1

OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

E?aoee Aieiaeeie? Oaaei?iae/

OAeE 539.21

AEONOE*IA AI?N?ss ssE I?IssA AeEIAI?EE

AeAOAEO?A E?ENOAE?*II? A?AOEE

01.04.07 — o?ceea oaa?aeiai o?ea

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio oeaio?? aeaeo?io?ce/ii? ia?iaee IAI
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eeai?eia
Ay/aneaa Oaaei?iae/ (aee?aeoi? Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oeaio?o
aeaeo?io?ce/ii? ia?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie).

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Iaeethaeia ?aai Iaoa?eiae/ (aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo o?ceee oaa?aeiai o?ea,
iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ? oaoiieia?e, IIOe “Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo”),

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Ie?ineie Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/ (caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?ce/ii? aeaeo?ii?ee
Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo).

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: O?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ?i.
A.?.A??e?ia IAI Oe?a?ie (a?aeae?e o?ceee ?aaeueieo e?enoae?a).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny __2_____ea?oiy____1999 ?. i _14__aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.051.03 o Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? (310077, i.Oa?e?a, i.Naiaiaee, 4, aoae. ?i.
E.Ae.Neiaeuei?eiaa).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii __25___ethoiai______1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee A.I.Iieaea

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ??ciiiai?oi?noue aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a, ye?
iiaeooue iaeii/anii a?aeaoaaoeny o oaa?aeeo o?eao, i?eaiaeeoue aei oiai,
ui ia?aae aeine?aeieeaie iinoa? aeineoue neeaaeia caaea/a ?ici?ciaaaiiy
ca neaiaeaie aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? (AA) eiie?aoieo o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a, ui ?o
aeeeeeaee. O ca’yceo c oeei ? aaeueie aeooaeueieie ye aenia?eiaioaeuei?,
oae ? oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy yaeua AA oa ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y aeaea?ae AA.

Aei oaia??oiueiai /ano iaeiie/aii cia/iee aenia?eiaioaeue-iee oa
oai?aoe/iee iaoa??aee c aeine?aeaeaiue ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo AA
??ciiiai?oieo aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny o oaa?-aeeo
o?eao. Cia/ia i?noea o oeeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo caeia? aea/aiiy
??ciiiai?oieo aeaiaioa?ieo aeo?a ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??. Iniaeeaa oaaaa
i?e oeueiio i?eae?eyeanue i?iaeaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeonoe/iiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, yea cae?eniththoue aeeneieaoe??, eiee aiie ?ooathoueny
oa aca?iiae?thoue.

O ?iaioao A.I.Einaae/a, A.Ae.Iaoeeea, A.N.Aieea ?ic?iaea-ia aeeiai?/ia
oai??y aeeneieaoe?e oa iienaii ?yae eiie?aoieo o?-ce/ieo yaeu, ui
noi?iaiaeaeothoueny aeonoe/iei aei?ii?ithaaiiyi.

Aeey aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae AA aaaeeeai
?aae?coaaoe aenia?eiaio, o yeiio a aea/aeany o?eueee aeeiai?ea
aeeneieaoe?e. Ii?yae c oi?eaeuei?noth iaoiaeee ?a?no?aoe?? AA
aenia?eiaioe ii ?? aea/aiith iia’ycai? oaeiae c o?oaeiiuaie ?icoeo?iaee
caeiaooi? ?ioi?iaoe??. Ine?eueee o iaoa??ae? ?aae?cothoueny ia?aeaeueii
aeae?eueea i?ioean?a, oi aiae?c ?iioeuen?a, ui aeieeathoue, iia’ycaiee c
aeayeeie o?oaeiiuaie. O ca’yceo c oeei ia?aaaao ne?ae a?aeaeaaaoe
neooaoe?yi, eiee cae?enith?oueny o?eueee iaeei i?ioean, yeee ia
caaoaeueiaaii ooiaie.

