eueiith oa
ni?eyoeeaith aeieia?/ieie neooaoe?yie. Cai?iiiiiaai? o ?iaio? i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ciaioaiiy aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ?ic?iaee
?aa?iiaeueii? aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue ia
eaoaae?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a ? ioi?iie
i?e?iaee Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?nenoaoo ?i.?.O?aiea. Aaoi?ea
a?aea o/anoue o iieueiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
oa ?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy eaiaeoaooieo nenoai Oaoeueeiai III, ui
i?iaiaeeeenue ni?eueii c eaoaae?ith ?aae?aoe?eii? aeieia?? Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?nenoaoo ?i.?.O?aiea i?ioyaii 1995-1998 ?ie?a, a
oaeiae aoea o/anieeii i?aeia?iaeiiai oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeiai i?iaeoo
?a?i?aa?ii Aoa (1995-1997??.), a ?aieao i?iaaaeaiiy yeiai ?ic?iaeyeany
no?aoaa?y aeieia?/ii? iie?oeee oe?a?inueei? /anoeie ?a?i?aa?iio Aoa.
Caeiaoaa/ ? ni?aaaoi?ii iiiia?ao?? “Skala przeksztalcen srodowiska i
polityka ekologiczna Euroregionu Bug” (Lublin, 1997). Oaeineiiaeaii
iaoiaeeeo eiiieaeniiai aecia/aiiy aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
eaiaeoaooieo nenoai, aeyaeaii caeiiii??iino? aieeao ie?aieo aeae?a
aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia oi?ioaaiiy no/anii? aeieia?/ii?
neooaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue ia
VII c’?cae? Oe?a?inueeiai aaia?ao?/iiai oiaa?enoaa; ia eiioa?aioe?yo:
“I?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiainoai?aieo caiia?aeiee?a”
(A?eiaee?a, 1995); “Aa?i?aa?ii Aoa: i?iaeaie o?ainei?aeiiiiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa” (Eooeuee, 1995); “Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu io?aiu caiaeue”
(Ee?a, 1997); “I?aaiaa?aaeia Iie?nny Oe?a?ie: a/i?a, nueiaiaei?, caao?a”
(Eooeuee, 1998); anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Aeieia?/ia ina?oa oa aeoiaaiiy” (Eooeuee, 1996); ia i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?yo: “Ways to solve interconnected problems of the natural
environment and development of border terrains in Ukraine, Poland,
Slovakia” (Lviv, 1995); “Euroregion Bug: srodowisko przyrodnicze jako
plaszczyzna wspolpracy transgranicznej” (Chelm, 1995); “Aeieia?/iee noai
??ee Cao?aeiee Aoa oa ?? aanaeio” (Oaoeuee, 1996); “Zrownowazony rozwoj
a zdrowie czlowieka” (Lublin, 1997); “Analiza zrownowazonego rozwoju w
piec lat po Rio” (Lublin, 1997); “Ea?iaonueeee ?aa?ii ? i?iaeaie noaeiai
?icaeoeo” (?ao?a, 1998); ia oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeiio nai?ia?? “No/ania
aeieia?y ? aeieia?/ia iaoieia?y ethaeeie” (Euea?a, 1997); ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeieia?/i? ciaiiy oa ooaeiaei? inai?iiy
aeiae?eey — caii?oea noaeiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie” (Euea?a, 1998); ia
ca?o-ieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
ca 1995-98??.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iioae?eiaaii 17 ?ia?o. Na?aae ieo 2 ?icae?ee iiiia?ao??, 8 noaoae, 7
iaoa??ae?a eiioa?aioe?e. 8 ?ia?o iioae?eiaaii o ni?aaaoi?noa?.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (241 iaeiaioaaiiy),
11 aeiaeaoe?a. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 150 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai
oaenoo, i?i?ethno?iaaia 24 ?enoieii oa 18 oaaeeoeyie. Caaaeueiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 213 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Oai?aoe/i? canaaee oa iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue aio?iiiaaiii?

o?ainoi?iaoe?? eaiaeoaooieo nenoai

Oai?aoe/iith aacith aecia/aiiy aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ? iaoeia?
iniiae no/anii? eaiaeoaooii? aeieia?? ?ic?iaeai? a i?aoeyo I.Ae.
A?iaeceinueeiai (1993, 1995), aaiaeieia?? — I.A.Oii/??aa (1996),
aainenoaiiiai iii?oi?eiao — A.A.Iaeueieea, A.I.I?eea?a (1993),
eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ii? aeieia?? –A.I.Aooeoeyea (1995), E.E.Iaeeoaai?
(1998). Caaaeueiith oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith aacith aeine?aeaeaiue
aenooia? aeieiai-eaiaeoaooiee i?aeo?ae ? iia’ycai? c iei i?eioeeie
iioei?caoe?? i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, iaa?oioiaai? a i?aoeyo
A.A.?na/aiea (1980), I.A.Oeuaiea (1988), A.?.Oaaana (1989) oa ?i.
Eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iee aiae?c oa?eoi??? i?iaiaeeany ia iniia? i?aoeue
TH.A.?naeiai?, I.N.Eacainueei?, Ae.A.Iaio?eiaa (1980),
A.N.I?aia?aaeainueeiai, O.Ae.Aeaenaiae?iai? (1988), A.I.A??ia,
E.?.Ioo?ii? (1989), E.A.?oaeaiea, ?.I.Ai?eaiea, E.I.Oaa/aiei oa ?i.
(1990), ?.?.Iaiae (1992), A.I.Iauaiea (1993), A.N.Aeaaeae/oea (1994). O
?iaio? aeei?enoaiee aeina?ae aeine?aeaeaiue aio?iiiaaiieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e
ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?, ui iaa?iiaaeaeaiee o ?iaioao N.A.O?ioei/oea
(1968), I.?.Ooieea (1986).

Na?aae oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue aaaeeeaei ? iiiyooy i?i ia’?eo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Eaiaeoaooia nenoaia — oea neeaaeia ?ioaa?aeueia
noeoii?noue aca?iiiia’ycaieo, aca?iicoiiaeaieo i?e?iaeieo eiiiiiaio?a,
ui ooai?ththoue ?aeeio oa?eoi??aeueio /e aeaaeueio nenoaio c iaaiith
no?oeoo?ith oa aeanoeainoyie, iaeii??aeio ca i?e?iaeieie oiiaaie oa
?aaeoe??th ia iaeiaeia? ca ianooaaii aio?iiiaaii? iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Aio?iiiaaiia o?ainoi?iaoe?y — oea ci?ia eaiaeoaooieo nenoai i?ae aieeaii
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie. Oea ?ioaa?aeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea,
yea a?aoiao? ia eeoa ci?ie no?oeoo?e aaieiiieaeno a oe?eiio, aea e
o?i?/i? oa o?ce/i? caa?oaeiaiiy eiiiiiaio?a eaiaeoaooii? nenoaie, ci?ie
aeaeiaiai neeaaeo. Aio?iiiaaiia o?ainoi?iaoe?y oa?aeoa?eco? noeoiiee
aieea ??cieo aeae?a iaaaioaaeaiue ia eaiaeoaooio nenoaio. Oea ?acoeueoao
aca?iiae?? ethaeeie c i?e?iaeiei na?aaeiaeuai o ?aieao eiie?aoieo
aainenoai. Aio?ii?caoe?y eaiaeoaooieo nenoai — oea i?ioean ci?ie
eiiiiiaioiiai neeaaeo, no?oeoo?e, caeaoiino? aei naiia?aeiiaeaiiy ?
naiii/euaiiy aiane?aeie ?o ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ethaeeiith.
Iieaciee aio?ii?caoe?? — oea nooi?iue ci?iaiino? no?oeoo?e eaiaeoaooii?
nenoaie a ?acoeueoao? ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie.

Ia iniia? ioe?iee ianooaa?a aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aecia/a?oueny
iaaiee nooi?iue aino?ioe aeieia?/ii? neooaoe??. Aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y —
oea caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ye?niiai noaio eaiaeoaooieo nenoai, ui
aeeth/a? oe?ieee niaeo? ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo ?c aeeoo?caaacia/aiiyi
ethaeeie iioeiaeueieie i?e?iaeieie oiiaaie. Nooi?iue aino?ioe
aeieia?/ii? neooaoe?? — iieaciee, ui aecia/a?oueny a?aeiioaiiyi
no/aniiai aeieia?/iiai noaio aei iioeiaeueiiai ?aaeeio ooieoe?iioaaiiy
oa ye?niiai noaio eaiaeoaooii? nenoaie. Caeaaeii a?ae oeueiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ia aeine?aeaeoaai?e oa?eoi??? iaie aeae?eaii o?noue
nooiai?a aino?ioe aeieia?/ii? neooaoe??.

