OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAIIss AA?A?IEO IAOE

IINOEOOO ?EAIIAI AINIIAeA?NOAA

AOAeEIA AI?EN ?IIEEOIAE*

OAeE 639.31

AIIOEss??ss ssE IIAEE IAO?AAeEOe?EIEE IA’?EO

OAIEIAIAeIIAI ?EAIEOeOAA A OE?A?I?

06.02.03 — ?eaieoeoai

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien «Aiioey??y ye iiaee iao?aaeeoe?eiee ia’?eo
oaieiaiaeiiai ?eaieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?»

?iaioa aeeiiaia a naeoi?? oaoiieia?? i?iieneiaiai a?aeoai?aiiy oe?iieo
a?ae?ia?iio?a ?inoeoooo ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai??
aa?a?ieo iaoe

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee, Iie?uoe A?oae?e Aieiaeeie?iae/, ?inoeooo ?eaiiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aa?a?ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?,
caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie Oa?iai ?naae Ieoaeeiae/,
Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith
?eaieoeoaa

— eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aeaen??iei Aaaeei ?iiaiiae/, Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, aeioeaio eaoaae?e ciieia??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?e
?eaieoeoaa oa ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 28” aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.364.01 c
caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe i?e ?inoeooo? ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa
OAAI /252164, Ee?a, aoe.Iaoo?anueea, 135/

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo ?eaiiai
ainiiaea?noaa OAAI

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “28” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe
N.A. E?aaeai

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A inoaii? aeanyoe??//y cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny
i?iaeaiai aeaaeoeueoo?e, aianie yei? o ae??oaiiy i?iaeiaieue/eo i?ia?ai
a iao /an ? aeineoue nooo?aei. A oiiaao ciie iii??iiai ee?iaoo, a ye?e
?icoaoiaaia Oe?a?ia, aeaaeoeueoo?a a cia/i?e i??? ?icaeaa?oueny ia
oaieiaiaeieo aiaeieiao. Ia’?eoaie ?? ?: ?eae, ?aeiiiae?ai? (eenoiiia?,
aieiieaae, e?aaaoee, ??/eia? ?aee), iiethnee, a oiio /ene? ? /a?aaiiia?,
na?aae yeeo /?eueia i?noea caeia? aiioey??y.

Aiioey??? — oea oaieiethai?, o?ii?/i? /a?aaiiia? iiethnee, ye? ca nai?i
aeaeii, a?io?i?/iei neeaaeii, iiaeeaieie oa niaeiaeie yeinoyie iiae?ai?
aei aeiia?aaeiiai neeiaea, ui niieiia?/ii aoa aeae?eaoaniith ?aeath a
Cao?aei?e ?a?ii?. Aaaeeeaee, c iiaeyaeo ethaeeie, a?io?i?/iee neeaae
o?ea aiioey??e, oe?iei a?aeii? eiai iiaeeai? oa e?ea?nuee? aeanoeaino?,
a?aeiinii eaaea i?enoinoaaiiy aei aeeooy a oiiaao oaieiaiaeieo oaoi?/ieo
aiaeiei, oaeaeeee oaii ?inoo oiui, ana oea ?iaeoue aiioey??e iaeiei ?c
ia?niaeoeaieo ia’?eo?a ?a?iiaenueei? aeaaeoeueoo?e.

*enaeuei? ia?iaee caei?aeiiieo a/aieo ? i?aeoee?a, iaeaea ui??/ia
c?inoaiiy oai oaieiaiaeieo ainiiaea?noa, ye? ?aae?cothoue aiioey??th a
neeaae? nai?? i?iaeoeoe??, aeniea aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue, ?ioa?an
niiaeeaa/a aei oeueiai i?iaeoeoo, ye ? iiaeeeaino? oe?ieiai
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia oa?aiao iaoi? Aea?aeaae, na?ae/aoue i?i iaaaeueio
aeooaeuei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy
aiioey??e a oiiaao Oe?a?ie. Aaeaea, ia aeeaey/enue ia yaiee ?ioa?an aei
aiioey??e ca ei?aeiiii, a Oe?a?i? aei inoaiiueiai /ano oaeeo a?aeiiinoae
iaeaea ia aoei.

Neeaaeia i?iaeaia, yea iinoaea ia?aae aeine?aeieeii-aaoi?ii, aeiaaaea
eiiieaeniino? aeine?aeaeaiue aeey caaacia/aiiy iaeneiaeueii iiaiiai
caae?yiiy iiceoeaieo aeanoeainoae aiioey??? a ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?
Oe?a?ie. Aiia ae??ooaaeanue a a?oioiaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? i’yna oa ?e?e
neeiae?a ?acii c a/aieie c eaai?aoi??? i?iaeai aiae?ae? ?inoeoooo
?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aa?a?ieo iaoe (OAAI) oa
Iiey?iiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo ii?nueeiai ?eaiiai
ainiiaea?noaa oa ieaaiia?ao?? ?in?enueei? aeaaeai?? iaoe (?AI), ye?
iieacaee iayai?noue o aiioey??? aaeeei? e?eueeino? i?ioa?io, aee?o,
iacai?iieo ai?iieeneio, eiiieaeno a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei: naiii?ie,
ui i?iyaeythoue i?ioeiooeeiiee aoaeo ? oiio iiaeooue c oni?oii
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue a iieieia??, ea?ioeii?aee, ae?eiceaee, oinoie?i?aee
oiui. E??i oiai, ni?eueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie c Iaoeiaei oeaio?ii
?aae?aoe?eii? iaaeeoeeie Aeaaeai?? iaaee/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie aeiaaaeaia
aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy ye i’yna, oae ? ?e?e aiioey??? ye oa?/iai?
aeiaaaee c ?aae?ii?ioaeoi?ieie aeanoeainoyie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie ieaiaie. Oaia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoea
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith oaiaoe/iiai ieaio ?inoeoooo ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa
OAAI, ui aeeiioaaeanue ia caiiaeaiiy Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo ?eaiiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie ca caaaeaiiyi 1.2. «?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia??
i?iieneiaiai a?aeoai?aiiy oe?iieo a?ae?ia?iio?a (?aee, aiioey??y,
a?aaionueea e?aaaoea) oa ei?iiaeo aaco?aaaoieo (Artemia salina L. oa
?io?). Iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 01 96 V021197.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe?
iniiaieo a?ieia?/ieo ii?iaoea?a aei oaoiieia?? i?iieneiaiai ae?iuoaaiiy
aiioey??e, aecia/aii? iiaeeeaino? ?o aeei?enoaiiy ye oa?/iaiai,
e?eoaaeueiiai oa e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/iiai i?iaeoeoo aeey ethaeeie.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? aeaii? iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

— i?iaanoe a?oioiaiee aiae?c iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie oa noaio no/anii?
i?aeoeee, i?enay/aieo i?iaeai? ? aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? ae?iuoaaiiy
aiioey??e a oiiaao Oe?a?ie;

— aea/eoe iniaeeaino? a?ieia?? aiioey???;

— aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy i?iieneiaiai noaaea aiioey???;

— ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?th ia?anoo oa i?ae?iuoaaiiy iieiae?;

— aecia/eoe oa ioe?ieoe iioeiaeuei? aeaee ei?io, ii?ie eiai
caiaeiaoaaiiy;

— a?aei?aoethaaoe oaoiieia?th ae?iuoaaiiy aiioey??? aei oiaa?ii? iane;

— aecia/eoe e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/i? iiaeeeaino? i?iaeoeoe?? c
aiioey??e;

— ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeoe ii?iaoeae aei
oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy neeiaea aiioey???.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa a Oe?a?i? c?iaeaii
iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy aei oaoiieia?? a?aeoai?aiiy oa ae?iuoaaiiy neeiaea
aiioey??y a aeaaeoeueoo?? c aeei?enoaiiyi oaieeo aiae, iieacaia
iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy eiai i’yna oa ?e?e, ye aeae?eaoaniiai
oa?/iaiai oa ia?niaeoeaiiai e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/iiai i?iaeoeoo.
Aia?oa ?ic?iaeai? a?ieia?/i? ii?iaoeae aei oaoiieia?? a?aeoai?aiiy oa
ae?iuoaaiiy ??ciia?eiaeo aiioey??e

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? a i?aeoeoe? oa?ia?nueeeo, caaiaenueeeo ? oaieiaiaeieo
?eaieo ainiiaea?noa Oe?a?ie aeey oe?ieiianooaaiiai ?icaaaeaiiy
aiioey??e, ye oe?iiiai oa?/iaiai i?iaeoeoo oa ne?iaeie aeey aeaioiaeaiiy
oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie c e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieie aeanoeainoyie. Io?eiai?
iaoa??aee a?aee?eaathoue iia? ia?niaeoeae a ca?eueoaii? a?iiioaioe?aeo
aeaaeoeueoo?e oaoi?/ieo oaieiaiaeieo aiaeiei Oe?a?ie ? i?ieoee anaa?/io
ia?aa??eo a oiiaao Ee?anueeiai oaieiaiaeiiai ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa i?e
OAOe-5 oa ?eaainio «Aia?aiaea?» Caii??cueeiai ?eaieiia?iaoo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi? aaciina?aaeiuei i?eeiaa o/anoue o
?ic?iaoe? iaoeiaeo i?ia?ai, aea/aii? a?ieia?/ieo oa o?c?ieia?/ieo
iniaeeainoae aiioey??e, o iinoaiiaoe? aeine?ae?a ii oi?ioaaiith
iaoi/iiai iaoa??aeo neeiae?a, ?ic?iaoe? niinia?a iaea?aeaiiy iieiae?,
i?ae?iuoaaiiy, aiae?ae?, ae?iuoaaiiy oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe??. Aecia/aiiy
iaaeeei-a?io?i?/ieo iniaeeainoae i’yna oa ?e?e aiioey??e, noai?aiiy
aeae?eaoanii? i?iaeoeoe?? i?iaiaeeee ?acii c ?inoeoooii ?aae?aoe?eii?
iaaeeoeeie AII Oe?a?ie, Iiey?iei IAe? ii?nueeiai ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa
oa ieaaiia?ao?? ?AI, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei oeaio?ii «Oaeueo», eaai?aoi???th
i?iaeai aiae?ae? ?ea ?inoeoooo ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue oa iaaiai?thaaeenue ia A/ai?e ?aae? ?inoeoooo ?eaiiai
ainiiaea?noaa OAAI o 1996-98 ??., i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??:
«Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa ?uaiie i?iaeoeoeee aioo?aiieo aiaeiaiia» (Ee?a,
1996), ae?oaiio c’?cae? a?ae?iaeieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa Oe?a?ie (Ee?a,
1997), i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Noai ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie»
(Ee?a, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 9 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue: n?i noaoae a oeaio?aeueieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo aeaeaiiyo
Oe?a?ie oa aea? ?iaioe o aeaeyae? oac.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 113
noi??ieao ? neeaaea?oueny c anooio, oanoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
e?oa?aoo?e oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ae?iaieoeoao, a oaeiae a?iii?iaoea?a uiaei
?icaaaeaiiy oa ae?iuoaaiiy neeiaea aiioey???. Nienie oeeoiaaieo
aeaea?ae i?noeoue 103 iacae, oaeno ?ethno?iaaii 5 ?enoieaie oa 36
oaaeeoeyie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

?icae?e 1. Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e ca oaiith

O ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii iayai? e?oa?aoo?i? aeai? ii
o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/iei aeanoeainoyi ?iaeeie aiioey??e, ?o aaia?ao?/iiai
?iciianthaeaeaiiy, aiaoii??, aaiaceno, aaeaioaoe?yi aei oiia
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ? ?ioei noi?iiai a?ieia??.

