EE?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAOEOEUeOO?E ? IENOAOeOA

OAeE 008(09)(477)

AeI?IAEO ETHAeIEEA AANEE?AIA

AIAOI?NUeEA IENOAOeOAI ssE ?NOI?EEI-EOEUeOO?IA ssAEUA

(ia iaoa??aeao Oe?a?ie ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no.)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 17.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y eoeueoo?e

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiyeaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? eoeueoo?e ?
ienoaoeoa, I?i?noa?noai eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Ea?iiaa Ethaeieea Ieaenaiae??aia, Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oai??? oa ?noi??? eoeueoo?e

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?
Aaceeoaaiei Na?a?e Aeaieeiae/, ?inoeooo ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa,
oieueeei?enoeee oa aoiieia?? ?i. I.O. ?eeuenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo e?ii

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ??iaeia ?aai Aiaoiae/, ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee
AII Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 8 c?/iy 1999 ?. i 14 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.807.02 Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa, i. Ee?a, aoe. Ui?na, 36.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa (Ee?a – 133, aoe. Ui?na,
36).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 7 a?oaeiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A.I.Caaaaea?/oe17

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Oai?aiiy, caa?aaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie eoeueoo?e ?
aieiaiei ci?noii ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano. ? nueiaiaei?, eiee Oe?a?ia noaea
ia oeyo aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa, ui
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie oa iie?oe/ieie c?ooaiiyie,
?oeioaaiiyi noa?aioei?a oa ae?iaeaiiyi iiaeo i?aeoiae?a, aecia/aiiy
iai?yi?a ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e, ?? i???ioaoe?e, i??i?eoao?a ? iaeaaaeeeaei
caaaeaiiyi. Eiai oni?oia ?ica’ycaiiy iiaeeeaa eeoa ia iniia? aea/aiiy oa
inieneaiiy iaaooiai, e?eoe/ii canai?iiai aeina?aeo, c o?aooaaiiyi
iaeoe?ii?oiai a iueiio. O ca’yceo c oeei iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino?
iaaoaathoue i?iaeaie o?einionueeiai, ?noi?e/iiai, aoiieia?/iiai oa
ienoaoeoaiciaa/iai inyaiaiiy ooaeiaeiuei-eoeueoo?ii? noa?e aeeooy
ia?iaeo, iaoe??, noni?euenoaa ye a aeaeaeiio ?noi?e/iiio ieioeiio, oae ?
a iiaee oa iia?oi?e /ane.

Aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai – ia’?eoeaia ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ia yaeua, aiii ?
iaa?ae’?iiei eiiiiiaioii eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy noni?euenoaa. Aiae?c
oaiiiaio aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa iieaco?, ui o a?o/eciyieo
eoeueoo?ieia??, o?einio??, nioe?ieia??, ienoaoeoaiciaa/eo, o
?noi?eei-aoiia?ao?/ieo i?aoeyo oea ieoaiiy iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaia.
Aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai ia aea/aeiny ye oe?e?nia yaeua, a?aeo?
eiioeaiooaeueii c??eeo i?aeoiae?a aei iiyniaiiy aaaaoueio aaaeeeaeo
iiiaio?a o eiai ?icaeoeo. I?iaeaie naiiae?yeueiiai i?ioaioaaeenue, /anoi
?icaeyaeaeeny ia ??ai? aoaeaiii? na?aeiiino?. Aiane?aeie oeueiai aei
ooaeiaeiueiai aiaoi?noaa ye i?iyao naiiae?yeueiiai o ienoaoeoa?
cae??ieeiny noaaeaiiy ye aei /iainue iaei cia/ouiai e
caaaeueiia?aeiiiai, a ioe?ithaaeiny o?eueee oa, ui aoei iacaia?a/iei
aianeii o nea?aieoeth ienoaoeoaa.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeth?oueny e oei, ui
aein? ia ?nio? niaoe?aeueieo ?ia?o, aea a ocaaaeueithaaeany ?noi??y
?icaeoeo aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa ia oa?ai? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e,
cie?aia, ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no., oi/a ? i?aoe?, ui i?noyoue oe?ii?
aeai? i?i ?icaeoie ie?aieo aeai??a ooaeiaeiueiai aiaoi?noaa. Aiaoi?nueea
ienoaoeoai ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no. ? nooo?aei aianeii a ?noi??th
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e, aiii a?ae?a?aei cia/io ?ieue o iioe?aii?
oe?a?inueei? iiae, oi?ioaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, a
ooaa?aeaeaii? aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?aeaae?a ? noaiiaeyoue iaeio c
iaeyne?aa?oeo noi??iie ?noi???.

E??i oiai, aeiaaa? iaoeiaiai ooi/iaiiy naia iiiyooy «aiaoi?nueea
ienoaoeoai», iiaeeaeaiiy eiai ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co. Ana oea ?
coiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai ye ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ia
yaeua ? ye neeaaeiaa oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – ooieoe?iioaaiiy aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa o
eiioaeno? ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no. Ine?eueee
ioiieoe an? aniaeoe oeueiai yaeua a iaeiiio aeine?aeaeaii? iaiiaeeeai,
ia?aaaaeia oaaaa iaaea?oueny ioce/iiio ? oaao?aeueiiio ye iaeiieacia?oei
aeey aeaiiai ia??iaeo.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue iiae?? ae?oai? iieiaeie
XIX no., ia??iae, a?aeiiee a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie ye iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ia
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia a ?one? Aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie “Eoeueoo?a. I?ina?oieoeoai.
Aeica?eey” I?i?noa?noaa eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie, aiia a?aeiia?aea?
e aieiaiiio i?io?eth Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e ?
ienoaoeoa.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
iaa/aeueii? aeenoeeie?ie “?noi??y oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? ooaeiaeiuei?
oai?/ino?”, yeo aeeeaaea? aeena?oaio. Aiie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o
eo?nao “Oai??y eoeueoo?e”, “?noi??y oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e”, ui
aea/a?oueny a on?o aocao e?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy: ia iniia? aiae?co iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e,
ia??iaeeee, a?o?aieo aeaea?ae, nie?ath/enue ia aeinyaiaiiy
iiia?aaeiee?a, aeine?aeeoe aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai ye oe?e?nia
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ia yaeua, inieneeoe eiai nooi?noue ? i?e?iaeo; aeyaeoe,
i?iaiae?coaaoe ? ocaaaeueieoe iniaeeaino? eiai ?icaeoeo a Oe?a?i? o
ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iinoaaeaiith iaoith aeena?oaio aecia/a? oae?
caaaeaiiy:

— aeyaeoe i??o ? oa?aeoa? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie;

— ooi/ieoe iaoeiaee ci?no iiiyooy “aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai”, ie?aneeoe
eiai iaae?, aecia/eoe i?noea ? ?ieue a aeeoo? noni?euenoaa;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe ? ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe noai, aeyaeoe oaiaeaioe??,
iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa a Oe?a?i? o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? XIX no.;

— i?inoaaeeoe ca’ycie aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa ? nenoaie oe?eueii?
ina?oe oa aeiiaoiueiai aeoiaaiiy;

— aeyaeoe aeai?iai-aeaeiao no?oeoo?o aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa oa
???a?o?th ?? eiiiiiaio?a;

— c’ynoaaoe ca’ycee aiaoi?nueeiai ? i?ioan?eiiai ienoaoeoa, aena?oeeoe
?ieue aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa o i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy i?ioan?eiiai
ienoaoeoaa a Oe?a?i? ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no.

Iaoiaeieia?/io ? oai?aoe/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeyoue caaaeuei?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeuee? i?eioeeie ia’?eoeaiino?, ?noi?ecio, nenoaiiee
i?aeo?ae ye anaa?/iee ? eia?/iee aiae?c no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a o ?o
aca?iica’yceo ? aca?iicaeaaeiino?, ui aeicaiey? aaeaeaaoii ?icaeyiooe
?noi?e/i? ?aae??.

Oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia eoeueoo?a iinoaea ye ocaaaeueiaia ae?aaeaiiy
oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo ia?iaeo, eiai na?oi?icoi?iiy, ?ae?a??, ii?ae?,
ooaeiaeiueiai ieneaiiy, iaoee e o?einio??. Aiia a?ae?a?aea ae??oaeueio
?ieue o oi?ioaaii? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeaioe/iino? oa a
iaoe?iiaeueiiio naiiooaa?aeaeaii? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. A?aeia i?noea a
oeueiio i?ioean? iaeaaeaei aiaoi?nueeiio ienoaoeoao ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX
no.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui aeaia
aeena?oaoe?y ? ia?oei eiiieaeniei ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi
aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa a Oe?a?i? aei?aaeyinueeeo /an?a. Ia?aaeyioaoe
o?aaeeoe?ei? aecia/aiiy, aaoi? ooi/ith? iaoeiaee ci?no iiiyooy
“aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai” ? ?icoi?iiy eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iiai oa?aeoa?o
oeueiai yaeua, ui ? iaeiaeine?aeaeaiei a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e.

I?iaaaeaii ?noi?e/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy, a yeiio ia iniia? a?o?aieo
iaoa??ae?a, cie?aia oaeeo, ui aia?oa aaiaeyoueny o iaoeiaee ia?a,
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, aiae?co oa ocaaaeueiaiiy aaea ?nioth/eo a
?noi?e/i?e, eoeueoo?ieia?/i?e oa ienoaoeoaiciaa/?e e?oa?aoo?? oaeo?a,
ye? aein? ?icaeyaeaeenue a ?ioiio eiioaeno?, aeine?aeaeaii ?icaeoie
aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa ye oe?e?niiai ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai yaeua –
neeaaeiai? caaaeueiieoeueoo?iiai i?ioeano a Oe?a?i? ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX
no.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o i?aeaioiaoe?
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?aoeue c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, ?noi??? eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie.
Iaoa??aee ae?oaiai ? o?aoueiai ?icae?e?a aoee aeei?enoai? aaoi?ii o
?ic?iaoe? i?ia?aie eo?no “?noi??y oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? ooaeiaeiuei?
oai?/ino?”, a oaeiae iiaeooue noaoe neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaa/aeueiiai
iin?aieea c oeueiai ae eo?no.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aoee
i?aaenoaaeai? ia ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee eaae??a o aaeoc? ienoaoeoaa ? eoeueoo?e
o na?oe? ia?aaoaeiae aeui? oa na?aaeiuei? niaoe?aeueii? ina?oe”
(Ieeiea?a, 1988 ?.), ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iiaa
eiioeaioe?y oa no/ani? i?aeoiaee a ieoaiiyo i?aeaioiaee eaae??a
eoeueoo?e” (Ee?a, 1991 ?.), ia XIX oa XX ca?oieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oa ani??aio?a Ee?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai ?inoeoooo eoeueoo?e (Ee?a, 1992 ?.), ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e
ia?aae? caa?aeoth/eo eaoaae?aie nioe?aeueii-aoiai?oa?ieo aeenoeeie?i
“Nioe?aeueii-aoiai?oa?ia ina?oa Oe?a?ie oa oeyoe ?? ?icaoaeiae” (Ee?a,
1997 ?.), a oaeiae o i?aeaioiaeai?e aaoi?ii a?ioo?? “Naiiae?yeueia
ooaeiaeiy oai?/?noue o N?N?” (Ee?a, 1989 ?.), o iaoiaee/iiio iin?aieeo
“Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeei?enoaiith aeoeaieo iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o i?aoe?aiee?a” (Aei. 2. – Ee?a, 1991 ?.), o
?ic?iaeai?e aaoi?ii “I?ia?ai? ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii?
ooaeiaeiuei? oai?/ino?” (Ee?a, 1998 ?.), o noaooyo, ui iaae?oeiaai? o
iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa (Ee?a, 1998 ?.) oa ?i.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeiny ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e
oai??? oa ?noi??? eoeueoo?e. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?, cie?aia, o aeeeaaeaii? eo?no “?noi??y
oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? ooaeiaeiuei? oai?/ino?” (aeey nooaeaio?a
niaoe?ae?caoe?e “Aeeeaaea/ oai??? oa ?noi??? eoeueoo?e” oa “Nioe?ieia
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? noa?e”) o Ee?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?
eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? coiiaeaia eia?eith aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoith ?
iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie, a oaeiae i?aaiaiiyi aaoi?a i?aaenoaaeoe ooaeiaei?
aiaoi?noai ye oe?e?nia ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ia yaeua. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny
?c Anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a ? Aeniiae?a (caaaeueiee ianya – 162
noi??iie), nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (278 iaeiaioaaiue).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O Anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??,
aecia/athoueny iaoa, caaaeaiiy, ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ie?aneththoueny eiai o?iiieia?/i? iaae?, ?ice?eaa?oueny ca’ycie
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie,
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe oa ?? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “Noai iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie” –
eaeaoueny i?i ??aaiue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie a oai??? oa ?noi???
aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa.

sse ?in?enueea, oae ? oe?a?inueea ienoaoeoaiciaanoai o?eaaeee /an ia
aeyaeyei iniaeeaiai ?ioa?ano aei i?iaeai aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa. Anth
naith oaaao aiii i?eae?eyei aea/aiith ienoaoeoaa i?ioan?eiiai,
naiiaecia/ath/enue ye caaaeueia oai??y niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ooaeiaeiuei?
oai?/ino?, a oaeiae ye ie?ai? oai??? iaaieo ?? aeae?a. C i?iaeai
?icaeoeo aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa i?ioyaii aeineoue aeiaaiai /ano
c’yaeythoueny eeoa iiiaeeiie? ?iaioe.