-ni?eyoeeaa (iioeiaeueia, aeia?a) aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y — aainenoaie
i?aeoe/ii ia ci?iai? ainiiaea?nueeith ae?yeuei?noth ethaeeie,
oaeaee?noue a?aeiiaieo i?ioean?a ia?aaeuo? aai aei??aith? oaiiai
aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??. Oea oa?eoi???, ye? ia caciathoue aieeao
?aae?iioee?ae?a oa aio?iiiaaiiiai caa?oaeiaiiy;

-caaeia?eueia aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y — neaai ci?iai? eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie,
ui ?aoe?iiaeueii aeei?enoiaothoueny o ainiiaea?noa?. Iniiai? i?e?iaei?
ca’ycee ia ii?ooai?, aea a?aeaoaathoueny aeaye? ci?ie eiiiiiaio?a
i?e?iaeieo eaiaeoaoo?a. Caa?oaeiaiiy iacia/ia;

-eiioe?eoia aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y — ci?iai? eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie, a yeeo
oaeaee?noue aio?iiiaaiieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e aeua a?ae oaii?a
naiia?aeiiaeaiiy, aea aeiei??ii? ci?ie eaiaeoaooieo nenoai ua ia
a?aeaoaathoueny. Aio?iiiaaiia caa?oaeiaiiy i?iyaey?oueny eieaeueii,
eiioeaio?aoe?? caa?oaeithth/eo ?a/iaei ia ia?aaeuothoue a?aie/ii
aeiionoeieo iaae;

-ia?aaee?eciaa aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y — neeueii ci?iai? eaiaeoaooi?
nenoaie, a yeeo i?iyaeythoueny i?ioeane aeaa?aaeaoe?? oa o?i?/iiai
caa?oaeiaiiy ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a aainenoai;

-e?eciaa aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y — noai eaiaeoaooieo nenoai oneeaaeith?
aaaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?eiiai ainiiaea?noaa, a?aeaoaathoueny i?ioeane
aeaa?aaeaoe?? eaiaeoaooieo nenoai. Cia/ia aio?iiiaaiia caa?oaeiaiiy
?aae?iioee?aeaie, aaaeeeie iaoaeaie, ianoeoeeaeaie, ai?no yeeo o
aeanyoee ?ac?a ia?aaeuo? AAeE;

-eaoano?io?/ia aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y — a?aeaoaathoueny aaaeeia?aeiiai?
aai e iacai?ioi? i?ioeane aeaa?aaeaoe??, aeano?oeoe?? oa caa?oaeiaiiy
(ca?aaeaiiy) eaiaeoaooieo nenoai, ui ?iaeoue iaiiaeeeaei aoaeue-yea
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?aaeueii? caa?ice aeeooth ethaeae.

A?aoiaoth/e ??ciiiai?oi?noue iie?nueeeo aainenoai, aeey aeine?aeaeaiue
aoee ocaaaeueiai? oa oaeineiiaeai? ?ai?oa ?nioth/? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy
aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aainenoai — O.I.I?eueeiaa (1973);
I.N.Eacainueei? oa ?i. (1980); I.A.Oeuaiea (1988); E.?.Ioo?ii? (1989);
A.Ia?ouaea (I.Maruszcak) (1989); O.Oi?e?aneiai (O.Chmielewskiego)
(1996). Ii?aeiaiiy oeeo iaoiaeee aea? ciiao oe?oiai aiae?co
aio?iiiaaiieo /eiiee?a o?ainoi?iaoe?? i?e?iaeieo eiiieaen?a ? io?eiaiiy,
ia iaoo aeoieo, a?eueo ia’?eoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? eaiaeoaooieo nenoai
cao?aeii? /anoeie Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny i?iaiaeeeenue ca iniiaieie
aeaeaie aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui oa?aeoa?i? aeey ?aa?iio,
cie?aia: n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei, inoooaaeueii-iae?i?aoeaiei,
i?iieneiaei, o?ainii?oiei, ?aae?iaeoeaiei, naeeoaaiei, ?ae?aaoe?eiei.
Aeiaeaoeiai aeine?aeaeoaaeenue ci?ie no?oeoo?e eaiaeoaooieo nenoai
?aa?iio oeyoii aecia/aiiy iieacieea aio?ii?caoe?? a iaaeao eeth/iaeo
ae?eyiie.

Aeey ea?oia?ao?/iiai aiae?co iaie aeei?enoai? oiiia?ao?/i? ea?oe
ianooaao 1:100000 ??cieo ?ie?a aeaioiaeaiiy: Aa?oaanueeiai A?enueeiaiai
?inoeoooo (1926-1933 ??.) oa Aaia?aeueiiai ooaao ?aaeyinueei? A?i??
(1952, 1976-86 ??.). Aea?? ea?o a?enueeiaiai i?ecia/aiiy aeey
?aa?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue coiiaeaiee iayai?noth ??cii/aniaeo ea?o:
a?ae 1926 aei 1986 ??. oa ?o aeinoaoiuei aenieith ?ioi?iaoeai?noth.
Aeei?enoiaoaaeenue oaeiae ea?oe a?oioiaiai iie?eao, ieaie
aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeiai caieaei?enooaaiiy naeyinueeeo ni?eie,
aa?ioioici?iee.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aoei ia?aii 11
eeth/iaeo ae?eyiie o ??cieo aeaeao eaiaeoaoo?a cao?aeii? /anoeie
Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny. A iniiao aeai?o ae?eyiie iieeaaeaia eaiaeoaooia
ea?oa oa?eoi???, neeaaeaia N.?.Eoeo?oaecith (1996). Ia eiaei?e ae?eyioe?
i?iaiaeeeenue aei??e ca 14 ia?aiao?aie ia ??cii/aniaeo oiiia?ao?/ieo
ea?oao, cie?aia: 1) aeeiai?ea ci?ie no?oeoo?e eaiaeoaoo?a /a?ac
ii??aiyiiy ieiu, caeiyoeo e?nii, aieioaie, caaiei/aieie i?e?iaeieie
eoeaie, ica?aie oa aiaeioieaie (i?e?iaeia neeaaeiaa);
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie oa?aeaeyie, caaoaeiaaie — o o./. ianaeaieie
ioieoaie, aaoiiia?eueieie oeyoaie (aio?iiiaaiia neeaaeiaa); 2) aeeiai?ea
iae?i?aoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy /a?ac ii??aiyiiy aeiaaeeie oa e?eueeino?
i?e?iaeieo aiaeioie?a, ica?, iae?i?aoeaieo eaiae?a, ieiu? aie?o ?
caaiei/aieo oa?eoi??e aei ? i?ney i?iaaaeaiiy inoooaaeueii? iae?i?aoe??
o 60-o ?ieao; 3) o?ainii?oia iaaaioaaeaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith aei???a
aeiaaeeie aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a (c oaa?aeei iie?eooyi oa a?oioiaeo) ?
cae?cieoeue; 4) naeeoaaiee aieea iaoiaeii iae?eo e?eueeino? ianaeaieo
ioieo?a, ?o ieiu?, e?eueeino? oa u?eueiino? ianaeaiiy; 5) aaee/eia
iieacieea aio?ii?caoe?? eaiaeoaooo /a?ac aecia/aiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ieiu
aio?iiiaaiii ci?iaieo oa?aeue ? i?e?iaeieo oa?eoi??e c a?aooaaiiyi
?iaeaeno aeeaeie ia?aoai?aiino? eaiaeoaooo. Caeaaeii a?ae ciiaeueiiai
oeio aainenoai ?o ci?iai?noue iaeiei aeaeii iaaaioaaeaiiy — ??cia.
Iaaaoeaiee aieea ?ici?thaaiiy ia e?nia? aainenoaie ? a?eueoei, i?ae ia
eo/i? oa noaiia?. Oiio, aecia/ath/e iieaciee aio?ii?caoe?? eaiaeoaoo?a,
ie aeei?enoiaoaaee oi?ioeo:

,

— ?iaeaen aeeaeie ia?aoai?aiino? eaiaeoaooo i?e eiai aeei?enoaii? i?ae
oa?aeaey ?-ai aeaeo. A /enaeueieeo noia aio?iiiaaiii ia?aoai?aieo
oa?aeue (o a?aenioeao), o ciaiaiieeo — noia i?e?iaeieo oa?eoi??e o
eaiaeoaoo?. Aeey ia?aooaaiiy i?eeiyo? ?iaeaene aeeaeie ia?aoai?aiino?
eaiaeoaoo?a, cai?iiiiiaai? I.A.Oeuaieii (1988): eoee — 1,15; naaee —
1,2; ??eey — 1,25; n?euenueea caaoaeiaa — 1,3; i?nueea caaoaeiaa — 1,35;
aiaeinoiaeua — 1,4; caie? i?iieneiaiai aeei?enoaiiy -1,5.

Aeey eiaeiiai c naie aeae?eaieo iaie aeae?a aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
?ic?iaeai? e?eoa??? ?ioaineaiino? aieeao ca i’yoeaaeueiith oeaeith
(oaae. 1): a?ae 1 aaea — iaeiaioee aieea, ui ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei
nooo?aiai iia??oaiiy aeieia?/ii? neooaoe??, aei 5 aae?a — iaaaioaaeaiiy,
ye? ni?e/eiythoue iacai?ioi? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ? noai?ththoue eaoano?io?/io
aeieia?/io neooaoe?th a aainenoaiao. Anueiai a?aoiaaii 21 e?eoa??e
?ioaineaiino? aio?iiiaaiiiai aieeao, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo aecia/aii
na?aaei?e aae iaaaioaaeaiiy aeey eiaeii? eeth/iai? ae?eyiee. Caeaaeii
a?ae aaee/eie noia?iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, anoaiiaeaii iaaiee ??aaiue
aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? eaiaeoaooieo nenoai ? oa?eoi??yi i?enai?ii
a?aeiia?aeiee nooi?iue aino?ioe aeieia?/ii? neooaoe??.

Aio?ii?caoe?y eaiaeoaooieo nenoai cao?aeii? /anoeie

Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny o OO noie?oo?

O /ioe?ueio aeaeao eaiaeoaoo?a cao?aeii? /anoeie Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny,
i?ioeane aio?ii?caoe?? i?ioyaii inoaiiueiai noie?ooy i?ioiaeeee
ii-??ciiio. Na?aae aaaaoueio ia?aoai?aiue iacaaii: caaaeueia iiieaeaiiy
??aiy a?oioiaeo aiae (?AA), coiiaeaia oe?ieiianooaaiei inooaiiyi
Cao?aeiiai Iie?nny; cia/ia ciaioaiiy ieiu? aie?o, aeaa?aaeaoe?y
oi?oiaeu; ci?ia o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ica?ieo aiae; ciaioaiiy iiioeyoe??
??aee?nieo aeae?a aieioii? oei?e ? oaoie.