Aiae?c a?ae?ia?ao?? iieacaa, ui aiioey???, ye ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ii??aiyii ??aeei aeeeeeaee caoe?eaaeai?noue niaoe?ae?no?a oaieiaiaeieo
ainiiaea?noa No?aeii? ?a?iie. A aeena?oaoe?? a iniiaiiio aeei?enoai?
ioae?eaoe?? ii ?ioeo a?eueo a?aeaeaeaieo ?aa?iiao, ia?aaaaeii c oaieei
ee?iaoii. Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue ?ia?o i?enay/aia aiioey??yi a
ia?aaeiaeo, a?aeiinii ?icaeoeo aeaaeoeueoo?e, e?a?iao — Eeoa?, ?iae??,
A?aoe??, ?oae??, aeaui iaioa aeaieo ii e?a?iao ?a?iie. Ca inoaii? ?iee
a aaaaoueio e?a?iao ??ci? aeaee aiioey??e aeei?enoiaothoue ye anoaoe/iee
ia’?eo a aeaa??oiieo eiiiiceoe?yo, yeee niiaeeaa? iac’?aeai? ei?ie,
aiaei?ino? oiui.

A iaoiio aeiaaeeo aeey i?iieneiaiai ?icaaaeaiiy ia?aia Ampullaria
glauca*, yea ia? ia o?eueee aeae?eaoani? aeanoeaino?, aea, ye c’yniaaii
iaie, ? e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/i?. Oeueiio ei?eniiio ia’?eoo aaea
i?eae?ey?oueny oaaaa c aieo niaoe?ae?no?a ?in?? (Eyieia, 1995; Onaiei,
No?aaeiaa, ?oeaaeoeei, 1996), aea aeinyaioo? iaai? oni?oe, oa ?ioeo
e?a?i ?a?iie.

Ioae?eaoe?e, i?enay/aieo a?ieia?? aiioey??e, oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy
aaciina?aaeiuei a Oe?a?i? iaeaea iaia?. ? ie?ai? oace Oaii?oaiiaa
TH.Ae., Iaai?a/aea N.?., Aeaen??iei A.?. (1997), ye? aeathoue iaiaeue
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i oeeo aaco?aaaoieo. C aiae?co iaaaaeaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaieo aeaeii, ui a aeaiee iiiaio /eiaei ieoaiue uiaei a?ioaoiieia??
aiioey???, ooieoe?iioaaiiy aiioey???aeo ainiiaea?noa caeeoathoueny
iaeaea ia ?ic?iaeaieie ? ia aena?oeaieie a iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
e?oa?aoo??.

?icae?e 2. Iaoa??ae oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue

Iaoeiai-aeine?aei? ?iaioe i?iaiaeeee i?ioyaii 1995 — 98 ??. a
niaoe?aeueieo aeaa??oiao oa aanaeiao ?eai?icie?aeieea Oe??eaainio,
?inoeoooo ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI, ae?iaie/iai oaieiaiaeiiai
?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa ia’?aeiaiiy «Ee?a?eaaini»

_______________

* — Oaeniiii?/ia aecia/aiiy iayaiiai o ian iiethnea i?iaiaeeeinue
iiethneieiaii, e.a.i.

I.?. Ai?no?aoaiei, ca ui eiio aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o iiaeyeo

i?e Ee?anuee?e OAOe-5, oaieiaiaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa «Aia?aiaea?»
Caii??cueeiai ?eaieiia?iaoo, o a?aa??? ?inoeoooo
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?aae?ieia?? AII Oe?a?ie oa eaai?aoi??? a?io?i??
Iiey?iiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo ii?nueeiai ?eaiiai
ainiiaea?noaa oa ieaaiia?ao??. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aoee ??ciia?eia?
a?oie neeiae?a aiioey??? oa ?o yeoey.

Eiioieia?/i? i?ii??e i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeeeith A.A. Ai?no?aoaiei, A.I.
Noaaei?/aiei (1984). O i’yn?, oa o ?e?? neeiae?a aecia/aee ai?no
a?ee?a, aee??a, ai?iieeneio, aee?ieo eeneio oa a?oai?i?a. Ai?iieeneioe
aecia/aee — ia aiae?caoi?? «O?oa/?-838»; i?ioa?io ca iaoiaeii Eaeueaeaey
(1975); e?i?ae?a — ca iaoiaeii Naeneaoa (1955); a?oai?i?a ca?aeii
iaoiaeo E.I. sseooeia oa ?ioeo (1993); aee?i? eeneioe ca oaoiieia??th I.
Eaeona (1975). A on?o aeine?aeao a?aoiaoaaee iniiai? ia?aiao?e
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua: oaiia?aoo?a aiaee oa iia?o?y, ?ic/eiaiee o
aiae? eenaiue, a?ae?io?i?/iee neeaae oiui.

?ici??ii-ianiaee neeaae aeine?aeaeoaaieo iiethne?a aecia/aee o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c «Iaoiaee/ieie ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie AIAe??I» (1981).

O?i?/iee neeaae /anoei o?ea aiae?coaaee ca iaoiaeeeaie A. Eaca?aanueeiai
(1985); o?aeoe?eiee neeaae caaaeueii? e?i?aeii? o?aeoe?? (aeeo/aii? ii
Aeath) oa o?aeoe?? oinoie?i?ae?a aea/aee iaoiaeii oiieioa?iai?
o?iiaoia?ao?? ia neaia?? o??ie «Oeiaaeco»; i?e ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? e?i?ae?a
ei?enooaaeenue noaiaea?oaie o??ie «Neaia» (1975).

Aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ieia?? aiioey??? i?iaiaeeee c
canoinoaaiiyi a iniiaiiio caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo iaoiaeee. Aeine?aee
i?iaiaeeee i?aeoe/ii o an?o oeiao ?ieinoae oa iayaieo oaieiaiaeieo
aiaeiei, i?eaeaoieo aeey aeaeeaaiiy a ieo aiioey??e — a?ae aeaa??oi?a ?
e?enoae?caoi??a aei oiaa?ieo ae?iaie/eo aiaeiei ia’?aeiaiiy
«Ee?a?eaaini» oa ?eaainio «Aia?aiaea?». Aoee aeine?aeaeai? iioeiaeuei?
oa e?eoe/i? aa?oi? ? ieaei? ii?iaia? oaiia?aoo?e ?icaeoeo aiioey??e,
aecia/aia iioeiaeueia u?euei?noue iinaaeee ie?aeiee?a, iaeaeioe?euei?oa
no?oeoo?a ni?aa?aeiioaiiy naieoeue ? naioe?a, neeaae ?ae?, ?aaeei
aiae?ae?, oaeaee?noue o?aaeaiiy o iiethne?a.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? iiaeeaii?, e?ea?nueei? oa ai?iiiaeueii? caeaoiino?
i’yna oa ?e?e aiioey??e aeei?enoiaoaaeenue a?e? uo?e o aeaeyae?
oano-ia’?eo?a. Iiae?e oaa?ei ia o?e a?oie ii ??ciiio ii?ii?iaieo uo??a,
a c ae?oaiai — ia a?oie ??ciiai niiaeeaaiiy ?e?e oa i’yna aiioey??e,
iaaeaa iiaeeea?noue noai?thaaoe ? aeine?aeeoe ??ci? eiia?iaoe?? aeey
aeinoia??iiai c’ynoaaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie. Ia aeaaaeoeyoue
ia?oee aeaiue aenia?eiaioo uo??a caaeaaee. A ia?oo /a?ao aeine?aeaeoaaee
?o e?ia oa ia/?ieo, noai aiaeie?eiii? nenoaie ioe?ithaaee ca ai?noii
ai?iii?a ueoiaeaeii? caeice — o?eeiaeoe?ii?io oa oe?ieneio (Neaaiia,
1981); i?aeoeoieiai? caeice — ?inoe?io, iaaeie?eiaeo caeic — aae?aiae?io
oa ei?oeeinoa?iio (Aaeaoia, 1990; Iath, 1979).

Noai ieaciaoe/ieo iaia?ai a?eo?ioeeo?a aeine?aeaeoaaee iaoiaeii
eeneioieo a?eo?ia?ai; oeaieiia aeeoaiiy ia/?iee — ii *aino (Chance,
Williams, 1956); eiioeaio?aoe?th eenith a ia/?ieiaeo ?ic/eiao — ca
aeiiiiiaith cae?eoiai ieaoeiiaiai aeaeo?iaeo. A?eie o oeaieiieo
aiiiaaiaoao aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii Eio?? (1951), eaoaeacio aeoeai?noue
anoaiiaethaaee ca iaoiaeii Aaa? a iiaeeo?eaoe?? E. Ianyiieeiai? (1953);
ai?no aaiiaeia?io aecia/aee eaei?eiao?e/iei iaoiaeii ca ai?noii a
aaiie?cao? nieyiieeneiai aaiaoeio ii N. Aaeaoianueeiio (1983).

?icae?e 3. Aeaye? iniaeeaino? a?ieia?? aiioey??? i?e ae?iuoaaii? a
oiiaao oaieeo aiae Oe?a?ie.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea a?ae?io?i?/iiai oa oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeei?a i?e
i?iaaaeaii?

aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?ia?o.

A?aeiii, ui a i?e?iaeieo oiiaao iaeiei ?c ae??oaeueieo oaeoi??a
?icaeoeo, ?iciianthaeaeaiiy, ?iciiiaeaiiy, iniaeeainoae o?c?ieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a oa ?ioeo oaeoi??a a?ieia?? iiethne?a ? a?ae?io?i?/iee ?aaeei
aiaeieie (Aa?aceia, Noa?iaiaaoia, 1988). Ia iaio aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy
a?ae?io?i?? ? aeey ?icaeoeo iiethne?a o ooo/ieo oiiaao, oei a?eueoa
oa?iaeueieo aiaeieiao. Iaeaaaeeea?oeie aeaiaioaie a?ae?io?i?/iiai
?aaeeio aeine?aeaeoaaieo aiaeiei aeyaeeenue caaaeueia i?ia?ae?caoe?y
aiaee, ?? aei?noe?noue, aiaeiaaee iieaciee aiaee (pH), ai?no Ca++, Mg++,
Fecaa., eeniaaee ?aaeei oa oaiia?aoo?a, ia ui ? aoei caa?iooi iniiaio
oaaao i?e aea/aii? aa?ioe/ieo oiia ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua i?e
ae?iuoaaii? aiioey??e.

I?ia?ae?caoe?y aiaee aeine?aeaeaieo aiaeiei a?aeiineeanue aei eaoaai??e
neaai- ? na?aaeiueii?ia?ae?ciaaieo. sse i?eeeaae, aiaea o aeine?aeieo
aanaeiao ?eai?icie?aeieea ? oaieiaiaeiiai ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa i?e
OAOe-5 oa ?eaaini? «Aia?aiaea?» a?aeiineeanue ca eeaneo?eaoe??th I.A.
Aeueie?ia (1970) aei a?ae?iea?aiiaoiiai eeano a?oie eaeueoe?th.
I?ia?ae?caoe?y aiaee a ia?oeo aoea aeaui ieae/a na?aaeiuei? ? neeaaeaea
i?ioyaii 1996-1997 ??. a?aeiia?aeii 237,6-447,3 ia/e oa 290,4-365,2
ia/e. Aiaea ?ieinoae ?eaainio «Aia?aiaea?» a?aeiineeanue aei eaoaai???
na?aaeiueii?ia?ae?ciaaieo. O aiaeiiinoa/aeueiiio eaiae? ?eaainio
eieeaaiiy i?ia?ae?caoe?? aiaee ciaoiaeeeenue o iaaeao 310,0 — 498,6
ia/e, o eioeao 345,6 — 453,3 ia/e, o aanaeiao 323,8 — 475,5 ia/e.

Iniaeeai aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? aei?noe?noue aiaee. O aiae?
aeine?aeaeaieo ?ieinoae ye o ?eai?icie?aeieeo, oae ? oaieiaiaeieo ?eaieo
ainiiaea?noaao caaaeueia aei?noe?noue aiaee o ??ci? i?nyoe? eieeaaeanue
a?ae 3,4 aei 5,9 ia-aea/e, a o a?oaei? aiia aei??aithaaea 6,7-7,5
ia-aea/e.

