OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IAAeE*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?aoooaiei ??eia sseiae?aia

OAeE: 611.611.616-053.8

AIAOII?ss IE?EIAEO *AOIE ETHAeEIE C??EIAI OA IIOEEIAI A?E?A

14.03.01 – Ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999 a.

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa oiiia?ao?/ii?
aiaoii?? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo IIC
Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ao?eo Ieoaeei I?ieiiiae/, Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iia?aoeaii?
o??o?a?? oa oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eia?oi?eia Aieiaeeie? Aai?a?eiae/,
Eoaainueeee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith ii?iaeueii?
aiaoii??.

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oooea Aiaaeai Aaneeueiae/,
?aaii-O?aie?anueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y, caa. eao. aiaoii??
ethaeeie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey, eaoaae?a
iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii??, IIC Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 25 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 11-00 aiaeei?.

Ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae64.600.03 i?e
Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? (310022, i. Oa?e?a,
i?. I?aaaee, 12)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (310022, i. Oa?e?a, i?. Eai?ia, 4)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 22 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao iaaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio A.I. Ieueoianueeee

Caaaeueia oa?aeOa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O no/ani?e iia?aoeai?e iao?io?ieia?? ana a?eueoa
?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaea?aeothoue iaeio?aaiaoe/i? e i?aaiicaa??aath/?
caniae iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy ?yaeo o??o?a?/ieo caoai?thaaiue ie?ie ?
na/iaeo oeyo?a (ie?eiai-eai’yia oai?iaa, aeaye? oi?ie ooaa?eoeueico
ie?ie, e?noe ie?ie, ?ieainoeueiaai? iooeeie oa ?io?). Na?aae oeeo
cania?a aaeeea cia/aiiy iathoue: /a?acoe??yia aeeo/aiiy ie?eiaeo
eaiai?a, ?acaeoe?y ie?ie, iao?ioii?y, iao?inoii?y. (Aic?aiia I. O.,
A?ie/aiei C. ?., 1998; Lopatkin N. A., 1999: Oa?aiao ?. C., 1998;
Aeooi?aa A. A. oa ?i., 1986; Ia?aaa?caa A. N. Ua?aae A. TH., 1989;
Ioaa/aa A. A., 1975; Ea?iaiei A. N., Ia?aaa?caa A. N., 1983; Aeaeaoaeao
?., Eiiaoeei I. A., Iaci ?. A., 1972; Ia?aaa?caa A. N., 1997; A?anue A.
A., Ia/eii?aiei A. I., 1998; Korth L., 1984; Korth L., 1985; Korth L.,
1986; Reddy P. K. et al, 1984; Chaster B., 1984; Bossche M. V., Simon
J., Schulman C. C., 1990; Segura I. W., 1984; Eickenberg H. U., 1985;
Ballanger Ph., 1988; Sampaio F. J. B. et al, 1992).

Cie?aia, oaoiieia?y ia?eooaiii? iao?ie?oioii?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia
ia?oiio aoai? oe??? iia?aoe?? i?ae eiio?ieai oeueo?acaoeo ae?iaey?oueny
/a?acoe??yia iao?inoii?y: /a?ac oe??o e ia?aio?io ie?ee aieeie
i?iaiaeeoueny ioieoe?y ie?eiai? /aoee. O ioieoe?eio aieeo aaiaeeoueny
i?ia?aeiee. I?ney oeueiai aieea onoaa?oueny, a ii i?ia?aeieeo
anoaiiaeththoueny oaeaneii?/i? aoae?, ui iioe?ththoue eaiae. Oaeei /eiii
oi?io?oueny iao?inoiia.

Ia ianooiiiio aoai? iia?aoe?? /a?ac ina?/aio iao?inoiio a ie?eo
aaiaeeoueny aiaeineii?/iee i?eeaae – iao?ineii. Oaia? i?ae eiio?ieai
ci?o ca aeiiiiiaith iao?ineii?/ieo iaoaeue ? caaeei?a iiaeooue
aeeo/aoeny ae??ai? ie?eia? eaiai?. Aaeee? ie?eia? eaiai? ae?iaeyoueny c
aeei?enoaiiyi ??ciiiai?oieo aeae?a aia?a?? aei i?neiiiae?aiiai noaio e
a?aeieaathoueny. [Aeaieaeia A.I., Iuoaeue TH. A., Aiinia A. A., 1989;
Etheueei A. A., Aiceaiia A. O., Eiaaeue/oe ?. A., 1990; Chevallier C.,
Hardy J. C., 1988; Netto N. R., Lemos G. C., Fiuze J. L., 1988; Ozguer
S., Cetin S., Ilker Y., 1988].

Oeae can?a ia? oe?eee ?yae ia?aaaa o ii??aiyii? c a?aee?eoeie
o??o?a?/ieie ao?o/aiiyie; aieiae?? iaeiaioith o?aaiaoecaoe??th,
iiaeeea?noth i?iaaaeaiiy i?ae i?noeaaith aianoac??th, yniith
aiaeineii?/iith ea?oeiith, aacaie?niei i?neyiia?aoe?eiei ia??iaeii,
a?aeiiaeaiiyi i?aoeacaeaoiino? a oeaeiaaee oa?i?i ?, ia?aoo?, cieaeaiiyi
eaoaeueiino?.

Iaeiae, ua ciaaeiaeyoueny a?eueo? coneeey aeey ??oaiiy aaaaoueio ieoaiue
oe??? iiai? oaoiieia?? o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy. ?, ia?aaeon?i,
iaeiie/aiiy aiaoii?/ieo aeaieo c iaoith i?aaeeueiiai i???iooaaiiy
iao?inoii?/iiai eaiaeo i?e i?iaaaeaii? eiai /a?ac ie?eiao ia?aio?io ?
neeai?iiy ie?eiai? /aoee. O i?ioeeaaeiiio aeiaaeeo, ioieoe?y aac
a?aooaaiiy aeeaieeo aiaoii?/ieo ciaiue i?eaiaeeoue aei ia?oi?aoe??
ie?eiai? ienee e ianooiiiai ooai?aiiy na/iai? ii?eoe?, a iioeiaeaeaiiy
ie?eiaeo noaeei – aei e?iaioa/? e ?ioa?eoo ie?ee.

Oaeei /eiii, o ca’yceo c icia/aieie ianoaaeiaie ciia a?aeiiaeth?oueny
?ioa?an aei aea/aiiy aiaoii?? ie?eiaeo /aoie ethaeeie, ?o ii?oiiao?e/ii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee e ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueii? i?ieeaino? a ca’yceo ?c noaooth
oa a?eii a?aeiia?aeii caieoai ee?i?/ii? i?aeoeee.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ? ? /anoeiith
caaaeueii? oaie eaoaae?e iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii??
c aea/aiiy aiaoii?? ethaeeie a nenoai? oiiia?ao?/ieo eii?aeeiao (?
01980002618 aea?ae. ?a?no?).

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – oyaeoe ii?oiiao?e/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo ie?eiaeo /aoie
ethaeeie i?ae aieeaii i?eaeeoo?aeo /eiiee?a, ui aecia/athoueny a?eii ?
noaooth.

Iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

Io?eiaoe ii?oiiao?e/i? aeai? ie?eiaeo /aoie ethaeeie c??eiai oa iioeeiai
a?e?a.

Aeyaeoe ?iaeea?aeoaeueio aiaoii?/io i?ieea?noue ie?eiaeo /aoie ethaeeie
a ca’yceo c ie?eith ? oi?iith aaeoaeaiiy /aoeiai-ieneiai? no?oeoo?e a
?iciiae?e? ca a?eii ? noaooth.

Noai?eoe ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueio eeaneo?eaoe?th ie?eiaeo /aoie ethaeeie
c??eiai oa iioeeiai a?e?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oia?oa io?eiaia ii?oiiao?e/ia
eeaneo?eaoe?y ie?eiaeo /aoie ethaeeie c??eiai oa iioeeiai a?e?a.

