I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

Oa?iii?euenueea aeaaeai?y ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa

Ooaoai Ci?yia Aiaaeai?aia

OAeE: 336.467

Aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo

aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e

(ia iaoa??aeao ei?ii?aoe?? “Oe?aoae”)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.06.04 – Aooaaeoa?nueeee iae?e, aiae?c ? aoaeeo

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Oa?iii?eue – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co Oa?iii?euenueei?
aeaaeai?? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ?
oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

Oea?aaai Noaiai ?aaiiae/,

Oa?iii?euenueea aeaaeai?y
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe – aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Iieo ?aaai Aieiaeeie?iae/,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.O?aiea,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iae?eo ? aoaeeoo

– eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Aaae/ A?oae?e Aaneeueiae/,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo ? aoaeeoo a

i?iieneiaino?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a iae?eo ? aoaeeoo, Eaa?iao I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie,
i. Ee?a.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “8” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 11 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 58.082.01 a Oa?iii?euenuee?e
aeaaeai?? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ca aae?anith: 282004, i. Oa?iii?eue,
aoe. Euea?anueea, 11, aoae.? 1300.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?iii?euenueei?
aeaaeai?? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “7” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ?.Ae.Oa??ii

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?eieia? ia?aoai?aiiy a aeiiii?oe?
Oe?a?ie ci?iththoue oiiae ?icaeoeo ? iaoiaee ainiiaea?thaaiiy a on?o
noa?ao ? no?oeoo?ao iaoe?iiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa. C ia?aoiaeii
i?aei?e?inoa (i?aai?caoe?e) aoae?aaeueiiai eiiieaeno ia ?eieia?
a?aeiineie ?noioii iia??oeeiny aeei?enoaiiy eiai ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo. Iaiaaeai?noue ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a a Oe?a?i? coiiaeea
cai?oaiiy eai?oaeueiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a on?o aaeocyo aeiiii?ee. A
?iaanoeoe?ei?e ae?yeueiino? ooai?eeiny nai???aeia caieiooa eiei –
iaaei?iaanooaaiiy aaeocae iaoa??aeueii? noa?e iineeth? niaae
ae?iaieoeoaa, ui ni?e/eiy? cieaeaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo iiaeeeainoae
noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa aea?aeaae.

Nueiaiaei? ia caaacia/o?oueny nai?/ania aaaaeaiiy a ae?th ia’?eo?a
ae?iaie/iai ? iaae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy, ianyae iiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa ca
1990-1998 ?iee nei?ioeeeny iaeaea a 7 ?ac?a. *enaeuei?noue
aoae?aaeueii-ae?iaie/iai ia?niiaeo aaeoc? ciaioeeany ia 526,6 oen. /ie.,
oiaoi a 1,7 ?ace, ieeii?noue eaae??a c?inea a?eueoa, i?ae o aeaa ?ace.
Iaea?iaaieie noaee i?aai?caoe?ei? oaeoi?e c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?
i?aoe?.

Aoaeoeai?noue aoae?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa caeaaeeoue a?ae caaacia/aiino?
? ??aiy aeei?enoaiiy iniiaieo cania?a. ?acii c oei ca inoaii? ?iee
i?aeoe/ii i?ecoieieeiny a?aeoai?aiiy iniiaieo cania?a, /anoea yeeo c
iiiaaeii?iaoeaieie no?ieaie neoaeae a oe?eiio ii aaeoc? noaiiaeoue
iaeaea 34%, o oiio /ene? a i?aai?caoe?yo ei?ii?aoe?? “Oe?aoae” – 36,3%.
Ciin iniiaieo cania?a o aoae?aaeueiiio eiiieaen? aeinya e?eoe/iiai ??aiy
? ia eiiiaino?oueny iiaeie eai?oaeueieie aeeaaeaiiyie. Oiio i?iaeaia
a?aeoai?aiiy iniiaieo cania?a ca iiaith oaoiieia?/iith iniiaith caeia?
i?ia?aeia i?noea a nenoai? iiiaeaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo.

Aeey ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo i?eioeeiiaa cia/aiiy ia?
aeio?eiaiiy i?iii?oe?e i?ae ianyaaie i?ae?yaeieo ?ia?o ? ae?iaieoeoaii
aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? eiino?oeoe?e. O ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa
aoae?aaeueiiai eiiieaeno iio??aia ia?ai?io?ethaaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa
eiino?oeoe?e ? iaoa??ae?a a?aeiia?aeii aei ?eieiaiai iiieoo, ae??oaiiy
i?iaeai aia?ai- ? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, cai?ie i?ea?cieo iaoa??ae?a ia
i?noeaa?, i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? i?iaeoeoe?? ? ca?eueoaiiy aenii?oieo
ianya?a ia ?eieo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ? iaoa??ae?a.

I?e ia?aoiae? aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei aaaeeeaith ia?aaeoiiaith
caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? ainiiaea?thaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa aoae?aaeueiiai
eiiieaeno ? a?aeoai?aiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ia iniia?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano ? cae?eniaiiy eiiieaeno
i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/ieo ? aeiiii?/ieo caoiae?a aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
eiai aeei?enoaiiy. O ca’yceo c oeei iniaeeai aeooaeueieie ? ieoaiiy
iiaeaeueoiai iaoeiaiai ae?iaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio a?aeoai?aiiy ?
oi?aae?iiy ae?iaie/ei iioaioe?aeii aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e,
ui coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee oa i?aai?caoe??
i?iaaaeaiiy eiai aiae?co.

Cia/iee aianie o ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie c?iaeee ye ca?oa?aei?
a/ai?-aeiiii?noe (E.?.Aaaee?i, ?.A.Aaeioniaa, A.A.Caaeiy, A.I.Ai?aoiia,
A.O?ao?iia, A.E.Oaeueoeiai, O.N.Oa/aoo?ia, A.I.*a/aoa), oae ? a?o/eciyi?
iaoeiaoe? (A.E.Caaei?iaeia, A.I.Eeoaei, ?.A.Iieo,
A.A.Oaaei?aiei,?.Ae.Oa??ii, N.?.Oea?aaai, Ae.A.Ooaoaie/, ?.A.ss?ai/oe).
Iaeiae ?yae ieoaiue iaoiaeieia??, iaoiaeeee oa i?aai?caoe?? aiae?co
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ua iaiiai?noth ae??oai? aai caeeoathoueny
aeeneon?eieie.

Nueiaiaei? iaia? iaoeiai ia??oioiaaii? iaoiaeeee eiiieaeniiai
aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo
i?aai?caoe?e, iaei oaaae iaaea?oueny aiae?cia? ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo a
i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy aoae?aaeueieo i?ia?ai, ieaioaaiiy nia?aa?oino?,
o?iainiaeo ?acoeueoao?a ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae i?e
i?eeiyoo? oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue. O oai??? aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co ia
ciaeoee aeinoaoiueiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy ieoaiiy aiae?co ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ye aaaeeeaiai ?ino?oiaioa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa a oe?eiio. Aeai? ieoaiiy ?icaeyaeathoueny ie?aii:
iioaioe?ae o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, iniiaieo cania?a, iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a.
Aei oaeeo /anoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo iaeaaeaoue
i?aoe? I.O.A?oeiaoey, I.?.Aoaa??, A.E.Caaeioeueeiai, A.I.Ca?oa?ia,
A.N.Iaie?aoiaa, ?.O.Iaey/eea.

Iio?aaothoue ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c oaeineiiaeaiiyi
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy aiae?co ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e, ui aeicaieeoue anaa?/ii ? iiaii aiae?coaaoe
ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue i?aei?e?inoa aoae?aaeueiiai eiiieaeno.

Ia?ic?iaeai?noue aeeeaaeaieo ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c aeine?aeaeaiiyi
ie?aieo iieiaeaiue aiae?co ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ye aeiiii?/ii?
eaoaai???, iayai?noue iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo i?iaeai i?aai?caoe??
? i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co coiiaeee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, iaoo,
no?oeoo?o oa iniiai? iai?yie aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
Oa?iii?euenueei? aeaaeai?? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ? iaeaaeeoue aei
aea?aeaaii-athaeaeaoii? oaie “?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?caoe?e (i?aei?e?inoa) aoae?aaeueiiai
eiiieaeno a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei” (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??
0194U005004).