Na?aae eiiiiiaio?a, ui aecia/athoue aei?noe?noue aiaee aeey iiethne?a, a
oiio /ene? ? aeey aiioey??e, iaea?eueo cia/ei? aiaei?ic/eii? niieoee
eaeueoe?th, aaeaea eao?iie eaeueoe?th i?eeiathoue o/anoue o oi?ioaaii?
/a?aiaoee, aeeth/a?oueny eaeueoe?e o aeaye? iaoaaie?/i? oeeeee,
a?ae?a?a? nooo?ao ?ieue a aeaoieneeaoe?? oa a i?ioeanao ?iciiiaeaiiy.
Aac ciai?oiueiai i?eeiio ?ii?a eaeueoe?th ia iiaea a?aeaoaaoenue
oi?ioaaiiy aia??iiaeueii? iooe?, aia??iiaeueieo ca?iaee?a. Aaciina?aaei?
c?inoaiiy o?ea aia??ii?a a?aeaoaa?oueny aac ii?ooaiue eeoa i?e aeineoue
cia/i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? Ca++ a ioi/oth/iio na?aaeiaeu?.

Ai?no Ca++ o aiae? aanaei?a ?eai?icie?aeieea aeineoue cia/iee ?
aei??aithaaa i?ioyaii ethoiai-aa?aciy 1996 ?. — 74,1-42,1 ia/e;
aa?aciy-/a?aiy 1997 ?. — 38,9-65,4 ia/e, o a?oaei? (a ia??iae cei?ae?) —
78,6-87,5 ia/e. O aiae? eioe?a oa aanaei?a ?eaainio «Aia?aiaea?» o
o?aai? — aa?ani? 1998 ?. ai?no eaeueoe?th ciaoiaeeany a iaaeao 51,7-74,2
ia/e.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae Ca++ eiioeaio?aoe?y Mg++ o aiae? ia ia? oaeiai aaeeeiai
cia/aiiy aeey iiethne?a (Aa?aceia, Noa?iaiaaoia, 1988). Eiioeaio?aoe?y
Mg++ o aiae? aanaei?a ?eai?icie?aeieea ia i?ioyc? aa?aciy-eenoiiaaea
1996 ?. neeaaeaea 11,2-36,4 ia/e; aa?aciy-/a?aiy 1997 ?. — 9,9-16,0
ia/e, o a?oaei? — 34,0-37,7 ia/e, o aiae? eioe?a oa aanaei?a ?eaainio
«Aia?aiaea?» o o?aai? -aa?ani? 1998 ?. — 51,7-72,2 ia/e.

Eiioeaio?aoe?? cae?ca, ye? ia?aaeuothoue 10 ia/e, ni?aaeythoue
i?eai?/oth/ee aieea ia ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue iiethne?a (AEaaeei, 1952;
Pullen, Climo, Mansfield, 1972).

Cie?aia TH. Iieyineee (1932) aaaaea?, ui a?aeiinii iaaaeeeee ?ici??
oiieino?iiino? iooaeue coiiaeaiiee ia no?eueee iaaeinoaoi?noth
eaeueoe?th o aiae?, ne?eueee aenieei ??aiai ai?noo a i?e cae?ca ?
aoi?iiaeo eeneio. O aiae? aeine?aeieo ?ieinoae eiioeaio?aoe?? cae?ca ia
ia?aaeuoaaee 0,75 ia/e.

Aeeiai?ea aaciaiai ?aaeeio, a?iaaiieo aeaiaio?a oa i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie o
aiae? aanaei?a aeaa??aeueii? ?inoeoooo ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa o ia??iae
cei?ae? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeanue oaeeie aeaieie: caaene? ?a/iaeie — 3,0-9,5
ia/e; NI-2 — 0,002-0,02 ia/e; ia?iaiaaiaoia ieenethaai?noue — 2,3-8,2
iaI/e; a?o?iiaoia ieenethaai?noue — 5,7-20,4 ia/e; NH+4 — 0,16-2,4
iaN/e; NI-2 — 0,037-0,08 iaN/e; NI-3 — 0,25-0,45; ?I-4 — 0,02 — 0,1
ia?/e; Na+ + E+ — 51,7 — 53,5 ia/e; INI-3 — 305,1 — 341,7 ia/e; Cl- —
35,6 — 118,8 ia/e; SI—4 — 29,6 — 38,9 ia/e.

Aaciina?aaei?e aieea ia an? aeaee iiethne?a ia? aiaeiaaee iieaciee aiaee
(pH). A?ae aeoeaii? ?aaeoe?? na?aaeiaeua caeaaeeoue ??aaiue iai?iieo
i?ioean?a, ui i?io?eathoue a i?aai?ci? oaa?ei, o oiio /ene?
?ioaineai?noue iiaeeiaiiy ieie eenith oa canaithaaiiy ?ae?, a oaeiae
i?iieeiino? iie?ea?a aeey nieae. Aeey a?eueoino? iiethne?a iioeiaeueiei
? aiaeiaaee iieaciee aiaee (pH) a?ae 7,0 aei 8,0 (Aa?acieia,
Noa?iaiaaoia, 1988). O iaoeo aeine?aeao a?i ciaoiaeeany a 1996 ?. a
iaaeao 7,15-7,7, a 1997 ?. — 7,1-8,0, o 1998 ?. — 7,0-7,9.

Aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo i?ioean?a, ?ioaineaiino? aeeaeaiiy,
oaiio ?inoo oa ?icaeoeo iiethne?a ia? oaiia?aoo?a aiaee (Eaaeia, 1975;
I?inna?, A?aoi, 1967; Lambert, 1988, 1989). Aeoeai?noue ? ??no iiethne?a
i?eieiy?oueny ca oaiia?aoo?e ieae/a +11,6(N (Anoaoiaa, 1998), a i?e
i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e ia 1(N a?ae i?i?iaeueii i?eaeaoii? aeey
?nioaaiiy aei iioeiaeueii? c?inoa? oaeaee?noue oa?iaioaoeaieo ?aaeoe?e
(Schalia, Berry, 1973). Oaiia?aoo?ith aecia/athoueny no?iee aaiaoiaaiaco
oa aia??iaaiaco (Richards, 1965; Krkac, 1982). Oaiia?aoo?a aiaee o
aanaeiao ?eai?icie?aeieea, eioeao oa aanaeiao oaieiaiaeieo ainiiaea?noa
ia i?ioyc? aa?aciy 1996-1998 ??. ciaoiaeeeanue a iaaeao 15-36 (N, a o
ia??iae cei?ae? 8 — 20 (N.

Oaiia?aoo?e a aanaeiao a ia??iae cei?ae? aiioey??? ?aaeueii ia aoee
noaeeie ? eieeaaeenue a iaaeao oai?aoe/ii i?eaeaoieo aeey ?nioaaiiy
iiethne?a. I?ioa ca ia??iae naieo «oieiaeieo» i?nyoe?a 80 % ?ici?uaieo
ooo aiioey??e caaeioei a ca’yceo c ??ceei cieaeaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e aiaee
(aei 9-11i) o 1997-98 ??., ui ni?aaeyei no?aniaee aieea ia
aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaa?ei. A oie aea /an noae? oaiia?aoo?i? oiiae
aa?aioothoue e?auo cei?aeth aiioey??e. I?i oea na?ae/eoue cei?aey
neeiae?a o 1998-1999 ?ieao ia oa?iaeueieo aiaeao Caii??cueei? AAN, aea
oaiia?aoo?e aiaee o?eiaeenue iicia/ee 18-20 (N, ui caaacia/eei 80-85 %
aeaeeaaiiy neeiae?a.

Aeaeeaaiiy oaa?ei a iaai?e i??? aecia/a?oueny ? iniaeeainoyie aaciaiai
?aaeeio. Aeey aeeoaiiy ye aia??ii?a, oae ? naieo iiethne?a iaiao?aeiee
?ic/eiaiee o aiae? eenaiue. O aiioey??e ?icaeoie ?e?e a?aeaoaa?oueny
iaae aiaeith. Ine?eueee aiioey??? aeaiaeeoi?, a?ae eiioeaio?aoe??
?ic/eiaiiai o aiae? eenith caeaaeeoue /anoioa aae?aiiy iia?o?y c
aoiinoa?e. Ai?no ?ic/eiaiiai o aiae? eenith aeine?aeieo aanaei?a aoa
ni?eyoeeaee aeey aeeooy a?ae?ia?iio?a ? ciaoiaeeany a iaaeao 2,4-12,7
ia/e.

3.2. Ii?oieiai-aeieia?/i? iniaeeaino? aiioey??e

Ia’?eoii ?ia?o aoa iiethne Ampullaria glauca. Oeae aeoiaeaoeue c
o?ii?/iiai iiyno a?aeiineoueny aei ?iaeeie Ampullariidae, ?yaeo
Mesogastropoda, i?aeeeano — Pectinibranchia, eeano Gastropoda, oeio
Mollusca. Aaciina?aaeiuei ??ae Ampullaria ? aiaeai?/iei a I?aaeaii?e
Aia?eoe?, ca?aeee o? /e ?io? eiai i?aaenoaaieee caaiceeenue a ??ci?
?aa?iie Caiii? eoe?.

Aiioey??? aaaeooue aio?a?eiee niin?a aeeooy ii ?eiaeueieo ciiao
i??niiaiaeieo o?ii?/ieo aiaeiei ? a ca’yceo c oeei i?enoiniaai? ye aei
aiaeiiai, oae ? aei iia?o?yiiai aeeoaiiy. Aaaeeeaei iiiaioii ?o
ii?oieia?? ? iayai?noue aeineoue aeaeiaaeaiiai (aei 10 ni) neoiio,
ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai a e?eoe/i? iiiaioe (ia??iae aeao?oeeoo eenith),
iiethne iiaea oaeaeei ia?aoiaeeoe ia iia?o?yia aeeoaiiy. A iniiaiiio
aiaoiii-ii?oieia?/ia aoaeiaa aiioey??e a?aeiia?aea? oae?e o ?ioeo
a?aa?i/aoicya?iaeo.

Ioe?iea aeeoo?no?eeino? iieiae? aiioey??e

O?c?ieia?/ia iiaiioe?ii?noue iieiae? aecia/aeanue ca ?o
aeeoo?no?ee?noth. E?eoa??yie aoee i?eeiyo? oaiia?aoo?i? ii?iae. Aaaaoi
?ia?o c oeueiai ieoaiiy aoei aeeiiaii ia ?ea? (Oaoa?ei, 1966;
Aiae?thuaiei, Eioaiiaa, 1979), iaioa — ia i??niiaiaeieo iiethneao
(Oiaeaaa, Aieoaaa, Eaaiei, 1985).

Aa?oi? oa ieaei? oaiia?aoo?i? ii?iae aecia/aee o aiioey??e o a?oe?
iaeiiai i?nyoey ca na?aaeiuei? iane 1,28(0,04 oa 1,13(0,02 a,
a?aeiia?aeii. Aeine?aee ii aecia/aiith oaiia?aoo?ieo ii?ia?a ii/aee
i?iaiaeeoe ca oaiia?aoo?e aiaee +33(N, iinooiiai i?aeaeuoth/e
oaiia?aoo?o ia iaeei a?aaeon ia i?ioyc? aiaeeie. *a?ac eiaei? 10-15
oaeeei aeeth/aee eiii?ani? c ?icieethaa/ai aeey aa?oaaiiy aiaee. I?e
iinooiiaiio i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e aiaee a?ae +33(N aei +41(N an?
aiioey??? aoee aeea?, aeiaie? aeoeaii ia?anoaaeenue. Ii/eiath/e c +41(N
aiie noaaaee neaaiaeoeaieie, ii/aee aenoaaeyoe neoiie ia iiaa?oith
aiaee, aeae? ?o aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue i?eai?/oaaeanue. I?e i?aeaeuaii?
oaiia?aoo?e aei +45-46(N aiioey??? ao?a/aee ?ooii?noue, a i?e
i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e aiaee aei +47-48(N an? aiioey??? aeioee.

Aeine?aee ii aecia/aiith iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ieo ii?ia?a ii/aee
i?iaiaeeoe ca oaiia?aoo?e aiaee +24(N, oaeiae iinooiiai cieaeoth/e ?? ia
1(N ia i?ioyc? aiaeeie. I?e cieaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e aei +8-5(N iiethnee
ao?a/aee ?ooii?noue, a i?e +4-2(N aiie aeioee. Ia i?ioyc? aeine?aeaeaiue
oaiia?aoo?ieo ii?ia?a ai?no ?ic/eiaiiai o aiae? eenith ciaoiaeeany a
iaaeao 5,0-9,4 ia/e. Oaeei /eiii, iieacieeaie aa?oi?o oa ieaei?o
oaiia?aoo?ieo ii?ia?a aeey aiioey??e o i?ny/iiio a?oe? ? oaiia?aoo?a
aiaee +45-46(N oa +2-4(N (a?aeiia?aeii).