Oaeineiiaeaia iiaeaeue /aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno oeyoii noai?aiiy
aia?oa ia’?iii? ii?oia?aie ie?eiaeo /aoie (ii?oi?a?aia – a?ao?/iee caien
iciae aiaoii?/ii? no?oeoo?e) c o?aooaaiiyi ?oiuei? ieoiii? aaae (o
a?aenioeo aei caaaeueiiai ia’?io an?o ie?eiaeo /aoie) ? a?eo ethaeeie
(?ioaa?aeuei? cia/aiiy ii AIIC).

Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie io?eiaea ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea
aa?oiueiai a?aeae?eo aeno?a?aiaeueieo na/iaeo oeyo?a c iiceoe??
noaoaai-a?eiai? e ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? aiaoii?/ii? i?ieeaino?.

Iaea?aeaia ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae “I?eno??e
aeey a?i??thaaiiy ia’?io” ii cayaoe? ?98126902 a?ae 01.09.1999 ?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoa??ae i?i e?i?ei? ?ici??e
e ?iaeea?aeoaeueio aiaoii?/io i?ieea?noue ie?eiaeo /aoie iiaea aooe
aeei?enoaiee o oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa i?aaiicaa??aath/eo iia?aoe?e
(/a?acoe??ia iao?inoii?y, iao?ioii?y, ?acaeoe?y ie?ie oa ?i.).

?ic?iaeai? a oiae? ?iaioe ii?oia?aie e eeaneo?eaoe?y ie?eiaeo /aoie
aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? ia eaoaae?ao:

aiaoii?? (Aoeiaeinueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y, Aeiiaoeueeee
aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao, ?aaii-o?aie?anueea aea?aeaaia
iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y, I?inueeee iaaee/iee ?inoeooo, E?einueeee aea?aeaaiee
iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao, Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao,
Oa?iii?euenueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y,);

iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii?? (Aoeiaeinueea aea?aeaaia
iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y, A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao,
Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?anueea iaaee/ia
aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe, Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee
oi?aa?neoao);

a?noieia?? oa ?ia??ieia?? Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo;

?aioaaiieia??, o?ieia??, aiaoii?? Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iiooea/ai naiino?eii ae?iaeaiee iaa??
iaoa??aeo, ii?oiiao??y, noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea io?eiaieo oeeo?iaeo
?acoeueoao?a. Aeena?oaio naiino?eii ocaaaeueiea ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue ? c?iaea aeniiaee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo:

II Iaoe?iiaeueiiai Eiia?ano aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a, aia??ieia?a ?
oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a Oe?a?ie (Eoaainuee, aa?anaiue, 1998 a.);

Ia can?aeaii? I?iaoeueeiai aiaoii?/iiai noni?euenoaa “Anatomische
Gesellshaft” (Aa?iai?y, A?aeonaaeueae, aa?acaiue, 1998 a.);

Ni?eueiiio can?aeaii? I?iaoeueeiai ? Iieuenueeiai aiaoii?/ieo
noni?euenoa (Iieueua, Ieueooei, o?aaaiue, 1997);

IV ?a?iiaenueeiio eiia?an? anioe?aoe?? ee?i?/ieo aiaoii?a (O?aioe?y,
Eeeue, aa?anaiue, 1997);

I?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oieia??”, i?enay/ai?e
iai’yo? Aeaaeai?ea, eao?aaoa Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie i?ioani?a
Nii?uea Na?a?y Aiae???ae/a (Oa?iii?eue, o?aaaiue. 1996 a.).

I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “I?eioeeie i?iii?oe??, neiao???, no?oeoo?ii?
aa?iii?? oa iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy a ii?oieia??” (A?iieoey,
o?aaaiue, 1997 a.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 13 ae?oeiaaieo
iaoeiaeo ?ia?o. C ieo iaeia iiiia?ao?y (o ni?aaaoi?noa?), ??oaiiy i?i
aeaea/o iaoaioo ia aeiao?ae “I?eno??e aeey a?i??thaaiiy ia’?io” ii
cayaoe? ?98126902 a?ae 01.09.1999 ?., 3 a aeo?iaeao, ui ?aeiiaiaeoaaeeny
AAE-ii ca niaoe?aeuei?noth, 1 a aeo?iae? “A?a/aaiay i?aeoeea”, 7 ia
c’?caeao, I?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo ? eiia?anao.

No?oeoo?a e ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 153 noi?. oa
neeaaea?oueny c anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, ?icae?eo, ui oa?aeoa?eco?
iaoa??ae oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?icae?eo iieno io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a, ?o iaaiai?aiiy, aeniiae?a oa aeiaeaoeo. Aeac?aiee
e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 118 ?ia?o, o oiio /ene? 67 a?o/eciyieo oa 51
ca?oa?aeieo ioae?eaoe?e. Aeena?oaoe?y ?ethno?iaaia 34 iaethieaie, 9
a?ao?eaie oa 48 oaaeeoeyie.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??ae ? caniae aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa??aeii aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ? 175
ie?ie ethaeeie (88 ie?ie /ieia?e?a ? 87 ie?ie ae?iie), acyo? a?ae o?oi?a
ethaeae c??eiai oa iioeeiai a?e?a, caaeaeeo a?ae iauanieo aeiaaee?a aai
iiia?eeo a?ae caoai?thaaiue, ia iia’ycaieo c o?aaeaiiyi ie?ie. Caa??
o?oiiiai iaoa??aeo cae?enithaaany a Oa?e?anueeiio iaeaniiio
noaeiai-iaaee/iiio ii?c? oa i?icaeoo?? iaeanii? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i?.

Io?eiai? ie?ee (oaaeeoey 1) aoee ?iciiae?eai? ca a?eiaeie a?oiaie [Naiei
I.?., Aeeu/ A.A., 1989] ? ca?oiiaai? ca aeanyoe??/iei ?ioa?aaeii
(?ioaa?aeuei? cia/aiiy ii AIIC).

Oaaeeoey 1

?iciiae?e o?oiiiai iaoa??aeo c o?aooaaiiyi ia??iaeo aeeooy ethaeeie

A?eia?

a?oie Onueiai *ieia?ee AE?iee

onueiai e?a? i?aa? onueiai e?a? i?aa?

C??eee a?e:

21-29 ?ie?a

30-39 ?ie?a

40-49 ?ie?a

50-59 ?ie?a

Iioeeee a?e:

61-74 ?iee 135

7

29

42

57

40 81

18

29

34

7 45

10

15

20

4 36

8

14

14

3 54

7

11

13

23

33 28

2

7

7

12

17 26

5

4

6

11

16

Onueiai: 175 88 49 39 87 45 42

O ?iaio? aeei?enoai? ianooii? iniiai? iaoiaee aiaoii?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy: aeaioiaeaiiy ce?ie?a /aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno ie?ee
ethaeeie (Ne?eii?eia I.N. oa ?i., 1964); aioo??oiueiie?eiaiai
eiio?anooaaiiy oa io?eiaiiy ce?ie?a *IE (Ao?eo I.I., Aei?o??aanueeee
Ae.?., 1985), io?eiaiiy iiaeae? neeai?iiy ie?eiai? /aoee (?aoe. i?iiic.
?147 (14) a?ae 30 a?oaeiy 1998), i?aaiiiao??y ie?ie (??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o
iaoaioo ia aeiao?ae “I?eno??e aeey a?i??thaaiiy ia’?io” ii cayaoe?
?98126902 a?ae 01.09.1999 ?.), *IE oa ie?eiaeo /aoie ca 44 ia?aiao?aie.

Io?eiai? ii?oiiao?e/i? aeai? i?aeaeai? noaoenoe/i?e ia?iaoe? iaoiaeaie:
aa??aoe?eiee, ae?aooaaiiy ei??aeyoe??, e?i?eii? ?aa?an??,
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai aio?ii?eiiai aiae?co oa ?i. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy
ie?eiaeo /aoie oa *IE a oe?eiio i?iaaaeaia ia i?eioeeiao nenoaiiiai
i?aeoiaeo oa iiaeaethaaiiy ii?oieia?/ieo ia’?eo?a, ca niaoe?aeueii
?ic?iaeaiith i?ia?aiiith, a iniia? yei? aeei?enoaiee iaoiae iaeiaioeo
eaaae?ao?a (IIE – ?i?oaoe?eia iiaeaethaaiiy e iiaoaeiaa ii?oia?ai).
Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? i?eeeaaeii? iaoaiaoeee
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?ieini?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (caa. eao. —
ae.o.i., i?io N??iaeaea ?.A., ea??aiee i?iaeoo — e.i.i. Oeey? N.I.).