(ia 3,6%), cia/ii ciaioeeanue ieiua ic.Aaeeoiai. O ca’yceo c inooaiiyi
aieioa Aaey, ieiua yeiai ciaioeeanue o 3-4 ?ace, ci?ieeanue
eiio?ao?aoe?y aa?aa?a oa caaaeueia ieiua ic.Ethaiaaeue. A?eueo?noue
aie?o o?ainoi?iiaai? o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? oa?aeaey, eaiaeoaoo
ia?a??caiee iae?i?aoeaieie eaiaeaie, caaiei/ai?noue oa?eoi???
ciaioeeanue c e?ioey ieioeiai noie?ooy iaeaea aaeai?: c 42%
(AEee?inueeee, 1899) aei 23,7% o 1985 ?. Ieiua n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oa?aeue ca aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae ca?eueoeeanue o 2,5-3 ?ace ? ca?ac
noaiiaeoue aeecueei 31% caaaeueii? ieiu? aeaiiai aeaeo eaiaeoaooo.
E?neno?noue oa?eoi??? i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ieeanue, aea caaiei/ai?noue e?n?a
ciaioeeanue ?c 45% aei 10%, ui iicia/eeinue ia ?o aeaeiaiio neeaae?.
C?inea i?ioyaei?noue aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a ?c oaa?aeei iie?eooyi.
Iieaciee aio?ii?caoe?? aeaiiai aeaeo eaiaeoaoo?a ii/aa ??cei c?inoaoe c
1930 ?. ? aei 80-o ??. ca?eueoeany o 2-2,5 ?ac.

o 1986 ?.). Iiai?noth inooai?: aieioi A?eea i?ae ic.Eoee oa Ia?aioo;
aieioi o?i/eua Oio?ie i?ae ic.Na?oycue, *i?ia, Ino??a’yinueea, Eoee;
aieioiee ianea iaaeiei ic.Niiaiaoeue, Ica?oea, Ea?aneiaoeue. I?ney
aaaaeaiiy a ae?th Eiia?anueei? inoooaaeueii? nenoaie o 1956-69 ??.
a?aeaoeiny iiieaeaiiy ??aiy aiaee a ic.Na?oycue ia 40-50 ni. A
?acoeueoao? oeueiai caoiea ic.Na?oycue Aoaeiy noaea i?aeoe/ii ie?aiei
ica?oeai, a ieiua caoiee Eoee ciaioeeanue iaeaea iaiieiaeio (-44%). I?i
?ioaineai?noue ciaioaiiy ieiu ica? iiaeia oaa?aeeoe ca aiae?cii ci?ie
ii?oiiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ic.E?oaea oa Ea?aneiaoeue, ieiua yeeo
ciaioeeanue iaeaea aaeai?, a ic.Aeiaaa oa Ieioie/a — a/aoaa?i. Aeiaaeeia
iae?i?aoeaieo eaiae?a c?inea ia 582 ei, Ei — o 4 ?ace. Iaeii/anii ca
inoaii? ?iee niinoa??aa?oueny iacia/ia ca?eueoaiiy ieiu? aie?o,
iia’ycaia ?c i?ioeanaie i?e?iaeiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy aie?o, ine?eueee aaaaoi
iae?i?aoeaieo eaiae?a caioeeeeny, ca?inee ? ia aeeiiothoue nai?o
ooieoe?e. Ieiua n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue c?inea iaeaea aaea?/?,
i?e/iio iaea?eueo? ci?ie a?aeaoeeny o 1929-1951 ??. (+12%), ui iia’ycaii
?c ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? iinaeaiue o oe? ?iee. Ia oii? caaaeueiiai
ciaioaiiy e?nenoino? a Oe?a?i? oa ia Iie?nn? i?ioyaii OO noie?ooy o
Oaoeueeiio eaiaeoaoo? ieiua e?n?a aeaui ca?eueoeeanue — ia 5%, oi/a aei
1951 ?. e?neno?noue ciaiooaaeanue (-2%), a iio?i ii/aea c?inoaoe. Oea
iia’ycaii ?c noai?aiiyi o 1983 ?. Oaoeueeiai i?e?iaeiiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ia?eo oa caai?iiith ?oaie ia eiai oa?eoi???. Ca?ac e?neno?noue
noaiiaeoue 34,6%. Iieaciee aio?ii?caoe?? eaiaeoaooo c??n o 2 ?ace.

. Ieiua n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue ca?eueoeeanue ia 2%. Iacia/i?
ci?ie o no?oeoo?? eaiaeoaooo i?ioyaii OO noie?ooy aeathoue i?aenoaao
oaa?aeeoe, ui oey oa?eoi??y — iaeia c iaeici?iaieo. Aea aeine?aeaeaiiy
aio?ii?caoe?? aeiiiaiththoueny iaie ioe?ieith aio?iiiaaiiiai
caa?oaeiaiiy oa?eoi???, yea caia?a/o? oaeee aeniiaie.

. A ?acoeueoao? ?ioaineaiiai ainiiaea?nueeiai inai?iiy oa?eoi???
iieaciee aio?ii?caoe?? ca?eueoeany o 4 ?ace — iaea?eueoa aeeiai?ea
iieacieea aio?ii?caoe?? na?aae aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeae?a eaiaeoaoo?a.

Iieaciee aio?ii?caoe?? ia e?iaoeue OO noie?ooy ca?eueoo?oueny a iai?yieo
c i?ai?/iiai noiaeo (0,4-0,7o.i.) ia i?aaeaiue (1,2-9,7o.i.). I?ioyaii
noie?ooy iaea?eueo? ci?ie o no?oeoo?? i?e?iaeieo eiiieaen?a a?aeaoeenue
o oeaio?aeuei?e oa i?aaeaii?e /anoei? ?aa?iio, aea iieaciee
aio?ii?caoe?? ca?eueoeany o 3-4 ?ace. Iaeiaio? ci?ie o no?oeoo?? oa?aeue
a?aeaoeeny o no?aeieo oa i?ai?/ii-cao?aeieo eaiaeoaooieo nenoaiao, aea
iieaciee aio?ii?caoe?? ca?eueoeany a 1-3 ?ace. Oe? aeniiaee
?ethno?othoueny ae?aa?aiaie, ia yeeo iieacaii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?e?iaeieo
oa aio?iiiaaiii ia?aoai?aieo oa?aeue ?ai?acaioaoeaieo ae?eyiie ??cieo
aeae?a eaiaeoaoo?a (?en.1). E?i?y, ui ?iciaaeiao? oe? oa?aeaey,
aaaaea?oueny iieacieeii aio?ii?caoe?? eaiaeoaoo?a.

Ioe?iea aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy

Cao?aeia /anoeia Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny — iaeei ?c iaaaaaoueio ?aa?ii?a
Oe?a?ie, aea caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey ia aeeeeea? aaeeeiai caiaiiei?iiy.
Aea ?acoeueoaoe ?aa?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue noeoiiiai aio?iiiaaiiiai
aieeao oa neaaea aooa?ia caeaoi?noue iie?nueeeo eaiaeoaooieo nenoai
na?ae/aoue, ui oe? aeniiaee iaaeinoaoiuei iaa?oioiaai?.

N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee aieea. ?ioaineo?eaoe?y
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa c na?aaeeie 60-o ?ie?a
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeanue c?inoaiiyi o?i?caoe?? oa ca?eueoaiiyi ?ici?thaaiiy
caiaeue, ui i?ecaaei aei iii?oieo ci?i aeanoeainoae a?oio?a. C ii/aoeo
90-o ?ie?a oeae aieea cia/ii ciaioeany, aea i?iyae iaaaoeaieo i?ioean?a
— iaaei??ia ?ici?ai?noue, caa?oaeiaiiy a?oio?a ianoeoeeaeaie, i?o?eoaie,
a?o?iaa a?ic?y – ? ? oaia?.

C 1950 ?ieo o cao?aei?e /anoei? Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny, ye ? a Oe?a?i?,
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioean nei?i/aiiy ieiu n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oa?aeue, iacaaaeath/e ia aeeth/aiiy o aeei?enoaiiy iae?i?iaaieo oa
?aeoeueoeaiaaieo caiaeue. C 1956 aei 1997 ?. ieiua
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue ?aa?iio, ca aeaieie Aea?aeoi?aae?iiy
aeiaaciaee o Aieeinuee?e iaeano?, ciaioeeanue ia 127 oen.aa (aeecueei
10%), a caaacia/ai?noue 1 aeeoaey ??eeath c 0,84 aei 0,64 aa. O 1990-o
?ieao i?ioean ciaioaiiy ieiu n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue
i?ecoieieany ? ?o /anoea noaiiaeoue 52%, c yeeo ?ici?aii 64,5%. I?i?
caie? ana a?eueoa iioe?ththoueny ia noeee oa caieaae ??/ie, aiane?aeie
/iai aeoea?cothoueny a?iciei? i?ioeane. O 1997 ?ioe? 105,2 oen.aa
caiaeue caciaaaee aiaeii? a?ici? (aeecueei 10% n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oa?aeue), ieiua aeaoeyoeieii iaaacia/ieo caiaeue noaiiaeea 257,8 oen.aa
(24%).