A e?oa?aoo?? aeiaeiaoiaaiai ia??iaeo i?eaa?oa? aei naaa oaaao i?aoey
?in?enueeiai aeine?aeieea I. Ae?ecaia, i?enay/aia ?noi??? aiaoi?nueeiai
oaao?o a ?in??, aea aaoi? aeoeaioo? ia eoeueoo?i?e i?n?? “aiaoi?a
ienoaoeoaa”, ?iaeoue ia?oo ni?iao ?ice?eoe eiai ?ieue ? cia/aiiy a
?noi??? ?in?enueeiai aeeaiieno, e?oa?aoo?e, ioceee ? oaao?o.

A ?noi??? ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, oaeoe/ii, aoa eeoa iaeei ei?ioeee ia??iae
caoiieaiiy aiaoi?nueeei ienoaoeoaii. Oea – ?aaiethoe?eia aiioa 20-o
?ie?a OO no. O ianiaoe?ae?ciaai?e, nooi aiaoi?nuee?e ae?yeueiino?
i?inoeo o?oae?aiee?a oiae? aaa/aee iiaooi?e nioe?aeueiee oaeoi?
anoaoe/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy anueiai aeeooy ?, cie?aia, ienoaoeoaa.
I?e?iaeii, ui aiaoi?nueeo ooaeiaeith oai?/?noue oiae? oaaaeii
aiae?coaaee a?aeii? ienoaoeoaiciaaoe? (A. Aaeooeinueeee, A.
I?io?ianueeee, A. Anao’?a oa ?i.), a oaeiae o?einioe, eoeueoo?ieiae,
aoiia?aoe oiui. Cie?aia, aeey ian ? oe?eaaeie iiaeyaee A. I?io?ianueeiai
ia i?e?iaeo aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa, eiai aiae?c ca’yceo oa aca?iiae??
i?ae i?ioan?eiei ienoaoeoaii ? ianiaith ooaeiaeiueith oai?/?noth.
A. Anao’?a, aeneiaethth/e naith aeoieo i?i ia?iaeia ia/aei a ienoaoeoa?,
i?iiiioaaa a?aeie?aieoe ooaeiaei? aiaoi?noai a?ae oieueeei?o. Oaeee
iiaeyae ? oe?eeii neooiei aeey i?aaeeueiiai ?icoi?iiy aiaoi?nueeiai
ienoaoeoaa oa eiai iaae.

Ii?yae ?c oeei aaoi?aie cia/ii? e?eueeino? ?aoeaic?e oa o ?yaeo
iiainoai?aieo eiioeaioe?e ianiaa ooaeiaei? aiaoi?noai ?icaeyaeaeinue oa
ioe?ithaaeinue ye ?aeaaeueiee aa??aio ienoaoeoaioai?/ino?, ui aoei
i?aenoaaith aeey eiai caaee/oaaiiy, yaiiai ia?aa?eueoaiiy ooaeiaei?o
aeinyaiaiue, ? iaaiaee, ii?iaeaeoaaei e?eoe/ia noaaeaiiy aei
i?ioan?eiiai ienoaoeoaa oa ooaeiaeiueiai i?ioan?iiae?cio acaaae?.
I?ioenoaaeaiiy aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa ienoaoeoao i?ioan?eiiio noaei
nai???aeiith oaiaeaioe??th o??? ii?e, ui iaei aeey aiaoi?nueeiai
ienoaoeoaa iaaaoeai? iane?aeee.

Ioioiaeiaiiy aiaoi?nueei? ooaeiaeiuei? oai?/ino? c aaniethoii a?eueiith
ae?yeuei?noth, ui ia iia’ycaia c iaaeie?eaie oa iaiaaeaiiyie
noni?eueiiai iiae?eo i?aoe? (aocueea niaoe?ae?caoe?y, caeaaei?noue a?ae
eiia?oe?eieo a?aeiinei oiui), i?ecaaei aei a?aeiiae a?ae oa?i?io
“aiaoi?noai”. Ca ooaeiaei?i aiaoi?noaii i?ieaoa?nueeeo ian aaea ?c
na?aaeeie 20-o ?ie?a cae??ieeanue iiaa iacaa “ooaeiaeiy
naiiae?yeuei?noue”. Aiia aoea iieeeeaia ia o?eueee i?aee?aneeoe
nioe?aeueio iaeii??aei?noue oa iania?noue i?ieaoa?nueeiai aiaoi?noaa, a
oaeiae eiai ca’ycie c ?aaiethoe?eieie iiae?yie oa ia?enenonueeith
?aeaieia??th, aea ? i?aaiaiiyi aeaeea?oaaoe ?? iiaio naiaiaeo a?ae
“cai?ia-?aiiaaiino?” i?ioan?eieo ooaeiaei?o oe?e, noeeueiaeo iai?yi?a ?,
iaa?oue oe?oa,– a?ae onyei? ?inoeooae?caoe?? ooaeiaeiueiai aeeooy.

I?ci?oa, i?ney 20-o ?ie?a, ienoaoeoaiciaanoai aaea ia ?iaeei na?eicieo
ni?ia oai?aoe/ii inieneeoe aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai, ?icaeoie ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy yeiai i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano ia?aaoaaei iica oaaaith.
O?eueee i?ioyaii inoaii?o aeanyoe??/ noi?ioaaany a?aeiia?aeiee iaoeiaee
iai?yi, ci???ioiaaiee ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ooaeiaeiueiai aiaoi?noaa a
?aaeyinueeee ia??iae, ia eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iee eiai i?iya – ooaeiaeith
naiiae?yeuei?noue. Aeoeaia aea/aiiy ?? ye nioe?aeueiiai ? ooaeiaeiueiai
yaeua ii/eia?oueny a 60-o ?ieao. Aei aiae?co ?? i?iaeai caa?ioeenue
o?einioe (A.?ai?ia, A.Ai?anyi, I.?thi?i, A.Aa?oaiia oa ?i.), a oaeiae
ienoaoeoaiciaaoe? (A.Nioi?, A.Aaneeaiei, E.?iaeueyiia, oa ?i.).

Iniiaiei i?aenoieii aea/aiiy ieoaiue ooaeiaeiuei? naiiae?yeueiino? a
oeueiio aeanyoee?oo? aoei aeciaiiy ?? a?aeiinii naiino?eiei eiiiiiaioii
eoeueoo?e, ui a?ae??ciy?oueny ye a?ae i?ioan?eiiai ienoaoeoaa, oae ?
a?ae o?aaeeoe?eii? ia?iaeii? oai?/ino?. Aaaeeeaei ?acoeueoaoii noaei
oaeiae iiaeieaiiy aoeueaa?ecaoi?nueeeo iiaeyae?a ia ooaeiaeith
naiiae?yeuei?noue ye cai?iiee i?ioan?eiiai ienoaoeoaa o iaeaooiueiio.
Aea ooiaeaiaioaeuei? ieoaiiy – nooi?noue, nioe?aeuei? ooieoe??,
caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo – ia oie /an ua ia ?icaeyaeaeenue, ui coiiaeei
caa?iaiiy aei ieo o ianooiiiio aeanyoee?oo? oaeeo aeine?aeiee?a, ye
A.Naoiiia, A.Oeoea?iai, ?.Nie?iiaa, I.Ieoaeeiaa, O.I?ieio’?a.

Aeniiaie aaaaoueio aaoi??a i?i oa, ui ooaeiaei? aiaoi?noai ia a?aei?io
a?ae i?ioan?eiiai ienoaoeoaa ia? nai?i iniiaiei i?ecia/aiiyi aeoiaaiiy
aiaoi??a, a ia ioae?ee, coiiaea o 70-o? – ia?o?e iieiaei? 80-o ?ie?a
iineeaio oaaao aei eiai iaaeaaia?/ieo i?iaeai. Na?aae cia/ii? e?eueeino?
i?aoeue oeueiai iai?yio iiaeia aeae?eeoe iiiia?ao?? TH.Nieieianueeiai oa
O.Nieiiii?ea, a yeeo ?icaeyaeathoueny ? oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy aiaoi?nueeiai
ienoaoeoaa.

O iaaeaaia?/ieo ? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo ca nai?i oa?aeoa?ii i?aoeyo
iaeiie/aii cia/iee iaoa??ae i?i ae?yeuei?noue naiiae?yeueieo eieaeoea?a
o ??cieo aeai?ao. I?ioa iaoeiaee aiae?c aaaaoueio ieoaiue iaoeea?oueny
ia iaaeinoaoith ?ic?iaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ? oai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai
aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa. Naia ia oeeo iaeiaeine?aeaeaieo aniaeoao
cina?aaeaeothoue naith oaaao iaoeiaoe? 80-o – ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a, na?aae
yeeo i?aenoieiaith i?aoeath ? iiiia?ao?y ?.Nie?iiai?, aea ii?ooo?oueny
?yae aaaeeeaeo oai?aoe/ieo ieoaiue Aeea.: Nie?iiaa A.E. Oai?ey e
iaoiaeeea i?aaiecaoeee naiiaeayoaeueiiai oai?/anoaa o?oaeyueony a
eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo: O/aa. iiniaea. – I.:
I?inaauaiea, 1983..

A?ae/ooi? i?iaaeeie a oai??? aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa ciooothoue
aeine?aeiee?a, cie?aia A.Iaca?aa, TH.Eoeeeiaa, A.Ea?a?ia, ciiao
caa?iooenue aei ieoaiue nooiino? ooaeiaeiueiai aiaoi?noaa, eiai iaae,
anoaoe/ii? nai???aeiino? ianiaeo oi?i. Iaeaeeae/a i?aeoiaeeoue aei ?o
?ica’ycaiiy TH.Eoeeeia, eio?ee aeneiaeth? neooio aeoieo i?i oa, ui
aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai ia eieae?co?oueny “o?ao?i i?inoi?ii ienoaoeoaa”
Aeea.: Eoeeeia TH.I. Eoeueoo?ieiae/aneee aniaeo oai?ee naiiaeayoaeueiiai
eneonnoaa // Ia?iaeiia oai?/anoai e nia?aiaiiinoue: Aii?inu iaoiaeieiaee
eco/aiey. – N. 34-71. ? ia? i?aai aooe na?eicii aeine?aeaeaiei
ienoaoeoaiciaaoeyie.