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
? ae?iaeaiiy iaoeiai ia??oioiaaieo iieiaeaiue aaeineiiaeaiiy
iaoiaeieia??, iaoiaeeee oa i?aai?caoe?? aiae?co ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e, aecia/aiiy oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? eiai aeei?enoaiiy a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei. A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy
iaoiaeieia?/iiai, iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai ? i?eeeaaeiiai oa?aeoa?o:

· aeine?aeeoe aeaee iioaioe?ae?a, ?oi?e ci?no, no?oeoo?o oa ?ieue o
ae?iaie/iio i?ioean?;

· oai?aoe/ii ia??oiooaaoe iiiyooy “ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae”
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e, ?ice?eoe i?iaeaie eiai
aeei?enoaiiy a ?eieiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy;

· oaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo a
?ano?nii-no?oeoo?iiio aniaeo?;

· ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeee aiae?co noaio, ?icaeoeo oa aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo, iniiaieo cania?a, iaoa??aeueieo
?ano?n?a ? ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo a oe?eiio;

· aaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaeeeo aiae?co aieeao aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ia no?iee aoae?aieoeoaa ia’?eo?a, nia?aa?o?noue oa o?iainia?
?acoeueoaoe ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? i?ae?yaeieo i?aai?caoe?e;

· ia??oiooaaoe eiioeaioe?th aiae?oe/iiai caaacia/aiiy oi?aae?iiy
nia?aa?o?noth o aca?iica’yceo c aeei?enoaiiyi ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo;

· aecia/eoe ?aca?ae i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo i?ae?yaeieo i?aai?caoe?e aoae?aaeueiiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oaeineiiaeaii?
iaoiaeieia??, iaoiaeeee oa i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo i?ae?yaeieo i?aai?caoe?e aoae?aaeueiiai eiiieaeno,
aeyaeaii? ?aca?a?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiai aeei?enoaiiy. O
i?ioean? ?iaioe aoee ia??oioiaai? e noi?ioeueiaai? oae? oai?aoe/i? oa
i?aeoe/i? aeniiaee:

· ia??oioiaaii aeaee iioaioe?ae?a, ?ice?eoi ?o ci?no, no?oeoo?o ?
aeanoeaino?;

· aecia/aii niiniae a?aeoai?aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei;

· eiiieaenii aeine?aeaeaii oaiaeaioe?? ci?ie ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo a
?ano?nii-no?oeoo?iiio aniaeo? a oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee;

· ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeee aiae?co noaio, ?icaeoeo oa aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy neeaaeiaeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo;

· aaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeeo aiae?co aieeao aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ia no?iee aoae?aieoeoaa, nia?aa?o?noue ? o?iainia?
?acoeueoaoe ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?;

· cai?iiiiiaaii eiioeaiooaeueio noaio i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo
i?aai?caoe?e.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o aeei?enoaii?
?ic?iaeaiiai eiiieaeno iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo iieiaeaiue c aeiiii?/iiai
aiae?co ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo a ae?yeueiino? aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo
i?aai?caoe?e ei?ii?aoe?? “Oe?aoae”. Oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee oa aiae?oe/i?
?ic?iaee aaoi?a c ieoaiue aieeao ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ia no?iee
aoae?aieoeoaa, nia?aa?o?noue ? i?eaooie canoiniaothoueny a ?iaio? o??ie
“?aaii-O?aie?anueeaoae”, AAO “I?eea?iaoaoae”, IAI “Euea?ai?nueeaoae”, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeia?aeeaie oeeo i?aei?e?inoa.

Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny a
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/i?e ?iaio? eaoaae?e aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co
Oa?iii?euenueei? aeaaeai?? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

· oai?aoe/ii ia??oioiaaii iiiyooy “ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae”
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e, ?ice?eo? i?iaeaie eiai
aeei?enoaiiy a ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu?;

· ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeee aiae?co aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy iniiaieo
cania?a, iaoa??aeueieo ? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a oa ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo a
oe?eiio;

· aaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeeo aiae?co aieeao ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ia
no?iee aoae?aieoeoaa, nia?aa?o?noue, o?iainia? ?acoeueoaoe
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?;

· aeyaeaii ?aca?ae i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo i?ae?yaeieo i?aai?caoe?e aoae?aaeueiiai eiiieaeno.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia a?o/eciyieo ? i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?yo: “Aoaeeoi?nueea ae?yeuei?noue a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy iiaeo
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?”, Euea?a, 1995.; “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae aei ?eieo”,
Oa?iii?eue, 1996; “I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y
i?enay/aia 25-??//th eaoaae?e aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co ? 30-??//th ?inoeoooo
iae?eo ? aoaeeoo”, Oa?iii?eue, 1996; “Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a
nenoai? aoae?aaeueiiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie”, Oa?iii?eue, 1998.

Ioae?eaoe?? Ca i?aenoieaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii
12 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue caaaeueiei ianyaii 3,5 ae.a.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae,
aeiaeaoe?a. Iiaiee ianya ?iaioe – 223 noi??iee, o oiio /ene? 4 ?enoiee,
24 oaaeeoe?, 18 aeiaeaoe?a, nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae
neeaaea?oueny ?c 140 iaeiaioaaiue.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue aea?aii? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/aia iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy, ia’?eoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiaa
iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?ic?iaeaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “Nooue, no?oeoo?a ? ioe?iea ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e” aena?oeththoueny nooi?noue
“iioaioe?aeo” ye aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai???, iniaeeaino? aeae?a iioaioe?aeo
ia ??ai? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee, aaeoc?, i?aei?e?inoaa (ia’?aeiaiiy),
ioe?iththoueny iaoiaee aecia/aiiy, a?aeoai?aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy
iioaioe?aeo aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

O aeena?oaoe?? ooi/ith?oueny iiiyooy aoae?aaeueiiai iioaioe?aeo,
?ice?eaa?oueny ?ieue ? i?noea eiai a nenoai? aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?aeo.
Aoae?aaeueiee iioaioe?ae ?icaeyaea?oueny ye noeoiia iiaeeea?noue
i?aei?e?inoa aoae?iaeono???, aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e,
i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ? aaeocaaeo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e
cae?enithaaoe ia iniia? iayaieo ?ano?n?a iaeneiaeueii iiaeeea? ianyae
iiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa, ?ia?o c ?aeiino?oeoe?? ? oaoi?/iiai ia?aica?i?iiy
ae?th/eo i?aei?e?inoa, ?aiiioo aoae?aaeue ? nii?oae. Aoae?aaeueiee
iioaioe?ae ?aae?co?oueny a iniiaiiio /a?ac iioaioe?ae i?ae?yaeieo
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e, a?ae nooiaiy aeei?enoaiiy yeiai
caeaaeeoue aoaeoeai?noue aoae?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, no?iee
nii?oaeaeaiiy ia’?eo?a.

O ?iaio? aeine?aeaeothoueny noai ? aeei?enoaiiy iniiaieo eiiiiiaio?a,
ye? oi?iothoue ci?no iioaioe?aeo i?ae?yaeieo aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo
i?aai?caoe?e: /enaeuei?noue ia?niiaeo, i?ia?aneai?noue eiai no?oeoo?e,
??aaiue eaae?o?eaoe?? ?ia?oiee?a; ianya iniiaieo cania?a, ?o a?eiaa ?
oaoiieia?/ia no?oeoo?a; iaoa??aeuei? ?ano?ne; nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
i?aai?caoe??th ae?iaieoeoaa ? i?aoe?. Aaoi?ii c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui c
ia?aoiaeii aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei iioaioe?ae aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo
i?aai?caoe?e aeei?enoiao?oueny iacaaeia?eueii, ia aaeeaathoueny caoiaee
aeey eiai noaa?e?caoe?? ? ?icaeoeo.

C iaoith onoiaiiy aieeao iaaaoeaieo /eiiee?a ia ??aaiue aeei?enoaiiy
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ?aae?coaaoe eiiieaen caoiae?a,
ye? a ni?eyee i?ecoieiaiith ?oei?aieo i?ioean?a o ia?iaeiiio
ainiiaea?noa?, o oiio /ene? ? a aoae?aaeueiiio eiiieaen?. Ia aeoieo
aaoi?a, ia iae?i??ai? iaiao?aeii ianaiia?aae cae?enieoe ianooii?
caoiaee:

· aaeineiiaeeoe ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiao aaco ae?iaieoeoaa c iaoith iie?ioaiiy
?iaanoeoe?eiiai ee?iaoo ? noeioethaaiiy a?aeoai?thaaeueieo i?ioean?a;

· aeoea?coaaoe no?oeoo?io ia?aaoaeiao ae?iaieoeoaa a?aeiia?aeii aei
aeiia ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua;

· i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? ia?aaeon?i o oeo aaeocyo ?
ae?iaieoeoaao, ye? iathoue ni?eyoeea? iaoe?iiaeuei? oiiae aeey io?eiaiiy
eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa ia na?oiaiio ?eieo.

O nenoai? i?ae?yaeieo i?aai?caoe?e aoae?aaeueiiai eiiieaeno ie
i?iiiio?ii ?aae?coaaoe eiiieaen caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia iie?ioaiiy ?o
o?iainiaiai noaio, i?enei?aiiy aeaiiiiiie?caoe?? oa i?eaaoecaoe??,
aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i oi?aae?iiy aoae?aieoeoaii, ?icaeoie
?io?ano?oeoo?e ?eieo i?ae?yaeieo ?ia?o, cieaeaiiy caeaaeiino?
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace aoae?aieoeoaa a?ae ?iii?oo, ?icoe?aiiy
a?o/eciyii? ne?iaeiii? aace.

Ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie a?eueo iiaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
iia’ycaii c iaiao?aei?noth aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy
iioaioe?aeo aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e (o??i, ia’?aeiaiue).
Aea/aiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo a aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? iaoiaeee ? canoinoaaiiy
?o ia i?aeoeoe? na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iaoiaee aecia/aiiy ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e a neeo aaeocaaeo
iniaeeainoae caeeoathoueny iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaieie, c aaaaoueio
aniaeo?a aeaii? i?iaeaie aei oeueiai /ano ia ae?iaeaii ?aeeii? aeoiee.

O ca’yceo c oeei o aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaia ni?iaa aaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaeeeo
aecia/aiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo c a?aooaaiiyi ci?ie caaaeueii?
/enaeueiino? ?ia?oiee?a oa ?o i?ioan?eii-eaae?o?eaoe?eiiai neeaaeo,
e?euee?nii-ye?nieo ci?i iaoeiieo ?ano?n?a ? iie?ioaiiy ?o
aenieoaoaoe?eii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?, no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue o aoae?aaeueiiio
ae?iaieoeoa? ca ?o o?oaei- ? iaoa??aeii?noe?noth ii??aiyii c iiia?aaei?i
ia??iaeii, iiaeeeaiai iaiaaeaiiy uiaei caaacia/aiiy aoae?aieoeoaa
iaoa??aeueieie ?ano?naie.