Aeey a?aeia?aaeaiiy ye?niiai oa e?euee?niiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae
ia’?iaie ie?aieo ie?eiaeo /aoie e ia’?iii /aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno a
oe?eiio, a oaeiae aeey onoiaiiy oaeoi??a ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? aiaoii?/ii?
i?ieeaino? aeei?enoaii ?iaeaeniee iaoiae (iaoiae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy /anoee
aei oe?eiai). Aeei?enoiaoth/e aeacai? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee iaea?aeai?
noaoaai-a?eia? (iaeii- e /ioe?ueioicia/ieo) ii?oia?aie ie?eiaeo /aoie ?
iaoaiaoe/i? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, ui ?o a?aeia?aaeathoue.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy. Ia i?aenoaa? 175
i?aia?ao?a /aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno ie?ie aeeiiaia nenoaiia
ii?oiiao?e/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?eiaeo /aoie ethaeeie.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeacothoue, ui iieaciee aeiaaeeie ie?ee
eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao 84.0 – 142.0 ii, ?? na?aaei? cia/aiiy neeaaea?
110.6±11.2; ii aeey /ieia?e?a – 113.9±10.4 ii, aeey ae?iie – 106.1±10.6
ii (?=0. 19). Iieaciee oe?eie ie?ee ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao 34.0 — 80.0
ii, na?aaei? cia/aiiy a oe?eiio ii an?o i?aaiao, ui aeine?aeaeothoueny
aei??aith? 58.8±7.7 ii, aeey /ieia?e?a — 62.3±6.4 ii, aeey ae?iie — 55.3
± 7.0 ii (?=0.10). Ieiua aiaoii?/iiai c??co ie?ee eieeaa?ony a iaaeao
36.1 — 97.2 ni2, na?aaei? cia/aiiy a oe?eiio aei??aith? 65.2±12.3 ni2,
aeey /ieia?e?a — 70.9±10.4 ni2, aeey ae?iie — 59.5±11.3 ni2 (?=0.04).
Iieaciee aeiaaeeie /aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao
37.0 ii — 92.0 ii, ?? na?aaei? cia/aiiy neeaaea? 65.6±9.5 ii, aeey
/ieia?e?a — 67.0±10.1 ii, aeey ae?iie — 64.9±8.7 ii (?=0.23). Oe?eia
/aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno eieeaa?ony a iaaeao 22.0 ii — 63.0 ii,
na?aaei? cia/aiiy a oe?eiio ii an?o i?aaiao, ui aeine?aeaeothoueny
aei??aith? 39.8±6.0 ii, aeey /ieia?e?a — 40.6±6.4 ii, a aeey ae?iie —
39.0±5.4 ii. Ieiua aiaoii?/iiai c??co /aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno
ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao 11.1 — 57.3 ni2, na?aaei? cia/aiiy a oe?eiio
neeaaea? 26.4±6.6 ni2, aeey /ieia?e?a — 27.8± 7.1 ni2, aeey ae?iie —
25.1±5.7 ni2 (?=0.17).

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui a i?iaaaeaiiio aea/aii? e?i?eieo ?ici???a ? ieiu?
aiaoii?/iiai ia?aoeio a??ia?aeia ??cieoey na?aaei?o ?ici???a na?aae
/ieia?e?a ? ae?iie anoaiiaeaia aeey ieiu? aiaoii?/iiai c??co ie?ee
(70.9±10. 4 ni2 o /ieia?e?a ? 59.5±11. 3 ni2 o ae?iie) ? oe?eie ie?ee
(DI): aeey /ieia?e?a — 62.3±6.4 ii, a aeey ae?iie 55.3±7.0 ii.

Aeiaaeeia /aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno a ??ciiiai?oieo a?eiaeo a?oiao
ciaoiaeeeanue o iaaeao 55.6±4.7 ii — 66.9±9.4 ii. A?aecia/aia ia?anoaiiy
iieacieea aeiaaeeie /aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno c a?eii, iniaeeai o
a?eiaiio ia??iae? 29-39 ?ie?a, eiee aeiaaeeia /aoeiai-ieneiaiai
eiiieaeno ca?eueoo?oueny ia 17-21%. O noa?oeo a?eiaeo a?oiao
caa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y ia?anoaiiy aeiaaeeie /aoeiai-ieneiaiai
eiiieaeno ?c caa?aaeaiiyi a??ia?aeii a?eueoeo cia/aiue o a?eia?e a?oi?
a?eueo 60 ?ie?a. Aiaeia?/i? oaiaeaioe?? a?aeaoaathoueny a i?aea?oiia?e
aeeiai?oe? aeiaaeeie ie?ee. Na?aaeiy aeiaaeeia neeaaea? 110.1± 11.2 ii,
c i?i?iaeueiei cia/aiiyi o a?oe? 23.1±2.1 ?ie?a (104.0±13.3 ii) ?
iaeneiaeueiei — o a?oe? 53.7±3.0 ?ie?a (112.9±11.3 ii).

Oe?eia /aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno ia? na?aaei? cia/aiiy 39.8±6.0 ii.
I?i?iaeuei? cia/aiiy D*IE anoaiiaeai? o a?eia?e a?oi? 23.1±2.1 ?ie?a,
neeaaeathoue 38.1±9.1 ii. Iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy D*IE (41.0±6.5 ii) — o
a?oe? 53.7±3.0 ?ie?a. Na?aaeiueia?eiaa cia/aiiy oe?eie aiaoii?/iiai
c??co ie?ee (DI) — 58.8±7.6 ii ? oaiaeaioe?y ia?anoaiiy DI a?ae
iieiaeoeo a?eiaeo a?oi aei 60 ?ie?a, i?ney /iai a?aeaoaa?oueny ciaioaiiy
oe?eie ie?ee, i?e/iio — DI iaio, i?ae a iieiaeoeo (23.1±2.1 ?ie?a)
a?eiaeo a?oiao.

Aaee/eia ieiu? aiaoii?/iiai c??co /aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno (S*IE) ?
ie?ee (SI) iathoue oaiaeaioe?th aei ia?anoaiiy o a?eiaiio ia??iae?
23.1±2. 1 — 34.6±3. 2 ?ie?a i?e ianooiiiio ciaioaii? ieiu? aei 63.9±3. 5
?ie?a aei ia?aeiiiai ??aiy oeeo iieaciee?a. Na?aaeiy ieiua aiaoii?/iiai
c??co /aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno neeaaea? 26.4± 6.6 ni2, a ie?ee —
65.2±12.3 ni2. Aeey ioe?iee aieeao noao? ia i?ieea?noue D, L —
eii?aeeiao, ui ianoaaeoaaeeny e ieiu? aiaoii?/iiai c??co ie?ee e
/aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno iaie i?iaaaeaii iaeiioaeoi?iee aeenia?n?eiee
aiae?c i?aaiiiao?e/ieo iieaciee?a /ieia?e?a ? ae?iie o ii??aiyeueiiio
aniaeo?.

O ?acoeueoao? iaeiioaeoi?iiai aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?co anoaiiaeaii, ui
noaoue aeyaey? aieea ia an?, ui aiae?cothoueny i?aaiiiao?e/i? iieacieee
? ie?ee, ? /aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno. Iaea?eueoee aieea noao?
aeyaey?oueny o oi?ioaaii? iieaciee?a ieiu? aiaoii?/iiai ia?aoeio ie?ee
(h2=15) oa /aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno (h2=10), na?aaeiuei? neee aieea
noao? aeyaey?oueny o oi?ioaaii? iieaciee?a oe?eie (h2=7) oa aeiaaeeie
ie?ee (h2=4). O oi?ioaaii? iieaciee?a oe?eie e aeiaaeeie
/aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno aieea noao? i?aeoe/ii aoaea a?aenooi?e
(h2=1).