Ii?yae c e?euee?nieie o?ainoi?iaoe?yie a?aeaoaathoueny ci?ie ye?niiai
noaio a?oio?a. C 1990 ?ieo ianyae aianaiiy i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea iino?eii
ciaiooaaeenue ? aeinyaee o 1997 ?. ??aiy 60-o ?ie?a. O 1996 ?.
i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea aiineeinue eeoa 6 o/aa, ui o 2,7 ?ac?a iaioa, i?ae ia
ii/aoeo 90-o ??., a i?ia?aeueieo — 35 ea/aa (o 7 ?ac?a iaioa).
Ciaioeeenue ? ia’?ie aianaiiy ianoeoeeae?a (o 7 ?ac?a iaioa, i?ae ia
ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a). Ioaea, i?i iaaei??i? e?eueeino? canoinoaaiiy
aeia?ea ? ianoeoeeae?a ca?ac aiai?eoe ia aeiaiaeeoueny, aaeaea aiie
cia/ii iaio? a?ae iioeiaeueieo. Aea aaeee? ia’?ie ?o canoinoaaiiy o
80-90-o ??. i?ecaaee aei no?eeiai caa?oaeiaiiy a?oio?a, a?oioiaeo aiae
oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??.

?ioaineaiee inoooaaeueii-iae?i?aoeaiee aieea ii/aany o na?aaeei? 60-o
?ie?a. C ii/aoeo noie?ooy ia Aieeinueeiio Iie?nn? caaiei/ai?noue
ciaioeeanue o 10 ?ac?a, ui ni?e/eieei aeaaoi?o?eaoe?th i?ia?aeueieo
a?oio?a, a?o?iao ? aiaeio a?ic?th, ia?aneoaiiy iaeeo ??e, ciaioaiiy
iiioeyoe?e aieioii? oei?e ? oaoie. Ca?aeii c aeaieie Aea?aeoi?aae?iiy
aeiaaciaee o Aieeinuee?e iaeano?, o 1997 ?. ieiua inooaieo caiaeue
noaiiaeea 416,6 oen.aa, c ieo 76,8% n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue,
aeecueei 7% yeeo ciaoiaeeoueny o iacaaeia?eueiiio noai?. ?ioaineaiee
iae?i?aoeaiee aieea niinoa??aa?oueny ia 50% oa?eoi???, aea, ca aeaieie
Aieeinueeiai iaeaniiai oi?aae?iiy inoooaaeueieo nenoai, /anoea inooaieo
caiaeue noaiiaeoue aeecueei 30% caaaeueii? ieiu?, a u?euei?noue
iae?i?aoeaieo eaiae?a — 1,1-1,3 ei/ei2. Iniiaiee niin?a inooaiiy –
aii/a?iee ae?aiaae, yeee ia caaacia/o? iioeiaeueiiai aiaeii-iia?oo?yiiai
?aaeeio. A iaea?eueo aoaeoeai? inoooaaeueii-caieiaeoaaeuei? nenoaie
caeiathoue o?aoth /anoeio inoooaaieo ieiu. Niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y
aei ca?eueoaiiy /anoee inooaieo caiaeue, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny i?ae
n?iiaeao? oa aaaaoi??/i? o?aae, iniaeeai o i?ai?/ieo aainenoaiao, aea
i?ae ??eeth aeei?enoiao?oueny eeoa 3 /anoeia inooaieo caiaeue.
Iaea?eueoa ieiu ia?ainooaieo caiaeue, ui ia aeei?enoiaothoueny o
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?, cina?aaeaeaii o
Eai?iue-Eaoe?nueeiio (aeecueei 10% inooaii? ??ee?) oa Ethaao?anueeiio
(5%) ?aeiiao.

Aei iniiaieo aeae?a i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy cao?aeii? /anoeie
Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny iaeaaeaoue:

— aeeeaee a aoiinoa?o caa?oaeithth/eo ?a/iaei aiae noaoeiiia?ieo
aeaea?ae a 1997 ?., ca?aeii c aeaieie Aea?aeoi?aae?iiy aeiaaciaee o
Aieeinuee?e iaeano?, noaiiaeee 13,3 oen.o, ia 1 iaoeaioey ?aa?iio a
na?aaeiueiio i?eiaaea? 12,2 ea oe?aeeeaeo ?a/iaei ia ??e (a Oe?a?ii —
119 ea/??e). Iaea?eueo? ina?aaeee caa?oaeiaiiy cina?aaeaeai? iaaeiei
i?no: Eiaaey, Aieiaeeie?-Aieeinueeiai, Iaiaae/?a, aea iiiaieie
caa?oaeieeaie ? eioaeueii, oi?aaeiiiy iaaino?aeueieo aacii?iaiaeia
(i.Eiaaeue), oi?oicaaiaee. I?iieneiaa caa?oaeiaiiy ?aa?iio i?ioyaii
inoaii?o 5 ?ie?a cia/ii ciaioeeinue, oi/a 40 iiaei?e?inoa i?aoethaaee
aac aeicaieia ia aeeeaee, ? ia 9 c ieo aeyaeaii ia?aaeuaiiy AAeA.

— a?aeaaaeaiiy aeei?enoaieo no?/ieo aiae o i?e?iaei? aiaeioiee o 1997 ?.
noaiiaeei 42,08 iei.i3, o o./. aac i/enoee — 0,198 iei.i3. Iniiaieie
caa?oaeithaa/aie aiaeieo ?ano?nia ? i?aaiicaoei? eiioiaeueiiai
ainiiaea?noaa oa i?iieneiainoi, ia yei i?eiaaea? a?aeiia?aeii 89,6 i 10%
caaaeueii? eieueeinoi neeae?a caa?oaeiaieo no?/ieo aiae. O 1997 ?. c 42
i/enieo nii?oae, ui iathoue eiioeaaee aeione noi/ieo aiae o aiaeii
ia’?eoe. oieueee iaeia caaacia/eea ii?iaoeaio i/enoeo, a ?aooa
i?aoethaaee iaaoaeoeaii. E?ii oeueiai, 5 iiaei?e?inoa neeaeathoue
caa?oaeiaii noiee a iiaa?oiaai aiaee cian?i aac i/enoee.

— ooai?aiiy iaaacia/ieo i?iieneiaeo a?aeoiae?a. A i?ioeani ae?iaieoeoaa
o 1996 ?. ia iiaei?e?inoaao ?aa?iio, ca aeaieie noaoenoe/ii? caioiinoi
ooai?eeinue, aeecueei 2,2 oen.o aiaeoiaeia. Ca?aeii c aeaieie
Aea?aeoi?aae?iiy aeiaaciaee o Aieeinuee?e iaeano?, ia AO
«Eiaaeuenieueiao» iaeiie/aii 42 o ciauoaaeueii-ioieiaeaeoaaeueieo
?iaeei, 20 o aiaei?aoeueiaaieo iaooii?iaeoeoia, 26 o aiaeoiaeia
oa?aoaaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, 2,5 o aiaeoiaeia aaeueaaiiee. Ia
ia?a?iaieo onoaiiaeao ciaoeiaeaeo?oueny eeoa 16% iaaacia/ieo aiaeoiaeia,
ui ooai?ththoueny a ?aa?ii?, 25% aiaeoiaeia III ? IV eeano iaaaciaee
aeaicyoueny ia niioo?caaeeua, ?aooa caeeoathoueny ia oa?eoi??yo
i?aei?e?inoa.

O?ainii?oia caa?oaeiaiiy. O 1997 ?ioei aeeeaee aiae aaoio?ainii?oo
noaiiaeee 36,1 oen.o, aai 71% caaaeueieo aeeeaeia a aoiinoa?o ?aa?iio.
I?e aeeeae?a caa?oaeithth/eo ?a/iaei a?ae aaoio?ainii?oo i?eiaaea? ia
1990 ?. (130 oen.o). O 1995 ?. e?euee?noue aeeeae?a ciaioeeanue aei 31,5
oen.o, a aeae? ciiao ii/aea ieaaii c?inoaoe. Iaea?eueoo /anoeo a
aaoio?ainii?oi? aeeeaee aiineoue Eiaaeuenueeee (4,1 oen. o.) ?aeii c
i?noii, iaeiaioo — Oaoeueeee (0,51oen.o), Ethaao?anueeee (0,66 oen.o),
Noa?i-Aeae?anueeee (0,68 oen.o). Aaoio?ainii?o ? iniiaiei aeaea?aeii
iinooieaiiy aaaeeeo iaoae?a a aoiinoa?o ?aa?iio. Naiai?aeneoaeaith
Aieeinueei? iaeano? ca?a?no?iaai? ia?aaeuaiiy AAeE naeioeth o a?oioao
acaeiaae aaoiiaa?no?aeae oa iaaeiei o?ainii?oieo aoce?a Eiaaey,
Aieiaeeie?-Aieeinueeiai.

Iniiaiith i?e/eiith ?aae?aoe?eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy cao?aeii? /anoeie
Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny ? “caoiaeiee neiae” ?aaeiiaeoeaieo iiaaeia,
aiane?aeie aaa?i? ia *AAN, ui caeeoeany a Iaiaaeoeueeiio,
Ethaaoianueeiio oa Eaiiiue-Eaoe?nueeiio aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeiiao.
Ca?aeii c io?oe?eieie aeaieie, ?aaeiiioeeiaeaie o Aieeinueeie iaeanoi
caa?oaeiaii 167 ianaeaieo ioieo?a, aea i?iaeeaa? 144,6 oen./ie.
Caaaeueia ieiua caa?oaeiaieo caiaeue – 5372 ei2, ui noaiiaeoue 25% ieiu?
?aa?iio, c ieo ??ee? – 45%, i?e?iaeieo ei?iiaeo oa?aeue –55%. Iaea?eueoa
/anoea ??ee? na?aae caa?oaeiaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue
(aeecueei 50%) — o Eai?iue-Eaoe?nueeiio ?aeii?. E??i oeueiai,
Aea?aeoi?aae?iiyi aeiaaciaee o Aieeinuee?e iaeano?, aeiaeaoeiai aeyaeaii
2800 aa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue oa 3050 aa e?n?a, caa?oaeiaieo
?aae?ioeac??i (>1 E?/ei2). Iaaacia/ia neooaoe?y o caa?oaeiaieo ?aeiiao
oneeaaeith?oueny oei, ui inoaii?i /anii ooo i?iaiaeeoueny eeoa 50%
caieaiiaaieo eiio?caoiae?a, a ?acoeueoao? /iai ca?eueoothoueny ieiu?
eeneeo a?oio?a, c iaeaeueie ??aiyie ia?aoiaeo ?aae?iioee?ae?a c a?oioo a
?ineeie.