?ic?aooiee aaee/eie ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo i?iiiio?ii i?iaiaeeoe ca
oaeeie oi?ioeaie:

a) ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae ia ii/aoie ieaiiaiai ia??iaeo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, oen. a?i.
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;
(1)

a) i?e??no ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo a ieaiiaiio ia??iae?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, oen. a?i.
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. (2)

aea Ai – aeinyaiooee ??/iee ae?ia?oie o iiia?aaeiueiio ?ioe?, a?i;

*i – oaeoe/ia /enaeuei?noue ?ia?oiee?a, caeiyoeo ia
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?iaioao, o iiia?aaeiueiio ?ioe?, in?a.;

E1 – eiao?oe??io c?inoaiiy ae?ia?oeo, ia??oioiaaiee
i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/ieie caoiaeaie c a?aooaaiiyi e?euee?nii-ye?nieo
ci?i iaoeiieo ?ano?n?a ? iie?ioaiiy ?o aenieoaoaoe?eii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?
a ieaiiaiio ia??iae?;

E2 – eiao?oe??io ci?ie /enaeueiino? ?ia?oiee?a o ieaiiaiio ia??iae?,
ia??oioiaaiee i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/ieie caoiaeaie;

En – eiao?oe??io, yeee a?aoiao? ci?io no?oeoo?e ?ia?o (aeae?a
aoae?aieoeoaa) ca ?o o?oaeii?noe?noth a ieaiiaiio ?ioe? ii??aiyii c
iiia?aaei?i ?ieii;

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
 @???&??yyyy?????Ayyy3/4yyy???^?? ???&?
?MathType???????uth—?????Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ye a
caaaeueiiaoae?aaeueieo, oae ? a niaoe?ae?ciaaieo i?ae?yaeieo
i?aai?caoe?yo.

O ?iaio? aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia oa, ui iiiyooy “iioaioe?ae” o?nii
iia’ycaii c oa?aeoa?ii oe?eae, ine?eueee aeey iaeieo oe?eae iioaioe?ae
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeii? i?aai?caoe?? iiaea aooe aenieei, aeey ?ioeo –
iecueeei. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaeieo oe?eae iaia? iio?aae ci?ithaaoe
no?aoaa?th i?aei?e?inoaa, aeey ?ioeo – iaiao?aeii ?? nooo?ai ia?aaeyiooe
c iaoith caaacia/aiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? a ia?niaeoea?.

I?iaaaeai? aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui eiao?oe??ioe
aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e ca
inoaii? ?iee cieceeeny a?eueoa i?ae oaea?/? ? noaiiaeyoue a
na?aaeiueiio 0,3-0,35. Oea a iniiaiiio coiiaeaia cia/iei nei?i/aiiyi
ianya?a eai?oaeueiiai aoae?aieoeoaa /a?ac iaaeinoaoi?noue aeaea?ae
o?iainoaaiiy o caiiaiee?a, a?aenooi?noth ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeey aecia/aiiy iioaioe?eieo caiiaeaiue ia aoae?aieoeoai ? aeanieo
ae?iaie/eo iiaeeeainoae, aeai?o i?ae?yae/eea aeey nii?oaeaeaiiy
ia’?eo?a ia eiieo?ni?e iniia? oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy oaiaea?ieo oi?a?a.

Aaaeeeaa ?ieue a oi?aae?ii? ae?iaie/ei iioaioe?aeii
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e iaeaaeeoue aeiiii?/iiio aiae?co
noaio eiai aeei?enoaiiy ? ?icaeoeo. Iaeiae aeiiii?/iee aiae?c
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo cae?enith?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei, a?i ia noaa
?ino?oiaioii iiooeo ?aca?a?a i?aeaeuaiiy a?aeaea/? o?oaeiaeo,
iaoa??aeueieo, o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a ? iioaioe?aeo a oe?eiio.

C iaoith aeoea?caoe?? aiae?oe/ii? ?iaioe a i?ae?yaeieo aoae?aaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?yo a aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaia iiaa noaia eiiieaenii?
iaoiaeeee aiae?co ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo c a?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? a oiiaao ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua. Ie
aaaaea?ii, ui ?acoeueoaoe oaeiai aiae?co iiaeii? aooe aacith aeey
ioe?iaiiy a?aie/ieo iiaeeeainoae iioaioe?aeo aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e
(o??i, ia’?aeiaiue) a oiiaao ci?ie no?oeoo?e aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo
?ia?o (aeae?a aoae?aieoeoaa), iia’ycaii? c ia?aoiaeii aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei; aecia/aiiy i?eaeaoiino? iioaioe?aeo aeey aeinyaiaiiy
iinoaaeaieo no?aoaa?/ieo oe?eae; aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae aaeineiiaeaiiy
iioaioe?aeo i?aai?caoe?e a iai?yiao iacaeaaeiino? eiai a?ae ci?ie
eii’thieoo?e ?eieo aoae?aaeueii? i?iaeoeoe??, oaeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “Aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo” ia??oioiaothoueny iai?yie aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeieia?? ?
iaoiaeeee aiae?co o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo, iniiaieo cania?a,
iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e,
i?iiiio?oueny eiiieaen i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo caoiae?a aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
i?ae?yaeieo i?aai?caoe?e aoae?aaeueiiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie.

?aaeeeaeuei? ci?ie a aeiiii?oe?, coiiaeai? aeaiiioaaeai
eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie ? ia?aoiaeii aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei
aeiaaathoue aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie ia ??ai?
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e (ia’?aeiaiue). Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui
nenoaia oi?aae?iiy o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie iiaeiia aooe ni?yiiaaia ia
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?iai/i? neee. Caaaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy
aoae?aaeueii-ae?iaie/ei ia?niiaeii nueiaiaei? iathoue aeaiyeee oa?aeoa?.
C iaeiiai aieo, iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe iaaeie?ee iiia?aaeiuei? nenoaie,
yea aoea noai?aia ? ooieoe?iioaaea a oiiaao aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeieo
iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith, a c ae?oaiai – iai?aoethaaoe iia?,
aaeaeaaoi? aei aeiia “oe?a?inueeiai ?eieo i?aoe?”, oi?ie ? iaoiaee
aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?aoeath ia i?aei?e?inoaao aoae?aaeueiiai
eiiieaeno.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? nooiaiy caaacia/aiino? i?ae?yaeieo i?aai?caoe?e
aoae?aaeueiiai eiiieaeno o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie ? noai?aiiy oiia aeey
aenieii?iaeoeoeaii? i?aoe? a ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu? a aeena?oaoe??
i?iiiio?oueny a?aoiaoaaoe:

· caa?aaeaiiy aieeao aea?aeaae ia i?ioeane a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaiai
iioaioe?aeo, caeiyoino? ? ia?ai?uaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a;

· ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie naii?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo i?ioean?a, ui
aaco?oueny ia noai?aii? iiaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia o?oaeiai?
ae?yeueiino? i?aoe?aiee?a;

· iia?e?caoe?th aioo??oi?o ?aca?a?a i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?
ca ?aooiie canoinoaaiiy o aoae?aieoeoa? iiai? oaoi?ee, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
i?ia?aneaieo oaoiieia?e, iaoa??ae?a, aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa ? oi?aae?iiy;

· iio?aao ?ia?oiee?a ca i?ioan?eii-eaae?o?eaoe?eiith iciaeith aeey
aeeiiaiiy aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?ia?o, i?aeniaieo ae?iaieoeoa,
ianeoaiaoth/eo ainiiaea?noa, a oaeiae aeey i?iieneiaeo i?ae?icae?e?a
aoae?aaeueieo o??i (ia’?aeiaiue);

· ?aca?ae a?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ??/iiai oiiaeo ?iai/iai
/ano ?ia?oiee?a, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy oiiaeiica?i?iino? i?aoe?.

I?iaaaeaia aea??eiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy a 23 i?ae?yaeieo i?aai?caoe?yo
ei?ii?aoe?? “Oe?aoae” iieacaei, ui a ?ic?aooieo ia aeeiiai? ianyae
i?ae?yaeieo ?ia?o oaeoe/ia /enaeuei?noue ?ia?oiee?a ca 1996-1998 ?iee
cia/ii ia?aaeuoaaea ii?iaoeaio. Oea noaei iaei??th ?c i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy
i?iaeaie iiaii? caeiyoino? aoae?aaeueii-ae?iaie/iai ia?niiaeo, ui
i?ecaaei aei i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa a ?aaeei? iaiiaiiai ?iai/iai aeiy
(oeaeiy).

A inoaii? ?iee cia/ii iia??oeeiny aeei?enoaiiy i?aoe?aieeaie
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e an?o oi?i aeaniino? ?iai/iai /ano.
sseui a 1990 ?. a oe?eiio ii i?ae?yaei?e ae?yeueiino? aoae?aaeueiiai
eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie iaeiei ?ia?oieeii aoei a?aei?aoeueiaaii 227,4 aeiy, oi
a 1998 ?. – 162 aeiy, a ao?aoe ?iai/iai /ano ca aeaiee ia??iae c?inee o
68 ?ac?a ? noaiiaeee 61,5 ethae.-aei?a ia iaeiiai ?ia?oieea.

Aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iieacieeii i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?. Caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueieo oaii?a
c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? aeiaaa? aeeaieiai aea/aiiy oaiaeaioe?e
ci?i oeueiai iieacieea, cae?eniaiiy eiiieaeno i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/ieo ?
aeiiii?/ieo caoiae?a aeey iia?e?caoe?? ?aca?a?a ia an?o ??aiyo
oi?aae?iiy aoae?aaeueiei ae?iaieoeoaii. O ca’yceo c oeei aaaeeeai, uia
aiae?c noaa ooieoe??th ? iaoiaeii oi?aae?iiy o?oaeiaei iioaioe?aeii,
?ino?oiaioii aeyaeaiiy ?aca?a?a i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui aeyaeaiiy ? iia?e?caoe?y
aeeaeiieo ?aca?a?a c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? a
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?yo caaacia/othoueny ca oiiae
i?aai?caoe?? ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai, iia?aoeaiiai ? ia?niaeoeaiiai aiae?co. O
aeena?oaoe?? ?ice?eaathoueny iniaeeaino? iacaaieo aeae?a aiae?co,
coiiaeai? ia?aoiaeii aei ?eieiaeo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

O aeine?aeaeaii? ?aca?a?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
aoae?aaeueii-ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ia?aaaao i?iiiio?oueny a?aeaeaaaoe
oaeoi?iiio oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiio aiae?cia?, ine?eueee a?i aea?
iiaeeea?noue ioe?ithaaoe iaaeei?enoaii? ?aca?ae aeiiii?? o?oaeiaeo
aeo?ao, iia’ycai? c iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii o eiie?aoieo ae?iaie/eo
oiiaao.

O aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaia ni?iaa aaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaeeeo oaeiai aiae?co ?
canoiniaoaaoe ?? i?e aeine?aeaeaii? aieeao
?iaeono??aeueii-i?aai?caoe?eieo oaeoi??a ia aeeiai?eo i?iaeoeoeaiino?
i?aoe?, aecia/eoe oeyoe a?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a o i?ae?yaeieo i?aai?caoe?yo ei?ii?aoe?? “Oe?aoae”.

Ie??i oaeoi?iiai oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co, ?aca?ae c?inoaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? aeine?aeaeoaaeeny aaoi?ii oeyoii iiaoaeiae
aaaaoioaeoi?ieo ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa?an?eieo iiaeaeae. I?e oeueiio aoee
aeei?enoai? iieacieee ae?yeueiino? aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e
cao?aeieo iaeanoae Oe?a?ie ca 1993-1997 ?iee. Aei ?ic?aooieo a?aeeny
aioo??oi? oaeoi?e, yeeie ?aaeueii iiaeia oi?aaeyoe ia ??ai?
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e: o1 – ianya ?ia?o, ui aeeiiothoueny
aeanieie neeaie i?aai?caoe?e; o2 – ieoiia aaaa i?ia?aneaieo nenoai
iieaoe i?aoe?, %; o3 – eiao?oe??io ieeiiino? ?ia?oiee?a, %; o4 –
eaae?o?eaoe?y ?ia?oiee?a (na?aaei?e ?ic?yae ?ia?oiee?a).

Iiaeaeue i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ia? oaeee aeaeyae:
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; (3)

?ic?aoiaai? eiao?oe??ioe aeanoe/iino? iieacaee, ui: 1) ?c c?inoaiiyi ia
1% ianya?a ?ia?o, ui aeeiiothoueny aeanieie neeaie i?aai?caoe??,
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? i?aeaeuo?oueny ia 0,07%; 2) ca?eueoaiiy ieoiii?
aaae i?ia?aneaieo oi?i iieaoe i?aoe? ia 1% caaacia/o? i?e??no
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ia 0,247%; 3) c?inoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ieeiiino?
?ia?oiee?a ia 1% coiiaeth? cieaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ia 0,065%;
4) ca?eueoaiiy na?aaeiueiai ?ic?yaeo ?ia?oiee?a ia 0,1 ioieoo ni?ey?
i?e?inoo i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ia 0,359%.

C aeiiiiiaith aeiiiiao?e/ieo iiaeaeae ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aecia/aoe
i/?eoaaiee ??aaiue i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? a o?e /e ?io?e
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaei?e i?aai?caoe?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae ae?? oaeoi??a
aeeth/aieo o iiaeaeue.

Aeey caaacia/aiiy c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? a aoae?aaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?yo ianaiia?aae iio??aii ?aae?coaaoe eiiieaen caoiae?a,
ni?yiiaaieo ia ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a ?ia?o, ui aeeiiothoueny aeanieie
neeaie i?aai?caoe?e, ? aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie aeiiii?/iiai noeioethaaiiy
i?aoe?.

Aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e caeaaeeoue a?ae caaacia/aiino?
iniiaieie caniaaie. Aeinyaiaiiy aenieeo iieaciee?a ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino?, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iiaeeeaa ca oiiae ?aoaeueiiai
ia??oiooaaiiy iio?aae a iniiaieo caniaao ?iaeaia?ii-aeiiii?/ieie
?ic?aooieaie o ooieoe?iiaeuei?e, oaoiieia?/i?e, oeii?ici??i?e ?
a?aeoai?thaaeuei?e no?oeoo?ao. Ia??oiooaaiiy iio?aae a aoae?aaeuei?e
oaoi?oe? a aeena?oaoe?? i?iiiio?oueny cae?enithaaoe a i?ioean? ?ic?iaee
i?iaeo?a aeeiiaiiy ?ia?o (IA?) ? ia noaae?? oi?ioaaiiy ??/ii?
aoae?aaeueii? i?ia?aie aoae?aaeueieo o??i (ia’?aeiaiue).

Ia iaoo aeoieo, ??oaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy ianaiia?aae caeaaeeoue a?ae
yeino? ?ic?iaee ii?i iio?aae:

· o iaoeiao ia 1 iei. a?i. aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?ia?o;

· a iniiaieo iaoeiao ia i?eeiyoo iaeeieoeth ianyao ?ia?o o iaoo?aeueieo
aei??ieeao;

· o caniaao iaei? iaoai?caoe?? ia 1 iei. a?i. aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo
?ia?o.

Iacaai? ii?ie ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ia??iaee/ii ei?eaoaaoe caeaaeii a?ae
aieeao iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano ia oaoiieia?th ? i?aai?caoe?th
aoae?aieoeoaa, a oaeiae o ca’yceo c? ci?iaie oiia aeeiiaiiy
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?ia?o.

Aiae?coth/e caaacia/ai?noue aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e iniiaieie
caniaaie, i?iiiio?oueny aeine?aeaeoaaoe i?ioeane a?aeoai?aiiy ? ci?ie
?o oaoi?/iiai noaio ia iniia? ?ic?aoiaaieo eiao?oe??io?a aeaoooy,
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy, iiiaeaiiy, ciino ? i?eaeaoiino? iniiaieo cania?a
(oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1

Aeeiai?ea iieaciee?a a?aeoai?aiiy iniiaieo cania?a aoae?aaeueiiai
i?ecia/aiiy i?ae?yaeieo i?aai?caoe?e ei?ii?aoe?? “Oe?aoae”

ca 1990-1998 ?iee

IieacieeeIniiai? ia?aiao?eAeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo iieacieeaEiao?oe??ioe
ioe?iee iieacieea

1990?1992?1995?1996?1998?12345678Eiao?oe??io iiiaeaiiyOi – aa?o?noue
iniiaieo cania?a ia ii/aoie ?ieo; Oe – aa?o?noue iniiaieo cania?a ia
e?iaoeue
?ieopicscalex10001000900000319010000030015000000000005000000090200000000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,1050,1880,
0610,0130,037Eiao?oe??io aeaoooyOa – aa?o?noue iniiaieo cania?a, ui
aeaoaathoue a aiae?ciaaiiio ia??iae?; On.?. – na?aaeiuei ??/ia aa?o?noue
iniiaieo

cania?apicscalex1000100090000039c010000020015000000000005000000090200000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,050,0270,0210,040,031

12345678Eiao?oe??io ciinoOin – caeeoeiaa aa?o?noue iniiaieo
cania?apicscalex10001000900000319010000030015000000000005000000090200000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,6180,42
0,4830,5570,554Eiao?oe??io i?eaeaoiino?A = 1 —
?0,3820,580,5170,4430,456Eiao?oe??io iaaeoiaeaeaiiyOi – aa?o?noue
iniiaieo cania?a, ui iaae?eoeeEi = Oi / Oi0,1550,2150,0820,0170,068Aeai?
oaae.1 na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui eiao?oe??io iiiaeaiiy iniiaieo cania?a o
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?yo ca aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae
cieceany ia 64,8% [100 – (0,037 : 0,105) * 100], a eiao?oe??io aeaoooy –
ia 38% [100 – (0,031 : 0,05) * 100], na?aaeiuei??/ia iiiaeaiiy iniiaieo
cania?a cia/ii iaioa a?ae ii?iaoeaiiai iieacieea (a?aoiaoth/e
aii?oecaoe?eiee oa?i?i ?o aenieoaoaoe??).

C ia?aoiaeii ia ?eieia? oiiae ainiiaea?thaaiiy neeaeany neooaoe?y, i?e
ye?e ia caaacia/o?oueny a?aeoai?aiiy ciioaieo iniiaieo cania?a. Iaei???
c i?e/ei ? cia/ia c?inoaiiy oe?i ia aoae?aaeueio oaoi?eo, aeao?oeeo
aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy a aeoeaio /anoeio iniiaieo cania?a. Ia?aaeoiiaith
ae??oaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy ? caaacia/aiiy i?eioeeio naiio?iainoaaiiy, ui
ia?aaeaa/a? cae?eniaiiy ainiiaea?nueei? oa ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a
iniiaiiio ca ?aooiie aeanieo o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a (i?eaooeo,
aii?oecaoe?eieo a?ae?aooaaiue).