On? cia/aiiy neee aieeao, ie??i aieeao noao? ia aenioo e oe?eio
/aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno, ? aenieia??ia?aeieie, ine?eueee Fst > 9.
Aeoiaey/e c iaaaaeaiiai: aieea noao? ia ye?e aea/athoueny i?aaiiiao?e/i?
iieacieee a iaea?eueoiio nooiai? aeyaey?oueny o oi?ioaaii? a /ieia?e?a
a??ia?aeii a?eueoi? ieiu? aiaoii?/iiai c??co ie?ee, i?e/iio
caeaa?eueoiai ca ?aooiie ?? aeiaaeeie. A?eueoa ieiua aiaoii?/iiai c??co
/aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno a /ieia?e?a, iiina?aaeeiaaia noaooth ui
ianoaaeeeeny (Fst > 20) ca a?aenooi?noth aieeao iciae noao? ia e?i?ei?
?ici??e /aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno.

A aniaeo? aeaoaeueiiai aea/aiiy /aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno, iaie
i?iaaaeaia i?aaiiiao?e/ia aea/aiiy e?eueeino? oa e?i?eieo ?ici???a
ie?eiaeo /aoie.

O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui e?i?ei? ?ici??e
ie?eiaeo /aoie ia ei??aeththoue (r <±0.3) ?c noaooth ui ianoaaeoaaeeny, a e?euee?noue ie?eiaeo /aoie, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny eiao?oe??ioii e?euee?nii? aiaoii?/ii? aaoa?iaaiiino? iia'ycaia ?c noaooth: iaioa e?euee?noue ie?eiaeo /aoie /ano?oa (a 1.5 - 2 ?aco) cono??/a?oueny na?aae in?a /ieia?/i? noao?. O?noue ie?eiaeo /aoie cono??/a?oueny a 2 ?ace /ano?oa na?aae /ieia?e?a, i?ae na?aae ae?iie (22.7% ? 11.5% - a?aeiia?aeii), a i'youe ie?eiaeo /aoie cono??/a?oueny a 1.4 ?ace /ano?oa a /ieia?e?a (9.1%, a na?aae ae?iie - 6.9%). O oe?eiio iica caeaaei?noth a?ae noao? e a?eo ?ici??e ae?aiao?o neeai?iiy (dI*) ie?eiaeo /aoie aeoaea aa??aaaeuei? (oaae. 2) ? eieeaathoueny a iaaeao a?ae 11.3±4.7 ii (aa?oiy ie?eiaa /aoea) 6.9±2.2 ii (ia?aaeiy aa?oiy ie?eiaa /aoea). ??cieoey na?aaei?o ?ici???a iaea?eueoi? (aa?oiuei?) ? iaeiaioi? (ieaeiuei?) ie?eiai? /aoie - a??ia?aeia (t >3).

Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui noaoenoe/i? a?aei?iiino? a dI* (aa?oi?o — S)
caa??aathoueny ? na?aae /ieia?e?a ? na?aae ae?iie. O. /., ? noaoenoe/iee
aenieia??ia?aeiee oaeo ia?aaaaeaiiy a 1.7 — 2 ?ace ae?aiao?o aa?oiuei?
ie?eiai? /aoee ia iia’ycaiee ?c noaooth. On? ie?eia? /aoee ca ae?aiao?ii
neeai?iiy iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe ia /aoee aaeeeiai ae?aiao?o (S; dI* >
9.8) ? na?aaeiueiai ae?aiao?o (A3; A2; A1; ?3; ?2; ?1; I; 5.1 2) anoaiiaeaii, ui a?eueoo aenioo iathoue aa?oiy,
ia?aaeiy na?aaeiy e caaeiy na?aaeiy ie?eia? /aoee (10.7±5.1-14.8±9.2 ii)
(oaae. 3). A??ia?aeii iaioo aenioo ia? ia?aaeiy aa?oiy (7.2±3.1 ii),
ia?aaeiy ieaeiy (8.9±4.6 ii), caaeiy ieaeiy ? ieaeiy ie?eiaa /aoee.
Oaeei /eiii, ca oaeith i?aaiiiao?e/iith iciaeith, ye aenioa ie?eiaeo
/aoie, ie?eia? /aoee ethaeeie noaoenoe/ii a??ia?aeii ?iciiae?eythoueny
ia aenie? (S; hI* > 12.9 ii) oa na?aaei? (I, A1, A2, A3, P1, ?2, P3; 4.0
< hI* < 10ii). I?e aea/aii? oaei? i?aaiiiao?e/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ie?eiaeo /aoie, ye ae?aiao? oeeee (CI*), onoaiiaeaii, ui ca oe??th aaee/eiith ie?eia? /aoee iaiaeii??aei? e ?ic??ciythoueny (oaae. 4). ?ioa?aae eieeaaiue cia/aiiy CI* neeaaea? a?ae 4.8±1.6 ii (ia?aaeiy na?aaeiy ie?eiaa /aoea) aei 7.2±2.3 ii (aa?oiy ie?eiaa /aoea). ?niothoue noaoenoe/i? a??ia?aei? a?aei?iiino? i?ae ae?aiao?aie oeeie aa?oiuei? e ia?aaeiuei? na?aaeiuei?, a oaeiae ia?aaeiuei? ieaeiuei? ie?eiai? /aoee; i?e oeueiio ae?aiao? oeeee aa?oiuei? ie?eiai? /aoee a 1.4 - 1.6 ?ace a?eueoa. Ca ae?aiao?ii oeeee ie?eia? /aoee ethaeeie iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe ia /aoee c aocueeith oeeeith (CI* < 6.4 ii), ie?eia? /aoee c oe?ieith oeeeith (CI* > 6.4 ii).

?ici??e ae?aiao??a neeai?iiue (dI*) ie?eiaeo /aoie o ??ciiiai?oieo
a?eiaeo a?oiao aa??aaaeuei? e eieeaathoueny a iaaeao a?ae 11.5 ii±5.7
(aa?oiy ie?eiaa /aoea) aei 6.4 ii±1.3 (ieaeiy ie?eiaa /aoea). ??cieoey
na?aaei?o ?ici???a iaea?eueoi? (aa?oiuei?) e iaeiaioi? (ieaeiuei?)
ie?eiaeo /aoie — aenieia??ia?aeia (t > 3). Neeai?iiy an?o ie?eiaeo /aoie
c a?eii a??ia?aeii ia ci?iththoueny, ie??i ieaeiuei? (t > 2). Aenioa
ie?eiaeo /aoie hI* a??ia?aeii (t > 2) i?iy?oueny a ??cieo a?eiaeo
a?oiao: S — ciaioo?oueny a 2.5 — 3 ?ace, ?2 — ciaioo?oueny a 1.5 — 1.7
?ace, I ca?eueoo?oueny a 2 ?ace. Aenioe ?ioeo ie?eiaeo /aoie
(A1,A2,A3,?3,?1) c a?eii a??ia?aeii ia ci?iththoueny. Iaea?eueoa
e?euee?noue aa??aio?a ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? i?ieeaino? aenioe ia? aa?oiy
ie?eiaa /aoea, iniaeeai o a?eia?e a?oi? 57.3±3.0 ?ie?a.