Iiceoeaio ?ieue o noai?aii? iiaeo eiioeaioe?e ia?iaeii? oai?/ino?
a?ae?a?aee eieaeoeai? i?aoe? oe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaoe?a Aeea.:
Nioeeaeenoe/aneay eoeueoo?a e ooaeiaeanoaaiiay aeoeaiinoue iann. – E.:
Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1984; Iaoeeiiaeueiua o?aaeeoeee e i?ioeann
eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee a noa?a ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u. – E., 1987;
Ienoaoeoai ? aoiin. Eoeueoo?ieia?/iee aniaeo. – E., 1991; Oe?a?inueea
ooaeiaeiy eoeueoo?a / Ca ?aae. ?.O. Eyoaiea. – E.: Eea?aeue, 1996.. Nai?
?icoi?iiy aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa i?iiiio? A.Iia?e/oe, yea aaaaea?, ui
aiii “aecia/a? naaa ia oi?iaeueii, a ci?noiaii – ye nioe?ieoeueoo?iee
oaiiiai a?eueiiai ia?aiiy ae?yeueiino?” Iia?e/oe A.?.
Ia?iaeii-i?ioan?iiaeuei? ca’ycee oa oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oieueeei?ieo
oi?i oai?/ino? // Oe?a?inueea ooaeiaeiy eoeueoo?a. – N. 317.. Iaeiae ie
ia iiaeaii iiaiaeeoenue c aaoi?ii o ieoaii? i?i a?aeianaiiy
ooaeiaeiueiai aiaoi?noaa aei oieueeei?ieo oi?i oai?/ino?, oi/a e
aecia?ii eiai aaaiio ?ieue o iiaoo?. Iaaiee ?ioa?an aeey ian noaiiaeoue
? aeine?aeaeaiiy TH.Iao?iaa i?i o?einionueei-anoaoe/i? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo
naiiae?yeueiiai noa’?eoa Aeea.: Iao?ia TH.A. O?einionueei-anoaoe/i?
aniaeoe ?icaeoeo naiiae?yeueiiai noa’?eoa: I?iaeaie oai???: Aao?ao. aeen
… ae-?a o?einio. iaoe. – E., 1993. , c iiaeyaeo yeiai a?i ?icaeyaea? ?
ooaeiaeith naiiae?yeuei?noue ye i?iya naiiae?yeueiiai o ienoaoeoa?.

Ioaea, iacaaaeath/e ia aeineoue cia/io e?euee?noue i?aoeue, oai?aoe/i?
ieoaiiy, ui iiaee a aecia/eoe i?aeoeeo ea??aieoeoaa ooaeiaei?i
aiaoi?noaii ye oe?ieei ? aaaaoiiai?oiei noni?eueii-ooaeiaei?i ?ooii,
aein? ua ia ae??oai? ?c iaeaaeiith /?oe?noth. Iaiaeiicia/ii
o?aeoothoueny ? nai? iiiyooy “ooaeiaei? aiaoi?noai” ? “ooaeiaeiy
naiiae?yeuei?noue”, iaae? oeeo yaeu. Aaaaoueia aeine?aeieeaie
i?aee?aneth?oueny oaeiae iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy ?noi??? aiaoi?nueeiai
ienoaoeoaa.

Caaaeueiioai?aoe/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue
o?einionuee?, eoeueoo?ieia?/i?, nioe?ieia?/i?, ienoaoeoaiciaa/? i?aoe?.
O aea/aii? o?einionueei-anoaoe/ieo aniaeo?a i?iaeaie aeena?oaio nie?aany
ia no/ani? iaoeia? eiioeaioe?? ienoaoeoaa ? ooaeiaeiuei? eoeueoo?e oaeeo
?in?enueeeo a/aieo, ye I.Eaaai, TH.Oioo-Aaaooe?i, ?.Oaeiaa?a,
E.Noieiae/, E.Eiaai oa ?i., ? oe?a?inueeeo – A.?aaiia, N.Aaceeoaaiei,
?.Eyoaiei, TH.Iao?ia, A.Oeiea?oe oa ?i.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai Oe?a?ie ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no.,
ie iaiaaa?iiny noai?eoe oe?e?nio ea?oeio aeaiiai yaeua, nenoaiaoecoaaoe
? ocaaaeueieoe oaeoe/i? aeai?, aeaoe ?i ioe?ieo, aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? ?
i?ia?aei? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae. Uia
a?aeoai?eoe ?noi?e/iee eiioaeno ? aecia/eoe /eiieee aieeao ia
aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no., iaie aoee aeei?enoai?
caaaeueii?noi?e/i? aeaea?aea (I.A?eana, I.A?ooaanueeiai, Ae.Aei?ioaiea,
I.Iieiinueei?-Aaneeaiei, I.Nai/eoeia oa ?i.) oa i?aoe? c ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e (?.Ia??iea, Ae.Aioiiiae/a, ?.E?ei’yeaae/a oa
?i.).

O?niee ca’ycie ?icaeoeo aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa ? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?
niiioeaa caa?iooenue aei aeaea?ae, ui aena?oeththoue coneeey
aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee o oe?e aaeoc? Aeea.: Ai?enaiei A.E. Ai?ioueaa
aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee ca ia?iaeio ina?oo ia Oe?a?i? a 60-90 ?ieao XIX no. –
E., 1980; Iaco?eaae/ I.?. Aecia/i? oe?a?inuee? iaaeaaiae — ia?iaei?
i?ina?oeoae?. O.Ae. Ae/aanueea oa ?o niiaeaeaeieee. – E., 1963.. Cia/io
oaaao aeine?aeieee i?eae?eythoue iicaoe?euei?e ina?o? aei?ineeo –
iaae?eueiei oeieai, ae?yeueiino? a?iiaaenueeeo
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e o i?aeianaii? ienueiaiiino?,
caaaeueii? eoeueoo?e o?oaeyueo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa ye oe?e?niiai yaeua aeiaaaei
aea/aiiy i?aoeue c ?noi??? ie?aieo aeae?a ienoaoeoa, o yeeo o??th /e
?ioith i??ith ?icaeyaeaeeny oe? ieoaiiy. Aena?oethth/e ioce/i? oi?ie
ooaeiaeiueiai aiaoi?noaa, ie caa?ioeeny aei i?aoeue c ?noi??? ioceee
oaeeo aaoi??a, ye A.Aa?a?inueeee, A.?oaeieoeueeee, E.A?o?iiae/,
I.Ai?ae?e/oe, I.Caaaeeaae/, O.Oaooa?, O.Aoeao oa ?i., oi/a aeine?aeieee
e ia ?icaeyaeathoue aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai ye naiino?eia yaeua, a ye
/anoeo caaaeueiiai ioce/iiai i?ioeano, ui c?a?aea iaaio ?ieue o
noaiiaeaii? oe?a?inueei? i?ioan?eii? ioceee Aeea.: Aa?a?inueeee A.
Ioceea // ?noi??y oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e /Ca caa. ?aae. ?. E?ei’yeaae/a.
– E.: Eea?aeue, 1994. – N.621 – 648; ?oaeieoeueeee A. Oe?a?inueea
ioceea: ?noi?eei-e?eoe/iee iaeyae. – Ithioai: Aei?i?iaa oaeey, 1963;
AEea? noi??iee oe?a?inueei? ioceee /A?aei. ?aae. A.Ae. Aeiaaeaiei.
Oii?yae. E.A. A?oeiiae/, O.A. Oaooa?. – E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1965;
?noi??y oe?a?inueei? ioceee: A 6 o. – O.2. Ae?oaa iieiaeia XIX no.
/A?aei. ?aae. O.I. Aoeao. – E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1989. . Aiaeii/an aaoi?e
ocaaaeueieee oe?iiee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae c ?noi??? ioce/iiai aeeooy
Oe?a?ie.

O aea/aii? aiaoi?nueeiai oaao?aeueiiai ienoaoeoaa aeena?oaio nie?aany ia
i?aoe? c ?noi??? oaao?o – Ae.Aioiiiae/a, N.*a?iaoeueeiai, I.Een?ey,
A.?iiaieoeueeiai, I.Eaceie?iaa, I.Eineiaiea oa ?i. Aeey iaoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eioeeiiai aaaeeeaith ? aeoiea Ae.Aioiiiae/a, ?
N.*a?iaoeueeiai i?i aiaoi?nueeee oaao? ye ii/aoie ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai
oaao?o Aeea.: Aioiiiae/ Ae. O?enoa ?ie?a oe?a?inueeiai oaao?o. 1619 –
1919. – I?aaa, 1925; *a?iaoeueeee N. Oaao? // ?noi??y oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e / Ca caa. ?aae. ?. E?ei’yeaae/a. – E.: Eea?aeue, 1994. .
Iaea?eueoee iaoeiaee ?ioa?an aeey aeena?oaioa noaiiaeoue i?aoey
I.Eaceie?iaa, o ye?e aaoi? aeine?aeaeo? naia aiaoi?nueeee oaao? Aeea.:
Eacei??ia I.A. Oe?a?inueeee aiaoi?nueeee oaao? (aeiaeiaoiaaee ia??iae).—
E., 1965..

Cia/ia iaoeiaa e?oa?aoo?a i?enay/aia i?iaeaiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e O?O no., oi/ o i?e iaeaea ia aena?oeth?oueny aiaoi?nueea
e?oa?aoo?ia oai?/?noue, i?ioa ?ice?eaa?oueny eia?ea eoeueoo?ioai?/eo
i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo.

Aea/ath/e ooaeiaei? aiaoi?noai ye aeaiaio iianyeaeaiiiai aeeooy ??cieo
aa?noa ianaeaiiy, ie caa?ioeeny aei oe?ieiai eiea ?noi?e/ieo i?aoeue –
niiaaae?a no/aniee?a, iaoa??ae?a oiai/anii? ia??iaee/ii? i?ane,
a?ia?ao?/ieo iiiia?ao?e (I.Aeo?ee?ia, E.Niee?ei, A.Aey/aiea,
?.A?aiae?na, I.Aaaeoe?ia oiui).

Aeaea?aeiciaa/o iniiao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue
a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe: io?oe?ei? iaeace, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy, aeiiia?aei?,
?a?no?e, i?eaooeiai-aeo?aoi? eieae, a oaeiae oaao?aeuei? ao?o? oa
eiioea?oi? i?ia?aie, ui caa??aathoueny a a?o?ainoiaeuao, iocayo oa
a?ae?ioaeao Oe?a?ie, cie?aia, o Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio
a?o?a? Oe?a?ie, Ee?anueeiio i?nueeiio a?o?a?, A?o?a?-ioca? e?oa?aoo?e ?
ienoaoeoaa Oe?a?ie, Aea?aeaaiiio ioca? oaao?aeueiiai, ioce/iiai ?
e?iiienoaoeoaa Oe?a?ie, o Iaoe?iiaeuei?e a?ae?ioaoe? AI Oe?a?ie,
Aea?aeaai?e ia?eaiaionuee?e a?ae?ioaoe? oiui.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e – “Aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai ye oaiiiai eoeueoo?e” –
oai?aoe/iee. A?i neeaaea?oueny c aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a.