Aeaye? iniaeeaino? ?iciiiaeaiiy aiioey???

Ia aeeaey/enue ia iaeaea noi??/io ?noi??th aea/aiiy aiioey??e aei
oeueiai /ano ua iaia? ?aeiino? iiaeyae?a ia ie?ai? noi?iie ?o a?ieia??.
Iaaeinoaoiuei aea/ai? ieoaiiy ?o a?aeoai?aiiy, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy noaoae oa
aa?iao?iaeeoeci. Aeaye? aeine?aeieee (Onaiei, No?aaeiaa, ?oeaaeoeei,
1996) aaaaeathoue ?o aa?iao?iaeeoaie, ?io? (AEeciue aeeaioiuo, O.2 1968;
Aa?oeieia, 1970; Aoaeeeia, 1984) noiyoue ia o?e oi/oe? ci?o, ui aiie
?icae?eueiinoaoaa?. Iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue
ni?aaaaeeea?noue inoaiiuei? aeoiee. Aeey oeueiai aoee i?iaaaeai?
aeine?aee ia i?ioyc? 3 i?nyoe?a o 4-o aanaeiao: o aeaa aanaeie iinaaeeee
ii 10 iniaei ae?ii/i? noao? (na?aaeiy iana 7,0 a), o aeaa ?ioeo — ii 10
iniaei /ieia?/i? noao? (na?aaeiy iana 6.6 a). Aiioey??? iaee
aeaii?ny/iee a?e ? ii ciai?oi?o iciaeao aaea /?oei iiaeia aoei
a?ae??cieoe naieoeue a?ae naioe?a. O naieoeue /a?aiaoea iaea ie?oaeo
oi?io, e?eoa/eo c ??aiith iiaa?oiath, o naioe?a — o?ioe aeoyaiooo,
e?eoa/ea iaea iaai?aie. Ia e?iaoeue aeine?aeo iana naieoeue aeinyaea
28,4 a, naioe?a — 24,3 a. A aeine?aeieo aanaeiao ia aoei a?aei?/aii
eiioeyoe?? aeeeth/ii i?ae naieoeyie, /e i?ae naioeyie ? a?aeeeaaeaiiy
?e?e.

Anoaiiaeaiiy ?icae?eueiinoaoaaino? iinoaaeei ieoaiiy i?i aea/aiiy
?iciiiaeaiiy oeueiai ia’?eoo. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui
noaoaaic??eeie aiioey??? noathoue /ano?oa o aeaii?ny/iiio a?oe?, ia?ano
?o a?aeaoaa?oueny — /a?ac i?aoi?a oeaei? i?ney ia?oaaiiy; a?aeeeaaeaiiy
?e?e i?ioiaeeoue ia nooiaeie? iica aiaeiei na?aaeiaeuai (10-40 ni oa
aeua a?ae o??co aiaee). Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?icaeoie a?aeeeaaeaieo y?oeue a
cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y: i?e +24-26(N aeey
?icaeoeo y?oeue iio??aii 14-16 ae?a; i?e +18-20(N — 18-20 ae?a; a i?e
+10(N yeoey aeiooue. Iaaeeeoeiaa /e iaaeinoaoiy aieia?noue oaeiae
oe?aeeeaa — i?e iaaeinoaoi?e aieiaino? eeaaeea oneoa?, i?e aaeee?e —
ie?niyaa iioeiaeaeo? yeoey. Iaea?eueoa ?ioaineai?noue yeoeaeeaae?iiy
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e oaiia?aoo?? aiaee +25-30(N, iia?o?y +25(N, aieiaino?
80 %.

Anoaiiaeaiiy iniaeeainoae a?ieia?? naieoeue oa oa?aeoa?o io?eiaieo a?ae
ieo yeoeaeeaaeie aoei ae??oaii canoinoaaiiyi iaoiaeo niinoa?aaeaiue a
aeaa??oiao, aea eaaei iiaeia aoei eiia?ioaaoe ia?aiao?e oiia
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua, a i?e iio?aa? ? cai?ithaaoe naiiai iiethnea.
Aeine?aeaie anoaiiaeaii, ui ia i?ioyc? i?nyoey a?ae iaei??? naieoe?, ca
iioeiaeueieo oiia iiaeia io?eiaoe a?ae 10 aei 15 eeaaeie. Iana eeaaeie
eieeaaeanue a?ae 1,7(0,14 aei 2,9(0,15 a, a eeaaeoe? a na?aaeiueiio aoei
142,1(13,2 y?oeue (a?ae 80 aei 200), na?aaeiy iana yeoey neeaaeaea
12,63(0,95 ia, ae?aiao? y?oeue 2,52(0,12 (a?ae 1,9 aei 3,0 ii). Iana
iaei??? aiioey???, ui aeeoea c yeoey, eieeaaeanue a?ae 0,0059(0,18 aei
0,0096(0,4 a i?e ?ici??? 1-2 ii.

Ae?iuoaaiiy ie?aeiee?a aiioey??e oa iaea?aeaiiy eeaaeie

Ae?iuoaaiiy ie?aeiee?a aiioey??e ? iaeiei c aieiaieo iiiaio?a o
a?aeoai?aii? oeeo iiethne?a. A /ene? aieiaieo /eiiee?a oni?oiiai
i?iaaaeaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoe?eieo caoiae?a aeyaeeenue oaiia?aoo?a, aieea ii?e
?ieo, noaoaaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, u?euei?noue iinaaeee oa ye?noue
iinaaeeiaiai iaoa??aeo. A ia?oo /a?ao iaiao?aeii a?aei?oeoe, ui
aaaeeeaei iiiaioii aeyaeany aaeaei i?ae?a?aiee ?aoe?ii. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
iaea?eueo ia’?ii? ?, a?aeiia?aeii, aaaii? eeaaeee i?iaeoeoaaee
aiioey???, ?aoe?ii yeeo neeaaeaany c noi?o? iai/?a (ii?eaa, eaionoa) oa
e?iieae. Iiceoeai? iiiaioe a?aei?/ai? i?e aeiaeaaaii? aei ?ineeiieo
noi?oae eiia?ei?io.

Oaiia?aoo?a, ye i?aaeei, aieeaa? ia aeiaaio?eaae?noue ?ieoaaoe?eiiai
ia??iaeo — /ei aeua oaiia?aoo?a, oei oeae ia??iae ei?iooee. Aieea ii?e
?ieo ia ?ai?iaeoeoeai?noue aiioey??e aoa iiina?aaeeiaaiei, aaeaea
oaiia?aoo?a a ?ieinoyo, aea ae?iuoaaeenue aiioey???, ye i?aaeei,
i?aeo?eioaaeanue ia aeineoue aenieeo oaieiaeo ??aiyo. Aaniyi? eeaaeee,
iniaeeai o?, ui c’yaeeenue a aa?aci?, aeaee iaea?eueo aeeoo?aa ?
iiaiioe?iia iioiinoai. Aeae? aei e?ioey e?oa ? iio?i aei inai?
ia?inoaiiy iane iauaaee?a iia??ooaaeinue. Iniaeeai iino?aaeaeaea
iieiaeue, yea c‘yaeeanue ia na?o ?c aeiaoiaaeo eeaaeie, ui iia’ycaii ?c
cieaeaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e aiaee.

Nooo?aa cia/aiiy ia ye?noue ? e?euee?noue yeoeaeeaae?iiy a?ae?a?aaaa a?e
ie?aeiee?a. Niinoa??aaeanue ea?oeia iinooiiaiai ia?inoaiiy
yeoeaeeaae?iiy: ia?oa ia?oaaiiy o aiioey??e ii/eiaeinue o a?oe? 1,5-2
i?nyoe? i?e ian? 6,6-7,0 a — yeoeaeeaaeee o ieo aoee iiiaeeiieeie,
ianith aei 1a. Ii/eiath/e c iane ie?aeiee?a a?ae 8-10 aei 40 a o a?oe?
3-8 i?nyoe?a, yeoeaeeaae?iiy aoei a?eueo ?ioaineaiei ? iana eeaaeie
ia?aaeuoaaea 1 a. Oea niinoa??aaeinue aeanue i?ioyaii 10 i?nyoe?a. C
aeinyaiaiiyi iane ie?aeiee?a 44,3-65,5 a a?aeeeaaeea y?oeue iaeaea
i?eieiyeanue. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo eiiaeeoe?eieie ie?aeieeaie ?
iniaeie c ianith a?ae 10 aei 40 a.

Iaee?au? iieacieee (8,6 eeaaeie ia naieoeth) io?eiai? i?e noaoaaiio
ni?aa?aeiioaii? naieoeue aei naioe?a 1:1. A i??o ca?eueoaiiy
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy naieoeue aei naioe?a ciaiooaaeanue e?euee?noue eeaaeie:
3:1 — 4,5 eeaaeie ia naieoeth; 6:1 — 3,8 eeaaeie. I?e ?ic?iaoe?
i?iieneiai? oaoiieia?? a?aeoai?aiiy aiioey??e e?euee?noue iaoi/iiai
iiaie?a’y, ye ? ?o u?euei?noue i?e oo?eiaii? ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy. A
caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia na?aaeiaeua aenieee aeo?ae eeaaeie io?eioaaee i?e
u?eueiinoyo a?ae 50 aec./i2, a i?e iie?auaii? iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a
na?aaeiaeua (oaiia?aoo?a aiaee 25-30(N, iia?o?y 25-35(N, i?ioi/iino?
0.,5-0,8 e/n, caaeia?eueiiio aaciaiio ?aaeei?) — aei 130-220 aec/i2.

Niiniae iaea?aeaiiy eeaaeie neeiae?a, iieiae? oa ?o i?ae?iuoaaiiy

Aeey io?eiaiiy eeaaeie a?ae ie?aeiee?a oa iiaeaeueoiai aeoiaeo iieiae?
oaeineiiaeaii aeae?eueea niinia?a:

? niin?a: naieoe?, ye? iinaaeaeai? a ??ciiai ?iaeo ?ieino?,
a?aeeeaaeathoue yeoey ia ?o no?ieao. A i??o oiai, ye eaea caiiaiaiiy
no?iie, ie?aeiee?a ia?anaaeaeothoue o ae?oa? ?ieino?, iio?i o o?ao? ? o.
ae. Aeo?ae iieiae? c eeaaeie a?aeaoaa?oueny aaciina?aaeiuei o ?ieino? c
aiaeith.

?? niin?a: naieoe? a?aeeeaaeathoue yeoey ia ooo/i? noano?aoe, ye?
?ici?uai? aeua o??co aiaee ?ieino?. A iiaeaeueoiio noano?ao ia?aiinyoue
o ?io? ?ieino? c aiaeith, aea a?aeaoaa?oueny aeo?ae iieiae?.

??? niin?a: iaae eioeaie /e iaaaeeeeie aanaeiaie c aiaeith iaoyaothoue
aeaeueiao n?oeo, aea ?ici?uothoue eeaaeee, ye? ci?iathoue ca aeiiiiiaith
eaca c no?iie ?ieinoae. Iieiaeue, yea aeeoea c eeaaeie, /a?ac a?/ea
iio?aiey? o aiaeo.

O ae?iaie/eo oiiaao aaaeeeai io?eioaaoe iieiaeue iaeiaeiaiai ?ici??o oa
a iania?e e?eueeino?. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeia iino?eia aieia?noue,
i?aeo?eiea iioeiaeueii? oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y, ina?oeaiiy, ui aeanoue
ianiaee aeo?ae iieiae? c eeaaeie ia i?ioyc? aei aeaio oeaei?a.
Niinoa?aaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui iiaiee aeo?ae iieiae? c eeaaeie
a?aeaoaa?oueny ca oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y 27-33(N, aieiaino? 80 %, aeaiiiio
ina?oeaii? ia i?ioyc? aei 14 ae?a.

Aeine?aee, ye? i?iaaaeai? o 10 eioeao ?eaainio «Aia?aiaea?» caaaeueiith
ieiuath 32 i2, iieacaee, ui a?ae ie?aeiee?a i?e u?eueiino? 135-220
aec./i2 aoei iaea?aeaii 10459 eeaaeie.