Oaaeeoey 2

Ae?aiao? neeai?iiy ie?eiaeo /aoie

ethaeeie c??eiai oa iioeeiai a?e?a (c ?iciiae?eii ca noaooth)

Iacaa e iicia/ea

ie?eiaeo /aoie

E?euee?noue

i?aai?a di/ ( (

Aa?oiy S

iaeaea? noao? 175 11.3 ( 4.7

/ieia?ee 88 11.6 ( 5.0

ae?iee 87 11.0 ( 4.4

t ( 3

Ia?aaeiy aa?oiy A3

iaeaea? noao? 175 6.9 ( 2.2

/ieia?ee 88 6.7 ( 2.3

ae?iee 87 7.1 ( 2.1

Ia?aaeiy na?aaeiy A2

iaeaea? noao? 175 7.4 (2.0

/ieia?ee 88 7.4 ( 2.2

ae?iee 87 7.5 ( 1.9

Ia?aaeiy ieaeiy A1

iaeaea? noao? 175 7.3 ( 2.3

/ieia?ee 88 7.3 ( 2.3

ae?iee 87 7.3 ( 2.3

Caaeiy aa?oiy ?3

iaeaea? noao? 175 8.4 ( 3.0

/ieia?ee 88 8.4 ( 3.0

ae?iee 87 8.3 ( 3.0

Caaeiy na?aaeiy ?2

iaeaea? noao? 175 7.2 ( 2.3

/ieia?ee 88 7.2 ( 2.2

ae?iee 87 7.6 ( 2.1

Caaeiy ieaeiy ?1

iaeaea? noao? 175 7.2 ( 2.3

/ieia?ee 88 7.2 ( 2.2

ae?iee 87 7.4 ( 2.4

Ieaeiy I

iaeaea? noao? 175 7.4 ( 2.4

/ieia?ee 88 7.5 ( 2.4

ae?iee 87 7.4 ( 2.4

aea: di/ — na?aaei?e ae?aiao? ie?eiai? /aoee

( — na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy iieacieea

t > 2 — a?aei?iiino? a ae?aiao?? ie?eiaeo /aoie a??ia?aei?

Oaaeeoey 3

Aenioa caaaeaiiy ie?eiaeo /aoie

ethaeeie c??eiai oa iioeeiai a?e?a (c ?iciiae?eii ca noaooth)

Iacaa e iicia/ea

ie?eiaeo /aoie

E?euee?noue

i?aai?a hi/ ( (

Aa?oi S

iaeaea? noao? 175 14.8 ( 9.2

/ieia?ee 88 14.1 ( 9.1

ae?iee 87 15.5 ( 9.2

t(2

t(2

Ia?aaeiy aa?oiy

A3

iaeaea? noao? 175 7.2 ( 3.1

/ieia?ee 88 7.3 ( 3.1

ae?iee 87 7.0 ( 3.0

Ia?aaeiy na?aaeiy

A2

iaeaea? noao? 175 10.7 (5.1

/ieia?ee 88 10.6 ( 5.2

ae?iee 87 10.8 ( 5.2

Ia?aaeiy ieaeiy

A1

iaeaea? noao? 175 8.9 ( 4.6

/ieia?ee 88 8.8 ( 4.3

ae?iee 87 9.1 ( 4.0

Caaeiy aa?oiy

?3

iaeaea? noao? 175 8.6 ( 4.5

/ieia?ee 88 8.5 ( 4.9

ae?iee 87 8.7 ( 4.2

Caaeiy na?aaeiy

?2

iaeaea? noao? 175 10.7 ( 5.1

/ieia?ee 88 10.3 ( 4.5

ae?iee 87 11.6 ( 5.5

Caaeiy ieaeiy

?1

iaeaea? noao? 175 7.0 ( 3.6

/ieia?ee 88 7.0 ( 3.7

ae?iee 87 7.0 ( 3.4

Ieaeiy

?

iaeaea? noao? 175 8.6 ( 4.6

/ieia?ee 88 9.4 ( 5.0

ae?iee 87 7.8 ( 4.2

aea: hi/ — aenioa ie?eiai? /aoee

( — na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy iieacieea

t > 2 — a?aei?iiino? o aenio? ie?eiaeo /aoie a??ia?aei?

t ( 2 — a?aei?iiino? o aenio? ie?eiaeo /aoie ia a??ia?aei?

Oaaeeoey 4

Ae?aiao? oeeee

ie?eiaeo /aoie ethaeeie (c ?iciiae?eii ca noaooth)

Iacaa e iicia/ea

ie?eiaeo /aoie

E?euee?noue

i?aai?a Ni/ ( (

Aa?oi S

iaeaea? noao? 175 7.2 ( 2.3

/ieia?ee 88 7.3 ( 2.5

ae?iee 87 7.2 ( 2.1

t (2

t (2

Ia?aaeiy aa?oiy

A3

iaeaea? noao? 175 5.0 ( 1.6

/ieia?ee 88 5.1 ( 1.6

ae?iee 87 4.9 ( 1.6

Ia?aaeiy na?aaeiy

A2

iaeaea? noao? 175 4.8 (1.6

/ieia?ee 88 4.8 ( 1.7

ae?iee 87 4.8 ( 1.6

Ia?aaeiy ieaeiy

A1

iaeaea? noao? 175 4.8 ( 1.8

/ieia?ee 88 4.9 ( 1.7

ae?iee 87 4.7 ( 2.0

Caaeiy aa?oiy

?3

iaeaea? noao? 175 5.7 ( 2.1

/ieia?ee 88 5.9 ( 2.0

ae?iee 87 5.7 ( 2.3

Caaeiy na?aaeiy

?2

iaeaea? noao? 175 5.1 ( 1.9

/ieia?ee 88 5.1 ( 1.9

ae?iee 87 5.1 ( 1.9

Caaeiy ieaeiy

?1

iaeaea? noao? 175 5.3 ( 2.3

/ieia?ee 88 5.4 ( 2.3

ae?iee 87 5.3 ( 2.2

Ieaeiy

?

iaeaea? noao? 175 5.7 ( 2.2

/ieia?ee 88 5.2 ( 2.1

ae?iee 87 5.5 ( 2.2

aea: Ni/ — ae?aiao? oeeee ie?eiai? /aoee

( — na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy iieacieea

t > 2 — a?aei?iiino? a ae?aiao?? oeeee ie?eiaeo /aoie a??ia?aei?

t ( 2 — a?aei?iiino? a ae?aiao?? oeeee ie?eiaeo /aoie ia a??ia?aei?

?iceeae cia/aiue ae?aiao?o oeeee ie?eiaeo /aoie NI* ca ??cieie a?eiaeie
a?oiaie a??ia?aeii ia ?ic??ciy?oueny e ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao 4.6±7.9
ii. Oey ianoaaeia na?ae/eoue i?i aeinoaoiuei o?eaea ii?oiiao?e/ia
cia/aiiy iieacieea (? ii aeaeyaeai ie?eiaeo /aoie, o a a?eiaiio
aniaeo?).

Na?aaei? cia/aiiy ia’?i?a ie?eiaeo /aoie, ?oiy ieoiia aaaa ? ?aiaiaee
?iciiae?e o caeaaeiino? a?ae noao? e a?eo ? ianooiieie. Aa?oiy ie?eiaa
/aoea (S) ? iaea?eueo aaeeeith ca ia’?iii, caeia? ia?oa ?aiaiaa i?noea ?
a /ieia?e?a ? a ae?iie, neeaaeath/e 33.9-35.2% caaaeueiiai ia’?io
ie?eiaeo /aoie (1202 — 1246 ii3). Ia’?i aa?oiuei? ie?eiai? /aoee
a??ia?aeii (t > 2) a?eueoee ?ioeo /aoie, ia?aaeuoth/e ?o o 3-5 ?ace.
Ieaeiy ie?eiaa /aoea (I) caeia? 2 — 5 i?noea a ?aiaiaiio ?iciiae?e?
ia’?i?a ie?eiaeo /aoie, neeaaeath/e 8.5 — 13.8% caaaeueiiai ia’?io.
Aaniethoi? na?aaei? cia/aiiy /aoee eieeaathoueny a iaaeao 295.3 — 508.1
ii3. Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui ia’?i ieaeiuei? ie?eiai? /aoee a
/ieia?e?a a??ia?aeii (t > 2) a?eueoee, i?ae o ae?iie: yeui a /ieia?e?a
a?i caeia? ae?oaa ?aiaiaa i?noea, oi a ae?iie — i’yoa. Ia?aaeiy aa?oiy
ie?eiaa /aoea (A3) — iaeiaioa ca ia’?iii, neeaaea? 6.3 — 6.6%
caaaeueiiai ia’?io ie?eiaeo /aoie, aaniethoiee ia’?i neeaaea? 224.7 —
232.5 ii3, caeiath/e ii iieacieeo ia’?io inoaii? (ainueia) ?aiaiaa
i?noea na?aae on?o ie?eiaeo /aoie ethaeeie. Ia?aaeiy na?aaeiy ie?eiaa
/aoea neeaaea? (A2) 9.6 — 10% caaaeueiiai ia’?io ie?eiaeo /aoie,
aaniethoi? cia/aiiy ia’?io ie?eiai? /aoee ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao 343.8 —
352.8 ii3, o ?aiaiaiio ?iciiae?e? ia’?i?a ie?eiaeo /aoie caeia? 4-5
?aiaiaa i?noea.