Ia?oee i?ae?icae?e aena?oeth? iaoeiaee ci?no iiiyooy “aiaoi?nueea
ienoaoeoai”. A iueiio iiaea?oueny ?icai?iooee aoeiieia?/iee aiae?c ne?a
“aiaoi?”, “aiaoi?noai”, /iai aein? a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ia ?nioaaei.
Aeaai? iioiaeaeaiiy oeeo ne?a, ia ui aeaco? “Aoeiieia?/iee neiaiee
oe?a?inueei? iiae”, i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny e ?.N?aciaanueeei, aeaeaoiei
oe?a?inueeei ? ?in?enueeei o?eieiaii–neaa?noii XIX no., o eiai aaeee?e
i?aoe? “Neiaa?ue ?onneaai ycuea eieaeiaai e ia?iaeiaai ii ae?aaieiu
iaiyoieeaiu”. Neiaa “ethaeoaeue – amator” a?i aeaoo? XI no.,
iineeath/enue ia aeaaith iai’yoeo “Iaiaeaeou Aio?ioa ii ni. XI a. e. 17.
Aine?anaineaai Iiai?a?onaeeineaai iii.” (oiaoi iiianoe?y) N?aciaaneee
E.E. Iaoa?eaeu aeey Neiaa?y ae?aaia?onneiai ycuea: A 3 o. – O. 1. –
N.-Iaoa?ao?a, 1893. – N. 33; O. 2. – 1895. – N. 82., aea ?icaeyaea? ?o o
cia/aii? “ethaeoe, aooe noeeueiei” aei aoaeue-/iai. Aeena?oaioii
caeo/aii ??ci? oeoia/aiiy ?c aaaaoueio aeia?aeeiaeo aeaeaiue, ? ia oe?e
iniia? aecia/aii iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiiyoue “aiaoi?”, “aiaoi?noai”.
Aoeiieia?/iee aiae?c aeaieo oa?i?i?a aea? iiaeeea?noue iaoia?aaeaeaii
i?ae?eoe aei iaoeiaiai aecia/aiiy ci?noo aeine?aeaeoaaiiai yaeua,
anoaiiaeoe eaoaai??aeueio /?oe?noue, oei a?eueoa, ui ?nio? iaaia
?ica?aei?noue o ?icoi?ii? oeueiai yaeua, yea caeaaia iin?aeaei iaeaaeia
i?noea a nenoai? eoeueoo?e.

O ieoaii? i?i /an aeieeiaiiy ooaeiaeiueiai aiaoi?noaa aeena?oaio
iiae?ey? iiaeyaee a?aeiieo iaoeiaoe?a o oe?e aaeoc? – O.I?ieio’?aa,
?.Nie?iiai? oa TH.Eoeeeiaa, ye? noaa?aeaeothoue, ui, ii/eiath/e c aiioe
noni?eueiiai iiae?eo i?aoe?, ooaeiaei? aeeooy iiae?eeeiny ia ooaeiaei?
ae?iaieoeoai ? ooaeiaei? niiaeeaaiiy, a ooaeiaeiy ae?yeuei?noue – ia
i?ioan?eio e iai?ioan?eio, oiaoi aiaoi?nueeo. Naia c oeueiai ia??iaeo
aa?a na?e ii/aoie aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai. Aeae?eaiiy a
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ?iaeea?aea i?inoi?o aeey a?eueii? oai?/i?
ae?yeueiino?, aeey ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?, ?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? –
?noi?e/ia caaithaaiiy eoeueoo?e ? oeea?e?caoe??. Aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai,
ia aeoieo TH.Eoeeeiaa, – nioe?aeueiee ? eoeueoo?iee ei?aeyo ienoaoeoaa
i?ioan?eiiai. I?ioan?iiae?ci ? aiaoi?noai, iaiao?aeiei /eiii
aeiiiaithth/e iaeei iaeiiai, neeaaeathoue aeaa iiethne iaiaaeaiiai
i?eaeaniaiiy ae?yeueiino?, caniiaaii? ia noni?eueiiio iiae?e? i?aoe?
Aeea.: Eoeeeia TH.I. Eoeueoo?ieiae/aneee aniaeo oai?ee naiiaeayoaeueiiai
eneonnoaa // Ia?iaeiia oai?/anoai e nia?aiaiiinoue: Aii?inu iaoiaeieiaee
eco/aiey. – I.: IEE eoeueoo?u, 1982. – N. 59. .

?aaeueiee nain ? cia/aiiy aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa aecia/athoueny
eiie?aoieie oe?eyie oa onoaiiaeaie o??? nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? i?aeoeee, a
nenoai? yei? aiii ooieoe?iio?. ? ye oaea, aiii i?noeoue a nia? ca?iaeie
oi?aa?naeueieo a?aeiinei i?ae ethaeeiith ? eoeueoo?ith.

Aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai ?icaeaaeiny ia?aeaeueii c i?ioan?eiei, c iaeiiai
aieo, ? oieueeei?ii – c ?ioiai. Aiii iaeaaeeoue aei ia?iaeii?
ooaeiaeiuei? oai?/ino?, aea, ye ? o oieueeei??, noa’?eoii ooaeiaeiuei?
ae?yeueiino? ? ia i?ioan?iiae, a ethaeeia, ui oai?eoue aacei?eneeai,
oiaoi o a?eueiee /an ? ia io?eio? ca oea iaoa??aeueieo aeiaai?iae. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae oieueeei?o aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai ? iao?aaeeoe?eiith
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iith oi?iith ia?iaeii? oai?/ino?. Iaei??th ?c
aieiaieo iniaeeainoae oieueeei?o ? eieaeoeaiee oa?aeoa? oai?/ino?. O
noa?? oieueeei?ii? eoeueoo?e iaa?oue aaoi?nueeee oa?? i?aeii?yaeeiaaiee
o?aaeeoe?? ye o ci?no?, oae ? a noee?, oi?iao, caniaao ae?aciino?.

O i?ioean? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa ethaeeia oi?io?oueny ye ?iaeea?ae, ??
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e na?aeiiino? ia? a?aeiia?aeaoe iaaia nioe?ieoeueoo?ia
oi?ia ooaeiaeiuei? ae?yeueiino?. Oieueeei?i? oi?ie noathoue o?nieie aeey
ia? ? aiia ooea? aeey naaa iiaeo – oi?i ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
naiiae?aaeaiiy. Ca?iaeaeoth/enue o ae?? naiiai aeeooy, aiaoi?nueea
ienoaoeoai nai?th aa?o?aeith oyaiaoueny aei ienoaoeoaa “ina?/aiiai”, a
ei??iiyi a?inoa? a iianyeaeaiia aeeooy, i?enoiniaoth/enue aei iiaooo,
eiai i?aeoe/ieo aeiia.

sseui oieueeei? nai ? aaciina?aaeiuei iiaooiaith (aioo??oiueiaeeoo?aith)
eoeueoo?ith, oi aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai – i?iaeoeo niaoe?ae?ciaaii?
aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e. Aiii ia? oe?ieee ae?aiacii aeya?a – a?ae iiaooiai?
ooaeiaeiuei? oai?/ino? aei aenieiai ??aiy anoaoe/ii niaoe?ae?ciaaiiai
ienoaoeoaa.

Aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai ooieoe?iio? o noa?? naiiae?yeueiiai (o oe?ieiio
o?einionueeiio ?icoi?ii? oeueiai neiaa). O?einionueeo eaoaai??th
“naiiae?yeuei?noue” aec-ia/athoue ye aioo??oiuei aeaoa?i?iiaaio
ae?yeuei?noue, oiaoi ae?yeuei?noue, ui ia iaa’yco?oueny ciai?, a
coiiaeth?oueny aioo??oi?ie iio?aaaie, ?ioa?anaie, aaaeaiiyie ?iaeea?aea.
Naiiae?yeuei?noue – oea can?a a?eueiiai ? ia?aaeaiaioiaaiiai aeyao
iniaenoino?, aiia ? oiiaith ? ?aaeuei?noth ?icaeoeo ethaeeie. Oea
ia’?eoeaia aeai?noue, i?e/iio e iaeia c iaeaeueo oe?iiinoae, ye aeey
iniae, oae ? aeey noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio.

Aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai – oea yaeua eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ia, iaa?ae’?iia
neeaaeiaa /anoeia eoeueoo?e iaaiiai noni?euenoaa, iaaiiai eeano, iaaiiai
nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua. Ia ci?ithth/enue nooi?nii, a eiaeio
?noi?e/io aeiao, a eiaeiiio noni?euenoa?, aiii ia? nai? iniaeeaino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy, nai? oi?ie aeyao, aeai?iai-aeaeiaee neeaae.

Aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai – yaeua ia o?eueee ooaeiaei?, a ia?o ca ana
nioe?ieoeueoo?ia, eio?a ooieoe?iio? ye yaeua iaaiiai nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai
na?aaeiaeua (aai iaa?oue i?e?ina?aaeiaeua), ui ?nio? aeey i?aaenoaaiee?a
oeueiai na?aaeiaeua ye can?a naiiae?aaeaiiy, naii?aae?caoe?? ?
ni?eeoaaiiy. Aiii /?oei a?aeie?aieaia iaaieie eieaeueii-/aniaeie
iaaeaie.

Aiaoi?noai iaeaaeeoue aei noa?e aeica?eey. Aeica?eey – iaeei ?c
aaaeeeaeo iieaciee?a eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy noni?euenoaa, eiai ?icoi?thoue
ye nenoaio eiie?aoieo eoeueoo?ieo oi?i. Iaei??th ?c oaeeo oi?i ? ?
ooaeiaei? aiaoi?noai. Aeica?eey oa?aeoa?eco? nioe?ieoeueoo?io
?aaeuei?noue ye i?iya noni?eueii-aeiiii?/iiai eaaeo a eiie?aoi?e
iianyeaeaii?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeae ? nioe?aeueieo a?oi. Oa?aeoa?
aeica?eey a?aeaeaa? oiiae aeeooy ethaeae, ?o aoi?/io, eeaniao aai
noaiiao i?eiaeaaei?noue, ??aaiue nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa.

Caaeiaieaiiy aeooiaieo (eoeueoo?ieo) iio?aa cae?enith?oueny ia?aaaaeii
i?ae /an aeica?eey, aea ethaeeia a?eueii aeyaey? naaa ye iniaeno?noue,
iae?ath/e aeaee ae?yeueiino? o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei nai?o iaoee?a oa
?ioa?an?a. O naith /a?ao, nioe?aeueia cia/ei?noue ienoaoeoaa c?inoa?,
eiee aiii noa? iaa?ae’?iiei eiiiiiaioii eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy
noni?euenoaa. ? a oeueiio aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai ? iacai?iiei.

Caeeoa?oueny e aein? noia?a/eeaei ieoaiiy i?i ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
ooaeiaeiueiai aiaoi?noaa ? ooaeiaeiuei? naiiae?yeueiino? (yeui ?icoi?oe
?? ia a oe?ieiio o?einionueeiio cia/aii?), aecia/aiiy yeeo aoei
coiiaeaii ia?aaaaeii i?aeoeeith ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie. Iei?, o iia?e
nioe?ieoeueoo?i?e neooaoe?? ia?aioe?iththoueny aaaaoi oaeo?a ? yaeu
eoeueoo?ii? noa?e ae?yeueiino?, ? oea i?e?iaeii.

Aeena?oaio ia iiaiaeaeo?oueny c aaoi?aie, ye? aaaaeathoue ooaeiaei?
aiaoi?noai yaeuai aoae/ei, i?ae ooaeiaeiy naiiae?yeuei?noue, ? oei
caiaeyoue eiai aei ??aiy “aeiiaoi?o” oi?i ooaeiaeiuei? naiiae?yeueiino?.
I/aaeaeii, oaeee iiaeyae ii?iaeaeaiee aeayeith ?aeaae?caoe??th
ooaeiaeiuei? naiiae?yeueiino?, aeoi???th caoiieaiiy aeinyaiaiiyie
nioe?ae?cio. A oeueiio ieoaii? ia?aeiieea?oith ? oi/ea ci?o O.I?ieio’?aa
? TH.Nieieianueeiai, ye? iia’ycothoue aeieeiaiiy ooaeiaeiuei?
naiiae?yeueiino? c ooai?aiiyi ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae, aaaaeath/e
ooaeiaeith naiiae?yeuei?noue ii?iaeaeaiiyi nioe?ae?noe/ii? nenoaie.
Iiaiaeaeoth/enue ?c oeeie aaoi?aie, ie aaaaea?ii, ui o ni?aa?aeiioaii?
iiiyoue “ooaeiaei? aiaoi?noai” ? “ooaeiaeiy naiiae?yeuei?noue” oe?oei ?
“ooaeiaei? aiaoi?noai”, a “ooaeiaeiy naiiae?yeuei?noue” – oea
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iee i?iya ooaeiaeiueiai aiaoi?noaa a ?aaeyinueeee
ia??iae.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaea?oueny ?ieue ooaeiaeiueiai aiaoi?noaa o
i?ioean? aoiai?caoe?? iniae.