I?ae?iuoaaiiy iieiae? i?iaiaeeee o oeo naieo ?ieinoyo, eoaee aiie
iio?aieee i?ney aeoiaeo c eeaaeie. Ia?o? aeine?aee c i?ae?iuoaaiiy
iieiae? i?iaiaeeee o aanaeiao ?eai?icie?aeieea ieiuath 1,0 i2, aeeaei?
aiaee 15 ni, i?ioi/iino? 0,1-0,2 e/n, ai?noo ?ic/eiaiiai o aiae? eenith
5-6 ia/e, u?eueiino? iinaaeee 400-500 aec./ i2.

Iiaeaeueo? aeine?aee aoee i?iaaaeai? o 10 eioeao, ieiuath 4,5 i2,
aeeaei? aiaee 15- 20 ni, i?ioi/iino? 0,5-0,8 e/n, ai?noo eenith o
aiae? 5-8 ia/e i?e a?eueo aenie?e u?eueiino? iinaaeee a?ae 5 aei 20 oen.
aec./i2.

Aiaeoaaee iieiaeue aea?/? ia aeiao ioaie/iei oa ?eaiei ai?ioiii,
?yneith, iiae??aiaiei eiia?ei?iii, oiui. *a?ac oeaeaeaiue-i?aoi?a o
?aoe?ii aeiaeaaaee a?aioeueiaaiee eiia?ei?i c ?ic?aooieo 0,002 a ia
iniaeio, e?iieao, eaionoo, oiui. I?ae?iuoaaee iieiaeue ia i?ioyc? aeaio
oeaei?a aei iane 0,5-0,6 a, aeo?ae noaiiaea 90 %.

?icae?e 3.7. Aiae?aey oa ??no neeiae?a aiioey??e ia ??cieo ei?iao

sse a?aeiii, ?iciiiaeaiiy iiethne?a noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cia/ieie
aia?aaoe/ieie aeo?aoaie, ye? eiiiainothoueny ca ?aooiie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeeaeaiiy. I?i cia/aiiy inoaiiueiai na?ae/eoue oi/a a oie oaeo, ui
iaaeinoaoiy aiae?aey noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny niia?eueiaiiyi noaoaaiai
aeic??aaiiy.

Oaiie o?aaeaiiy o aiioey??e aeyaeeenue caeaaeieie a?ae oaiia?aoo?e. *ei
aeua oaiia?aoo?a aiaee a ?ieino?, oei aeoeai?oa ooo i?ioiaeyoue
i?ioeane aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. Oeeee o?aaeaiiy: a?ae ii/aoeo niiaeeaaiiy
?ae? — /a?ac ia??iaee ia?ao?aaeaiiy, aei?aeaiiy ?ae?, aeae?eaiiy
aene?aiaio?a — aei ii/aoeo iiaiai aiaeoaaiiy i?e oaiia?aoo?? 25(N
neeaaea? 4 aiaeeie, i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 20-21(N — 5 aiaeei.

A?ae?a?a? naith ?ieue a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? neeiae?a ? ye?noue ?ae?.
Anoaiiaeaia ana?aei?noue aiioey??e, ieie ii?aeaeanue aiaeia ? iacaiia
?ineeii?noue, iai/?, o?oeoe, eiia?ei?i, ?eaa, i ‘yni.

??no aiioey??e caeaaeeoue ? a?ae iecee ?ioeo oaeoi??a. Anoaiiaeaii
cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy oaiio ?inoo aiioey??e i?e aiae?ae? ?o noi?ooth o
ni?aa?aeiioaii? 50:50% eiia?ei?io c ?ineeii?noth, a oie /an, ye
niiaeeaaiiy naii? eeoa ?ineeiiino? i?eai?/oaaei i?e??no iane iiethnea.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iaea ? noa?oiaa iana iiethne?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui /ei
aeua ii/aoeiaa iana, oei iaioee oaii ?inoo, oi/a e?ioeaaa iana ?o
a?eueoa. I?e aeinyaiaii? noaoaai? c??eino? oaii ?inoo aiioey??e
oiia?eueith?oueny.

A oe?eiio ae, caiaeiaoaaiiy ei?i?a o ae?iaie/eo oiiaao e?aua i?iaiaeeoe
aea?/? ia aeiao /a?ac 4-5 aiaeei a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e
na?aaeiaeua.

Ae?iuoaaiiy aiioey??e aei oiaa?ii? iane

Iio?aaa io?eiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a noaieinieo c i?iieneiaei aeoiaeii
iiethne?a o oiaa?iiio ainiiaea?noa?, iinoaaeea aeiiao i?iaaaeaiiy a?eueo
ianooaaieo aeine?ae?a. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai, aeey c’ynoaaiiy
iioeiaeueieo oiia ae?iuoaaiiy oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? aoei aeeiiaii 5 na??e
aeine?ae?a. O eiaeiiio c oeeo aeine?ae?a caeeaaeaeenue ??ci? eiia?iaoe??
ia?aiao??a aeey aeai?o c ieo iaea?eueo i?eaeaoii? aei oiaa?iiai
ae?iaieoeoaa aeieia?/ii? neooaoe??.

Ia?oa na??y aeine?ae?a i?iaiaeeeanue o 4 aanaeiao, ieiuath 1 i2 eiaeiee.
Noa?oiaa iana aiioey??e neeaaeaea 1,08 a, u?euei?noue iinaaeee 10
aec./i2, oaiia?aoo?a aiaee 19-31(N, ?ic?aooiie ei?io 0,04 a ia iniaeio,
oa?i?i ae?iuoaaiiy 70 ae?a. Oiiae na?aaeiaeua aoee caaeia?euei?. Ai?no
?ic/eiaiiai o aiae? eenith neeaaeaa — 4,4-7,1 ia/e. Ca?eueoaiiy a?iiane
a?aeaoeinue a 7,5 ?ace, na?aaeiy iana iiethnea neeaaeaea 8,15 a.

Ae?oaa na??y iaea aeaa aeoaeue-aa??aioe ? i?iaiaeeeanue o 4 aanaeiao
ieiuath 1 i2 eiaeiee. Noa?oiaa iana aiioey??e neeaaeaea 7,71 oa 5,06 a,
u?euei?noue iinaaeee a ia?oiio aa??aio? 10 aec./i2, a ae?oaiio 20
aec./i2, oaiia?aoo?a a iaio aa??aioao eieeaaeanue a?ae 18,0 aei 32,0(N,
ai?no ?ic/eiaiiai o aiae? eenith neeaaeaa 3,1-6,5 ia/e, ?ic?aooiie ei?io
0,2 a ia iniaeio. Ae?iuoaaiiy i?iaeiaaeoaaeinue i?ioyaii 68 ae?a. Iana
ia e?iaoeue aeine?aeo ca?eueoeeanue o ia?oiio aa??aio? a 1,9 oa o 2,4
?ace o ae?oaiio ? aeinyaea a?aeiia?aeii 13,0 oa 13,54 a.

O?aoy na??y aeine?ae?a i?iaiaeeeanue o 5 aanaeiao ii 200 i2 eiaeiee c
u?eueiinoyie iinaaeee aiioey??e 20, 50, 100 aec/ i2; i?e ii/aoeia?e ian?
0,4 a (i?e u?eueiino? 20, 50, 50 aec/ i2) oa 0,15; 0,18 a (i?e
u?eueiino? 50 oa 100 aec/ i2) c oa?i?iii ae?iuoaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii 112,
27, 76 ae?a oa 66, 28 ae?a. Oaiia?aoo?a aiaee eieeaaeanue a?ae 22,5 aei
29,3iN, ai?no ?ic/eiaiiai o aiae? eenith neeaaeaa 3,4-12,1 ia/e. Aeey
ii??aiyiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aoee acyo? iieacieee ia?oeo 27 ae?a
ae?iuoaaiiy. Ca oeae /an noia aeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? ii aanaeiao neeaaeaea
605,5; 659,7; 754,5; 712,0; oa 427,0 a?aaeoni-ae?a. A?aeiia?aeii aei
oeueiai na?aaeiy iana iiethne?a ii aanaeiao noaiiaeea 6,62 a; 8,63 a;
6,47 a; 5,64; 0,81 a. Iaea?aeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i caeaaei?noue
oaiio ?inoo iiethne?a a?ae oaiia?aoo?e aiaee oa iinaaeeiai? iane.

*aoaa?oa na??y aeine?ae?a i?iaiaeeeanue o 4 aanaeiao ?eai?icie?aeieea
(ieiua 1 i2, aeeaeia aiaee 50 ni, oaiia?aoo?a 24-27(N, uiaeaiia ci?ia
aiaee ia o?aoeio) o aeaio aa??aioao. A ia?oiio noa?oiaa iana iieiae?
neeaaeaea 0,49 a, u?euei?noue 2 oen. aec./i2, ai?no ?ic/eiaiiai o aiae?
eenith 2,0-4,4 ia/e, a ae?oaiio — a?aeiia?aeii 0,63 a ; 3 oen. aec./i2,
1,4-3,2 ia/e. Ca oa?i?i ae?iuoaaiiy a 50 ae?a iana neeiae?a c?inea
a?aeiia?aeii a 3 ? a 1,8 ?ace ? aeinyaea 1,49 oa 1,15 a. ?acoeueoao yaii
iaaaoeaiee, aiioey??? iaeiiaeeoe?ei?, ia aeinyaee oiaa?ii? iane,
aeieia?y iacaaeia?eueia.

I’yoa na??y aeine?ae?a a cia/i?e i??? a?aoiaoaaea iaaaoeae iiia?aaei?o.
Aeine?aee i?iaiaeeee o aeaio aanaeiao (ii 200 i2) oaieiaiaeiiai ?eaiiai
ainiiaea?noaa i?e OAOe-5, ui oaeoe/ii aoei ia?oei i?iieneiaei
ae?iuoaaiiyi aiioey??e a oiiaao Oe?a?ie. U?euei?noue iinaaeee neeiae?a a
aeine?aeao neeaaeaea 50 aec./i2 i?e noa?oia?e ian? 0,4 a. Eeniaaee
?aaeei aoa caaeia?eueiei (4,0 — 8,0 ia/e), oaiia?aoo?a aiaee 22 — 30
(N. Oa?i?i ae?iuoaaiiy 49 ae?a, i?ioi/i?noue iacia/ia — 0,1 e/n. I?e
nioneo aiaee aeeiaeaii8736 iniaei, aai 87,4 % a?ae iinaaeaeaiiai
iaoa??aeo. Caaaeueia iana io?eiaieo neeiae?a neeaaeaea 95,14 ea,
na?aaeiy iana ?o aei??aithaaea 11 a.

Aeoaethth/? aeine?aee io?eiaiiy «oiaa?ieo neeiae?a» aoee i?iaaaeai? o
aeaio aanaeiao (ii 200 i2) ?eaainio «Aia?aiaea?», aea ae?iuoaaee
aiioey??e i?e ca?eueoai?e u?eueiino? iinaaeee aei 300-400 aec./ i2 oa
i?ioi/iino? aiaee 0,8 — 1,0 e/n.

Noa?oiaa iana — 0,55-0,57 a, oaiia?aoo?a aiaee 25-30(N, ?ic/eiaiee o
aiae? eenaiue 3,0-5,0 ia/e, oa?i?i ae?iuoaaiiy — 2 i?nyoe?. Iaea?aeai?
?acoeueoaoe iaaaaeai? o oaae.1.

Oaaeeoey 1.

Ae?iuoaaiiy aiioey??e o ae?iuoaaeueieo aanaeiao ?eaainio «Aia?aiaea?»,
1998 ?.