Ia?aaeiy ieaeiy ie?eiaa /aoea neeaaea? (A1) 8.0 — 8.3% caaaeueiiai
ia’?io ie?eiaeo /aoie, caeiath/e oinoa ?aiaiaa i?noea a ?aiaiaiio
?iciiae?e? ia’?i?a ie?eiaeo /aoie, aaniethoia cia/aiiy ia’?io ie?eiai?
/aoee neeaaea? 275.2 — 307.1 ii3. Caaeiy aa?oiy ie?eiaa /aoea (?3)
caeia? 2 — 4 i?noea a ?aiaiaiio ?iciiae?e? ia’?i?a, neeaaeath/e 10.7 —
12.6% caaaeueiiai ia’?io ie?eiaeo /aoie; aaniethoi? cia/aiiy ia’?io
/aoee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaaeaie: 395.2 — 431.3 ii3. Caaeiy na?aaeiy
ie?eiaa /aoea (?2) neeaaea? 10.9 — 11.8% caaaeueiiai ia’?io ie?eiaeo
/aoie, caeiath/e 2 — 4 i?noea a ?aiaiaiio ?iciiae?e? ia’?i?a ie?eiaeo
/aoie. Aaniethoi? na?aaei? cia/aiiy ia’?io /aoee ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao
399.1 — 405.2 ii3. Caaeiy ieaeiy ie?eiaa /aoea (?1) a?aeiineoueny aei
iaeiia’?iieo, neeaaeath/e 6.3 — 7.0% caaaeueiiai ia’?io ie?eiaeo /aoie
ethaeeie. Aaniethoia na?aaei? cia/aiiy ia’?io /aoee ciaoiaeeoueny a
iaaeao: 230.2 — 240.3 ii3. Na?aaei? aaniethoia cia/aiiy caaaeueiiai
ia’?io ie?eiaeo /aoie ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao 3390 — 3671 ii3, i?e
oeueiio — aoaea a?aenooiy a??ia?aeia ??cieoey ca noaooth (t < 2). Onoaiiaeaii, ui ieoiia aaaa ia’?io aa?oiuei? ie?eiai? /aoee a??ia?aeii ci?ith?oueny e ei??aeth?oueny c a?eii. Iaeneiaeueia ieoiia aaaa ia’?io aa?oiuei? ie?eiai? /aoee (40.2%) a?aecia/a?oueny o a?oe? aei 30 ?ie?a, a a noa?oeo a?eiaeo a?oiao a?aeaoaa?oueny eiai iinooiiaa ciaioaiiy aei 30.9%. O na?aaei?o aaniethoieo aaee/eiao ia’?i aa?oiuei? ie?eiai? /aoee ciaioo?oueny a 1.9 - 2 ?ace (c 1890.0 aei 972.3 ii3). Aaaeeeai a?aecia/eoe, ui ieoiia aaaa ia’?io aeayeeo ie?eiaeo /aoie c a?eii a??ia?aeii ia ci?ith?oueny (A2, A3, ?1, ?3), oiae? ye ieoiia aaaa ia’?io A1 ? ?2 - ciaioo?oueny a 1.5 ?ace. Ieoiia aaaa ia’?io ieaeiuei? ie?eiai? /aoee ciaioo?oueny c 32.1% aei 9.9%, o. a. a?eueo i?ae a o?e ?ace. Iae? ?ici??e ieaeiuei? ie?eiai? /aoee, cie?aia iayai?noue aocueei? oeeee, iiaeooue o iaai?e i??? i?ieeoue na?oei ia iaaaea/? i?e oaea?ii-oaeeueia?e e?oio??in?? (Sampaio F. J. B., et al, 1982). C a?eii a?aeaoaa?oueny a??ia?aeia (t > 3) ciaioaiiy caaaeueiiai ia’?io
ie?eiaeo /aoie o na?aaeiueiio ia 33.1% (c 4699 ii3 aei 3144 ii3).

Ii?oiiao??y ie?eiaeo /aoie, i?iaaaeaia c aeei?enoaiiyi cania?a
aa??aoe?eii? noaoenoeee (c eiio?ieai a??ia?aeiino? ?acoeueoao?a ii
t-e?eoa??th) aeicaieeea anoaiiaeoe cia/ou? a?aei?iiino? a e?i?eieo
oa?aeoa?enoeeao ie?eiaeo /aoie ethaeeie ? neeanoe ii?oia?aie (iae. 1).

Iae 1. Ia’?iia ii?oia?aia ie?eiaeo /aoie

A?nue O — iicia/aiiy ie?eiai? /aoee ethaeeie

A?nue Y — ieoiia aaaa (o % aei caaaeueiiai ia’?io an?o ie?eiaeo /aoie)
ia’?ia ie?eiai? /aoee

A?nue Z — a?e (?ioaa?aeuei? cia/aiiy ii AIIC)

Iaie ?ic?iaeaia ii?oiiao?e/ia eeaneo?eaoe?y.

Eeaneo?eaoe?y i?noeoue i’youe eeaneo?eaoe?eieo iciae ie?eiaeo /aoie. O
i?e, oaeiae, a?aeia?aaeai? ooieoe?iiaeueii-ii?oieia?/i? iniaeeaino?
/aoei-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno, cie?aia, — aeeiai?ea ci?iaiiy ia’?io ie?eiaeo
/aoie o a?eiaiio aniaeo?. Cai?iiiiiaaia eeaneo?eaoe?y caiiaith? aaeooi
e?euee?niiai i?aeoiaeo aei ae?aaiinoeee ii?ie oa iaoieia?? i?e
aeei?enoaii? a OCAe, EO ? ssI? ae?aaiinoeoe?, o??o?a?/i?e i?aeoeoe? oa
iao?ieia?/i?e ee?ieoe?.

Oaaeeoey 5

Ii?oiiao?e/ia eeaneo?eaoe?y

ie?eiaeo /aoie ethaeeie c??eiai oa iioeeiai a?e?a

1 Oa?aeoa?enoeea ie?eiaeo /aoie ca ae?aiao?ii (dI*; ii)

Ie?eiaa /aoea aaeeeiai ae?aiao?o dI* >9.8

Ie?eiaa /aoea na?aaeiueiai ae?aiao?o 5.1 < dI* <9.8 Ie?eiaa /aoea iaeiai ae?aiao?o dI* < 5.1 2 Oa?aeoa?enoeea ie?eiaeo /aoie ca aenioith (hI*; ii) Aeniea ie?eiaa /aoea hI* >12.9

Ie?eiaa /aoea na?aaei?o ?ici???a 4.0 < hI* <12.9 Iecueea ie?eiaa /aoea hI* < 4.0 3 Oa?aeoa?enoeea ie?eiaeo /aoie ca ae?aiao?ii oeeee (NI*; ii) Ie?eiaa /aoea c oe?ieith oeeeith NI* >6.4

Ie?eiaa /aoea c aocueeith oeeeith NI* < 6.4 4 Oa?aeoa?enoeea ie?eiaeo /aoie ca ia’?iii (VI*; ii3) Ie?eiaa /aoea aaeeeiai ia’?io VI* >900