Noni?eueia iio?aaa a ooaeiaeiueiio aiaoi?noa?, yaeu? aoiai?noe/iiio ca
nai?th i?e?iaeith, aoea i/aaeaeiith, i?ioa oe?ii?noue eiai iiaiith
i??ith ia ona?aeiiethaaeanue, oiio aiii ia caaaeaee i?aeo?eioaaeinue
noni?euenoaii. O?eueee a ia??iaee aeaiie?aoe/ieo c?ooaiue ?ioa?an
noni?euenoaa aei i?iaeai iai?ioan?eii? ooaeiaeiuei? oai?/ino? ciiao
c?inoa?, ai naia a oeae /an aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai iaaoaa? i?aeianaiiy ?
ni?ey? caaaeueiiio ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e noni?euenoaa, ?? aoiai?noe/i?e
ni?yiiaaiino?. A?eueoa oiai, ?icea?o ooaeiaeiueiai aiaoi?noaa ? aoa
aeyaii aeaiie?aoe/ieo i?ioean?a.

Aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai ia? naiiae?yeueiee oa?aeoa?. A ethaeeia
naiiae?yeueia, ia aeoieo TH.Iao?iaa, “iaoiiaeth?, a ia o?eueee
iaoiiaeth?oueny, aecia/a?, a ia o?eueee aecia/a?oueny, noaaeoue o
caeaaei?noue a?ae naaa i?e?iaeii-noni?euei? i?ioeane, a ia o?eueee
ia?aaeeaa? naith caeaaei?noue a?ae ieo. O oae?e yeino? ethaeeia iiaa,
ae?yeueia, aeoeaia. A ?? niinia? aeeooy, o ae?iaieoeoa?, eoeueoo??,
o?einionueei-ooaeiaei?o ?aoeaen?yo a?aee?eaa? naaa ae?enia nooi?noue
naiiae?yeueiino?” Iao?ia TH.A. O?einionueei-anoaoe/i? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo
naiiae?yeueiiai noa’?eoa: I?iaeaie oai???: Aao. aeen. … ae-?a o?einio.
iaoe. – E., 1993. – N. 5.. ?icaeyaeath/e oaiiiai naiiae?yeueiiai o noa??
ienoaoeoaa, ia?ii ia oaac? aeooae?caoe?th iio?aae ethaeeie oae
noaaeoenue aei ia’?eoa nai?o ?ioa?an?a ? caoiieaiue (aac oeueiai
aiaoi?noai iaiiaeeeaa), uia oai?/ee i?aeo?ae aei iueiai ia?aaaaeaa iaae
?ai?iaeoeoeaiei.

?iaeea?ae ?aae?co? naith anoaoe/io iio?aao, caeaoi?noue aei noai?aiiy
i?ae?aniiai o iaaeao ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iiaeeeainoae ? cania?a ?oiuei?
aeooae?caoe??. Oae? ae?? ca nai?th i?e?iaeith ? naiiaeyaii ?iaeea?aea,
ui aeinyaa?oueny iacaeaaeii a?ae aeaeo ooaeiaeiuei? ae?yeueiino?, yeith
a?i caeiyoee. Ooo iathoue i?noea an? aniaeoe aca?iiae?? iniae ?
ooaeiaeiuei? eoeueoo?e.

Ii-ia?oa, aiaoi?e o i?ioean? ooaeiaeiuei? ae?yeueiino? canaiththoue
eoeueoo?i? iaaeaaiiy a aeoeai?e oi?i?, caeeoath/enue i?e oeueiio
ia’?eoii eoeueoo?iiai aieeao. Oaea canai?iiy oe?iiinoae eoeueoo?e
ii??aiyii ?c ni?eeiaiiyi cae/aeiiai “niiaeeaa/a” ia?aaeaa/a? aeiaeaoeia?
iaoai?cie, aiane?aeie /iai a?aeaoaa?oueny aeeaoa, aiioe?eia ni?eeiaiiy
oe?iiinoae. Ii-ae?oaa, ye noa’?eo eoeueoo?ii? oai?/ino?, iniaeno?noue
noai?th? ooaeiaei?e i?iaeoeo aai aa?a o/anoue o eiai noai?aii?, ui, o
naith /a?ao, iaeeaaea? a?aeaeoie ia ?? iniaeno?nio nenoaio oe?iiinoae.
Ii-o?ao?, ? oea iniaeeai aaaeeeai, iniaeno?noue ae?? o eoeueoo?iiio
na?aaeiaeu? ye iin?e ? ae?aciee (aeiaeaii – ?iciianthaeaeoaa/)
eoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae. O oeueiio caeeaaeaiee iniaeeaee aoiai?noe/iee
ci?no ooaeiaeiueiai aiaoi?noaa: iniaa aenooia? ye i?iaeoeo, ye iniaeeaa
oe?ii?noue, ye iaa?ae’?iiee eiiiiiaio eoeueoo?e noni?euenoaa.

Ia?o ca ana, oai?e ienoaoeoaa, ia?ai? aei ?aia?ooa?o, ? iiaooi?i (a ia
aeoieo aeayeeo a/aieo, iacai?iiei) /eiieeii nioe?ae?caoe?? iniaenoino?,
iia’ycoth/e ?? ?c noni?euenoaii iaeo?ni?oeie a?aeiineiaie ? aieeaath/e
ia iaeiioa?ii?o? noi?iie ethaenueei? iiaaae?iee. Ie iiae?ey?ii oi/eo
ci?o A.Noieiae/a Aeea.: Noieiae/ A.I. AEeciue — oai?/anoai — /aeiaae:
Ooieoeee ooaeiaeanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. – I., 1985. – N. 23., yeee
aaaaea?, ui caeo/aiiy aei ??ciiiai?oieo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei oeyoii
canai?iiy anoaoe/ieo, cie?aia ooaeiaei?o, oe?iiinoae cae?enith?oueny aac
aoaeue-yeiai iaiaaeaiiy noaa?aiiino? naii? iniae, oeyoii ?? ?icaeoeo oa
aeooiaiiai caaaa/aiiy, ?, ui iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeai, cian?i a?eueii.

E??i oiai, oey ae?yeuei?noue ? naiino?eiith oe?ii?noth iacaeaaeii a?ae
oiai, /e i?eaaaea aiia aei aenieeo ooaeiaei?o ?acoeueoao?a, /e i?, oiio
ui a oeueiio i?ioean? o ethaeeie aoaeooue noi?iiaai? yeino?, ei?eni? ?
aeey ia? naii?, ? aeey noni?euenoaa. ?, a?aoo?-?aoo, o?aaa a?aecia/eoe,
ui aiaoi?nueeei ooaeiaei?i ia’?aeiaiiyi aeanoeaa iacae/aeia
ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia aoiinoa?a, yea aaco?oueny ia aeia??’?,
a?aee?eoino? aiaoi??a iaeei iaeiiio, ia aioo??oi?e ?iceooino?,
aeia?ice/eeaino?, iniaeeaiio noee? noinoie?a.

Ana neacaia aea? aeinoaoi? i?aenoaae aeey iioei?noe/iiai oaa?aeaeaiiy
i?i iaaio noeeuei?noue ooaeiaeiueiai aiaoi?noaa aei aenieeo
aoiai?noe/ieo i?iya?a, i?i iiaeeea?noue ni?eeiaiiy oe??? noa?e
ooaeiaeiueiai aoooy ethaeeie ye nenoaie, iaae?eaii? yne?aai ae?aaeaieie
aoiai?noe/ieie iioaioe?yie. O i?eioeeiiaiio cia/aii? “iethaeiaiiy
ethaeeie” iiaeia aaaaeaoe iaeiei ?c iniiaieo caaaeaiue aiaoi?nueeiai
ienoaoeoaa, ai aiii aecia? ca aiaoi?ii i?aai ia a?eueiee aeya nai??
iniaenoino?, ?icaeoie cae?aiinoae, i?eioeeie naiaiaee, ??aiino?
iiaeeeainoae aeey naiiaeyaeaiiy, ethaeyiino? ii?iith noinoie?a a
aiaoi?nueeeo eieaeoeaao.

O?ao?e ?icae?e – “?icaeoie ooaeiaeiueiai aiaoi?noaa a Oe?a?i? o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? XIX no.” – noaiiaeoue ?noi?e/iee aniaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?i
neeaaea?oueny ?c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? aena?oeaii ?noi?e/i? oiiae oa aecia/aeuei?
/eiieee ?icaeoeo ooaeiaeiueiai aiaoi?noaa a Oe?a?i? o ae?oa?e iieiaei?
XIX no.

?icaeoie eai?oae?cio a Oe?a?i? noi?iaiaeaeoaaany cia/iei
aeooiaii-eoeueoo?iei i?aeianaiiyi. Eieii?caoi?nueea iie?oeea
?in?enueeiai oea?ecio aeeeeeaea a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? aeaaeae?
c?inoath/o caoenio ?aaeoe?th, ui aeyaeeiny o oe?eiio eiiieaen? iiae?e ?
yaeu, ye? na?ae/eee i?i c?inoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?
?ioae?aaioe?? ? anueiai ia?iaeo, i?i aeoea?caoe?th on?o oi?i
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo – ye iie?oe/iiai, oae ? eoeueoo?iiai
– i?i ?icaeoie on?o aaeocae eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy Oe?a?ie. O noeoiiino?
oe? i?ioeane ae?noaee iacao oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy XIX – ii/aoeo XX no.

O oeae /an cia/iith i??ith c?inee oaiie ?icaoaeiae i?no, iniaeeai
aaeeeeo. I?iieneiaee ?icaeoie, ci?ie a noni?eueiiio ono?i? aeeeeeaee
aino?o iio?aao a ina?/aieo eaae?ao. A?aee?eaathoueny iia? iaa/aeuei?
caeeaaee. Ina?oa noa? o??th oea?eiith, a ye?e ?icai?ioeanue caiaeea
ai?ioueaa iaaeiei oe?a?inueei? iiae. Aaa/ath/e a oe?a?inoa? caa?ico
“?aeei?e ? iaiiae?euei?e”, o?yae iineeea oe?eani?yiiaaio iie?oeeo
?oneo?eaoe?? oe?a?ioe?a. Oe?a?inueeo iiao aoei aeeeth/aii c iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a ? aea?aeaaieo onoaiia. C?aooith, iianthaeii a?eueo?noue
oe?a?inueeiai aeai?yinoaa ? iii?uee?a ni?eeoaaeany ?in?enueeith iiaith,
iaa?oue o ?iaeeiiiio na?aaeiaeu?.

I?aaenoaaieee iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiiiai oe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaeyinoaa
ona?aeii-ethaaee an? iaaaoeai? iane?aeee oeeo i?ioean?a aeey ina?oe ?
aenooiaee ca yeiaeoe?oo ina?oo aeey ia?iaeo, ca oeieo c ??aeiith iiaith
iaa/aiiy. C oe??th iaoith ia I?aaiaa?aaeae? o 1859 ?ioe? oe?a?inueea
?aaiethoe?eii-aeaiie?aoe/ia iieiaeue noaea ia oeyo i?aai?caoe??
iaae?eueieo oe?e aeey ia?iaeo. Cae?eooy o 60-o ?ieao iaae?eueieo oe?e ?
?ai?an?? i?ioe oeo i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioae?aaioe??, ui aaee
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oith ae?yeuei?noue, cia/ii iia??oeee ina?oith ni?aao a
Oe?a?i?.