Naeeoaaia iaaaioaaeaiiy ?ioaa?o? ae?th an?o aeae?a aio?iiiaaiiiai
aieeao. Iniaeeaith i?iaeaiith iinaeaiue a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y noaei
ooai?aiiy aaeeei? e?eueeino? iiaooiaeo a?aeoiae?a, ia?a?iaea oa
ooee?caoe?y yeeo ia iaeaaiaeaeaia. Ca?aeii c aeaieie Aea?aeoi?aae?iiy
aeiaaciaee o Aieeinuee?e iaeano?, o 1997 ?. aeiaeia c 15-oe caaeeu
oaa?aeeo iiaooiaeo aiaeoiaeia ?aa?iio ia ia? aeicaieo ia ?ici?uaiiy, ia
aiaeiiaiaea? aeieiai/iei aeiiaai, 9 caiiaiai? a?eueoa ye ia 50%.
Iaaacia/ia neooaoe?y neeaeany ia ni?oo?caaeeuao Eiaaey ?
Aieiaeeie?-Aieeinueea, ye? ?ici?uai? a iaaeao i?noa, a nai?oa?ieo ciiao
aiaeicaai??a, ? aaea caiiaiai? ia 100%. Aenieoaoaoeith niioo?caaeeua o
i?no? Eiaaei io?oe?eii i?eieiaii. Aea aoae?aieoeoai iiaiai ni?oo?caaeeua
ia aaaeaoueny, oiio noa?a i?iaeiaaeo? ooieoe?iioaaoe. E?eoe/iee noai
ni?oo?caaeeu niinoa??aa?oueny oaeiae o Noa??e Aeae?aoe?, Oaoeueeo,
Eiaa?oeyo. O 1997 ?. eeoa o?aoy /anoeia iino oa naeeu iinueeiai oeio
?aa?iio eaiaeiciaaia. Aea caaaeueiiiinueei eaiae?caoe?ei? i/enii
nii?oaee ia caaacia/othoue iaiaoiaeiiai nooiaith i/euaiiy noi/ieo aiae.
Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei caa?oaeiaiiy ?i/ie Oo?iy, Iooeeiaea, I?oaeiee,
Eoaa, Aaia, Aieea Eeia. E??i oeueiai, aeecueei 15% caaaeueii?
i?ioyaeiinoi eaiaeicaoeieieo ia?aae ciaoiaeyoueny a aaa??eiiio noai?, ui
ni?e/eith? caieueoaiiy e?eueeino? aaa?ie ia oeeo ia’?eoao i?ioyaii
inoaiiio ?ie?a.

?ae?aaoe?eia iaaaioaaeaiiy ia eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie cao?aeii? /anoeie
Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny ui?ieo c?inoa?. I?ioyaii 1990-98 ??. aeena?oaioii
aeine?aeaeoaaeanue ?ae?aaoe?eia aeea?an?y i?eaa?aaeieo nioa Oaoeueeeo
ica?, cie?aia I?ni/iiai oa Na?oycue. Ica?i I?ni/ia a?aea?aeo? a 11 ?ac?a
iaioa ?ae?aaio?a, i?ae ic.Na?oycue, ooo ?ici?uaii eeoa 5 aac a?aeii/eieo
oa naiaoi??e “E?niaa i?niy”, a ia ocaa?aaeae? ic.Na?oycue — 60
?ae?aaoe?eieo caeeaae?a. C oeei iia’ycaia a?eueoa /anoea ieiu ??? oa
?V-? noaae?e ?ae?aaoe?eii? aeea?an?? ia ic.Na?oycue. Nthaee i?e?aeaeaea?
oaeiae a?eueoa e?euee?noue iai?aai?ciaaieo ?ae?aaio?a c iaiaoaie ia
aeo?aei? aei?, ui ? iniiaiith i?e/eiith ?ae?aaoe?eii? aeea?an??
eaiaeoaooieo nenoai. Ia?aaoeueiaai?noue oo?enonueeeo iioie?a ni?e/eith?
?ae?aaoe?eio aeea?an?th iaea?eueo iiioey?ieo i?noeue aeey a?aeii/eieo:
cieea? e?n ia i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiio aa?ac? ic.I?ni/ia iaaeiei naiaoi??th
«E?niaa i?niy», ??aeoathoue ianaaeaeaiiy a o?i/eu? A?yaea. Na?eiciith
i?iaeaiith ?ae?aaoe?eieo caeeaae?a ? oa, ui aiie ia iaeaaeiai?
eaiae?caoe?eiith ia?aaeath. Ia aaaaoueio aacao iaia? aaoiiieo
iaeaeai/ee?a aeey ni?oo?eiioaeia??a, iiaooia? a?aeoiaee aeaicyoueny
ia?aaoey?ii.

Aio?iiiaaii? iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui aena?oeai? o aeaiiio ?icae?e?
ni?e/eiththoue o?ainoi?iaoe?th eaiaeoaooieo nenoai ? aenooiathoue
aieiaieie /eiieeaie ooai?aiiy iaaii? aeieia?/ii? neooaoe??, ui
?icaeyiooa o ianooiiiio ?icae?e?.

?ioaa?aeueia ioe?iea aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? eaiaeoaooieo

nenoai cao?aeii? /anoeie Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny

Ia iniia? noia?ieo iieaciee?a aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie cao?aeii? /anoeie Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny iaie
i?iaaaeaia ?aeiioaaiiy ca aino?ioith aeieia?/ii? neooaoe?? ? iaoiaeii
?cie?i?e iiaoaeiaaia ea?oinoaia (?en.2). Ni?eyoeeaa aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y
c i?aeoe/ii iaci?iaieie eaiaeoaooieie nenoaiaie caa?aaeanue ia aeaiee
/an ia 6% aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi???, a naia o Ethaiieuenueeiio oa ia
e?aei?e i?ai?/i?e /anoei? Aieiaeeie?-Aieeinueeiai aaei?i?no?aoeaieo
?aeii?a. Caaeia?eueia aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y c iaeiii?ooaieie
eaiaeoaooieie nenoaiaie caeia? 9% oa?eoi??? ? cao?eniaaia ia i?aii/?
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?aa?iio a ?aoi?anueeiio oa i?ai?/i?e /anoei?
Noa?iaeae?anueeiai ?aeiio, a oaeiae iaoe?ieith nioaith iaaeiei oa?eoi??e
c aeia?ith aeieia?/iith neooaoe??th. Oe? eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie iaea?eueoa
caciaee iae?i?aoeaiiai aieeao, a iacia/iee na?aaei?e aae aio?iiiaaiiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy oeeo oa?eoi??e coiiaeaiee neaaeei i?iieneiaei,
o?ainii?oiei oa naeeoaaiei aieeaii. Eiioe?eoia aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y c
ii?ooaieie eaiaeoaooaie a ?acoeueoao? ?o ia?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
neeaeanue ia oa?eoi???, ui caeia? 22%, ? i?inoyaioeanue a?ae Oaoeueeiai
?aeiio ia i?aaeaiiee no?ae aei Noa?i? Aeae?aee, a aeae? aeaiia nioaaie:
ia i?ai?/ aei ica?a A?eiai, ia i?aaeaiue aei Aieiaeeie?-Aieeinueeiai ?
ia no?ae aei E?aa?oe?a. Ii?yae ?c ci?iith a?ae?ieia?/iiai ?aaeeio
oa?eoi??? a ?acoeueoao? inooaiiy a?ae/ooiee aieea i?iieneiaiai oa
o?ainii?oiiai caa?oaeiaiiy. Ia?aaee?eciaa aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y c neeueii
ii?ooaieie eaiaeoaooaie cao?eniaaia ia 17% oa?eoi???, ui i?inoyaioeanue
aocueeith nioaith c i?aii/? ia i?aaeaiue /a?ac Eiaaeue, aeae? ia no?ae
/a?ac E?aa?oe? e iaaaeeeei “oainoii” a iai?yieo aei Eooeueea. Oe?
eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie iio?aaothoue aaeeeeo iaiaaeaiue aio?iiiaaiieo
iaaaioaaeaiue oa i?iaaaeaiiy cia/ieo ca ianyaaie ?aeoeueoeaaoe?eieo
?ia?o. Oa?eoi??? c e?eciaith aeieia?/iith neooaoe??th c o?ainoi?iiaaieie
oa caa?oaeiaieie eaiaeoaooaie caeiathoue anth no?aeio /anoeio
aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi??? (44%) Ethaao?anueeee, Iaiaaeoeueeee,
Eai?iue-Eaoe?nueeee ?aeiie oa no?aei? /anoeie Eiaaeuenueeiai e
E?aa?oe?anueeiai ?aeii?a. Oe? oa?eoi??? caciathoue oe?ieiai niaeo?o
?ioaineaiiai aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ca aeiyoeii Ethaao?anueeiai
oa Eai?iue-Eaoe?nueeiai ?aeii?a, ye? iio?aieee o oeth eaoaai??th caiaeue
eeoa /a?ac ?aae?iaeoeaia caa?oaeiaiiy a ?acoeueoao? aaa??? ia *AAN.
Oa?eoi??e c eaoano?io?/iith aeieia?/iith neooaoe??th o aeine?aeaeoaaiiio
?aa?ii? ia aeyaeaii.