Eeane/iei ia’?eoii aeey oeueiai ? i?oaeiee aea?eiee o e?enoaeao
eaeueoeeoo. I??i?eoaoi? i?aoe? ?.?.Aa?aa?a ?c ni?a?ia?oieeaie,
i?enay/ai? aea/aiith iaoai?/iiai aea?eieeoaaiiy o eaeueoeeo?, i?eaa?ioee
aei naaa oaaao ye oai?aoee?a, oae ? aenia?eiaioaoi??a, ? noeioethaaee
?icaeyae i?iyao aeaiaioa?ieo aeo?a ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? o oaa?aeeo
o?eao. O aenia?eiaioao c i?oaeieie aea?eieeaie o eaeueoeeo? iiaeeeaa
a?coaeueia niinoa?aaeaiiy ca?iaeaeaiiy iae?ineii?/ieo neoi/aiue
aeeneieaoe?e, iiaeaeueoiai ?o ?icaeoeo a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaee/eie ?
iai?yieo iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui i?eeeaaeaii. Iniaeea?noth oeeo aenia?eiaio?a
? ?o aaniethoia iaeiicia/i?noue, aaeaea o oeueiio aeiaaeeo iaia?
iaiai?ioieo ao?ao aia?a?? o iaoa??ae? ? ia a?aeaoaa?oueny i?yeeo i?iya?a
?ioeo aeae?a ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??. Cae?enith?oueny eeoa aca?iiae?y
iaae? i?oaeiiai aea?eieea c e?enoae?/iith a?aoeith.

Ana oea aea? i?aenoaao aaaaeaoe, ui aeoaea ia?niaeoeaieie ?
aeooaeueieie iiaeooue aooe aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
caeiiii??iinoae AA i?e aea?eieeoaaii? o e?enoaeao eaeueoeeoo ye aeey
aea/aiiy aeeiai?ee aeeneieaoe?e, oae ? aeey c?noaaeaiiy oeeo
?acoeueoao?a ?c ?acoeueoaoaie aaea i?iaaaeaieo oai?aoe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Aiaeia?y i?ae aea?eieeaie oa iaai?oieie aeiiaiaie
?iaeoue aaeueie aeooaeueiith ? caaea/o aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?ee
aeeneieaoe?e oa ?ioeo aeonoiai?n?eieo i?ioean?a o iaaiaoeeao.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
o Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio oeaio?? aeaeo?io?ce/ii? ia?iaee (IOOe AOI ) IAI
Oe?a?ie ? iia’ycaia c aeeiiaiiyi aea?aeathaeaeaoii? oaie “Iiaeoeueiaai?
no?oeoo?e oa ?o oacia? ia?aoai?aiiy a oii?yaeeiaaieo na?aaeiaeuao”
(iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0195U022247, oa?i?i aeeiiaiiy: 1995-1999
??.). Aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe, ye? iioae?eiaai? o noaooyo
1970-1984 ??., io?eiai? o Oa?e?anueeiio o?ceei-oaoi?/iiio ?inoeooo? AI
Oe?a?ie o ?aieao oaie “Aeine?aeaeaiiy aoiiii? aoaeiae yae?a aeeneieaoe??
oa ?? aieeao ia ?oo oaeaeeeo /anoie, aeeiai?ee ?ooo iiiaeeiieeo
aeeneieaoe?e oa ?o neoi/aiue i?e aeaoi?iaoe??” (iiia? aea?aeaaii?
?a?no?aoe?? O28694). ?iaioa a?aeiia?aea? ca nai?th oaiaoeeith ?icae?eai
“O?ce/ia iaoa??aeiciaanoai” oa “Iaoeia? iniiae ia?niaeoeaieo oaoiieia?e”
o i??i?eoaoieo iai?yieao ?icaeoeo iaoee ? oaoi?ee a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoa oa iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith oeueiai aeine?ae-aeaiiy
? anoaiiaeaiiy ca’yceo i?ae aeonoe/iith ai?n??th, yea aaia?o-?oueny
?ooii ainaiaey aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeooue, oa aeeiai?/ieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oeeo aeeneieaoe?e, a oaeiae c’ynoaaiiy o?ce/ii?
i?e?iaee caoeiaiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui noi?iaiaeaeo? ?oo aeenei-eaoe?e,
ye o ?iiieo e?enoaeao eaeueoeeoo, oae ? o iaai?oiaii?yae-eiaaieo
e?enoaeao.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iio??aii aoei:

—aenia?eiaioaeueii aea/eoe noaoeeo oa aeeiai?eo aeeneieaoe?e, ui
aea?eieeothoue;

—anoaiiaeoe iaiao?aei? oiiae ooai?aiiy ?iioeuen?a aeonoe/ii? ai?n??;

—?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo neio?iiii? ?a?no?aoe?? neaiae?a aeonoe/ii? ai?n??
oa aeeiai?ee aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue;

—anoaiiaeoe iniaeeaino? i?iyao aeonoe/ii? ai?n??, yea aaia?o?oueny ?ooii
ainaiaeth aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeooue, a oaeiae ?ooii ie?aieo
aeeneieaoe?e;

—c?noaaeoe aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe c aeeneieaoe?eieie oai??yie
oiieeo aea?eiee?a oa caoeiaiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy;

—oai?aoe/ii ?icaeyiooe iniaeeaino? iaoai?ci?a aaeueioaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e
o iaaiaoeeao, o oiio /ene? iiaeeco oi/ie oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue, c
o?aooaaiiyi aeiiaiii? no?oeoo?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo o ?iaio? ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? ianaiia?aae o
oiio, ui o i?e aia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii oa iaa?oioiaaii
?yae iieiaeaiue oa aeniiae?a noaoe/ii? ? aeeiai?/ii? oai??e i?oaeiiai
aea?eieeoaaiiy oa oai??? caoeiaiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e.

Onoaiiaeaii o?ce/io i?e?iaeo oaiiiaiieia?/iiai ia?aiao?o noaoe/ii?
aeeneieaoe?eii? oai??? oiieeo aea?eiee?a — S0. Iieacaii, ui a ?ioa?aae?
oaiia?aoo? a?ae 163 E aei 300 E aecia/aeueio ?ieue o aaeueioaaii?
aeeneieaoe?e a?ae?a?a? iae??enianueeee iaoai?ci, yeee ? i?ecaiaeeoue aei
a?noa?acenieo yaeu i?oaeiiai aea?eieeoaaiiy.

Aia?oa c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo oaeaee?nii? e?iiceiiee aeeiiaii
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?ee i?oaeiiai aea?eieea a onueiio ae?aiacii?
oaeaeeinoae eiai ?icaeoeo ye i?e eiai c?inoaii?, oae ? i?ae /an eiai
cieeiaiiy. Aecia/aii oaiiiaiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e aeeiai?/ii? oai???
aea?eieeoaaiiy — eiinoaioo aeeiio??oaaiiy B, aia?a?th aeoeaaoe?? U,
aeoeaaoe?eiee ia’?i — oa i?aeoaa?aeaeaii iieiaeaiiy oe??? oai??? i?i
aeeiai?/io iiaaae?ieo i?oaeiiai aea?eieea i?e aaeeeeo ? iaeeo
oaeaeeinoyo eiai ?ooo (a?ae 1 ni/c aei 102 ni/n). Aeyaeaii aiiiae?th
oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? eiinoaioe aeaiio??oaaiiy a ?ioa?aae?
oaiia?aoo? 243 — 923 E.