Oeaeyie oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo noaee eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi? ia’?aeiaiiy
–“A?iiaaee”, ui ooai?thaaeeny a Ee?a?, *a?i?aia?, Oa?eia?, Iieoaa?,
Iaean? oa ?ioeo i?noao, a oaeiae o na?aaeiaeu? oe?a?inueei?
?ioae?aaioe?? Iaoa?ao?aa. O noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio oa eoeueoo?iiio
aeeoo? Oe?a?ie 70–80-o ?ie?a aiie a?ae?a?aee iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeao
?ieue, eiioeaio?oth/e a nia? aaaiaa?ae oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??. Aiie
cae?enithaaee eoeueoo?ieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue na?aae ??cieo aa?noa
ianaeaiiy, i?iaoaeaeoth/e iaoe?iiaeueio na?aeii?noue. Iaeiae caai?iia
oe?a?inueeeo aeaeaiue eeoaeany aieiaiith ia?aoeiaeith aeey ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e. Iaaaeyea cia/aiiy a oeeo oiiaao iaee ??ci?
oi?ie aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa, ui a?aenoithaaee a i?aaao oe?a?inueeo
iiao, iaoe?iiaeueio ?aeath, ia?aaeiao a?iiaaenueeo aeoieo.

Aiae?coth/e ?noi?e/i? oiiae, aeena?oaio aeyaea aieiai? /eiieee ?icaeoeo
aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa o ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIX no.:

— ?icaeoie i?no, oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??, noaiiaeaiiy
aeaiie?aoe/ii? a?aee?eoi? i?nueei? eoeueoo?e;

— ?icaeoie ina?oe, i?anoeaei?noue caiyoue aiaoi?nueeith oai?/?noth a
nenoai? iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a oa n?iaeiiio aeoiaaii?;

— ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e ? noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
ae?aiaoo?a??;

— oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo oi?i ienoaoeoaa – ioce/iiai, oaao?aeueiiai;

— iineeaiiy eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, iiyaa
ia’?aeioth/eo oaeoi??a – eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oi?o oa ienoaoeueeeo
oiaa?enoa, ni?eie, i?aai?caoe?e.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi ooaeiaei? aiaoi?noai ye aeaiaio
iianyeaeaiiiai aeeooy ? iiaooo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie o ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIX
no.

Eoeueoo?ia aeeooy ianaeaiiy oiai/anii? Oe?a?ie iii?e an? iaaa?acaee aoei
yne?aaei ? iai?oaeaiei. “Eoeueoo?ia ae?yeuei?noue aoea ?aeeiith
oea?eiith, aea iicaaaeai? aea?aeaae oe?a?ioe? iiaee ae?aceoe naith
naiiaooi?noue” Noaoaeueiee I. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. – 2-a aeae. – E.:
Eea?aeue, 1992. – N. 210.. Iiaoo ??cieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy ye i?nueeiai,
oae ? n?euenueeiai, aoa iane/aiee an?eyeeie ??ciiaeaeaie ooaeiaei?o
caiyoue, ui noaaaee iaa?ae’?iiei aeaiaioii iianyeaeaiiiai aeeooy.
Iaeiioe?ai?oeie na?aae ieo aoee ni?ae ? ioceeoaaiiy. ? oea ia aeeaii,
aaeaea oe?a?inueeee ia?iae aaaaea?oueny “iaeiiaoe/i?oei e
iaeioceeaeuei?oei na?aae neia’yi” (Aaeai I?oeeaae/ ).

Iiaooiaa (“aeiiaoi?”) ioceeoaaiiy ? aieaeueia aeeiiaiiy eaio?a,
?iiain?a, ia?iaeieo i?naiue (niei, aeoaoii, o??i, iaaaeeeeie ainaiaeyie)
aoei iaeoethaeai?oei na?aae aiaoi?nueeeo caiyoue. Aiii iaaoei iioe?aiiy
na?aae on?o aa?noa ianaeaiiy – a?ae ieae/eo i?ioa?e?a ai?iaeyi, naeyi
aei iaeaeui? ciao?.

O aaeeeiiainueeee iiaoo iio?aieyee ia?aaaaeii i?ni? ethaiaii-e??e/i? e
aea?o?aeea?. I?ni? nioe?aeueii? oaiaoeee, ye i?aaeei, iieiaeenue, oi/a e
cono??/athoueny ie?ai? caaaeee i?i neooaiiy aaeueiiaeaie ?noi?e/ieo
i?naiue ? aeoi. Na?aae ae??ai?oiai iainoaa o?aieyeeny oaioaaeueieee
ia?iaeii? i?ni?, ye? nai? a?aee o/anoue o ?? aeeiiaii? – nieueiiio,
oi?iaiio /e ?ino?oiaioaeueiiio.

Oe?a?inueea i?niy iin?aeaea /?eueia i?noea ia eeoa a n?iaeiiio
ioceeoaaii?, a e a aiaoi?nueeiio ni?a? ia aeica?ee? iieiae?, ui
iaa/aeanue, aeoiaaioe?a ??cieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a – oi?aa?neoao?a,
?inoeooo?a, nai?ia??e – o Ee?a?, Oa?eia?, Iaean?, Eueaia?, Ia?aieoe?,
*a?i?aoeyo oa ?i. Cia/aiiy ia?iaeii? i?ni?, ui iino?eii cao/aea o
iiaoo?, aeoiaeeei aeaeaei ca iaae? caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa aeiiaoiueiai
ioceeoaaiiy – aiia aoea iae?noioi?oith neeaaeiaith o??? ioce/ii?
aoiinoa?e, a ye?e i?io?eaei eoeueoo?ia aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy.

Ii?yae ?c naeyinueeeie i?niyie o iiaoo aoiaeyoue iia?, ia?aaaaeii
e??e/i? e aea?o?aeea? i?nuee? i?ni?. Oi aoee, aieiaiei /eiii, aaoi?nuee?
oai?e, ye? oaeaeei noaaaee aac?iaiieie. I?ni?-?iiaine oa i?nuee?
aa??aioe naeyinueeeo ia?iaeieo i?naiue aeeiioaaeeny niei aai aeoaoii,
?ieiee – oi?ii o noi?iaiae? aonae, a?oa?e, oeeo?e, ne?eiee, oi?oai?aii
oiui. Aeaye? ?iiainia? /e i?naii? iaeiae?? iano?eueee i?eiaaeaee aei
niaeo, ui ?o ioi/a aeei?enoiaoaaee aeey ?icni?aoaaiiy iiaeo oaeno?a
(oiaoi i?eaeoioaaee iia? oaenoe ia oethaeai? iaeiae??). A
a?enoie?aoe/ieo eieao caoiiethaaeenue o?aioeocueeeie i?niyie ?
?iiainaie, ni?aaee o?eaee c ?oae?enueeeo oa o?aioeocueeeo iia?. A?a ia
?ino?oiaioao aeey noi?iaiaeo, a oaeiae nieueia /e ainaiaeaaa a?a caeaaia
oe?iei iiaoooaaee a Oe?a?i?. Ii naeao a?eueoa a?aee ia aeoaeeao,
ne?eioe?, eiac?, a i?noao iioe?ai? aoee ne?eiea, ne?eieiaee aan, aone?,
oeeiaaee, aaiaeo?a, ethoiy, oeaeoa oiui. Eiee c’yaeeiny oi?oai?aii, aiii
aeineoue oaeaeei noaei iaeiei ?c iaeiiioey?i?oeo ?ino?oiaio?a o
i?nueeiio e ia?oeiaiio iiaoo?.

O o?e ianeeaaei?e, ?iiae? iaa?oue aeaui i?ei?oeai?e, ioceoe?
no?auoaaeenue aeeoo?aeaei? eiiiiiaioe, a a ?? “ianiaino?”, iane/aii?
iaoe?iiaeueieie noeeueiaeie aeaiaioaie e?eeany iaeia c ia?aaeoiia
iaeaooiueiai ?ioaineaiiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? i?ioan?iiaeueii? ioceee.

Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eyeany i?eaaoiei o?ieai ioceee ? oaioe?a o caiiaeieo
?iaeeiao. A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoa??aeueieo iiaeeeainoae cai?iooaaeenue ?
a/eoae?. O aaaaoeo ?iaeeiao aeeeaaeaee oao?aoe? aenieiai eeano. A?a ia
ioce/ieo ?ino?oiaioao, ni?ae, oaioe? – ana oea a?aeiineeinue aei
“aeaai?iaeieo caiyoue” ? aoei iaia’yceiaei aeaiaioii a?enoie?aoe/iiai
aeoiaaiiy.

A?eueo?noue aiaoi??a iaiaaeoaaeenue i?inoaiueeeie i’?neaie oa
a?aiaee?iaeaie oaioe?a, ui i?ecia/aeenue aeey “onieiaee” neooa/?a c
aeiiaoiueiai ioi/aiiy. I?ioa ie?ai? aiaoi?e aeinyaaee aeineoue aenieiai
??aiy ooaeiaeiuei? iaenoa?iino?. Nii/aoeo oea aoee ia?aaaaeii iniae, ui
iaeaaeaee aei a?enoie?aoe/ieo e?e. Caiaeii ? a a?eueo aeaiie?aoe/iiio
na?aaeiaeu? c’yaeythoueny aiaoi?e, ?aia?ooa? yeeo ia iaiaaeo?oueny nooi
iiaooiaith ioceeith. Caaaeai? aeua ioce/i? ?ino?oiaioe canoiniaoaaeenue
oaeiae aeey ioceee i?eeeaaeiiai i?ecia/aiiy, ianaiia?aae aeey oaioe?a,
ye? a o? /ane aoee aeoaea iioe?ai?. Iaeaea aeey eiaeiiai, ooi oi/ o?ioe
a?aa, ia iio?aaoaaei aaeeeeo coneeue c?a?aoe iieueeo aai aaeuen.

O eoeueoo?ia aeeooy i?no ana iano?ei?oa aoiaeyoue a?iiaaenuee? aaee oa
ianea?aaee. Oi?oe oaioethaaoe aaaaeaeinue iciaeith aeia?iai oiio: na?aae
ae??aiiai aeai?yinoaa (aai “aa?aiaiai i?uainoaa”) oaioethaaee iaiii/ee,
eio?? aeoiaoaaeenue o iain?iiao. C oaioe?a iiue?aieie aoee iieuenueeee,
eiio?aeaine, aiaeace, aeaiaiaea, iaithiane, iaioao, aeeaa?ae
(a?inoaoa?), eaae?eeue, iao?aaeo?a, eioeeueii, iaco?ea, iieueea, aaeuen
oiui.

Ia iniaeeao oaaao caneoaiao? e oa, ui ia ??ciiiai?oieo aaeao ?
oaioethaaeueieo aa/??eao ii?yae ?c iacaaieie oe?iei iiaoooaaee
oe?a?inuee? oaioe?. O ??cieo niiaaaeao, ui noinothoueny XIX no.,
cono??/athoueny e iacae oe?a?inueeeo oaioe?a, yeeo iianthaeii
oaioethaaee ia io?oe?eieo ? aeiiaoi?o aaeao. Na?aae ieo iiaeia cono??oe
? iaoaeeoeth, ? aieoaoey, ? eica/ea. Uiaei cao?aeieo caiaeue Oe?a?ie, oi
oai aieiaia i?noea iin?aeaea eieiieeea.

Aeoaea iioe?aiei na?aae ??cieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy, iniaeeai ?ioae?aaioe??,
aoa aeiiaoi?e oaao?. I?aai?caoi?aie-?aaeena?aie oaeeo aenoaa /anoi aoee
aeiiaoi? a/eoae? oa aoaa?ia?e ?c nooaeaio?a. Aea ?iiae? oeth i?n?th
aeeiioaaa ooinue ?c /eai?a n?i’?, ?iaee/?a aai ciaeiieo. Aaaaoi
aiaoi?nueeeo oaao??a, ye? iio?i noaee a?aeiieie, ca?iaeeeenue a oiiaao
aeiiaoiueiai oaao?o. Ie??i oiai, oe? oiiae aeaaaee iiaeeea?noue /anoi
oieeaoe oeaico?ii? caai?iie.