O aeena?oaoe?? aea?oueny e?eoe/iee aiae?c ae?th/eo iaoiaeee aiae?co
aeei?enoaiiy iniiaieo cania?a, c?iaeaia ni?iaa aaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaeeeo
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co aoae?aaeueieo iaoei ? iaoai?ci?a. C
ia?aoiaeii ia ?eieia? oiiae ainiiaea?thaaiiy oeae aeae aiae?co, ia
aeoieo aaoi?a, ? iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo ?ino?oiaio?a aeyaeaiiy aenoaineaieo
oa ?ioaineaieo ?aca?a?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aeoeaii?
/anoeie iniiaieo cania?a.

C iaoith aeyaeaiiy ?aaeueieo ?aca?a?a iie?ioaiiy aeei?enoaiiy
aoae?aaeueieo iaoei o i?ioean? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeaoe ioe?ieo aeeiai?ee ?o aeei?enoaiiy ca nenoaiith
iieaciee?a, iiaeaieo o oaae.2, aecia/eaoe i?e/eie, oeaio?e aeieeiaiiy
a?aeoeeaiue ? oeyoe ?aae?caoe?? aeyaeaieo ?aca?a?a.

Oaaeeoey 2

Iieacieee aenoaineaiiai oa ?ioaineaiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoei ? iaoai?ci?a
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e

ca 1992-1998 ?iee

Iieacieee Ioe?iea iieacieeaO??ia “?aaii-O?aie?anueeaoae”AAO
“I?eea?iaoaoae”1992 ?.1998 ?.1992 ?.1998 ?.12345 A. Aenoaineai?

Eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy ia?eo aoae?aaeueieo iaoei ca
/anii0,620,540,680,61Eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy ?iai/iai
/ano0,860,690,880,71Eiao?oe??io ci?iiino? ?iaioe
iaoei1,251,101,281,1512345Eiao?oe??io aioo??ci?iiiai aeei?enoaiiy
iaoei0,660,580,680,62Eiao?oe??io oaoi?/ii? aioiaiino? ia?eo
iaoei0,720,650,780,72E?euee?noue iaoeii-aiaeei, a?aei?aoeueiaaieo ca
??e2170131822401425 A. ?ioaineai?

Aenieoaoaoe?eia i?iaeoeoeai?noue iaoei ca ci?io,
a?i.649600712676Eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy iaoei ca aenieoaoaoe?eiith
i?iaeoeoeai?noth0,820,740,840,75?ioaa?aeueiee eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy
iaoei0,700,480,570,47I?e aeine?aeaeaii? aenieoaoaoe?eii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?
iaoei ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny c?noaaeyoe na?aaeith oaeoe/io i?iaeoeoeai?noue
ca iaaiee ia??iae (ci?io, i?nyoeue, ??e) c ii?iaoeaiith
i?iaeoeoeai?noth. Aeyaeaiiy ?aca?a?a, iia’ycaieo c i?aeaeuaiiyi ??aiy
?ioaineaiiai aeei?enoaiiy aoae?aaeueii? oaoi?ee, iio?aao?
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ie?aieo a?oi iaoei, a?aooaaiiy ?o noaio
? eiie?aoieo oiia aenieoaoaoe??.

Aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo i?ae?yaeieo i?aai?caoe?e caeaaeeoue
a?ae aeio?eiaiiy i?iii?oe?e i?ae ianyaaie aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?ia?o
? ianyaaie ae?iaieoeoaa aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? eiino?oeoe?e. O
ca’yceo ?c nei?i/aiiyi ?iaanoeoe?e ia noai?aiiy ? a?aeiiaeaiiy iniiaieo
cania?a aaeocae ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ae?iaieoeoai aoae?aaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a ? eiino?oeoe?e ca inoaii? ?iee nooo?ai nei?ioeeiny. Aiaeii/an
aeieeee i?iaeaie ia?ai?io?ethaaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a
a?aeiia?aeii aei ?eieiaiai iiieoo, aia?ai- ? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, cai?ie
i?ea?cieo iaoa??ae?a ia i?noeaa?, cieaeaiiy iaoa??aeii?noeino?
aoae?aaeueii? i?iaeoeoe??.

O eiiieaen? caoiae?a, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a, aaaeeeaa ?ieue iaeaaeeoue
aaeineiiaeaiith ieaioaaiiy, iae?eo ? aeiiii?/iiio aiae?co. Iniaeeaa
i?noea a aeena?oaoe?? iaaeaii iaoiaeeoe? aiae?co iaoa??aeueieo aeo?ao ?
iaoa??aeii?noeino? aoae?aaeueii? i?iaeoeoe??. Ii?aoethaaaoe aeiiii?/io
e?oa?aoo?o c aiae?co aoaeoeaiino? aoae?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, aaoi?
i?eeoia aei aeniiaeo, ui iaoiaee/i? ?ic?iaee c aiae?co iaoa??aeueieo
?ano?n?a ua ia ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy a eiiieaeniiio aiae?c?
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? i?ae?yaeieo i?aai?caoe?e. Aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a ia i?aeoeoe? ?icaeyaea?oueny a
iniiaiiio a ?aieao aiae?co nia?aa?oino? ye oaeoi? aieeao ia ??aaiue
ae?iaie/eo cao?ao, ui ia ni?ey? ae??oaiith i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? aoae?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. O ca’yceo c oeei a
aeena?oaoe?? aecia/ai? iaoa, ci?no ? iia? iai?yie aiae?co iaoa??aeueieo
?ano?n?a ia ??ai? aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e (o??i).

Ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie cieaeaiiy iaoa??aeii?noeino? coiiaeththoue
iaiao?aei?noue i?aai?caoe?? ia?niaeoeaiiai, iia?aoeaiiai ?
?ao?iniaeoeaiiai aiae?co aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a. O ?iaio?
?icaeyaeathoueny ia ae??oai? iaoiaee/i? ieoaiiy, iiaeathoueny
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeee i?iaaaeaiiy iia?aoeaiiai ?
?ao?iniaeoeaiiai aiae?co iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a.

I?e cae?eniaii? iia?aoeaiiai aiae?co i?iiiio?oueny aeio?eioaaoeny
iaoo?aeueii-?a/iaiai i?aeoiaeo, oiaoi aea/aoe i?e/eie ia?aaeo?ao,
iia’ycaieo o?eueee c? ci?iith ii?i iaoo?aeueieo ianya?a iaoa??ae?a ,
nienaieo ia aoae?aaeueia ae?iaieoeoai (iaaeai? iineoae). Ia?aaeo?aoe
iaoa??ae?a ii??aiyii c ii?iaie (I?) ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aecia/aoe ca
oi?ioeith:

I1=(Io?-Qo?Ii?Oeai?), (4)

aea Io? — oaeoe/ia aeo?aoa ?-ai aeaeo iaoa??ae?a ia aeeiiaiee ianya
?ia?o, a?i.; Qo? — oaeoe/iee ianya ? — ai aeaeo aeeiiaieo ?ia?o o
iaoo?aeueieo iieacieeao; Ii? — ii?ia aeo?ao ?-ai aeaeo iaoa??ae?a ia
iaeeieoeth ?ia?o;

Oeai? — iae?eiaa oe?ia ?-ai aeaeo iaoa??ae?a.

O i?ioean? ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai aiae?co oeaio?aeueia i?noea iiaeiii
iaeaaeaoe aeine?aeaeaiith aieeao aa?o?nii–oe?iiaeo oaeoi??a (ci?ia
o?ainii?oieo noai, caaio?aaeueii-neeaaenueeeo aeo?ao, nia?aa?oino?
i?iaeoeoe?? i?aeniaieo ae?iaieoeoa, ci?ia oe?i ia iaoa??aee oa ?i.) ia
??aaiue iaoa??aeueieo aeo?ao. I?iiiio?oueny ioe?ithaaoe aeinyaiooee
??aaiue cieaeaiiy iaoa??aeii?noeino? aoae?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
ii??aiyii c iiia?aaei?i ia??iaeii c a?aooaaiiyi cieaeaiiy ae?iaie/eo
ii?i aeo?ao iaoa??ae?a, nei?i/aiiy iai?iaeoeoeaieo cao?ao ? ao?ao
iaoa??ae?a c a?aooaaiiyi ci?ie oaoiieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?ia?o ? ??aiy oe?i ia iaoa??aeuei? ?ano?ne.
Caaaeueiee ?iaeaen ci?ie iaoa??aeii?noeino? (?i) a aiae?ciaaiiio
ia??iae? i?ioe iiia?aaeiueiai ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aecia/aoe ye aeiaooie
oaeoi?ieo ?iaeaen?a:

wmetafile8? ??/???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????Ayyy¬yyy@?? ?? ???&?
?MathType??p????u?y???????no? – ?iaeaen ci?ie oaoiieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e
?ia?o;

?i – ?iaeaen cieaeaiiy ii?i aeo?ao iaoa??ae?a;

?ic – ?iaeaen cieaeaiiy iai?iaeoeoeaieo cao?ao ? ao?ao;

?oe – ?iaeaen ci?ie oe?i ia iaoa??aeuei? aeo?aoe.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ca ?ic?iaeaieie aaoi?ii iaoiaeeeaie na?ae/eoue, ui a
i?ae?yaeieo i?aai?caoe?yo ei?ii?aoe?? “Oe?aoae” iaoo?aeueii-?a/ia?
ia?aaeo?aoe iaoa??ae?a cieaeothoueny. Iiceoeaia ci?ia oeueiai iieacieea
? ?acoeueoaoii i?eeiyooy a?aeiia?aeieo caoiae?a aeey a?eueo noai?iai
aeio?eiaiiy ae?iaie/eo ii?i, nei?i/aiiy a?aeo i?e aeeiiaii?
aoae?aaeueieo ?ia?o, ciaioaiiy ianyao iaaei?iaie ia ia’?eoao, caeaieo a
aenieoaoaoe?th a iiia?aaei?o ia??iaeao.