Aa-naei Ieiua, i2 Aeaoa iinaaeee Aeaoa aeeiao U?euei?noue iinaaeee,
aec./i2 Na?aaeiy iana i?e iinaaeoe?,a Na?aaeiy iana i?e aeeia?, a
Ni?aa?aeii-oaiiy naioe?a aei naieoeue Aeo?ae, % Io?eiaii oiaa?ieo
neeiae?a, ea Aeo?aoe e/ei?io ia 1 ea i?e?inoo iane

1 200,0 10.07 17.09 400 0,57 9,81 1:3,7 90,0 606,7 1,05

2 200,0 707 17.09 300 0,55 7,48 1:4 95,9 401,5 0,82

?icae?e 4. ?ici??ii-ianiaee, o?i?/iee neeaae ? aeaye? a?io?i?/i?
aeanoeaino? i’yna oa ?e?e aiioey??e

C?inoa? e?euee?noue iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie uiaei a?io?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae
ia’?eo?a aeaaeoeueoo?e, ui iia’ycaii c iayai?noth a ieo a?ieia?/ii
aeoeaieo ?a/iaei, ye? aecia/athoue i?io?eaeoe/iee oa e?eoaaeueiee aoaeo
oeeo a?ae?ia?iio?a. Aei oaeeo oi?eaeueieo oaa?ei iaeaaeaoue ? neeiaee
aiioey???.

Aea/aiiy ?ici??ii-aaaiaiai neeaaeo aiioey??e iieacaei, ui aei oa?/iaiai
aeei?enoaiiy a?eueo caeaoi? iniaeie ii/eiath/e c iane 8-15 a oa aeua.
Iana iiae, aiiaae naiie oa naioe?a oe??? a?oie oaa?ei aei??aith? a
na?aaeiueiio 2,79, 0,66, oa 0,40 a a?aeiia?aeii. O?i?/iee neeaae aiiaae
oa iiae ia 64 % neeaaea?oueny c aiaee, ai?no a?eeo eieeaa?oueny a?ae 7
aei 10 %, e?i?ae?a a?ae 0,7 aei1,4 %. Iiaa aaeeeeo aiioey??e iaea?eueo
aaaaoa ia a?eie (10,76 %), o?aaia nenoaia, aeeth/ath/e ia/?ieo, oaeiae
ai?uo? aaaaoi a?eeo (9.21%). Aiiaaee naieoeue oa naioe?a
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/iith e?euee?noth aacacioenoeo aeno?aeoeaieo
?a/iaei (a?eueoa 14 %) oa ciee (11-13 %).

I?e iecueeiio ai?no? caaaeueieo e?i?ae?a o an?o i?aaiao neeaae ?o
o?aeoe?e oa?aeoa?eco?oueny nooo?aith ??ciiiai?oi?noth oa iayai?noth
a?ieia?/ii-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei. Iaea?eueo aaaao? ieie eeaaeee: a neeaae?
caaaeueieo e?i?ae?a a?aei?/ai? aenie? cia/aiiy oinoie?i?ae?a (42,7-45,49
%), ea?ioeii?ae?a (6,16 %), oieanoa?eio (37-49 %). E?euee?niee ai?no
ae?eiceae?a iaeneiaeueiee o nooeo eeaaeeao — 10,8 %. Na?aae aee?ieo
eeneio ia?aaaaeathoue iie?iaiane/ai?, (aei 60 % a?ae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino?), c yeeo 20 % aeieicaoao?aaiiaa oa aeieicaiaioaaiiaa. Oaeiae
? a?oai?ie A oa A.

Aeyaeaii 17 aeae?a ai?iieeneio c yeeo 8 iacai?iieo.

Iayai?noue o e?i?aeao aiioey??e oinoie?i?ae?a, ea?ioeii?ae?a oa
ae?eiceae?a aea? i?aenoaao ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe ?o a yeino? oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie
e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ii? ae??. Oea i?eiouaiiy i?aee?aneth?oueny oei,
ui aiioey??? a?aeiinyoueny aei ae?aaiuei? a?oie oaa?ei ? ?o ea?ioeii?aee
aoaeooue aeeiioaaoe caoeni? ooieoe??.

Caaaa/aiiy ?aoe?iio oinoie?i?aeaie ni?ey? ii?iae?caoe?? i?ioean?a
o?ainii?oo e?i?ae?a o e?iaiia?ao, aeoeaaoe?? ?iioiieiiiaoaioieo ee?oei,
a?aeiiaeaiith ee?oeiaeo iaia?ai oiui. Ana oea iaaoaeue aoaea i?eoaiaiia
? oa?/iaei aeiaaaeai c aiioey??e.

?icae?e 5. Aecia/aiiy caoenii? ae?? ?e?e oa i’yna neeiaea aioey??? a
oiiaao

aieeao ?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe??.

E?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/i? iiaeeeaino? i’yna oa ?e?e aiioey??? aecia/aee
aenia?eiaioaeueiei oeyoii ia ii?ii?iaieo uo?ao.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui aiaeie?eiia nenoaia ?aaaoaaea ia
aieea ?ii?coth/iai ii?ii?iaiiy a aeic? 2 A?. Aeine?aee o?eaaee 20 ae?a.

Niinoa??aaee oaeiae iioeiaeaeoth/o ae?th ia iaia?aie a?eo?ioeeo?a oa
ii?ooaiiy oeaieiiiai aeeoaiiy ia/?iee o aeine?aeaeoaaieo uo??a.

Aeiaeaaaiiy aei ?aoe?iio oaa?ei uiaeaiii ii 200 ia i’yna oa ?e?e
aiioey??e (0,1-0,2%) cieaeoaaei aeeeeeai? ?aae?aoe??th ii?ooaiiy. Oae,
a?aecia/aee i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo ai?iiio ueoiaeaeii? caeice -oe?ieneio i?e
aeiaeaaaii? aei uiaeaiiiai ?aoe?iio oaa?ei i’yna oa ?e?e neeiaea
aiioey??e, a?aeiinii cia/aiue o oaa?ei, ye? aoee ii?ii?iai?.