Aeey ii??aiyiiy iaie aecia/aii aeieia?/iee noai ?aa?iio aac a?aooaaiiy
?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy ? i?iaaaeaia ?aeiioaaiy (?en.2). Caaaeueia
aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y ia aeine?aeaeoaai?e oa?eoi??? aoea a cia/ii
e?auith: oa?eoi??? c e?eciaith aeieia?/iith neooaoe??th aoee a
a?aenooi?, a eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie c ni?eyoeeaith oa caaeia?eueiith
aeieia?/iith neooaoe??th caeiaee a aeecueei iieiaeie oa?eoi???. Oa
?aaeueia aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y oneeaaeith?oueny ?aae?iaeoeaiei
caa?oaeiaiiyi. Oiio oa?eoi??? c ni?eyoeeaeie aeey i?iaeeaaiiy oiiaaie ia
aeaiee /an iioe?ai? eeoa o cao?aei?e oa i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e /anoeiao
?aa?iio (aeecueei — 37%). ?aooa eaiaeoaooieo nenoai a?aeiinyoueny aei
oa?eoi??e c iacaaeia?eueieie aeieia?/ieie oiiaaie.

I?e?iaeiioi?iii? caoiaee uiaei ciaioaiiy aio?iiiaaiiiai aieeao ia

eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie cao?aeii? /anoeie Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny

I?iaaaeaiee iaie aiae?c noeoiiiai aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie cao?aeii? /anoeie Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny aeyaea, ui
aeey a?eueoi? /anoeie oa?eoi??? oa?aeoa?ia nooo?aa aio?iiiaaiia
o?ainoi?iiaai?noue eaiaeoaoo?a ? cia/ia caa?oaeiai?noue aeiae?eey. Oi/a
ieiueiia iioe?aiiy oa?eoi??e c e?eciaith aeieia?/iith neooaoe??th o
aeaiiio ?aa?ii? coiiaeaia ?aae?iaeoeaiei caa?oaeiaiiyi, iaeiae a iaaieo
i?noeyo ? aac iueiai noi?ioaaeenue iiooaei? aiaieua iacaaeia?eueiiai
aeieia?/iiai noaio. Ia i?aenoaa? cai?iiiiiaaiiai ?aeiioaaiiy cao?aeii?
/anoeie Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny ca aino?ioith aeieia?/ii? neooaoe??
i?iiiio?ii aeaye? i?e?iaeiioi?iii? caoiaee aeey ciaioaiiy aio?iiiaaiiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Iaaaeee? ae?eyiee c ni?eyoeeaith oa caaeia?eueiith aeieia?/iith
neooaoe??th (?en.2) ne?ae aeeth/eoe aei caiia?aeieo oa?eoi??e. Naia ooo
ciaoiaeyoueny oe?ii? eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie ica?, oi?oiaeu, aie?o o
aeieeiao I?ei’yo? oa Cao.Aoao, a?aeianai? aei aiaeii-aieioyieo oa?aeue
i?aeia?iaeiiai cia/aiiy. Iioeiaeueiei ae??oaiiyi ieoaiue ioi?iie oeeo
ia’eo?a ? ooai?aiiy aeieia?/ieo ei?eaei??a oa aoce?a, ?aeiiaiaeiaaieo
aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia oa?eoi??? Aa?i?aa?iio Aoa ni?eueieie
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie.

Ia oa?eoi??yo c eiioe?eoiith aeieia?/iith neooaoe??th e??i ?icoe?aiiy
ieiu i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo, ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe caoiaee, ui
ia?aaeaa/athoue iaiaaeaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo iaaaioaaeaiue, a?aeiiaeaiiy
ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a oa i?e?iaeii? no?oeoo?e eaiaeoaooo. Cieaeaiiy
?ici?thaaiiy oeyoii aeaaaeaiiy c ??ee? caiaeue, iai?eaeaoieo aeey
ia?ia?oeo (i?uaieo caiaeue oa inooaieo oi?oiaeu Iie?nny, noee?a,
caieaaieo, caaiei/aieo caiaeue), aoaea iioei?coaaoe no?oeoo?o oa?aeue, a
oaeiae ciaiooaaoe ieiu? a?iaeiaaieo caiaeue. Iniiaith ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
caieaei?enooaaiiy ia inooaieo caieyo iiaeiii noaoe eoe?aieoeoai ?c
noai?aiiyi o?aainoi?a o?eaaeiai aeei?enoaiiy. Iaiao?aeia ?aeiino?oeoe?y
?nioth/eo a?ae?iiae?i?aoeaieo nenoai aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ?o aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? oa aeieia?/ii? iaa?oioiaaiino?, a ia aoae?aieoeoai iiaeo.
Caoiaee uiaei ca?eueoaiiy ieiu e?n?a aoaeooue iineaaethaaoe i?ioeane
aeaeoaaiiy ? ia?aiino ?aae?iaeoeaii caa?oaeiaiiai ieeo. Iaeiei ?c
iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo aeieia?/ii aeaaiiieo/ieo oa?eoi??e cao?aeii? /anoeie
Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny ? i??i?eoaoia inai?iiy ?ae?aaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo.

Ia oa?eoi??yo c ia?aaee?eciaith oa e?eciaith aeieia?/ieie neooaoe?yie
ia?oi/a?aiaeie iiaeii? noaoe ?aeoeueoeaaoe?ei? caoiaee ia caa?oaeiaieo
?aae?iioee?aeaie oa?eoi??yo. Iaea?aeaiiy ?aae?aoe?eii /enoi? i?iaeoeoe??
o caa?oaeiaieo ?aeiiao caaacia/o?oueny /a?ac onoiaiiy eenei? ?aaeoe??
a?oio?a oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy aaiioaaiiy ?acii ?c aianaiiyi
iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ia?aeueieo oa i?aai?/ieo
aeia?ea.

Aieiaieie i?e/eiaie iaaaoeaieo ci?i o ?aa?ii?, ia iaoo aeoieo, ?
a?aenooi?noue ?aeeii? aeieia?/ii caaeainiaaii? nenoaie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy oa ?aii?oaaiiy ia?aiao??a aeiionoeieo ii?i
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie. I?e oi?ioaaii? iie?oeee aaaeaiiy
ainiiaea?noaa o cao?aei?e /anoei? Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe, ui o i?e?iaeiiio a?aeiioaii? – oea oi?eaeueia aainenoaia.
Oiio iio??aii caa?aaoe aeieia?/iee oaiiiai oa?eoi???, ?icoiii
aeei?enoaaoe eiai ia?aaaae.

AENIIAEE

1. Iaeiei ?c oeyo?a iie?auaiiy no/aniiai aeieia?/iiai noaio aeiae?eey ?
ii?ioaaiiy aio?iiiaaiieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie. Aeey
?ic?iaee oaeeo ii?i iaia’yceiaeie ? aeine?aeaeaiiy aio?iiiaaiii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy caeaaeiino? ci?i a?ae ?ioaineaiino?
aieeao ?iaeea?aeoaeueii aeey eiaeiiai ?aa?iio.

2. Aio?iiiaaii? iaaaioaaeaiiy aeeeeeathoue aeeaie? o?ainoi?iaoe??
eaiaeoaooieo nenoai, ianooaae ? aeeaeia yeeo caeaaeaoue a?ae: noeoiiino?
aeae?a aio?iiiaaiiiai aieeao oa oa?aeoa?o ?o i?iyao, o?eaaeino? ae??,
i?noeaaeo oaeoi??a.

3. Aiae?c ??cieo aeae?a aio?iiiaaiieo iaaaioaaeaiue i?ioyaii OO noie?ooy
iieacaa, ui:

— ?ioaineaia aio?iiiaaiia o?ainoi?iaoe?y cao?aeii? /anoeie Aieeinueeiai
Iie?nny ii/aeanue o 60-o ?ieao ?acii c aeoeaiei ?icaeoeii i?iieneiaino?,
o?ainii?oii? ia?aae?, inooaiiyi iie?nueeeo a?oio?a oa aenoaineaiei
aaaeaiiyi n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa;

— o 1986 ?ioe?, i?ney ?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy ?aa?iio a ?acoeueoao?
aaa??? ia *AAN, ieiu? neeueii o?ainoi?iiaaieo eaiaeoaooieo nenoai cia/ii
ca?eueoeeenue;

— ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a i?ioeane aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
eaiaeoaooieo nenoai aeaui niia?eueieeenue, ui iia’ycaii ?c cia/iei
nei?i/aiiyi i?iieneiaiai oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

4. Ea?oia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iniiaieie aeey aea/aiiy aaaaoi??/ieo
aio?iiiaaiieo ci?i no?oeoo?e eaiaeoaooieo nenoai. Ca aeiiiiiaith
ii??aiyiiy ??cii/aniaeo ea?o aeyaeai? oa?aeoa? oa ianooaae i?ioean?a
aio?ii?caoe??.

5. Aio?ii?caoe?y eaiaeoaooieo nenoai o cao?aei?e /anoei? Aieeinueeiai
Iie?nny coiiaeaia a iniiaiiio inooaiiyi ia?acaieiaeaieo oa caaiei/aieo
caiaeue. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae i?e?iaeieie oa aio?iiiaaiii
o?ainoi?-iiaaieie oa?aeaeyie ci?ith?oueny a?ae 1:1 o no?aeieo
eaiaeoaooieo nenoaiao aei 2:3 o oeaio?aeueieo oa 1:4 ? 1:9 o i?aaeaiieo.
Caaaeii iieaciee aio?ii?caoe?? eaiaeoaooieo nenoai ca?eueoo?oueny c
i?ai?/iiai noiaeo ia i?aaeaiue.