Caaaeyee ?icaeioo?e o ?iaio? iaoiaeeoe? neio?iiii? ?a?no?aoe?? ?ooo
aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue, ca aeiiiiiaith oaeaee?nii? e?ii-ceiiee
? oeyoii ?a?no?aoe?? neaiae?a aeonoe/ii? ai?n??, ui aaia?o-thoueny,
anoaiiaeaii ca’ycie inoaiiuei? c ?ooii aeeneieaoe?e ? aea/aii ?yae
aeonoe/ieo aoaeo?a, iia’ycaieo c iniaeeainoyie oeueiai ?ooo.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui caoeiaa ai?n?y niinoa??aa?oueny i?e aaeeeeo oaeaeeinoyo
?ooo aeeneieaoe?e (10 ni/n 102 ni/n), eiee a?i ia? a’yceee oa?aeoa?.
Caeiaooi aeai? i?i ?iciiae?e aeeneieaoe?e oa ?o oaeaeeinoae acaeiaae
?ooiiiai neoi/aiiy aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eie-eothoue. Ca?a?no?iaaii
aeonoe/i? neaiaee a?ae ie?aieo aeeneieaoe?e.

Aeae?eaii ia?ao?aeia aei?ii?ithaaiiy caoeo i?e aeoiae? aeeneieaoe?e, ui
aea?eieeothoue, ia iiaa?oith e?enoaea ? aecia/aii ciio oi?ioaaiiy
aeonoe/iiai neaiaeo. Aea/aii eooiaee oa i?inoi?iaee ?iciiae?ee
ai?a?eyoe?eiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii ca’ycie
i?ae ciaeii neaiae?a caoeiai? ai?n?? oa ciaeii oaici?a aonoeie iioieo
aeeneieaoe?e.

Oai?aoe/ii aeine?aeaeaii iniaeeaino? aaeueioaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e,
caaanaiiy caoeo oa aeonoe/iiai aieeao ia ia?aiao?e oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a o
iaai?oiaii?yaeeiaaieo e?enoaeao. C?iaeaii ii??aiyiiy ae?ac?a aeey
oiiiiiiai oa iaaiiiiiai aiane?a o neeo aaeueioaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e, ui
aea? ciiao i?iaiae?coaaoe aei??yi? ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeee aeonoe/ii?
ai?n?? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? eiie?aoi? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe oa iieiaeaiiy:

1. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? a?noa?aceno
aeiaaeeie i?oaeiiai aea?eieea, ui aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe neee, ye?
ae?thoue ia aeeneieaoe?th, ui aea?eieeo?, c aieo a?aoee o eaeueoeeo? a
?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 163 — 300 E ? aecia/eoe iaoai?ci ?o aaeueioaaiiy ca
oeeo oiia.

2. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeeiai?ee i?oaeiiai
aea?eieea i?e eiai c?inoaii? ? cieeiaii?, ui aeicaieeee aecia/eoe
oaiiiaiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e aeeiai?/ii? oai??? aea?eieeoaaiiy.

3. Aenia?eiaioaeueia a?aee?eooy aiiiae?? oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino?
eiinoaioe aeaiio??oaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue, a ?ioa?aae?
oaiia?aoo? 273 — 723 E.

4. Iaoiaeeea neio?iiii? ?a?no?aoe?? ?ooo aeeneieaoe?e, ui
aea?eieeothoue, o ye?e aeei?enoiaothoueny oaeaee?nia e?iiceiiea oa
?a?no?aoe?y neaiae?a aeonoe/ii? ai?n??.

5. Aenia?eiaioaeueia aeae?eaiiy ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy caoeo
aeeneieaoe?yie, ui aea?eieeothoue, aecia/aiiy ciie oi?ioaaiiy oeueiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy ? ?a?no?aoe?y ?iioeuen?a aeonoe/ii? ai?n??, ye?
aaia?othoueny ie?aieie aeeneieaoe?yie i?e aeoiae? ia iiaa?oith.

6. Eooiaee ? i?inoi?iaee ?iciiae?e aei?ii?ithaaiiy caoeo, yeee
noi?iaiaeaeo? ai?a?eyoe?th aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue.