Niinoa??aaee noaoenoe/ii aeinoia??i? ci?ie ai?noo no?aniaiai ai?iiio
iaaeie?eiaeo caeic — ei?oeeinoa?iio ia oii? ?ii?coth/iai ii?ii?iaiiy.
Oae, a?aei?/aee cieaeaiiy ai?noo ei?oeeinoa?iio i?e aiae?ae? oaa?ei
i’ynii oa ?e?ith neeiaea aiioey??? a?aeiia?aeii c 165,84(8,844 iIieue/e
aei 141,96(1,932 iIieue/e, (?<0,05), oa c 165,84(8,844 iIieue/e aei 107,16(8,28 iIieue/e, (?<0,05), a?aeiinii oeueiai iieacieea ii?ii?iaieo oaa?ei. Oea ae noino?oueny ? ai?iiio i?aeoeoieiai? caeice. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? i?aeoaa?aeeee iaia?aiinoaa?e?coth/o ae?th niiaeeaaiiy i’yna oa ?e?e aiioey??e i?e ?ii?coth/iio ii?ii?iaii?, i?e oeueiio oaeiae iie?auo?oueny aia?aaoe/iee iaoaaie?ci a ia/?ioe?. Aoaeoeai?noue niieo/aiiy i?ioean?a ieeneaiiy c i?ioeanaie oinoi?eethaaiiy AAeO i?e oeueiio aeua, i?ae o ii?ii?iaieo oaa?ei, ? iaa?oue aeua i?ae o eiio?ie?, ui noai?th? a i?aai?ci? ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey i?enei?aiiai ?icaeoeo a?aeiiaieo i?ioean?a. Oaeei /eiii, i?iaaaeaieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie iieacaii, ui i’yni oa ?e?a aiioey??? ? oe?iieie iiaeeaieie i?iaeoeoaie, i?noyoue a?ieia?/ii aeoeai? ?a/iaeie, a?oai?ie; iathoue ?aae?ii?ioaeoi?i? aeanoeaino?. Aiie iiceoeaii aieeaathoue ia aiaeie?eiio nenoaio ? ni?eythoue ii?iae?caoe?? iai?io ?a/iaei i?aai?cio i?e ae?? ?ii?coth/iai ii?ii?iaiiy. I’yni oa ?e?a aiioey??e iathoue aaeaioiaaii? aeanoeaino? oa ni?eythoue aeoeaaoe?? a?aeiiaieo i?ioean?a o ia/?ioe? ia oii? ii?ii?iaiiy. ?icae?e 6. Aeiiii?/ia aeioe?euei?noue ?icaaaeaiiy aiioey??e a Oe?a?i?. Oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane ia i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie iai?aoeueiaothoue aaee/aci? e?eueeino? i?ae?a??oeo oa aa?y/eo aiae, iioaioe?ae yeeo aeei?enoiao?oueny aeaeaei ia iiai?noth. Aiaeieie-ioieiaeaeoaa/?, neeaei? eaiaee aoiiieo oa oaieiaeo aeaeo?inoaioe?e ? iiooaeiith ae?iaie/ith aacith aeey ?icaeoeo oaieiaiaeii? aeaaeoeueoo?e. A?aoiaoth/e ia?niaeoeai?noue oeueiai iai?yieo, a 70-80 ?iee a aea?aeaa? aoei iiaoaeiaaii 15 oaieiaiaeieo ?eaieo ainiiaea?noa, na?aae yeeo aoaeoeaii ooieoe?iioaaee naaeeiai-aanaeiia? ainiiaea?noaa, ye? aoee noai?ai? i?e Caii??cuee?e, Ee?anuee?e (OAOe-5), I?eaei?i?ianuee?e, Ie?ii?anuee?e oa Neaa'yine?e oaieiaeaeo?inoaioe?yo oa Caii??cuee?e, I?aaeaiii-Oe?a?inuee?e, *i?iiaeeuenuee?e AAN, caaaeueia ieiua aanaei?a yeeo neeaaeaea a?eueoa 65 oen. i2. I?ioa aeiiii?/ia e?eca, yeo ia?aaeeaa? ia?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueeee eiiieaen, iniaeeai iaaaoeaii iicia/eeanue ia ?iaio? aenieioaoiieia?/ieo, aea ? aenieicao?aoieo i?aei?e?inoaao, yeeie ? oe? ainiiaea?noaa. Aeniea oe?ia ia niaoe?ae?ciaai? aenieia?eeia? ?eai? ei?ie oa cia/iee ia'?i ?o aeei?enoaiiy cioneee Aea?aeeii?eaaini cai?iooe ?iaioe c ae?iuoaaiiy ei?iia, oi?ae?, eaiaeueiiai niia oa inao?iaeo a oaieiaiaeieo ?eaieo ainiiaea?noaao. Ae?iuoaaiiy ?eae a oeeo oiiaao noaei caeoeiaei. Nueiaiaei? ae?iaie/? iiooaeiino? ?o aeei?enoiaothoueny eeoa ia 10-12 % ? a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? aeey ei?ioeioa?i?iiaiai ia?ao?eioaaiiy oiaa?ii? ?eae. Ui??/ii 57,5-58,8 oen. i2 aanaei?a ia aeei?enoiaothoueny ? a?aeaoaa?oueny ?o ?oeiaoe?y. Iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii ae?iuoaaiith neeiaea aiioey??? a aanaeiao ? eioeao oaieiaiaeieo ?eaieo ainiiaea?noa "Ee?a?eaainio" oa Caii??cueeiai iae?eaieiia?iaoo aeacothoue ia o?eueee ia aeioe?euei?noue ia?ai?io?ethaaiiy ?nioth/eo aanaeiiaeo ainiiaea?noa, aea e ia iaaaeueio iio?aao noai?aiiy iiaeo iaeieai?oaei?ieeo eioeiaeo e?i?e aeey ae?iuoaaiiy neeiae?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae c ea?oiy ii aeiaoaiue a aanaeiao ia a?aee?eoiio iia?o?? iiaeia uiiaeiaioa aea?/? iaea?aeoaaoe oiaa?io i?iaeoeoe?th. O ae?iaie/eo oiiaao aoei iaea?aeaii a na?aaeiueiio c eiaeiiai i2 aanaeio a?ae 2 aei 3 ea oiaa?ieo neeiae?a na?aaeiueith ?iaeea?aeoaeueiith ianith 7-11 a oa a?eueoa. Cao?aoe ?eaiiai eiia?ei?io (?aoeaio E ???-3/2 Oe?, 8-10% ?aoe?iio) c ai?noii ne?iai i?ioa?io 14-17 % ia ae?iuoaaiiy iaeiiai e?eia?aia oiaa?ieo iiethne?a neeaaeaee 0.82-1,05 ea. I?e aecia/aii? cao?ao ?iai/iai /ano aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui aeaa ?ia?oieee iiaeooue caaacia/eoe ianeoaiaoaaiiy 40 aanaei?a caaaeueiith ieiuath 8 oen. i2, ? ae?inoeoe ca aaaaoaoe?eiee nacii 32-48 o oiaa?ieo neeiae?a oa iaea?aeaoe ia iaioa 180 ea ?e?e. Nia?aa?o?noue 1 ea oiaa?ieo aiioey??e o aeea?e aac? neeaaea? 0,35-0,42 a?i. Aa?o?noue ae?iuaii? i?iaeoeoe?? eeoa ii aeeaeo oiaa?ieo neeiaeao i?e ?? ?aae?caoe?? iaa?oue ca naiith iecueeith oe?iith (8 a?i. ca iaeei e?eia?ai) neeaaea? 256-384 oen. a?i. I?eaooie a?ae ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe?? iiaea aooe iaea?aeaiee o noi? 242,3-366,9 oen. a?i. Aeiaeaoeiai cia/i? eiooe aoaeooue iaea?aeai? i?ney aeaioiaeaiiy ?c ?e?e oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie oa i?aia?ao?a e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/iiai cia/aiiy. A E N I I A E E Caaeia?eueiee uiaei iio?aa ethaeeie a?io?i?/iee neeaae o?ea aiioey??e, aaaeeea? eiai iiaeeai? oa e?ea?nuee? aeanoeaino?, a?aeiinii eaaea i?enoinoaaiiy aei aeeooy a oiiaao oaieiaiaeieo aiaeiei, oaeaeeee oaii ?inoo, iaeicao?aoi?noue i?e ae?iuoaaii? ?iaeyoue aiioey??e ia?niaeoeaiei ia'?eoii oaieiaiaeii? aeaaeoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i?. Aa?ioe/i? oiiae oe?a?inueeeo oaieiaiaeieo ?eaieo ainiiaea?noa ?iaeono??aeueiiai oeio, ye aeiaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiyie, a oe?eiio a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai aeeooy ? i?iieneiaiai ae?iuoaaiiy aiioey??e. A?ae?io?i?/iee, aaciaee, oaiia?aoo?iee oa o?ceei-a?ae?ieia?/iee ?aaeeie caaeiaieueiythoue iniiai? aeiiai oeeo iiethne?a, caaacia/oth/e aeioe?euei?noue aaaeaiiy ia Oe?a?i? a?aeiia?aeiiai aeaaeoeueoo?iiai ainiiaea?noaa. A oiiaao Oe?a?ie aiioey??y ia? oaeaeeee oaii ?inoo: 57,2 ii (2 i?nyoe?), 69,5 ii (4 i?nyoe?); oaiia?aoo?i? ii?iae ?? ciaoiaeyoueny o iaaeao a?ae +2-5 (N aei +45-46 (N; oeae ia'?eo iiae? ?aae?coaaoe nai? aaeaioaoe?ei? iiaeeeaino? a oaieiaiaeieo ?eaieo ainiiaea?noaao. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iiethne aiioey??y ?icae?eueiinoaoaaee: naieoe? e?oii?o? ca naioe?a; noaoaaic??e?noue ianoa? o 1,5-2 i?ny/iiio a?oe?. O oaiiao ?icaeoeo y?oeue oa iieiae? cia/ia ?ieue iaeaaeeoue oaiia?aoo??. A?ae iaei??? naieoe? ca aaaaoaoe?eiee nacii iiaeia iaea?aeaoe 10-15 eeaaeie, ieiaeth/?noue ?? eieeaa?oueny a?ae 80 aei 350 y?oeue ia eeaaeeo. Aecia/aeueieie oaeoi?aie ?icaaaeaiiy aiioey??e ?: ?aoe?ii (e?iieaa, ?ynea, eiia?ei?i, ?ioa), ye?noue ? u?euei?noue iinaaeee ie?aeiee?a, ?ioaineai?noue aiaeiiai?io. *ei aeua oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y, oei ei?iooa o?eaae?noue ?ieoaaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo. Iaea?eueo iioeiaeueiee ?ai?iaeoeoeaiee a?e aiioey??e 3-8 i?nyoe?a ianith 10-40 a; ni?aa?aeiioaiiy naieoeue aei naioe?a - a?ae 1:1 aei 3:1. Iioeiaeuei? no?iee io?eiaiiy eeaaeie aiioey??e - ea?oaiue-/a?aaiue. Oaeineiiaeaii o?e niiniae io?eiaiiy iieiae? c eeaaeie, ye? aacothoueny: ia a?aeeeaaeaii? y?oeue aaciina?aaeiuei ia no?iao ?ieinoae; ia noano?aoao, ye? iio?i ia?aiinyoue o ?io? ?ieino?; ia iaoyaioo?e iaae aanaeiii aeae?, aea ?iceeaaeathoue ciyo? a ?ioeo i?noeyo eeaaeee. Ca oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y 27-33 (N, aieiaino? 80 % oa i?e aeaiiiio ina?oeaii? aeo?ae iieiae? c eeaaeie caaa?oo?oueny ca 14 ae?a. ?aeiiaiaeiaaiee ii?iiaaiee ?aaeei aiae?ae? o ae?iaie/eo oiiaao c /anoioith aea?/? ia aeiao oa ?ioa?aaeii 4-5 aiaeei, ui iaa?oioiaaii /?oeith noaieini?noth i?io?eaiiy oa?/iaiai oeeeeo, a caeaaeiino? a?ae neeaaeo ?ae? oa oaiia?aoo?e. *ei aeua inoaiiy, oei oaeaeoa o?aaeaiiy, cie?aia i?e oaiia?aoo?? 20(N aiia neeaaea? 5 aiae., i?e oaiia?aoo?? 25(N - 4 aiae. A?aei?aoeueiaai? iniiai? oaoiieia?/i? ii?iaoeae ae?iuoaaiiy aiioey??e a caeaaeiino? a?ae iniiaieo ia?aiao??a na?aaeiaeua: noa?oiaa iana - 0,4 - 0,5 a, u?euei?noue iinaaeee a?ae 50 aei 400 aec./i2, i?ioi/i?noue - 0,1-1 e/n, oa?i?i ae?iuoaaiiy - 1,5-2 i?nyoe?, aeo?ae iieiae? - 87,4-95,0 %, i?iaeoeoeai?noue neeiae?a a?ae 1,0 aei 3,0 ea/ i2. O?i?/iee neeaae o?ea oa eeaaeie y?oeue neeiae?a i?noeoue a?ae 7,0 aei 10,76 % a?eeo; 0,7-1,4 % e?i?ae?a; 11-13 % ciee; a?eueoa 14 % AA?. E?euee?noue oinoie?i?ae?a a eeaaeeao a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? aee??a neeaaea? 42,7-45,49 %; ea?ioeii?ae?a - 6,16 %, oieanoa?eio - 3,7-4,9 %, ae?eiceae?a - aei 10,8 %. A o?e? oa eeaaeeao y?oeue aeyaeaii 17 ai?iieeneio c yeeo 8 iacai?iieo; o aiiaaeao aiioey??e aeyaeai? iane/ai?, iiiiiaiane/ai? oa iie?iaiane/ai? aee?i? eeneioe, c yeeo aei 60 % iie?iaiane/aieo, na?aae ieo aei 20 % - aeieicaoao?aaiiaa oa aeieiciiaioaaiiaa, a?aei?/ai? a?oai?ie A oa A. A?io?i?/iee neeaae i'yna oa ?e?e aiioey??e aecia/a? ?o cia/ei?noue ye oe?iiiai oa?/iaiai aeae?eaoaniiai i?iaeoeoo. Onoaiiaeaia iayai?noue o neeaae? o?ea aiioey??e - e?i?ae?a, oinoie?i?ae?a, ea?ioeii?ae?a, naiii?i?a, ui cana?ae/o? ?aaeuei?noue ?o canoinoaaiiy a yeino? oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie aei neeaaeo e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/iiai oa?/oaaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i’yni oa ?e?a aiioey??e iathoue ?aae?ii?ioaeoi?i? aeanoeaino?, iaia?aiii-noaa?e?coth/ee aoaeo, iie?auothoue iaoaaie?/i? i?ioeane, ii?iae?cothoue aiaeie?eiiee noaoon oaa?ei. I?ney i?iaaaeaiiy ee?i?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue aiie iiaeooue aooe ?aeiiaiaeiaai? aeey e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/iiai oa?/oaaiiy in?a, ye? iino?aaeaeaee aiane?aeie aaa??? ia *AAN oa a?ae ue?aeeeaeo oiia aeiae?eey. Anoaiiaeaia ae?iaie/a aeioe?euei?noue ? ia?niaeoeaa ia?ai?io?ethaaiiy caoaeiaaieo, aea ia ooieoe?iioth/eo oaieiaiaeieo ?eaieo ainiiaea?noa ia ae?iuoaaiiy aiioey??e, ui aeanoue iiaeeea?noue iiaa?iooe "aei aeeooy" ?nioth/? ae?iaie/? iiooaeiino?. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a i?aeoeoe? oaieiaiaeieo ainiiaea?noa Oe?a?ie aeey oe?ieiianooaaiiai ?icaaaeaiiy oai aiioey??e, ye oe?iiiai aeae?eaoaniiai oa?/iaiai i?iaeoeoo oa iaea?aeaiiy ne?iaeie aeey ae?iaieoeoaa oe?iieo e?ea?nueei-i?io?eaeoe/ieo oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie. Io?eiai? iaoa??aee a?aee?eaathoue iia? ia?niaeoeae a ca?eueoaii? a?iiioaioe?aeo oaoi?