?acii c oei ia? i?noea nooo?aa c?inoaiiy aeo?ao, iia’ycaieo ?c ci?iaie
o?ainii?oieo noai ia?aaacaiue iaoa??ae?a, c?inoaiiyi nia?aa?oino?
i?iaeoeoe?? i?aeniaieo ae?iaieoeoa, a oaeiae oe?i ia iaoa??aeuei?
?ano?ne. Oae, i?iaaaeai? iaie ianoaaeaiiy a aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?yo
Oa?iii?euenueei?, Euea?anueei? ? ??aiainueei? iaeanoae iieacaee, ui ca
?aooiie aa?o?nii-oe?iiaeo oaeoi??a ??aaiue iaoa??aeueieo aeo?ao o 1998
?. ii??aiyii c 1996 ?. a na?aaeiueiio c??n ia 1,06%, a
iaoo?aeueii-?a/ia? oaeoi?e i?ecaaee aei cieaeaiiy iaoa??aeueieo aeo?ao
ia 0,35% aei ianyao ?ia?o, aeeiiaieo aeanieie neeaie i?aai?caoe?e.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe – “Iaoiaeeea aiae?co aieeao
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ia aoaeoeai?noue aoae?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa”
aeine?aeaeo?oueny aca?iica’ycie ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo c? no?ieaie
aoae?aieoeoaa, nia?aa?o?noth aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?ia?o, o?iainiaeie
?acoeueoaoaie ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? i?ae?yaeieo i?aai?caoe?e,
ia??oioiao?oueny iaoiaeeea aiae?co aieeao ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ia
iieacieee aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aoae?aieoeoaa.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c oaeoe/ieo no?ie?a aoae?aieoeoaa
ia’?eo?a o c?noaaeaii? c ii?iaoeaieie no?ieaie. I?e oeueiio aeae?eyeeny
aeaa ia??iaee: ia?oee – ia??iae eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy (1986-1990 ??.), ae?oaee – ia??iae ia?aoiaeo i?aei?e?inoa
aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei (1994-1998 ??.). Aaoi?ii c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui c
ia?aoiaeii aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei nooo?ai ci?ieeany no?oeoo?a i?e/ei
ianai?/aniiai aaaaeaiiy a aenieoaoaoe?th ia’?eo?a ae?iaie/iai ?
iaae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy. sseui ca ?iee aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii?
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy iniiaieie i?e/eiaie ianai?/aniiai aaaaeaiiy ia’?eo?a
a ae?th aoee: iaiiaia caaacia/ai?noue aoae?aaeueieie iaoa??aeaie ?
eiino?oeoe?yie (24-25 %), aeao?oeeo eaae?o?eaoe?eii? ?iai/i? neee (18-20
%), ii?ooaiiy no?ie?a iinoaaee, iaeiiieaeoi?noue ? iecueea ye?noue
onoaoeoaaiiy (27-30 %), oi c ia?aoiaeii aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei iniiaieie
i?e/eiaie noaee ianai?/ani?noue a?aee?eooy o?iainoaaiiy ?
iacaaacia/ai?noue aeaea?aeaie o?iainoaaiiy ii ?ieao aoae?aieoeoaa.

*a?ac iaaeinoaoi?noue ye aea?aeaaieo, oae ? aeanieo eioo?a ?iaioe ia
aoaeiaao aaaeooueny iecueeeie oaiiaie, iaaeio?eiothoueny ii?iaoeai?
no?iee aaaaeaiiy a ae?th ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae ? ia’?eo?a, ui aieeioei
ia c?inoaiiy ianya?a iacaaa?oaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa. O ca’yceo c oeei o
aeena?oaoe?? ia??oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue ia ??ai? aaii?ae?yaeieo
i?aai?caoe?e cae?enithaaoe ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey aecia/aiiy
iioaioe?eieo ia’?eo?a aoae?aieoeoaa ? aeanieo ae?iaie/eo iiaeeeainoae;
aiae?coaaoe nooi?iue aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo,
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/io neooaoe?th c oi/ee ci?o aeyaeaiiy iioaioe?eiiai
ii?ooaey caiiaeaiue; ?ic?iaeyoe aeiaaino?ieiao no?aoaa?th ?icaeoeo
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ? oi?ioaaiiy ae?iaie/i? i?ia?aie ia ia?niaeoeao.

C iaoith nei?i/aiiy aoae?aaeueiiai oeeeeo aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaii eiiieaen
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo caoiae?a, a?eueo?noue c yeeo iiaea aooe
?aae?ciaaia aaciina?aaeiuei aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieie i?aai?caoe?yie
(o??iaie). Aiae?coth/e aeio?eiaiiy ii?iaoeaieo no?ie?a aoae?aieoeoaa,
aeena?oaioii ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeeiiaoe aiae?oe/i? ?ic?aooiee
iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeii? e?eueeino? ia’?eo?a, ui aoaeothoueny iaeii/anii
? c?noaaeoe ?o c oaeoe/iith iayai?noth. Noia?i? e?i?oe
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?ia?o ia ia’?eoao, aeeth/aieo o ieai, ia iiaeii?
ia?aaeuoaaoe aeiaooeo aaee/eie iiooaeiino? i?ae?yaeieo aoae?aaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?e ia na?aaeiueicaaaeaio ii?iaoeaio o?eaae?noue aoae?aieoeoaa
oeeo ia’?eo?a. Aeio?eiaiiy oe??? oiiae ae?aaea?oueny oi?ioeith:

wmetafile8? ??T?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyya???AE?? ???&?
?MathType??P????&??yyyy???????????yyypicscalex100010009000003b901000
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0040000002e01180005000000310201000000050000000b0200000000050000000c02000
3401a1200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffffaeffffff001a0000ae0
200000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000900009000000fa0200001000000
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2c41201000000cc0008000000320a5802a30d01000000ce0008000000320a58023d08010
00000ce0008000000320a5802f00101000000ce0015000000fb0220ff000000000000900
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0c1ccce0008000000320afd00680f01000000f00009000000320a73024d0f04000000eff
3f1ea08000000320afd00020a01000000f00008000000320a7302f10901000000e700080
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0fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010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, (6)

aea
picscalex100010009000003000100000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
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0000c0ffffffaeffffff20050000ae0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
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040000002d01000008000000320a3902370001000000e50015000000fb02c0fd00000000
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010004000000f001000008000000320a5802f00101000000ce0015000000fb0220ff0000
000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00cc5b04000000
2d01000004000000f001010008000000320afd00b50301000000f00009000000320a7302
9a0303000000efe5f00015000000fb0220ff000000000000900100000000040200105469
6d6573204e657720526f6d616e00005b040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000
320a7302e504010000002e000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000
fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d010000
04000000f0010100030000000000,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,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 — ianyae aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?ia?o ia
ii/aoie ieaiiaiai ?ieo, ui i?aeeyaathoue aeeiiaiith aaii?ae?yaeiith
i?aai?caoe??th a?aeiia?aeii ia ia?ao?aeieo, caae?eueieo ? ioneiaeo
ia’?eoao, oen. a?i.;
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 — iiooaei?noue (iioaioe?ae) aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeii?
i?aai?caoe??;

picscalex100010009000003c90000000300150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02c00260021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffa4ffffff20020000640200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000700009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402
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130001000000d20015000000fb0220ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d65
73204e657720526f6d616e00cce9040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a
6f02990101000000ed000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb02
1000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d0101000400
0000f0010200030000000000 — na?aaeiueicaaaeaiee ii?iaoeaiee no?ie
aoae?aieoeoaa a?oie ia’?eo?a.

O iia?e?caoe?? aioo??oiueiae?iaie/eo ?aca?a?a aaaeeeaa ?ieue iaeaaeeoue
iae?eo ? aiae?co no?ie?a oaeoe/ii? o?eaaeino? aoae?aieoeoaa. Neaaeei
i?noeai a i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy aoae?aaeueiei oeeeeii ? ?ioi?iaoe?eia
iacaaacia/ai?noue, a?aenooi?noue nenoaiiiai iae?eo oaeoe/ii? o?eaaeino?
aoae?aieoeoaa. Iiaeai? aaoi?ii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aai?caoe?? ?
i?iaaaeaiiy iia?aoeaiiai aiae?co no?ie?a aoae?aieoeoaa, ni?yiiaai? ia
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? i?ae?yaeieo
i?aai?caoe?e.

I?iaaaeai? aeena?oaioii aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui ??aaiue
aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo nooo?ai aieeaa? ia nia?aa?o?noue
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?ia?o ? o?iainia? ?acoeueoaoe ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino?. Aeey aeyaeaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?? ?aca?a?a cieaeaiiy
nia?aa?oino? ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny i?iaiaeeoe:

· aiae?c no?oeoo?e nia?aa?oino? ca eaeueeoeyoe?eieie noaooyie ?
aeiiii?/ieie aeaiaioaie aei caaaeueii? aaee/eie aeo?ao, a oaeiae aei
aa?oino? aeeiiaieo ?ia?o ca aeiaia??ieie oe?iaie;

· ?ao?iniaeoeaiee oaeoi?iee oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iee aiae?c ca noaooyie
cao?ao;

· iiia’?eoiee iia?aoeaiee aiae?c nia?aa?oino? c aeei?enoaiiyi IAII;

· ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c aca?iica’yceo i?ae nia?aa?o?noth ? ??aiai
aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo.