7. Onoaiiaeaiiy caeaaeiino? ciaea neaiaeo aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? a?ae
iai?yieo aaeoi?a Ath?aa?na aeeneieaoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui aiie
?icoe?ththoue oyaeaiiy i?i o?ce/io i?e?iaeo caoeiaiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy.
Aiie aeicaieythoue iaeiicia/ii ?a?no?oaaoe neaia-ee aeonoe/ii? ai?n??,
ye? noi?iaiaeaeothoue i?ioean ?ooo neoi/aiiy aeeneieaoe?e, ui
aea?eieeothoue, ia ??ai? aeaiaioa?ieo aeo?a ieanoe-/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??.
Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? aee-iai?ee aeeneieaoe?e ?
iniaeeaino? i?iyao aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? ? aaaeee-aeie aeey ?icaeoeo oai???
ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? iaiao?aei? aeey o?ce/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? aeey cae?eniaiiy ia?oei?aiiai
eiio?ieth no?oeoo?e ? oaoi?/ii? ae?aa-iinoeee ??ciiiai?oieo
oaa?aeio?eueieo iaoa??ae?a oa eiino?oeoe?e.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny
?acoeueoaoe, ye? iioae?eiaaii o ?iaioao o ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.N.Aieei,
?.?.Aa?aa?ii, A.O.Eeai?eiaei, E.O.E?eaaiei. Iniaenoi aaoi?ii aoei
?ic?iaeaii noaio neio?iiii? ?a?no?aoe?? ?ooo aeeneieaoe?e, ui
aea?eieeothoue, oa neaiae?a aeonoe/ii? ai?n??, ?aae?ciaaii i?aeoe/ia
i?iaaaeaiiy an?o aenia?eiaio?a i?e aea/aii? noaoeee ? aeeiai?ee
aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue. Ie?ai? aenia?eiaioe c ?a?no?aoe??
aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? aeeiiai? ?acii c E.O.E?eaaiei. Aea/aiiy aeeiai?ee
neoi/aiiy aeeneieaoe?e ia oai?aoe/iiio ??ai? i?iaaaeaii A.N.Aieei, a
aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? aaoi?ii ? i?aaenoaaeai? o
aeena?oaoe??, ? aai ?o i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi, aai aoee i?aea?oioyi aeey
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo oai???. Oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? i?noyoueny
o 5 ?icae?e?, aeeiiai? ?acii c A.O.Eeai?eiaei. Aaoi? ?iaioe a?aa aeoeaio
o/anoue a ia?iaoe? an?o aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, o iaaiai?aii?
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, o i?aeaioiaoe? ? ioi?ieaii? ioae?eaoe?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe, aeeeaaeai? o
aeena?oaoe??, aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia VIII Ananithci?e
eiioa?aioe?? c o?ceee i?oeiino? oa ieanoe/iino? iaoae?a ? nieaa?a
(i.Eoeaeoaa, 1976?.), ia Eiioa?aioe?? Oeceea ieanoe/iinoe e?enoaeeia
(i.Oa?e?a, 1976?.), ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? 1993 Materials Week.
Twinning in Advanced Materials III (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1993), ia
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? Nia?aiaiiua i?eai?u,
iaoa?eaeu e oaoiieiaee aeey oaoie/aneie aeeaaiinoeee e ia?ac?ooathuaai
eiio?iey i?iiuoeaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey. Yeaiaioa?iay aaca e eiiieaeoothuea
aeey i?eai?ia IE. Iiaeaioiaea niaoeeaeenoia a noa?a ia?ac?ooathuaai
eiio?iey e oaoie/aneie aeeaaiinoeee (i.Oa?e?a, 1998?.), ia
Iaii??aeueiiio neiiic?oi? aeaaeai?ea A.I.A?eaei?aa Iaoaeeu e nieaau:
Oaciaua i?aa?auaiey, no?oeoo?a, naienoaa (i.Ee?a, 1998?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii o 12 noaooyo o
oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa o 4 ca??eao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ? oac