Aeineoue iiioey?iith aoea aiaoi?nueea e?oa?aoo?ia oai?/?noue, iniaeeai
iiaoe/ia. Iioe?aieie aoee e??e/i? a??o?, ?o ?iiae? ienaee aeey aeueaiio
iaaii? iniae (oae caaia aeueaiiia e??eea), aai a??o? iaiaa??e/iiai
oa?aeoa?o ia /anoue aeecueeeo, ciaeiieo, ye? aea?oaaee ia aeaiue
ia?iaeaeaiiy. ?nio? aaaaoi na?ae/aiue i?i iaienaiiy i’?n aiaoi?aie.

A on?o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao aeaooiaoaaeenue ioce/i? oa
e?oa?aoo?ii-ioce/i? aa/i?e ? ?aiee, ia yeeo aiaoi?e aenooiaee a
aeeaa?oeniaio? c ooaeiaei?i /eoaiiyi, ni?aaee, a?aee ia ioce/ieo
?ino?oiaioao.

sseui aeine?aeeoe a?ia?ao?? a?aeiieo ienueiaiiee?a, ioceeaio?a, aeoi??a
? acaaae? aaaaoueio i?aaenoaaiee?a i?ia?aneaieo e?e oiai/anii?
?ioae?aaioe??, oi iii?oeii, ui eiaeai c ieo a thiino? /e i?ci?oa
caeiaany ioceeith, ienaa a??o? /e a?aa a aiaoi?nueeiio oaao??. Oea ia
aoei yeeiinue aeiyoeii, a iaaiaee, iaea?eueo yne?aaei aeyaii caaaeueiiai
iioyao aei ienoaoeoaa.

O?ao?e i?ae?icae?e aena?oeth? iioe?aiiy aiaoi?nueeeo ooaeiaei?o
eieaeoea?a a Oe?a?i? ye ianiaa yaeua.

I?ia?aeiith oaiaeaioe??th ?icaeoeo ooaeiaeiueiai aiaoi?noaa ae?oai?
iieiaeie XIX no. ? aeo?ae ca iaae? “aeiiaoi?o” oi?i ooaeiaeiueiai
aiaoi?noaa oa aiaoi?noaa, ui ?icaeaaeinue ia a?oio? oe?eueii? ina?oe.
C’yaeythoueny iia? aaeoc? ? oi?ie ioceeoaaiiy, aieaeueiiai aeeiiaanoaa,
oaao?o, ye? aeioe aoee aeiaaeeiaeie, a oaia? noathoue oa?aeoa?iith
?enith eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy. ?icaeoie aiaoi?nueeeo ooaeiaei?o eieaeoea?a
iinooiiai noa? iioe?aiei yaeuai, iin?aeath/e cia/ia i?noea a
eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo? i?nueeiai, a caiaeii ? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy.

Oaeaeeee ?icaeoie ioce/iiai ? oaao?aeueiiai aiaoi?noaa ae?oai? iieiaeie
XIX no. na?ae/ea i?i c?inoaiiy oai?/eo nee oe?ieeo ian, iioe?aiiy eiea
?o ooaeiaei?o ?ioa?an?a ? i?i aeinyaiaiiy oiai ??aiy aeeiiaa/i?
iaenoa?iino?, eiee iaieio/a aeieea? iio?aaa aeeoe ia oe?ieo aoaeeoi??th.
A oiiaao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ? eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy oiai/anii?
Oe?a?ie (ye ? ?in?? a oe?eiio) “?aianei” ioceeaioa, aeoi?a aoei iaaeoi
iaiaaiei aeaea?aeii ?nioaaiiy. Ioaea, aeaeaoi? aeeiiaaoe? a aaeoc?
ioce/iiai, oaao?aeueiiai ienoaoeoa aenoaaeenue eeoa c aiaoi?nueeeo e?e.

Ae?yeuei?noue i?ia?aneaieo aiaoi?nueeeo eieaeoea?a 60-o ?ie?a O?O no.
a?ae?a?aea aaeeeo ?ieue a ia’?aeiaii? ia?aaeiai? /anoeie oai?/i
iaaea?iaaii? iieiae?. I?oei?th/e c eiaeiei ?ieii, oe? eieaeoeae noaaaee
cia/iith neeith ?aeaeii-anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy ia?iaeo ? iaeiei c
iiaooi?o cania?a i?aeianaiiy eiai iaoe?iiaeueii? a?aeiino?. Iacaaaeath/e
ia oyaee? oeaico?i? caai?iie, iaiaaeaiiy ? ia?ane?aeoaaiiy c aieo
naiiaea?aeaanoaa, ii/aany ?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie aiaoi?nueeiai oaao?o, ui
c?inoaa ? ci?oeithaaany iaeii/anii c ?icaeoeii e?oa?aoo?e ? ienoaoeoaa.

Aiaoi?nuee? oaao?e 70-o ?ie?a, iaaoaoe aeina?aeo ? aeeiiaanueei?
iaenoa?iino?, noaee naiiaooi?i yaeuai. Aiie ia’?aeiaee oaeaiiaeo? oai?/?
neee, ? ia?aoai?aiiy aeayeeo aiaoi?nueeeo ao?oe?a o i?ioan?iiaeuei?
oaao?e caeeoaeiny aaea ieoaiiyi /ano ? ni?eyoeeaeo ianoaaei. A oiiaao
o?niiai aca?iica’yceo ? aca?iiaieeao aiaoi?nueeiai oa i?ioan?iiaeueiiai
oe?a?inueeiai ? ?in?enueeiai oaao??a ethaeoaeuenueeee oaao?aeueiee ?oo
noaa iaeiei ?c aecia/ieo yaeu oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e. A?i aeoeaii
?icaeaaany o eieao i?ia?aneaii? ?ioae?aaioe??, a ?ia?oie/iio ?
naeyinueeiio na?aaeiaeuao, o a?enueeiaeo /anoeiao, noaaoe eaoae?caoi?ii
eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy noni?euenoaa ? aaaeeeaei caniaii ?aeaeii-anoaoe/iiai
aieeao ia oe?ie? ia?iaei? iane.

?icaeoie oi?iaiai ?ooo iaaoa oe?ieiai noni?eueiiai cia/aiiy ianaiia?aae
caaaeyee nai?io aeaiie?aoeciia?. Caeo/ath/e aei ienoaoeueeiai i?ioeano
aaaaoueio ethaeae, a?i aeoea?coaaa oi?ie iiaooiaiai ioceeoaaiiy ? /anoi
aecia/aa caaaeueiee ioce/iee “oiion” eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy ianaeaiiy. O
niaoeeo?/ieo oiiaao a?o/eciyii? eoeueoo?e ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no. noa?a
oi?iaiai ni?ao ioiiethaaea ?icaaeoaeaio nenoaio ??cieo o?aaeeoe?e,
ia?aaeon?i – iainyaeii oe?ie? oieueeei?i? caeiaooee, iaae/a?iia
aaaaonoai ia?iaeii-i?naiieo aeai??a. Iaaecae/aeii aaeeea ?ieue o
?icaeoeo oi?iaiai ?ooo iaeaaeeoue I.A. Eenaieo – aeaeaoiiio ae?y/aa?
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e.

Nie?ath/enue ia aeeao i?aeoeeo iiaooiaiai e eiioea?oiiai ni?ao, ui
ioiiethaaea iaeaea an? aa?noae ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, oi?iaa ienoaoeoai aaea
iaei aaaaoo aeeiiaanueeo aaco. Naia oea aoei iaei??th c i?e/ei oiai, ui
ai?ioueaa ca oe?a?inueeo aeaiie?aoe/io ioceeo a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIX no.
?icii/aeany naia o oi?ia?e aaeoc?.

O 80-o – 90-o ?ieao ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, ye ? a ?in?? a oe?eiio,
niinoa??aa?oueny i?aeianaiiy i?iieneiaino?, oe?ieiai ?iciaoo iaaoaa?
?ia?oie/ee ?oo, iineeth?oueny i?ioean iiaeaeueoiai eeaniaiai
?icoa?oaaiiy naeyinoaa. Aiaoi?nueeee oaao? ciaoiaeeoue ni?eyoeea? oiiae
aeey naiai ?icaeoeo o ?ia?oie/iio na?aaeiaeu? – ia aaeeeeo oaa?eeao ?
caaiaeao. Iaeaea a eiaeiiio iia?oiaiio i?no?, i?noa/eo, aaeeeeo naeao,
aooao, oeoe?iaa?iyo, ao?aeueiyo, aoceiaeo noaioe?yo aeieeathoue
aiaoi?nuee? ao?oee. ?oi?ie ea??aieeaie noathoue eieeoi? o/anieee
aiaoi?nueeeo oaao??a aaeeeeo i?no, ianaiia?aae aeioneieee iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a – o/eoae?, e?ea??, caieai??e, iiooiaenoa?e, ae?y/? cainoa.

Iioe?aiith ? ye?niiio iiaeeaeaiith ooaeiaeiuei? ae?yeueiino?
aiaoi?nueeeo eieaeoea?a ni?eya i?eeeaae ienoaoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
oaao??a I.E?iieaieoeueeiai, I.Noa?eoeueeiai, I.Naaeianueeiai ?
I.Naenaaainueeiai oa e?aueo ?in?enueeeo o?oi, ui aano?iethaaee a
Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae iiyaa ae?oeii cia/ii? e?eueeino? i’?n ? ?aoeaic?e ia
oaao?aeuei? aenoaae. A?ae/oaath/e aino?o iio?aao a iiaiio, aeooaeueiiio
?aia?ooa??, ia iath/e ?iiae? ciiae ae?noaoe ae?oeiaaio i’?no, aiaoi?e e
nai? noai?thaaee i’?ne, ia?aeeaaeaee oai?e ?in?enueeeo ae?aiaoo?a?a.

I?ae aieeaii c?inoath/i? aeoeaiino? oe?a?inueei? i?ia?aneaii?
a?iiaaenueeino? ii/eia?oueny ?icea?o ianiaiai oaao?aeueiiai ?ooo,
iniaeeai ia E?aiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i?, aea ia iaea /eiiino? caai?iia
Ae?aioaeueia. I?ioa caai?iia Ae?aioaeueiii oe?a?inueeiai oaao?o ia
I?aaiaa?aaeae?, ui o?eaaea aei 1893 ?ieo, ia coieieea ae?yeueiino?
aiaoi??a.

Iai?ee?ioe? 90-o ?ie?a c ?i?oe?aoeae ia?aaeiai? i?ia?aneaii?
?ioae?aaioe?? eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oi? ieoaiiy ii/eiathoue /ano?oa
iaaiai?thaaoenue ia noi??ieao aacao, noaaeoenue ia ii?yaeeo aeaiiiio
can?aeaiue a?iiaaenueeeo caeeaae?a ? iaa?oue cainoa.

Aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai, ?icaeaath/enue ?acii c ?ioeie aeaeaie
ooaeiaeiuei? eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ci?oeith?oueny ? ia
e?iaoeue noie?ooy noa? aaaeeeaei caniaii ?aeaeii-anoaoe/iiai aieeao ia
oe?ie? aa?noae ianaeaiiy. Iacaaaeath/e ia a?aenooi?noue o?niiai eiioaeoo
i?ae ae?y/aie aiaoi?nueeiai ?ooo, caaaeueiee iai?yi ?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?
aoa i?ia?aneaiei – aiia aoea ni?yiiaaia ia ?icaeoie ? ci?oeiaiiy
ia?aaeiaeo, aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?aeae no/aniino?. Aiaoi?nueeee ?oo a?ae?a?aa
aeeeth/ii aaaeeeao ?ieue a ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo ? oi?ioaaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e. Eiai aieea ia aeoiaaiiy na?aeiiino? e
anoaoe/ieo niae?a ia?iaeo aeciaea ? noaaeueii ioe?ieea i?ia?aneaia i?ana
e ia?aaeiaa a?iiaaenuee?noue.

O Aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? i?aeaaaeaii i?aenoiee iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/aii eiie?aoi? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno. ?o
i?eioeeiiaee ci?no iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

— aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai ? ia’?eoeaiei ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iei yaeuai,
ii?iaeaeaiei noni?eueiei iiae?eii i?aoe? ye iio?aaa ethaeeie o anaa?/i?e
? a?eueo iiai?e ?aae?caoe?? naaa ye iniaenoino?. Aeaea?aeii aiaoi?noaa,
ye o ieioeiio, oae ? ca?ac, ? iaiaaeai?noue, iaeiia?/i?noue aeyao
ethaeeie, iaiiaiioa aoooy, c iaeiiai aieo, ? i?e?iaeia aeey ethaeeie
iio?aaa o oe?e?niino?, anaa?/iino? aeyao, c ?ioiai. Oe? aeaa iiiaioe ?
noai?thaaee oo ??cieoeth iioaioe?ae?a, a?ae?a?aaaee ?ieue oeo
noia?a/iinoae, ye? e i?aeooiaooaaee iniaeno?noue aei iiaeieaiiy nai??
iaiaaeaii? aeeoo?ai? i?e?a/aiino?;

— o ni?aa?aeiioaii? iiiyoue “ooaeiaei? aiaoi?noai” ? “ooaeiaeiy
naiiae?yeuei?noue” oe?oei ? “ooaeiaei? aiaoi?noai”, a ooaeiaeiy
naiiae?yeuei?noue – eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iei i?iyaii ooaeiaeiueiai
aiaoi?noaa a ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae, oiaoi iiiyooy “ooaeiaei? aiaoi?noai”
a?aeiineoueny aei iiiyooy “ooaeiaeiy naiiae?yeuei?noue” ye caaaeueia aei
iniaeeaiai;

— aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai – yaeua eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ia, iaa?ae’?iia
neeaaeiaa /anoeia eoeueoo?e iaaiiai noni?euenoaa, iaaiiai eeano, iaaiiai
nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua;

— aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no. ? aaaeeeaei /eiieeii o
caaaeueiiio ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e no?aeieo ? cao?aeieo caiaeue
Oe?a?ie oiai /ano, iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo ao?eaoo?a
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy;

— a aiaoi?nueeiio ienoaoeoa? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo aeyaeaii oaeo
aeai?iai-aeaeiao no?oeoo?o, iniiaieie eiiiiiaioaie yei? ?: ni?ae,
ioceeoaaiiy, iaethaaiiy, iiaooiaee oaiaoeue, e?oa?aoo?ia oai?/?noue,
oaao?;

— i?ia?aeiith oaiaeaioe??th ?icaeoeo aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa ae?oai?
iieiaeie XIX no. noa? aeo?ae ca iaae? “aeiiaoi?o” oi?i ooaeiaeiueiai
aiaoi?noaa oa aiaoi?noaa, ui ?icaeaaeinue ia a?oio? oe?eueii? ina?oe,
oiaoi “cae?eoeo” oi?i, ?ic?aoiaaieo aeey iaiaaeaiiai eiea aeyaea/?a ?
aeeiiaaoe?a. C’yaeythoueny iia? aaeoc? ? oi?ie ioceeoaaiiy, aieaeueiiai
aeeiiaanoaa, oaao?o, ye? aeioe aoee iiiaeeiieeie, a oaia? noathoue
oa?aeoa?iith ?enith eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy ianaeaiiy. Iioe?aiiy
aiaoi?nueeeo ooaeiaei?o eieaeoea?a noa? ianiaei yaeuai, ui iin?aea?
cia/ia i?noea a eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo? i?nueeiai, a caiaeii ? n?euenueeiai
ianaeaiiy. ?oi?e ?icaeoie a?aeaoaa?oueny o ?one? aeaiie?aoe/ii?
a?aee?eoi? eoeueoo?e;

— aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no. (iniaeeai ioce/ia ?
oaao?aeueia) ?icaeaa?oueny o iai?yieo iiaeaeueoi? i?ioan?iiae?caoe??
ie?aieo eiai oi?i, iaoe?iiaeueii? aecia/aiino?, iioe?aiiy eiioaeo?a c
oe?ieeie noni?eueieie eieaie.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Ooaeiaei? aiaoi?noai ye aeaiaio iianyeaeaiiiai aeeooy ? iiaooo
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie o ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIX no. // Iaoeia? caienee
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa:
Nioe?aeueii–aoiai?oa?i? aeenoeeie?ie: Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie no/anii?
eoeueoo?ieia??. – E., 1998. – N. 23 – 27.

2. Ooaeiaei? aiaoi?noai o i?ioean? aoiai?caoe?? iniae // Iaoeia? caienee
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa:
Nioe?aeueii–aoiai?oa?i? aeenoeeie?ie: I?iaeaie eoeueoo?ieia??. – E.,
1998. – N. 9 – 12.

3. Aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai ye oaiiiai eoeueoo?e // Iaoeia? caienee
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa:
Nioe?aeueii–aoiai?oa?i? aeenoeeie?ie: Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
eoeueoo?ieia??. – E., 1998. – N. 3-7.

4. Naiiaeayoaeueiia ooaeiaeanoaaiiia oai?/anoai a NNN?. – E.: EAEE,
1989. – 54 n.

5. Aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo neooaoe?eieo caaaeaiue o i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee
ea??aiee?a aiaoi?nueeeo ooaeiaei?o eieaeoea?a // Iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeei?enoaiith aeoeaieo iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o i?aoe?aiee?a. – Aei. 2. – E., 1991. – N. 20 – 21.

6. I?ia?aia eo?no ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? ooaeiaeiuei? oai?/ino?.
– E., 1998. – 28n.

7. I?i aea/aiiy iioea?a o/ano? a eieaeoea? ooaeiaeiuei? naiiae?yeueiino?
// ?aaeyinueeee niin?a aeeooy ? caaaeaiiy i?aeaioiaee oa aeoiaaiiy
eaae??a aeey onoaiia eoeueoo?e oa ienoaoeoaa: Oace aeiiia?aeae
?anioae?eainueei? iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a
eoeueoo?e oa ienoaoeoaa. – ??aia, 1977. – N. 140 – 141.

8. O/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiay ?aaioa a naiiaeayoaeueiii oaao?a // Iaoa?eaeu
IV Ananithciie iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee anie?aioia aocia e IEE
Ieienoa?noaa eoeueoo?u NNN?. – Oaeeene, 1978. – N. 455 – 459.

9. Iniaaiiinoe oi?aaeaiey eieeaeoeaiui aieiaieai o/anoieeia
naiiaeayoaeueiiai oaao?aeueiiai eieeaeoeaa // I?iaeaiu e iooe
aeoeaecaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe ia?iaeiuo oaao?ia: Ananithciay
iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneay eiioa?aioeey / Oacenu aeieeaaeia/. – Eeaeiaaea,
1985. – N. 33 – 34.

10. Iiaeaioiaea ?oeiaiaeeoaey naiiaeayoaeueiiai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai
eieeaeoeaa e i?aaiecaoeee iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe o/anoieeia //
Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu iiaeaioiaee eaae?ia a iaeanoe eneonnoaa e eoeueoo?u
a naaoa ia?ano?ieee aunoaai e n?aaeiaai niaoeeaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey:
Oacenu aeieeaaeia. – Ieeieaaa, 1988. – Aui. 2. – Naeoeey 3. Iaaeaaiaeea.
– N. 42 – 44.

11. Ooaeiaei? aiaoi?noai ye eoeueoo?ia yaeua // Nioe?aeueii-aoiai?oa?ia
ina?oa Oe?a?ie oa oeyoe ?? ?icaoaeiae: Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei? ia?aaee
caa?aeoth/eo eaoaae?aie nioe?aeueii-aoiai?oa?ieo aeenoeeie?i. – E.,
1997. – N. 163-165.

Aei?iaeo Ethaeieea Aanee?aia.

Aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai ye ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ia yaeua (ia iaoa??aeao
Oe?a?ie ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no.). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 17.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y eoeueoo?e. Ee?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? eiiieaeniei ?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi
aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa a Oe?a?i? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no. O ?iaio?
?icaeyaeathoueny oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe aeine?aeaeoaaiiai yaeua,
ooi/ith?oueny iiiyooy «aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai», ?ice?eaathoueny eiai
anoaoe/ia ? noni?eueia i?e?iaea ye yaeua eoeueoo?e. A aeena?oaoe??
aeine?aeaeaii ?ieue aiaoi?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa a aeeoo? noni?euenoaa,
i?iaiae?ciaaii noai ? iniaeeaino? ??cieo aeae?a ? aeai??a,
nai???aei?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy a oiiaao ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie
ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aiaoi?nueea ienoaoeoai, i?ioan?eia ienoaoeoai, ia?iaeia
ooaeiaeiy oai?/?noue, ooaeiaei? aiaoi?noai, naii?aae?caoe?y.

Aei?iaeo Ethaeieea Aaneeueaaia.

Ethaeoaeueneia eneonnoai eae enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iia yaeaiea (ia iaoa?eaeao
Oe?aeiu aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX a.). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 17.00.01 – oai?ey e enoi?ey eoeueoo?u. Eeaaneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eoeueoo?u e eneonnoa, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey yaeyaony eiiieaeniui enoi?eei-oai?aoe/aneei enneaaeiaaieai
ethaeoaeueneiai eneonnoaa a Oe?aeia aoi?ie iieiaeiu O?O no. A ?aaioa
?anniao?eaathony oai?aoe/aneea aniaeou enneaaeoaiiai yaeaiey, ooi/iyaony
iiiyoea «ethaeoaeueneia eneonnoai», ?ane?uaathony aai ynoaoe/aneay e
iauanoaaiiay i?e?iaea eae yaeaiey eoeueoo?u. A aeenna?oaoeee
enneaaeoaony ?ieue ethaeoaeueneiai eneonnoaa a aeecie iauanoaa,
aiaeece?oaony ninoiyiea e iniaaiiinoe ?aciuo aeaeia e aeai?ia,
naiaia?acea ooieoeeiie?iaaiey a oneiaeyo ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u Oe?aeiu
aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX a.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ethaeoaeueneia eneonnoai, i?ioanneiiaeueiia eneonnoai,
ia?iaeiia ooaeiaeanoaaiiia oai?/anoai, ooaeiaeanoaaiiia ethaeoaeuenoai,
naii?aaeecaoeey.

Ludmila V. Dorogikh

Amateur art as the historical cultural phenomenon (on the historical
materials of the second half of XIX century in the Ukraine). –
Manuscript.

Dissertation for competing the scientific degree of a candidate of
historical sciences by speciality 17.00.01 – Theory and History of
Culture. – Kyiv State University of Culture and Arts, Kyiv, 1998.

Dissertation is the complex of historical theoretical research of
amateur art in the second half of XIX century in the Ukraine. The author
of the dissertation examines the theoretical aspects of the research
phenomenon, defines more accurately the conception of “amateur art”, and
opens its esthetical and social nature as of a culture phenomenon. Also
she analyses role of amateur art in the society, the state and the
peculiarities of the different types and genres, the originality of
functioning in conditions of development of amateur art in the second
half of XIX century in the Ukraine.

Key words: amateur art, professional art, amateur and folk arts, art
amateurishness, self-realisation.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 28.11.98 ?. Oi?iao 60 o 90 /16

Ae?oe ionaoiee. Oiiai. ae?. a?e. 1,0. Oe?aae 100 i?ei.

Cai. ____

Ae?oea?iy Aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? ea??aieo eaae??a

eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa

Aae?ana: 252601, Ee?a, aoe. N?/iaaiai iianoaiiy,21

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