Ie?eiaa /aoea na?aaeiueiai ia’?io 500 < VI* <900 Ie?eiaa /aoea iaeiai ia’?io VI* < 500 5 Oa?aeoa?enoeea ie?eiaeo /aoie ca aeeiai?eith ci?iaiiy ia’?io (VI*) Ie?eiaa /aoea, ui i?ia?aneaii ciaiueoo?oueny I, S Ie?eiaa /aoea ci?iiiai ia’?io A2, P2 Ie?eiaa /aoea noaa?eueiiai ia’?io A1, A3, ?1, ?3 AENIIAEE Caaa?ooth/e iiaeaiiy aeaieo iiaeia i?eeoe aei ianooiieo aeniiae?a: E?i?ei? ?ici??e ie?eiaeo /aoie ia ei??aeththoue ?c noaooth (r < 0.3). Iaeiae ?oiy e?euee?noue, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny eiao?oe??ioii e?euee?nii? aiaoii?/ii? aaoa?iaaiiino?, iia'ycaia ?c noaooth. Oae, iaioa e?euee?noue ie?eiaeo /aoie o ie?eao /ieia?e?a cono??/a?oueny a 1.5 – 2.0 ?ace /ano?oa, i?ae o ae?iie. Caaaeueiee ia’?i ie?eiaeo /aoie ciaioo?oueny c a?eii ia 33.1%. Na?aaei? aaniethoia cia/aiiy caaaeueiiai ia’?io ciaioo?oueny c 4699.2 ii3 aei 3144 ii3 (ciaioaiiy a??ia?aeii t >3. 0, eiao?oe?aio ei??aeyoe?? c a?eii
rOO=- 0.64). I?e oeueiio ia’?i aa?oiuei? ie?eiai? /aoee ciaioo?oueny a
aeaa ?ace, a ieaeiuei? – o o?e ?ace.

Aa?oiy ie?eiaa /aoea ia? oanoii/aoo oi?io neeai?iiy aaeeeiai ae?aiao?o
(dI*=11.3 ii± 4.7). Aiia oaeiae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth aaeeei?
aenioe (hI*=14.8 ii±9.2) e oe?iei? oeeee (CI*=7.2 ii±2.3). ?
iaea?eueoith ca ia’?iii: 1202 ii3 o ae?iie ? 1246 ii3 o /ieia?e?a,
a?aeiia?aeii neeaaea? 33.9% — 35.2% caaaeueiiai ia’?io ie?eiaeo /aoie ?
caeia? ia?oa ?aiaiaa i?noea a ?aiaiaiio ?iciiae?e? ia’?i?a ie?eiaeo
/aoie.

Ia?aaeiy aa?oiy ie?eiaa /aoea ia? ie?oaea neeai?iiy na?aaeiueiai
ae?aiao?o (dI*=6.9 ii±2.2) e na?aaeiuei? aenioe (hI*=7.2 ii±3.1) c
aocueeith oeeeith (NI*=5.0 ii±1.6) e iaeiai noaa?eueiiai ia’?io
(VI*=228.8 ii3). Aiia iaeiaioa ca ia’?iii ? neeaaea? 6.3%-6.6%
caaaeueiiai ia’?io ie?eiaeo /aoie (8 ?aiaiaa i?noea).

Ia?aaeiy na?aaeiy ie?eiaa /aoea c ie?oaeei neeai?iiyi na?aaeiueiai
ae?aiao?o (dI*=7.4 ii±2.0) ? aenioe (hI*=10.7 ii±5.1) c aocueeith
oeeeith (NI*=4.8 ii±1.6). Aaniethoia cia/aiiy ia’?io /aoee neeaaea?
348.4 ii3, ui neeaaea? 9.6% – 10.0% caaaeueiiai ia’?io ie?eiaeo /aoie ?
a?aeiia?aea? 4-5 ?aiaiaiio i?noeth a ?aiaiaiio ?iciiae?e? ia’?i?a.

Ia?aaeiy ieaeiy ie?eiaa /aoea c ie?oaeei neeai?iiyi na?aaeiueiai
ae?aiao?o neeai?iiy (dI*=7.3 ii± 2.3) oa aenioe (hI*=8.9 ii± 4.6) c
aocueeith oeeeith (NI*=4.8 ii±1.8). Aaniethoia cia/aiiy ?? ia’?io
neeaaea? 275.2 ii3 – 307.1 ii3. Aiia neeaaea? 8.0% — 8.3% caaaeueiiai
ia’?io ie?eiaeo /aoie, caeiath/e oinoa ?aiaiaa i?noea a ?iciiae?e?
ia’?i?a.

Caaeiy aa?oiy ie?eiaa /aoea c ie?oaeui neeai?iiyi na?aaeiueiai ae?aiao?o
(dI*=8.4ii±3.0) ? aenioe (hI*=8.6ii± 4.5) c aocueeith oeeeith (NI* =5.7
ii±2.1). Aaniethoia cia/aiiy ?? ia’?io neeaaea? (395.2 – 431.3 ii3).
Aiia caeia? 2-4 ?aiaiaa i?noea a ?iciiae?e? ia’?i?a.

Caaeiy na?aaeiy ie?eiaa /aoea ia? ia?aiao?e ie?eiai? /aoee na?aaeiueiai
ae?aiao?o ie?oaeiai neeai?iiy (dI*=7.2ii±2.3) ? aenioe (hI*=10.7 ii±5.1)
c aocueeith oeeeith (NI*=5.1ii±1.9), iaeiai ia’?io (VI*=402.1 ii3), ui
ciaioo?oueny c a?eii (o?ao? ?aiaiaa i?noea).

Caaeiy ieaeiy ie?eiaa /aoea a?aeiineoueny aei /aoie ie?oaeiai neeai?iiy
na?aaeiueiai ae?aiao?o (dI*=7.2 ii± 2.3) ? aenioe (hI*=7.0 ii±3.6) c
aocueeith oeeeith (NI*=5.3 ii±2.3), iaeiai noaa?eueiiai ia’?io
(VI*=235.3 ii3). Aiia caeia? 7 ?aiaiaa i?noea c 8.

Ieaeiy ie?eiaa /aoea – /aoea na?aaeiueiai ae?aiao?o neeai?iiy (dI* =7.
4ii±2.4) ? aenioe (hI*=8.6ii±4.6) c aocueei? oeeeith (NI*=5.7 ii±2.2), a
oaeiae na?aaeiueiai ia’?io (VI*=410.2 ii3), ui i?ia?aneaii ciaioo?oueny
c a?eii. Aiia caeia? 2-5 ?aiaiaa i?noea a ?iciiae?e? ia’?i?a.

Nienie iaoeiaeo i?aoeue,

ye? Iioae?eiaai? ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

Iauai ii/ee e /aoa/ii-eioaii/iiai eiiieaena /aeiaaea. /Aaoooaiei E.ss.
// Oe?a?inueeee Iaaee/iee Aeueiaiao.-Eoaainuee, 1998.-?2.-n.81-82.

Aaoooaiei E.ss. N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec iauaiia ii/a/iuo /aoae a
aic?anoiii aniaeoa. //A?niee ii?oieia??, — A?iieoey,
1998.-?2.-n.196-197.

Aic?anoiua eciaiaiey ii?oiiao?e/aneeo iieacaoaeae /aoa/ii-eioaii/iiai
eiiieaena ii/ee /aeiaaea c?aeiai e iiaeeeiai aic?anoia /Aaoooaiei
E.ss.// A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie.-Iieoaaa,
1999.-?2.-n.94-96.

Aiaoii?y ie?ie o nenoai? oiiia?ao?/ieo eii?aeeiao/ Ao?eo I.I., Eiaa?iiaa
AE.?., Eiiae?onee I.TH., Iieaae/ E.?., ?aoooaiei ?.ss. // Oace
aeiiia?aeae ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiia?ano aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a, ?ia??ieia?a
oa oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a Oe?a?ie.-?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1994.-n.25-26.

Aaoooaiei E.ss. Aiaoiiey ii/a/iuo /aoae ac?ineiai /aeiaaea //
I?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oieia??” / Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo ?ia?o.-O1.-Oa?iii?eue, 1996.-n.240-242.

Eiee/anoaaiiay e ea/anoaaiiay ii?oiiao?e/aneay aaoa?iaaiiinoue ii/a/iuo
/aoae /aeiaaea /Ao?uo I.I., Oeey? N.I., Aaoooaiei E.ss. // Iaoeia?
caienee.- Aeione ?.-*anoeia ?,-Oa?iii?eue, 1997.-n.95-96.