6. Iniiai? ci?ie o eaiaeoaooieo nenoaiao cao?aeii? /anoeie Aieeinueeiai
Iie?nny a?aeaoeenue a ?acoeueoao? iae?i?aoeaiiai,
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai oa ?aae?iaeoeaiiai aieeao. O?ainoi?iaoe??
eaiaeoaooieo nenoai ni?e/eiai? naeeoaaiei, o?ainii?oiei oa i?iieneiaei
aieeaii ia iathoue ieiueiiiai oa?aeoa?o ? iioe?ai? eieaeueii, iaaeiei
iniiaieo i?iieneiaeo ? o?ainii?oieo aoce?a ?aa?iio. ?ioaineaia
?ae?aaoe?eia iaaaioaaeaiiy niinoa??aa?oueny o eaiaeoaooeo nenoaiao
Oaoeueeiai III.

7. Na??y ea?oinoai, io?eiaieo a ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue, iieaco?
oa?eoi??aeueia iioe?aiiy oa ianooaae ??cieo aeae?a aio?iiiaaiiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ? ? iniiaith aeey aecia/aiiy caaaeueii? aeieia?/ii?
neooaoe?? ?aa?iio, a oaeiae aeey ?ic?iaee ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei ??
iie?auaiiy.

8. Iaaia noeoii?noue aio?iiiaaiieo iaaaioaaeaiue coiiaeea cia/i?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? eaiaeoaooieo nenoai ? noi?ioaaea no/anio aeieia?/io
neooaoe?th. Ni?eyoeeaa aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y caa?aaeanue ia oa?eoei???,
ui caeia? 6% ?aa?iio; caaeia?eueia — ia 9%; eiioe?eoia — ia 22%;
ia?aaee?eciaa — ia 17%; e?eciaa — ia 44%. Aac ?aae?iaeoeaiiai
caa?oaeiaiiy caaaeueia aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y o cao?aei?e /anoei?
Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny aoea a cia/ii e?aua: oa?eoi??? c e?eciaith
aeieia?/iith neooaoe??th aoee a a?aenooi?, a eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie c
ni?eyoeeaith oa caaeia?eueiith aeieia?/iith neooaoe??th caeiaee a
aeecueei iieiaeie ?aa?iio.

9. Caoiaee uiaei ciaioaiiy aio?iiiaaiiiai aieeao o cao?aei?e /anoei?
Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny caiaeyoueny aei ii?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ia
eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie oa oi?ioaaiiy iie?oeee caaeainiaaiiai
aeieiai-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo c a?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee aeaiiai ?aa?iio,
eio?a iiaeiia aooe ?iaeea?aeoaeueiith ? iaeii/anii aeecueeith aei
caaaeueii? eiioeaioe?? noaeiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie.

INIIAI? IOAE?EAOe?? IA OAIO AeENA?OAOe??

1. Eieiiaa ?. Aeaye? aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa o cao?aei?e /anoei? Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny // A?ni. Euea?a.
o-oo. Na?.aaia?ao. – Euea?a: I?ino?? I. — 1998. – Aei. 23. — N. 301 –
305.

2. Eoeo?oaeca N.?., Eieiiaa ?.A. Aio?iiiaaiia o?ainoi?iaoe?y Oaoeueeiai
eaiaeoaooo i?ioyaii OO noie?ooy // Oe?.aaia?ao. aeo?iae. — 1998. — ?1.-
N.37-41.

3. Eoeo?oaeca N.?., Eieiiaa ?.A., ?ea/oe I.A. Ci?ia aeieiai-aaia?ao?/ii?
neooaoe?? aiane?aeie aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aainenoaie
Oaoeueeiai iiica?’y // A?ni. Euea?a. o-oo. Na?. aaia?ao. — Euea?a: Na?o.
— 1997.–Aei.20.-N.63-67.

4. Eieiiaa ?.A. Aeaye? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aio?iiiaaiii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? eaiaeoaooieo nenoai Cao?aeiiai Iie?nny // Oe?a?inueea
Iie?nny: a/i?a, nueiaiaei?, caao?a. — Eooeuee: Iaaenoe?’y. — 1998. — N.
72-73.

5. Eieiiaa ?.A. Ioe?iea ?ioaa?aeueiiai aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
eaiaeoaooe c iaoith ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?aie caaeainiaaiiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie
// Iao. i?aei. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. Ea?iaonueeee ?aa?ii ? i?iaeaie noaeiai
?icaeoeo. — ?ao?a. — 1998. — N. 74-76.

6. Eieiiaa ?. Iinoaeieia?/ia ina?oa oa ?? cia/aiiy a iiia?aaeaeaii?
aeaa?a-aeaoe?eieo i?ioean?a // Aeieia?/ia ina?oa oa aeoiaaiiy. –
Eooeuee. — 1996.- N.117-118.

7. Eoeo?oaeca N.?., Eieiiaa ?.A. Aeieiai-aaia?ao?/i? ia?aaeoiiae
i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a ?a?i?aa?ii? Aoa // ?a?i?aa?ii Aoa:
i?iaeaie o?ainei?aeiiiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa. – Ee?a: IIO. — 1995.-
N.133-134.

8. Eoeo?oaeca N.?., Eieiiaa ?.A., Oaaeoiue I.A. Aeina?ae oa ia?niaeoeae
aeine?aeaeaiiy aainenoai Oaoeueeiai i?e?iaeiiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ia?eo //
Iao. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. I?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iiainoai?aieo caiia?aeiee?a. – A?eiaee?a. — 1995. — N. 197.

9. Eoeo?oaeca N.?., Eieiiaa ?.A. Iniaeeaino? aio?iiiaaiiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia i?e?iaei? eiiieaene Oaoeueeiai i?e?iaeiiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ia?eo // Oace aeiiia?aeae VII c’?caeo Oe?. aaia?ao?/iiai
oiaa?enoaa. – Ee?a. — 1995.- N.119-120

10. ?iaeei ?.I., Eieiiaa ?.A., Oaaeoiue I.A. Iiaeeeaino? ?aaa?e?oaoe??
oai?eo i?e?iaeieie e?eoaaeueieie caniaaie cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie //
No/ania aeieia?y ? aeieia?/ia iaoieia?y ethaeeie. – Euea?a. — 1997.- N.
119-121.

11. Eoeo?oaeca N.?., E?ioa/ O.ss., Eieiiaa ?.A. A?ae?iaaii? oa
aio?iiiaaii? /eiieee aeaa?aaeaoe?? caiaeue cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie //
Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu io?aiu caiaeue. – Ee?a:NIIN. — 1997. – *.2. — N.
236-237.

12. Koynova I. Same problems on the nature protection at the Shatsk
National Park. Collection of science and methodical papers Internatitute
Association … Lviv: . — 1995. — T.3. — p.102-105.

13. Kojnowa I. Antropopresja jako przyczyna zmiam krajobrazu Pojezierza
Szackiego// Srodowisko przyrodnicze jako plaszczyzna wspolpracy
transgranicnej. -Lublin: Politechnika Lubelska. -1996. -T.3. — L. 37-41.

14. Kojnowa I. Zmiany w ekosystemach lesnych w ciagu ostatnich 20 lat //
Skala przeksztalcen srodowiska i polityka ekologiczna Euroregionu Bug. —
Lublin: Norbertinum. — 1997. -T.15. — L. 216 – 218.

15. Kojnowa I. Strategia ochrony kluczowych ekosystemow // Skala
przeksztalcen srodowiska i polityka ekologiczna Euroregionu Bug. —
Lublin: Norbertinum. — 1997. — T.15. — L. 332-334.

16. Kojnowa I. Problemy ecologiczne Krajobrazu Szackiego // Czlowiek i
przyroda. — 1998. — ? 8-9. — L.213-217.

17. Kukurudza S., Kojnowa I. Degradacja krajobrazow oraz system wartosci
ludzkich // Czlowiek i przyroda. — 1997. — ? 7. — L.77-80.

AIIOAOe?ss

Eieiiaa ?.A. Aio?iiiaaiia o?ainoi?iaoe?y eaiaeoaooieo nenoai cao?aeii?
/anoeie Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaith eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo
iaoe ca ni?aoe?aeuei?noth 11.00.11 — eiino?oeoeaia aaia?ao?y ?
?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a. — Euea?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, Euea?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaaii ??ci? aeaee aio?iiiaaiieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia
eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie cao?aeii? /anoeie Aieeinueeiai Iie?nny oa io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe, ui aeacothoue ia ianooaae oa aeeaeio aio?iiiaaiii?
o?ainoi?iaoe??. Oaeineiiaeaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy ?ioaa?aeueiiai
aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie, ca aeiiiiiaith yei?
anoaiiaeaia nooi?iue o?ainoi?iiaaiino? eaiaeoaoo?a. I?iaaaeaii
?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi??? uiaei aino?ioe aeieia?/ii? neooaoe??, ia iniia?
yeiai c?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey ciaioaiiy aio?iiiaaiiiai aieeao ia
eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia oa?e?i??? ?aa?iio aeiiie?oeee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eaiaeoaooi? nenoaie, aio?ii?caoe?y, aeaee aio?iiiaaiiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy, aio?iiiaaiia o?ainoi?iaoe?y, nooi?iue o?ainoi?iiaaiino?
eaiaeoaooo, aeieia?/ia neooaoe?y.

ANNOTATION

Koonova I.B. Antropogenic Transformation of the Landscape Systems of the
Western Part of Volynske Polessia. – Manuscript.

Thesis for the Degre of Candidate of Geographical Science in speciality
11.00.11 – Constructive Geography and Wise Use of Natural Resources. –
Lviv Ivan Franko State University, Lviv; 1999.