/ieo oaieiaiaeieo aiaeiei Oe?a?ie. Iai?aoeueiaai? oaoiieia?/i? iaoa??aee uiaei ae?iuoaaiiy aiioey??e o aaoiiieo aanaeiao Ee?anueeiai ae?iaie/iai oaieiaiaeiiai ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa i?e OAOe-5 oa ?eaainio «Aia?aiaea?» Caii??cueeiai ?eaieiia?iaoo, aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ?icoe?thaaoe ia'?ie ae?iuoaaiiy oeueiai iiethnea a ?ioeo oaieiaiaeieo ?eaieo ainiiaea?noaao Oe?a?ie. NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO ?IA?O CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??: Aoaeeia A.?. I?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae aeaaeoeueoo?e ia Oe?a?i? //Oaa??enueeee iaoeiaee a?niee.-Oa?nii.-1998.-aei.7.-N. 103-108. Aoaeeia A.?., E?aaeai N.A. O?c?ieia?/ia ioe?iea iieiae? aiioey??e, ye iaeiiai c ia?niaeoeaieo ia’?eo?a aeaaeoeueoo?e // Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie - 1998. - ? 10.- N.8. Aoaeeia A.?., E?aaeai N.A., Ii?ioiye E.A., Aea?aa’yiei E.I., Ai?/aeiaa E.A. Neeiae aiioey??? ye oa?/iaa aeiaaaea c ?aae?ii?ioaeoi?ieie aeanoeainoyie // Oaa??enueeee iaoeiaee a?niee.-Oa?nii.-1998.-aei.7.-N.109-116. Aoaeeia A.?., E?aaeai N.A., Ii?ioiye E.A., Aea?aa’yiei E.I., Ai?/aeiaa E.A., Aiae-ie I.A. ?aae?icaoeni? aeanoeaino? ?e?e neeiae?a aiioey??? // Oaa??enueeee iaoeiaee a?niee.-Oa?nii.-1998.-aei.7.-N.117-123. Eaaneay O.E., Aoaeuia A.E., E?aaeai N.A., Eocueiaieiaa I.A. ?acia?ii-ianniaue ninoaa e iaeioi?ua aeioeie/aneea naienoaa aiioey?ee // Oaa??enueeee iaoeiaee a?niee.-Oa?nii.-1998.-aei.7.-N.217-223. Aoaeeia A.?. Aei ieoaiiy ?iciiiaeaiiy neeiaea aiioey??y. // ?eaia ainiiaea?noai.-1999.- ? 52-53.-N.114-118. E?aaeai N.A., Aoaeeia A.?., ?aiao/ee N.A. Ae?iuoaaiiy ie?aeiee?a aiioey??e oa iaea?aeaiiy eeaaeie.// ?eaia ainiiaea?noai.-1999.- ? 52-53.-N.118-124. Aoaeuia A.E., E?aaeai N.A. Aeaeeeaoaniua oeeoee - ia?niaeoeaiue iauaeo ?uaiie io?anee Oe?aeiu // Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoia aioo?aiieo aiaeiaiia: Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee, 8-9 ieoya?y 1996 a.-E.:-1996.-N.161. Aoaeuia A.E., E?aaeai N.A. Aiioey?ey eae aeaeeeaoaniue iauaeo aeaaeoeueoo?u a oaieiaiaeiuo aiaeiaiao Oe?aeiu // Ae?oaee c’?cae a?ae?iaeieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa Oe?a?ie: Oac. aeii.E.-1997.-O.2.-N.39. AIIOAOe?? Aoaeeia A.?. Aiioey??y ye iiaee iao?aaeeoe?eiee ia’?eo oaieiaiaeiiai ?eaieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.02.03 - ?eaieoeoai. - ?inoeooo ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI, Ee?a, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi ae?iuoaaiiy neeiaea aiioey??y, aeoiaeoey o?ii?/iiai iiyno. Aeena?oaio i?iiiio? aeei?enoaiiy iiaiai iao?aaeeoe?eiiai ia'?eoa o oaieiaiaeiiio ?eaieoeoa?. Aecia/aia i?eioeeiiaa iiaeeea?noue eoeueoeaoaaiiy aiioey??e o oaieiaiaeieo ainiiaea?noaao ?iaeono??aeueiiai oeio. Anoaiiaeai? iioeiaeuei? u?eueiino? iinaaeee ie?aeiee?a, iaoiaee iaea?aeaiiy eeaaeie oa iieiae?, i?ae?iuoaaiiy oa ae?iuoaaiiy oiaa?ii? iane, io?eiai? iia? aeai? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy i’yna oa ?e?e aiioey??e ye aeae?eaoanii? i?iaeoeoe?? oa ne?iaeie aeey aeaioiaeaiiy oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/iiai cia/aiiy. Iaea?aeaia ia?oa oiaa?ia i?iaeoeoe?y Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?ia?o i?iaaaeaiee aeiiii?/iee aiae?c, ui i?aeoaa?aeea aeioe?euei?noue eoeueoeaoaaiiy aiioey??? a Oe?a?i?. Cai?iiiiiaai? iniiai? ia?aiao?e a?aeoai?aiiy aiioey??? aoaeooue aeei?enoai? i?e ae?iuoaaii? ?? a oiiaao oaieiaiaeieo ainiiaea?noa Oe?a?ie.. Eeth/ia? neiaa: neeiae aiioey??y, a?eia? a?oie, u?euei?noue iinaaeee, oiaa?ia ae?iuoaaiiy, aiae?aey. Aoaeuia A.E. Aiioey?ey eae iao?aaeeoeeiiiue iauaeo oaieiaiaeiiai ?uaiaiaenoaa a Oe?aeia - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.02.03 - ?uaiaiaenoai. - Einoeooo ?uaiiai oicyenoaa OAAI, Eeaa, 1999. Ninoaaiui iiiaioii nia?aiaiiiai ?uaiaiaenoaa noaiiaeony aeaaeoeueoo?a, aeiey eioi?ie a iauai auionea i?iaeoeoeee n eaaeaeui aeanyoeeaoeai aic?anoaao. Eae iiaue yeaiaio oicyenoaiaaiey, iniaaiii ia Oe?aeia, aeaaeoeueoo?a eiaao aieueoie iioaioeeae aeey naiaai ?acaeoey e aieueoia eiee/anoai naiaiaeiuo yeieiae/aneeo ieo o?aaothueo naiaai caiieiaiey oeaiiuie i?iiuneiauie aeaeaie, a oii /enea eniieuecoaiuie a ie?iaie i?aeoeea. I?anoeaeiui a aeaiiii eiioaenoa ieacaeny o?iie/aneee iieethne aiioey?ey, oe?iei caaeaenoaiaaiiue a oaieiaiaeiuo oicyenoaao ?acee/iuo no?ai ie?a. Ionoonoaea iiuoa aai ?acaaaeaiey ia Oe?aeia auei cia/eoaeueiui oi?iicii oaaee/aiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe i?aniiaiaeiie eniieueciaaieai aeaaeoeueoo?u. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia eio?iaeoeoeee, iniaaiiinoyi au?aueaaiey e niiniaai ?aaeecaoeee ia Oe?aeia aiioey?ee. Aeenna?oaio i?aaeeaaaao eniieueciaaoue iiaue iao?aaeeoeeiiiue iauaeo a oaieiaiaeiii ?uaiaiaenoaa. Enneaaeiaaieyi iiaeaa?aeenue iniiaiua ia?aiao?u n?aaeu e oaoiieiaee au?aueaaiey, iaania/eaoea ?aaeecaoeeth i?iiuoeaiiie eio?iaeoeoeee aiioey?ee ia Oe?aeia. Aeaoaeueiue aiaeeoe/aneee iaci? eae aa?iiaeneiai, oae e ie?iaiai iiuoa i?iiuoeaiiie yenieoaoaoeee aeaiiiai aeaea, iicaieee ecaaaeaoue iiiaeo ioeaie, nii?iaiaeaeaaoeo anaeaiea aiioey?ee a oaieioaoie/aneea aiaeiaiu oia?aiiie ciiu. Iiaeia?aiiua iaeaieaa nia?aiaiiua acaeiinaycaiiua iaoiaeeee, aeiiieiyy iaeia ae?oaoth, iicaieeee ioaaoeoue aanue niaeo? i?iaeai eae n au?aueaaieai, oae e n ooeeecaoeeae aiioey?ee. Eco/aiea aaeioe/aneeo oneiaee n?aaeu ia/aoi n aeae?ioeiee, n ii?aaeaeaiey ieia?aeecaoeee aiaeu, aa aeanoeinoe, aiaei?iaeiiai iieacaoaey aiaeu (?I), ninoaaa e niioiioaiey aeaaiuo eiiia, eenei?iaeiiai ?aaeeia e eo noeoeannee a oneiaeyo eieaaaiee oaiia?aoo?iiai e aiaeiiai ?aaeeiia, a oaeaea noaiaie oaoiiaaiiiai caa?yciaiey. Aoi?ui aaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii ieacaeanue oaiia?aoo?a. Iiiai/eneaiiua, i?iaaaeaiiua ii oiaeo auiieiaiey aeenna?oaoeee, yenia?eiaiou iieacaee nouanoaaiioth nii?yaeaiiinoue aeae?ioeie/aneiai e oa?ie/aneiai ?aaeeiia n ianuuaieai aiaeu eenei?iaeii, n i?ioeannaie naiii/euaiey a enneaaeoaiuo aiaeiaiao, a oaeaea n oeceieiaeae naieo aiioey?ee, eo niiniaiinoueth e i?aiaeieaieth iaaaoeaiuo iiiaioia, auaeeaaieth e i?iiuoeaiiiio au?aueaaieth. Ii?oieiai-aeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe eco/aiiiai aeaea aiioey?ee eio?iaeooee?iaaiiiai a Oe?aeia, a oeaeii neacaeenue a i?aaeaeao oao ia?aiao?ia, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?iu aeey aiioey?ee, au?aueaaaiuo a oaieiaiaeiuo aiaeiaiao Aa?iiu. Ii?aaeaeaiiua ianoiua oneiaey i?ineaaeeaathony a auaeeaaiee iieiaee, a aaee/eiao aa ii?iaiauo oaiia?aoo? (aa?oiyy +45 - 46 (N e ieaeiyy - + 2 - 4 °N), a oaiia ?inoa naiie iieiaee. Onoaiiaeaiu oaeaea niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou aeieiaee ac?ineuo oi?i aiioey?ee, i?iyaeaiey iieiauo ioee/ee, ?ai?iaeoeoeeiiiua aiciiaeiinoe naiie e oae aeaeaa. A /enea aaaeiaeoeo oaeoi?ia oniaoiiai i?iiuoeaiiiai ?acaaaeaiey aiioey?ee aaaeoueie auee: oaiia?aoo?a, aeeyiea naciiia aiaea, iieiaia niioiioaiea iaoi/iiai iaoa?eaea, ieioiinoue iinaaeee e ea/anoai i?iecaiaeeoaeae. I?e ii?aaeaeaiee ieuaaiai ?aoeeiia aue ii?iaiaai aieueoie niaeo? ?aciiia?aciuo ei?iia, ec eioi?uo iioeiaeueiuie ieacaeenue e?aieaa, iaiue, eiiaeei?i. Nenoaiie iiiaiieaiiauo iiuoia auei auiieiaii 5 na?ee enneaaeiaaiee, aaea auee caeiaeaiu ?acee/iua eiiaeiaoeee eae aaaeoueo, oae e aoi?inoaiaiiuo ia?aiao?ia, eioi?ua iicaieeee auyaeoue iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuee aeey Oe?aeiu aeeaiacii iieacaoaeae e ia?ii?eyoee, iioeiaeueiue aeey iieo/aiey iaeaieueoaai auoiaea oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee aiioey?ee a Oe?aeia. A aeenna?oaoeee i?eaiaeeony oaeaea, iieo/aiiue a i?ioeanna ?aaiou ii iae, ?acia?ii-ianniaue e oeie/aneee ninoaa e iaeioi?ua aeioeie/aneea iniaaiiinoe iyna e ee?u aiioey?ee. Ii?aaeaeaiu e i?iaa?aiu a iiuoao ia e?unao caueoiua naienoaa eae ee?u, oae e iyna yoiai iieethnea a oneiaeyo aeeyiey eiiece?othuae ?aaeeaoeee, /oi e?aeia aaaeii aeey iino/a?iiaueueneie Oe?aeiu. Oaeei ia?acii, ii?aaeaeaia i?eioeeieaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue eoeueoeae?iaaiey aiioey?ee a oaieiaiaeiuo oicyenoaao eiaeono?eaeueiiai oeia. Onoaiiaeaiu iioeiaeueiua ieioiinoe iinaaeee i?iecaiaeeoaeae, iaoiaeu iieo/aiey eeaaeie e iieiaee, au?aueaaiea oiaa?iie iannu. Iieo/aiu iiaua aeaiiua ii eniieueciaaieth iyna e ee?u aiioey?ee eae i?iaeoeoeee aeaeeeaoaniiai e ea/aaii-i?ioeeaeoe/aneiai aeaenoaey. Ii ?acoeueoaoai yenia?eiaioaeueiuo ?aaio i?iaaaeai yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec, iieacaaoee oeaeaniia?aciinoue au?aueaaiey aiioey?ee a Oe?aeia. I?aaeeiaeaiu iniiaiua ia?aiao?u aini?iecaiaenoaa aiioey?ee, aaeaeaaoiua aeey nicaeaiey oaoiieiaee au?aueaaiey aa a oneiaeyo oaieiaiaeiuo oicyenoa Oe?aeiu. Iieo/aia ia?aay oiaa?iay i?iaeoeoeey. Eeth/aaua neiaa: oeeoea aiioey?ey, aic?anoiua a?oiiu, ieioiinoue iinaaeee, oiaa?iia au?aueaaiea, ei?ieaiea. Gudima B.I. Ampulyaria as untraditional object warm-water fish-farming in Ukraine - Manuscript. Thesis for a Candidate“s Degree in Agricultural Sciences, Speciality 06.02.03 - Fish-Breeding.-The Institute of fishery, the Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences (UAAS), Kyiv, 1999. The dissertation is devoted to questions of cultivation a snail ampulyaria from of torrid zone. Scientist proposes to use the new untraditional object in warm-water fish-farming. The key opportunity cultivation ampulyaria in farm of an industrial type is determined. The optimum densities of landing of the sires, methods of reception roe and fry, cultivation of commodity mass are established. The new results on use of meat and roe of ampulyaria as delicious and treatment-and-prophylactic product are obtained. The economic analysis has shown efficiency of introduction them in Ukraine. The basic parameters of reproduction ampulyaria, adequate for making technology of cultivation her in conditions warm-water farm of Ukraine are offered. The first commodity output is obtained. Key words: a snail ampulyaria, age groups, density of landing, commodity cultivation, feeding. PAGE - PAGE 18 -

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