Ii?oiiao?e/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey ii/a/iuo /aoae /aeiaaea./ Ao?uo I.I.,
Oeey? N.I., Aaoooaiei E.ss., Iaaeaeeoea I.A. //Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeiiai
neiiic?oia.- A?iieoey, 1997.-n.29-30.

Functional morphology of human renal calyces / Bourykh M., Schklar S.,
Yevtushenko I. and Padalitsa M. //Verhandlungen der Anatomischen
Gesellschaft.-Olsztyn, 1997.-p.81.

Morphometric classification of human renal calycies / Demina O.,
Gorschkova Z., Yevtushenko I., Korovkin M., Padalitsa M.// Surgical and
Radiologic Anatomy /Journal of Clinical Anatomy / 4th European
Association of Clinical Anatomy Congress.-Lille, France, 1997.-p.41.

The duplication of upper Urinary tract-calycopelvic complex and ureter /
Burykh M.P., Yevtushenko I.J. and Padolitsa M.A. // Verhandlungen der
Anatomischen Gesellschaft,-Greifswald, 1998.-p.88.

Ao?uo I.I., Aaoooaiei E.ss., Oeey? N.I. Ooieoeeiiaeueiay ii?oieiaey e
ii?oiiao?e/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey ii/a/iuo /aoae /aeiaaea. // Iaoa?eaeu
aeey nooaeaioia e a?a/ae.-Oa?ueeia, 1998.- 48n.

Ooieoeeiiaeueiay ii?oieiaey e ii?oiiao?e/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey ii/a/iuo
/aoae /aeiaaea i?eiaieoaeueii e iao?io?ieiaee./ I.I. Ao?uo, E.ss.
Aaoooaiei, N.I. Oeey?.//A?a/aaiay i?aeoeea.-Oa?ueeia, 1999.-?
2-3.-n.4-11

AIIOAOe??

?aoooaiei ?. ss. Aiaoii?y ie?eiaeo /aoie ethaeeie c??eiai oa iioeeiai
a?e?a. ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
iaaee/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeueiinoth 14.03. 01. – ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y.
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao. Oa?e?a, 1999 a.

Caoeua?oueny ?iaioa, ui i?noeoue aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?eiaeo /aoie c
o?aooaaiiyi i?eaeeoo?aeo /eiiee?a, ui iiaeooue aooe aecia/ai? ca aeeooy
ethaeeie: a?ea, noao?. Oia?oa io?eiaia ii?oiiao?e/ia eeaneo?eaoe?y
ie?eiaeo /aoie ethaeeie c??eiai oa iioeeiai a?eua, oaeineiiaeaia
iiaeaeue /aoeiai-ieneiaiai eiiieaeno oeyoii noai?aiiy ia’?iii?
ii?oia?aie ie?eiaeo /aoie c o?aooaaiiyi ?oiuei? ieoiii? aaae ) (o
a?aenioeo aei caaaeueiiai ia’?io an?o ie?eiaeo /aoie) oa a?eo ethaeeie
(?ioaa?aeuei? cia/aiiy ii IIC)

Io?eiaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea
aa?oiueiai a?aeae?eo aeno?a?aiaeueiuo na/iaeo oeyo?a c iiceoe??
noaoaai-a?eiai? e ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? aiaoii?/ii? ci?ithaaiino?.

Iiooea/ ? ni?aaaoi?ii ia?oi? iiiia?ao?? c ooieoe?iiaeueii? aiaoii??
ie?eiaeo /aoie ethaeeie. Cae?eniaia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue o iaa/aeueiee i?ioean.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aiaoii?y, ie?ea, /aoeiai-ieneiaee eiiieaen, ie?eiaa
/aoea, ethaeeia.

Aaoooaiei E.ss. Aiaoiiey ii/a/iuo /aoae /aeiaaea c?aeiai e iiaeeeiai
aic?anoia. ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie
eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.03.01. –
ii?iaeueiay aiaoiiey. Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeeoeeineee
oieaa?neoao. Oa?ueeia, 1999 a.

Caueuaaony ?aaioa, niaea?aeauay enneaaeiaaiea ii/a/iuo /aoae n o/aoii
i?eaeeciaiii ii?aaeaeyaiuo oaeoi?ia: aic?anoa, iiea. Aia?aua iieo/aia
ii?oiiao?e/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey ii/a/iuo /aoae /aeiaaea c?aeiai e
iiaeeeiai aic?anoa.

Oniaa?oainoaiaaia iiaeaeue /aoa/ii-eioaii/iiai eiiieaena iooai nicaeaiey
iauaiiie ii?oia?aiiu ii/a/iuo /aoae n o/aoii eo oaeaeueiiai aana (a
i?ioeaioa e iauaio iauaio anao ii/a/iuo /aoae) e aic?anoa /aeiaaea
(eioaa?aeueiua cia/aiey ii AIC).

Iieo/eea aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea ii?oiooieoeeiiaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea
aa?oiaai ioaeaea yeno?a?aiaeueiuo ii/aauo iooae n iiceoeee
iiei-aic?anoiie e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aiaoiie/aneie eciai/eainoe.

Ii?oiiao?ey ii/a/iuo /aoae, i?iaaaeaiiay n eniieueciaaieai iaoiaeia
aa?eaoeeiiiie noaoenoeee (n eiio?ieai aeinoiaa?iinoe ?acoeueoaoia ii
t-e?eoa?eth) iicaieeea onoaiiaeoue cia/eiua ?acee/ey a eeiaeiuo
oa?aeoa?enoeeao ii/a/iuo /aoae /aeiaaea. Yoi e iineoaeeei iniiaie
i?eaiaeeiie ii?oiiao?e/aneie eeanneoeeaoeee.

Eeanneoeeaoeey niaea?aeeo iyoue eeanneoeeaoeeiiiuo i?eciaeia ii/a/iuo
/aoae. A iae, oaeaea, io?aaeaiu ooieoeeiiaeueii-ii?oieiae/aneea
iniaaiiinoe /aoa/ii-eioaii/iiai eiiieaena, a /anoiinoe — aeeiaieea
eciaiaiey iauaia ii/a/iuo /aoae a aic?anoiii aniaeoa. I?aaeeaaaaiay
eeanneoeeaoeey caiieiyao aaeooi eiee/anoaaiiiai iiaeoiaea e aeeaaiinoeea
ii?iu e iaoieiaee i?e eniieueciaaiee a OCE, EO e ssI? aeeaaiinoeea,
oe?o?ae/aneie i?aeoeea e iaoieiae/aneie eeeieea.

Nieneaoaeue yaeyaony niaaoi?ii ia?aie iiiia?aoee ii ooieoeeiiaeueiie
aiaoiiee ii/a/iuo /aoae /aeiaaea. Inouanoaeaii aiaae?aiea ?acoeueoaoia
enneaaeiaaiee a o/aaiue i?ioeann.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aiaoiiey, ii/ea, /aoa/ii-eioaii/iue eiiieaen, ii/a/iay
/aoea, /aeiaae.

I. Yevtushenko. The Anatomy of the human renal calyces in middle & old
age people. On the rights of manuscript.

The dissertation for the Philosophy Doctor Degree by medical speciality
“Human Anatomy” (code 14.03.01). The Kharkov State Medical University.
Kharkov, Ukraine, 1999.

This work presents the findings of the renal calyces research accounting
to the factors which may be defined during the life. These are the age &
sex.

Here the morphometric classification of the renal calyces of the middle
and old age people was compounded first in the world.

The calycopelvic complex model was modified by the creation of the renal
calyces volume morphogramm accounting their specific weight (in % to the
whole volume of renal calyces) and the person’s age (WHO integral data).

The morphofunctional characteristics of the extra-renal upper urinary
ways is further developed from the point of view of age, sexual and
individual variability.

The Ph. D. pretender is co-author of the firstest monography devoted the
functional anatomy of human calyces.

The results of the research have been approved in to the educational
process.

Key words: anatomy, kidney, calyco-pelvic complex, renal calyx, man.

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