The scales and size of impact of antropogenic pressure different kinds
on the landscape systems of hte western part of Volynske Polessia were
investigated. The principles and methods to define the landscape systems
integral antropogenic transformation have been worked out and used to
define the degree of landscape transformation and resulted in division
the territory in to districts concerning the ecological situation level.
The basic nature protection measures concerning the landscape systems
antropogenic transformation diminishing have been proposed.

Key words: landscape systems, antropization, kinds of antropogenic
pressure, antropogenic transformation, degree of landscape
transformation, ecological situation.

AIIOAOeEss

Eieiiaa E.A. Aio?iiiaaiiay o?ainoi?iaoeey eaiaeoaooiuo nenoai caiaaeiie
/anoe Aieuineiai Iieanuey. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?aoe/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 11.00.11 – eiino?oeoeaiay aaia?aoey e
?aoeeiiaeueiia enniieueciaaiea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. – Eueaianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia O?aiea, Eueaia, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeiaaiu ?acee/iua aeaeu aio?iiiaaiiie iaa?ocee ia
eaiaeoaooiua nenoaiu caiaaeiie /anoe Aieuineiai Iieanuey e iieo/aiu
?acoeueoaou, eioi?ua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i ianooaaao e noaiaie
aio?iiiaaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeee. Oniaa?oainoaiaaia iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey
eioaa?aeueiie aio?iiiaaiiie iaa?ocee ii naie iniiaiuo aeaeao
aio?iiiaaiiiai aeeyiey ia aeaiioth oa??eoi?eth: naeuenueeioicyenoaaiiia,
inooeoaeueii-iaeeei?aoeaiia, i?iiuoeaiiia, o?ainii?oiia, ?aaeeiaeoeaiia,
naeeoaaiia, ?ae?aaoeeiiiia. Aeey eaaeaeiai ec naie aeaeaeaiiuo aeaeia
aio?iiiaaiiiai aeeyiey ?ac?aaioaiu e?eoa?ee eioaineaiinoe iaa?ocee ii
iyoeaaeueiie oeaea: io 1 aaea – ieieiaeueiua iaa?ocee, eioi?ua
nouanoaaiii ia oooaeoatho iauoth yeieiae/aneoth neooaoeeth a
eaiaeoaooiuo nenoaiao, aei 5 aaeia – iaa?ocee, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e
iaia?aoeiui o?ainoi?iaoeeyi e nicaeatho eaoano?ioe/aneoth yeieiae/aneoth
neooaoeeth a aainenoaiao.

Iaoiaeii n?aaiaiey ?aciia?aiaiiuo oiiia?aoe/aneeo ea?o ianooaaa 1:100000
enneaaeiaaiu i?ioeannu aio?iiecaoeee eaiaeoaooiuo nenoai ia i?iyaeaiee
OO noieaoey ioo?i eco/aiey aeeiaieee eciaiaiee no?oeoo?u i?e?iaeiuo e
aio?iiiaaiii i?aia?aciaaiiuo i?e?iaeiue eiiieaenia. Enneaaeiaaiey
i?iaiaeeeenue ia 11 eeth/aauo o/anoeao a ?aciuo aeaeao eaiaeoaooia
caiaaeiie /anoe Aieuineiai Iieanuey. Anaai o/o?i 21 e?eoa?ee
eioaineaiinoe aio?iiiaaiiiai aeeyiey, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo ii?aaeae?i
n?aaeiee aae iaa?ocee aeey eaaeaeiai ec enneaaeiaaiiuo eeth/aauo
o/anoeia.

Onoaiiaeaia caaeneiinoue ianooaaia aio?iiecaoeee eaiaeoaooiuo nenoai io
i?aiaeaaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea aio?iiiaaiiuo iaa?ocie. A caiaaeiie
/anoe Aieuineiai Iieanuey iniiaiie i?e/eiie aio?iiecaoeee eaiaeoaooiuo
nenoai noaei inooaiea caaiei/aiuo oaiaeee. Iieacaoaeue aio?iiecaoeee a
eiioea OO aaea oaaee/eaaaony a iai?aaeaiee n naaa?i-ainoiea ia tha. Ia
i?ioyaeaiee noieaoey iaeaieueoea eciaiaiey a no?oeoo?a eaiaeoaooieuo
nenoai i?iecioee a oeaio?aeueiie e thaeiie /anoe ?aaeiia, aaea
iieacaoaeue aio?iiecaoeee oaaee/eeny a 3-4 ?aca. Iaeiaiueoea eciaiaiey a
no?oeoo?a oaiaeee i?iecioee a ainoi/iuo e naaa?i-caiaaeiuo eaiaeoaooiuo
nenoaiao, aaea iieacaoaeue aio?iiecaoeee oaaee/eeny a 1-3 ?aca.

E naiui nouanoaaiiui aio?iiiaaiiui iaa?oceai, eioi?ua o?ainoi?ie?otho
eaiaeoaoou caiaaeiie /anoe Aieuineiai Iieanuey ioiinyony ?aaeeiaeoeaiay,
iaeei?aoeaiay e naeuenueeioicyenoaaiiay. O?ainoi?iaoeee iaoneiaeaiiua
naeeoaaiui, i?iiuoeaiiui, o?ainii?oiui e ?ae?aaoeeiiiui aeeyieai ia
eiatho ieiuaaeiiai oa?aeoa?a e ?ani?ino?aiaiu eieaeueii, ieiei iniiaiuo
i?iiuoeaiiuo oceia ?aaeiia. Eioaineaiia ?ae?aaoeeiiiia aeeyiea
iaaethaeaaony a Oaoeeii III.

A ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiee iino?iaia na?ey ea?oinoai, eioi?ua
eethno?e?otho oa??eoi?eaeueiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea e ianooaau ?aciuo aeaeia
aio?iiiaaiiiai aeeyiey e neoaeao iniiaie aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iauae
yeieiae/aneie neooaoeee, a oaeaea aeey ?ac?aaioee ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
oiaiueoaieth aio?iiiaaiiuo iaa?ocie.

A caaeneiinoe io aaee/eiu eioaa?aeueiie iaa?ocee, ii?aaeae?i o?iaaiue
aio?iiiaaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeee eaiaeoaooiuo nenoai e oa??eoi?eyi i?enaiaia
ii?aaeae?iiay noaiaiue ino?iou yeieiae/aneie neooaoeee. I?iaaaeaii
?aeiie?iaaiea caiaaeiie /anoe Aieuineiai Iieanuey ii ino?ioa
yeieiae/aneie neooaoeee. Iioeiaeueiay yeieiae/aneay neooaoeey
nio?aieeanue ia 6% oa??eoi?ee; oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiay – ia 9%; eiioeeeoiay
– ia 22%; aeie?eceniay – ia 17%; e?eceniay – ia 44%. Aac ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai
caa?yciaiey iauay yeieiae/aneay neooaoeey a ?aaeiia auea au cia/eoaeueii
eo/oa: oa??eoi?ee n e?eceniie yeieiae/aneie neooaoeeae ionoonoaiaaee au,
a eaiaeoaooiua nenoaiu n iioeiaeueiie e oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie
aeieiae/aneie neooaoeeae caieiaee au ieiei iieiaeiu oa??eoi?ee.

Aiaeec ?aciuo aeaeia aio?iiiaaiiuo iaa?ocie ia caiaaeioth /anoue
Aieuineiai Iieanuey a OO aaea iieacae, /oi: eioaineaiay aio?iiiaaiiay
o?ainoi?iaoeey a ?aaeiia ia/aeanue a 60-uo aiaeao, aianoa n aeoeaiui
?acaeoeai i?iiuoeaiiinoe, o?ainii?oa, inooaieai ii/a, aenoaineaiui
aaaeaieai naeueneiai oicyenoaa; a 1986 aiaeo, iinea ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai
caa?yciaiey oa??eoi?ee a ?acoeueoaoa aaa?ee ia *AYN, ieiuaaeue neeueii
o?ainoi?ie?iaaiuo eaiaeoaooiuo nenoai cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eeanue; a
ia/aea 90-uo aiaeia i?ioeannu aio?iiiaaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeee eaiaeoaooiuo
nenoai ianeieueei caiaaeeeeenue, /oi naycaii ni cia/eoaeueiuie
nie?auaieyie i?iiuoeaiiiai e naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ionoonoaea aaeeiie yeieiae/anee caaeaine?iaaiie nenoaiu ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey, eaii?e?iaaiea ia?aiao?ia aeiionoeiuo ii?i iaa?ocie
ia eaiaeoaooiua nenoaie — iniiaiua i?e/eiu io?eoeaoaeueiuo eciaiaiee a
?aaeiia. A caaeneiinoe io ?aaeueiie yeieiae/aneie neooaoeee, /oi
neiaeeeanue ia aeaiiia a?aiy, a aeena?oaoeee i?aaeeiaeaiu iniiaiua
ia?ii?eyoey aeey oiaiueoaiey aio?iiiaaiiie iaa?ocee ia eaiaeoaooiua
nenoaiu. ?aaeecaoeeth yoeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee iiaeao iaania/eoue iieeoeea
naaeaine?iaaiiai ?acaeoey, eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie
(o/eouaaoue niaoeeoeeo ?aaeiia) e a oi aea a?aiy aeeceie e iauae
eiioeaioeee onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eaiaeoaooiua nenoaiu, aio?iiecaoeey, aeaeu
aio?iiiaaiiie iaa?ocee, aio?iiiaaiiay o?ainoi?iaoeey, noaiaiue
o?ainoi?ie?iaaiinoe eaiaeoaooia, yeieiae/aneay neooaoeey.

Ae?oe ionaoiee. Iai?? ionaoiee. Oi?iao 60o84/16.

Caiiaeaiiy ? 99/5-20. Oe?aae 100 i?ei.

Ae?oe OcIA “I?ino?? I”

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