Aieea ia nia?aa?o?noue aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?ia?o ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo aeine?aeaeoaaany iaoiaeii ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co. O
?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo ?ic?aooie?a ca iaoa??aeaie aoae?aaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?e cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie anoaiiaeaii, ui ?c ci?iith ??aiy
aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ia 1% ??aaiue aeo?ao a
na?aaeiueiio ci?ith?oueny ia 0,203%.

Ia?ao?ae i?ae?yaeieo aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e ia oi?ioaaiiy i?eaooeo
a?ae anueiai ianyao ?ia?o, aeeiiaieo aeanieie neeaie ca i?nyoeue,
coiiaea iiooe iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei aiae?co aieeao oaeoi??a ia o?iainia?
?acoeueoaoe ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?. Cai?iiiiiaaia a aeena?oaoe??
iaoiaeeea aiae?co aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe e?euee?nio ioe?ieo aieeao ia
ci?io i?eaooeo aenoaineaieo oa ?ioaineaieo oaeoi??a, nooiaiy
aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeii?
i?aai?caoe?? c a?aooaaiiyi ci?ie no?oeoo?e aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?ia?o
(aeae?a aoae?aieoeoaa).

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? aieeao ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo aoae?aaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?e ia i?eaooie, ie??i iaoiaeeee oaeoi?iiai
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co, ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaoiaeeeo
aiae?co ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ianyaii ae?iaieoeoaa, cao?aoaie ?
i?eaooeii. O aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaia ni?iaa aaeineiiaeeoe aeaio iaoiaeeeo
noiniaii aei niaoeeo?ee ae?yeueiino? aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e, ui aea?
iiaeeea?noue aecia/aoe oie nooi?iue aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo, i?e yeiio caaacia/o?oueny i?eaooeia?noue ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Aeniiaee

Ocaaaeueithth/e ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ii?, i?aeoe/ii? oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeieia??, iaoiaeeee
oa i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e, aaoi?ii c?iaeai? oae? aeniiaee.

1. Aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?aeo ? aoae?aaeueiee
iioaioe?ae, yeee a iniiaiiio ?aae?co?oueny /a?ac iioaioe?ae
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e. A?ae nooiaiy aeei?enoaiiy
inoaiiueiai caeaaeeoue aoaeoeai?noue aoae?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, no?iee
nii?oaeaeaiiy ia’?eo?a.

2. Ca nooiaiai cia/ouino? o nenoai? iioaioe?ae?a i??i?eoaoia i?noea
iaeaaeeoue ae?iaie/iio iioaioe?aeo. Eiai oi?ioaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy
?icaeyaea?oueny ye noeoii?noue iiaeeeainoae, ui ?aae?co?oueny
ainiiaea?nueeith nenoaiith o i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? (?ia?o,
iineoa), a oaeiae ye iaaeei?enoai?, aea ia’?eoeaii ?nioth/?, iioaioe?ei?
?aca?ae a?eueo aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/eo, i?e?iaeieo ?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?ano?n?a.

3. Iioaioe?ae aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e nueiaiaei?
aeei?enoiao?oueny iacaaeia?eueii (a iaaeao 25-30%). Ia o?aoeio
nei?ioeeanue /enaeuei?noue aoae?aaeueii-ae?iaie/iai ia?niiaeo, ciin
iniiaieo cania?a aeinya e?eoe/iiai ??aiy ? ia eiiiaino?oueny iiaeie
eai?oaeueieie aeeaaeaiiyie. Ia cae?enith?oueny ia?ai?io?ethaaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ? iaoa??ae?a a?aeiia?aeii aei
?eieiaiai iiieoo.

Aeey noaa?e?caoe?? ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo iaiao?aeii ?aae?coaaoe
eiiieaen caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia iie?ioaiiy ?o o?iainiaiai noaio,
i?enei?aiiy aeaiiiiiie?caoe?? oa i?eaaoecaoe??, aaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i oi?aae?iiy, ?icaeoie ?io?ano?oeoo?e ?eieo
i?ae?yaeieo ?ia?o, cieaeaiiy caeaaeiino? iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace
a?ae ?iii?oo, ?icoe?aiiy a?o/eciyii? ne?iaeiii? aace.

4. Ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ainiiaea?thaaiiy o?nii
iia’ycaii c ieoaiiyie aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeieia??, iaoiaeeee ?
i?aai?caoe?? aiae?co ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie
aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co iiaeii? ioe?ithaaoeny: a?aie/i? iiaeeeaino?
iioaioe?aeo aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e ca oiiae ci?ie
no?oeoo?e i?ae?yaeieo ?ia?o (aeae?a aoae?aieoeoaa), i?eaeaoi?noue
iioaioe?aeo aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaieo no?aoaa?/ieo oe?eae, ?aca?ae
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiai aeei?enoaiiy a ?eieiaeo oiiaao
ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

5. I?e i?iaaaeaii? aiae?co ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo iaeii/anii c
aaeocaaei i?aeoiaeii iaiao?aeii aeio?eioaaoeny eiiieaeniiai ?ano?niiai
i?aeoiaeo. O?eueee a ?acoeueoao? aca?iiae?? an?o neeaaeiaeo ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo (o?oaeiaeo, iaoa??aeueieo, oaoi?ei-oaoiieia?/ieo ?
o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a) iiaeia caaacia/eoe aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaieo
no?aoaa?/ieo oe?eae aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeii? i?aai?caoe?? (o??ie).
Aeyaeaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?y ?aca?a?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo iio?aao? aea/aiiy noaio, nooiaiy aeei?enoaiiy ?
?icaeoeo o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo, iioaioe?aeo iniiaieo cania?a,
iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a.

6. O aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?yo (o??iao) oeaio?aeueia i?noea
a aeine?aeaeaii? ?aca?a?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo iiaeiii iaeaaeaoe oaeoi?iiio oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiio aiae?co,
ine?eueee a?i aeicaiey? ioe?ithaaoe iaaeei?enoaii? iiaeeeaino? a
eiie?aoieo oiiaao ? aeyaeyoe ne?eo? ?aca?ae, coiiaeai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei
i?ia?anii.

7. Aeio?eiaiiy ii?iaoeaieo (aeiaia??ieo) no?ie?a aoae?aieoeoaa i?e
i?i?iaeueieo cao?aoao ? aenie?e yeino? aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?ia?o
caeeoa?oueny i?iaeaiiei ieoaiiyi i?e ia?aoiae? aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.
Nei?i/aiiy ianya?a iiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa, ?aeiino?oeoe?? ? oaoi?/iiai
ia?aica?i?iiy ae?th/eo i?aei?e?inoa i?ecaaei aei nooo?aiai cieaeaiiy
nooiaiy aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo, ui iaaaoeaii aieeioei ia
o?eaae?noue aoae?aaeueiiai oeeeeo, ??aaiue ae?iaie/eo cao?ao ? o?iainia?
?acoeueoaoe ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?.

8. C ia?aoiaeii aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a?aenooiy oe?eani?yiiaaia nenoaia
oi?aae?iiy oaeoe/ieie no?ieaie aoae?aieoeoaa ii??aiyii c ii?iaoeaieie. O
ca’yceo c oeei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo ?ic?iaeaii? a aeena?oaoe??
iaoiaeeee aiae?co no?ie?a aoae?aieoeoaa c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao ia
ae?iaie/? aeo?aoe aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, noaia
aaaeeeaith ia?aaeoiiaith iia?e?caoe?? aioo??oiueiae?iaie/eo ?aca?a?a
i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo c iaoith
nei?i/aiiy aoae?aaeueiiai oeeeeo.

9. Iie?ioaiiy aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo iio??aii ?icaeyaeaoe
ye iaeei c aaaeeeaeo oaeoi??a aieeao ia nia?aa?o?noue
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?ia?o ? i?eaooie. Aieea ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ia i?eaooie i?iiiio?oueny ioe?ithaaoe /a?ac ianyae
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?ia?o, ui aeeiiothoueny aeanieie neeaie
i?aai?caoe?e, ? ??aaiue ae?iaie/eo aeo?ao. Cai?iiiiiaaia a aeena?oaoe??
iaoiaeeea aiae?co aeicaiey? aecia/eoe ci?io i?eaooeo i?ae aieeaii
aenoaineaieo oa ?ioaineaieo oaeoi??a. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieacaei, ui ?aae?caoe?y i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/ieo ? aeiiii?/ieo
caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/eo ?ano?n?a
o i?ae?yaeieo i?aai?caoe?yo ei?ii?aoe?? “Oe?aoae” iiaea caaacia/eoe
aeiaeaoeiaa cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? a ?ici??? aei 3% a?ae ianyao ?ia?o,
ui aeeiiothoueny aeanieie neeaie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Aiae?c caaacia/aiino? aoae?aaeueieo o??i iniiaieie caniaaie. //
“Iaoeia? caienee”. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aeeeaaea/?a ? ani??aio?a
eaoaae?e aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co OAIA. – Oa?iii?eue, 1998 – N.88-91 (0,3
ae.a.)

2. Aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a o
aoae?aaeueiiio eiiieaen? Oe?a?ie. // Iaoeiaee aeo?iae. A?niee OAIA,
Aeione 4. Oa?iii?eue, 1998. – N.95-97. (0,25 ae.a.)

3. Aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy aoaeoeai?noth i?aoe? a aoae?aieoeoa?
// Aeiiii?/ia aeoiea. – Oa?iii?eue, 1998. – 65 n. (o ni?aaaoi?noa? –
Nei/eeyn N.I.) (0,7 ae.a.)

4. Iaoiaee/i? aniaeoe aiae?co aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
aoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e // “Iaoeia? caienee”. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue aeeeaaea/?a ? ani??aio?a eaoaae?e aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co OAIA. –
Oa?iii?eue, 1999. – N.187-190. (0,25 ae.a.)

5. Aiae?c aeio?eiaiiy ii?iaoeaieo no?ie?a aoae?aieoeoaa. // Oi?ioaaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei a oiiaao ?eieo. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue i?ae
?aaeaeoe??th aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?a Oa??iia ?.Ae.,
Aeione 2 – Oa?iii?eue: Aeiiii?/ia aeoiea, 1998. – N.127-130. (0,3 ae.a.)

6. Aiaeec eniieueciaaiey ia?ea iaoei e iaoaieciia // “Iao/iua caienee”
iiae ?aaeaeoeeae caneoaeaiiai aeayoaey iaoee e oaoieee Oe?aeiu, aeieoi?a
yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe, i?ioanni?a Oea?aaaia N.E., – Oa?iii?eue, 1995. –
N.48-51. (0,25 ae.a.)

7. Aiae?c ae?iaie/i? iiooaeiino? aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeiiai o?anoo (o??ie,
ia’?aeiaiiy) // I?iaeaie aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.
Aeione 3. – Oa?iii?eue: AO “Ia?eo??e”, 1995. – N.46-48. (0,2 ae.a.).

8. Aiae?c ae?iaie/i-oaoiieia?/ii? eiiieaeoaoe??. // I?iaeaie aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Aeione 4. – Oa?iii?eue: AO
“Ia?eo??e”, 1995. – N.42-44. (0,25 ae.a.)

9. Aoaeeo eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue a iniiai? ae?iaie/? oiiaee. //
Iaoa??aee ?anioae?eainueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
“Aoaeeoi?nueea ae?yeuei?noue a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?” – Euea?a, 1995. – N.16-18. – (o ni?aaaoi?noa? –
Eeoaei A.I.) (0,2 ae.a.).

10. Iniaeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a o aoae?aieoeoa? //
Iaoeia? caienee i?enay/ai? 25-??//th eaoaae?e aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co i?ae
?aaeaeoe??th aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?a Oea?aaaia N.?. –
Oa?iii?eue, 1996. – N.52-55. (0,3 ae.a.).

11. Nenoaia iieaciee?a aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aoae?aaeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa // “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie a
ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae aei ?eieo” (iaoa??aee i?aeaoc?anueei?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??). *anoeia ia?oa. – Oa?iii?eue, 1996. –
N.90-91. (0,15 ae.a.)

12. Aiae?c aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo
i?aai?caoe?e // Iaoeia? caienee i?ae ?aaeaeoe??th caneoaeaiiai ae?y/a
iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?a Oea?aaaia
N.?. – Oa?iii?eue, 1997. – N.77-81 (0,35 ae.a.).

Aiioaoe?y

Ooaoai C.A. Aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e (ia iaoa??aeao ei?ii?aoe??
“Oe?aoae”). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.06.04. – Aooaaeoa?nueeee iae?e, aiae?c ? aoaeeo.
– Oa?iii?euenueea aeaaeai?y ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa. Oa?iii?eue, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaii aeaee iioaioe?ae?a, ?o ci?no, no?oeoo?o ?
?ieue o ae?iaie/iio i?ioean?, oai?aoe/ii ia??oioiaaii iiiyooy
“ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae” aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e, ?ice?eoi
i?iaeaie eiai aeei?enoaiiy a ?eieiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy.
?ic?iaeaii iaoeiai ia??oioiaai? iieiaeaiiy c aaeineiiaeaiiy
iaoiaeieia??, iaoiaeeee ? i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co
aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo aiae?co
aieeao ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ia no?iee aoae?aieoeoaa ia’?eo?a,
nia?aa?o?noue ? o?iainia? ?acoeueoaoe ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?,
aecia/aii oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo i?ae?yaeieo aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae, aeiiii?/iee aiae?c ae?iaie/eo
?ano?n?a, i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/i? oaeoi?e, no?iee aoae?aieoeoaa,
nia?aa?o?noue, i?eaooie.

Aiiioaoeey

Ooaoai C.A. Aiaeec yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
iioaioeeaea no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee (ia iaoa?eaeao
ei?ii?aoeee “Oe?no?ie”). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.04 – Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao, aiaeec e aoaeeo. –
Oa?iiiieueneay aeaaeaiey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa – Oa?iiiieue, 1999 a.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeiaaiu aeaeu iioaioeeaeia, eo niaea?aeaiea,
no?oeoo?a e ?ieue a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna, oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaii
iiiyoea “i?iecaiaenoaaiiue iioaioeeae” no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo
i?aaiecaoeee, ?ane?uoi i?iaeaiu aai eniieueciaaiey a ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo
oicyenoaiaaiey. Ia iniiaa iao/iiai iaiauaiey aeaenoaothueo iaoiaeee,
i?aeoe/aneiai iiuoa, iaeiieaiiiai a io?anee, oniaa?oainoaiaaia iaoiaeeea
ioeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea a ?ano?nii-no?oeoo?iii aniaeoa.
?ac?aaioaiu iao/ii iainiiaaiiua iieiaeaiey ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth
iaoiaeieiaee, iaoiaeeee e i?aaiecaoeee yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee.

Noi?ioee?iaaiu i?eioeeiu, ii?aaeaeaiu caaea/e e iiaua iai?aaeaiey
yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea n o/aoii
iniaaiiinoae oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo
i?aaiecaoeee a oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee. Oniaa?oainoaiaaiu iaoiaeeee
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca o?oaeiaiai iioaioeeaea, iniiaiuo n?aaenoa
e iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, aiaae?aiea a i?aeoeeo eioi?uo aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue auyaeyoue iaeniieueciaaiiua ?aca?au, iaoneiaeaiiua
iao/ii-oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii.

A ?aaioa enneaaeiaaia acaeiinaycue i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea
iiae?yaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee n oaeoe/aneie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth
no?ieoaeuenoaa iauaeoia, naaanoieiinoueth no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo ?aaio,
oeiainiauie ?acoeueoaoaie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. ?anniio?aia
no?oeoo?a i?e/ei ianaiaa?aiaiiiai aaiaea iauaeoia a yenieoaoaoeeth a
ia?eiaeu eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey e ia?aoiaea
i?aaei?eyoee e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi, i?aaeeiaeai eiiieaen
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee ii nie?auaieth
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea, ?aaeecaoeey eioi?uo a iniiaiii iiaeao auoue
inouanoaeaia ia o?iaia no?ieoaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee.

I?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea aiaeeca aeeyiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea ia
no?iee no?ieoaeuenoaa iauaeoia, naaanoieiinoue, oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. A?aoiaioe?iaaia oeaeaniia?aciinoue
i?aaiecaoeee a no?ieoaeueiuo oe?iao aiaeeca aeeiaieee no?oeoo?u
naaanoieiinoe ii eaeueeoeyoeeiiiui noaoueyi e yeiiiie/aneei yeaiaioai;
?ao?iniaeoeaiue oaeoi?iue oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec ii noaoueyi
cao?ao; iiiauaeoiue iia?aoeaiue aiaeec naaanoieiinoe n eniieueciaaieai
IYAI; ei??aeyoeeiiiue aiaeec acaeiinayce iaaeaeo naaanoieiinoueth e
o?iaiai eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea. Ii?aaeaeaiu iooe
iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea
iiae?yaeiuo no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?iecaiaenoaaiiue iioaioeeae, yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia, i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneea oaeoi?u, n?iee
no?ieoaeuenoaa iauaeoia, naaanoieiinoue, i?eaueue.

SUMMARY

Shtephan Z.B. Analysis of Construction-Assembly Organizations Productive
Potential Utilization Effectiveness (based on materials of Corporation
“UKRBUD”). — Manuscript.

Dissertation for competition of a scientific degree of the Candidate of
Sciences (Economy) on speciality 08.06.04 — Accounting, Analysis and
Audit. — Ternopil Academy of National Economy — Ternopil, 1999

Types and content of potentials, their structure and role in production
process are under investigation in the dissertation. The concept of
«productive potential» in construction-assembly organizations has been
theoretically grounded, the problems of its application under market
conditions have been put down and argument. The problem of improvement
of methodology, methods and organization of economic analysis of
productive potential of construction-assembly organizations have been
presented.

Principles, tasks and new directions in economic analysis of productive
potential under new conditions of business activity under market
conditions have been formulated and defined. Methods of
technical-economic analysis of labour potential, main means and material
resources have been improved. Their introduction in practice will make
it possible to reveal the unused possibilities which are caused and
conditioned by scientific-technical progress.

The methods of analysis of impact of productive potential upon the terms
of object construction, their cost and financial results have been
suggested. Ways of effectiveness level raising in utilization of
potential of sub-contracting construction-assembly organizations of
Ukraine have been defined.

Key words: industrial potential, economic analysis of industrial
resources, organisation-economic factors, terms of construction, cost
price, profit.

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