aeiiia?aeae eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c nieneo
iniiaieo iicia/aiue, anooio, iyoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, i?ei?oie ?
nieneo oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e. Aiia i?noeoue 162 noi??iee, aeeth-/ath/e
31 ?enoiie, 1 oaaeeoeth oa a?ae?ia?ao?th c 193 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? aiae?co?oueny noai i?iaeaie ia /an ii/aoeo ?iaioe iaae
aeena?oaoe??th, iiaeathoueny iniiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa oai?a-oe/i?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a o oaa?aeeo o?eao oa
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny yaeua AA ye aaaeeeaee aenia?eiaioaeueiee iaoiae.
Iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??. Aecia/ai? ca’ycie
i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, iaoa oa iniiai?
caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a, iniiai? eiie?aoi? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe oa iieiaeaiiy, ye?
aeianai? ia caoeno. Iaaaaeaii iaoeiaa oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii aecia/aiiy aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? oa ?icaeyiooi
??ciiiai?oi? aeeiai?/i? i?ioeane, ye? i?eaiaeyoue aei no?o-eoo?ieo ci?i
o oaa?aeiio o?e? ? a?ae?a?athoue ?ieue aeaea?aea aeonoe/ii? ai?n??:
ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y (eiacaiiy, aea?eieeoaaiiy), oacia? oa no?oeoo?i?
ia?aoai?aiiy, ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie o??uei oa ?i. Iaaaaeaii iniiai?
oa?aeoa?enoeee AA, ye? aei??ththoue i?e aeine?-aeaeaii? aeeiai?/ieo
i?ioean?a o oaa?aeeo o?eao. Iienaii iaoiaee ?aea-ioeo?eaoe?? oa
i?iaiicoaaiiy aeaoaeo?a, ui ?icaeaathoueny, ca aeon-oe/iei
aei?ii?ithaaiiyi. C?iaeaii iaeyae ?ia?o i?i noaoeeo ? aee-iai?eo
i?oaeiiai aea?eieeoaaiiy, caa?oath/e iniaeeao oaaao ia aea?-eieeoaaiiy
e?enoae?a eaeueoeeoo. Iienaii iniiai? caeiiii??iino? i?oaeiiai
aea?eieeoaaiiy oa aeonoe/iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui eiai noi?iaiaeaeo?.
Aiae?cothoueny iae?ineii?/ia ? i?e?ineii?/ia oai??? aea?eieeoaaiiy a
oaeiae ?icaeoie aeeneieaoe?eieo oyaeaiue i?i oeae i?ioean. Iienaii
iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee caoeiaiai aei?ii?ithaai-iy i?e oaciaeo
ia?aoai?aiiyo oa iaai?oiaeonoe/ieo yaeuao.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii caaea/? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe,
iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o ia’?eo?a oa iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaaaaeaii ?o
nei?i/aiee iien. Ia’?eoii aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoee c?acee
eaeueoeeoo i?eciaoe/ii? oi?ie, ae??cai? oaeei /eiii, ui iiia?a/iee
ia?a??c i?ecie ni?aiaaeaa c ieiueiith aea?eieeoaaiiy wmetafile8?
??o???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? A ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya???? ???&?
?MathType??p?
???u?????????»????-?????f?o???f?th???umy/????
Oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue oaiiiaiieia?/iiai ia?aiao?o oai??? oiieeo
aea?eiee?a, yeee aecia/a? neeo oa?oy, S(T) aea/aeanue ca a?noa?acenii
aeiaaeeie aea?eieea o oaiia?aoo?iiio ?ioa?aae? 163 — 300 E. Iaaaaeaii
iien onoaiiaee, niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaii? aeey oaeeo aenia?eiaio?a. Aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?/ii? iiaaae?iee aea?eieea canoiniaoaaee oaeaee?nio
e?iiceiieo ca aeiiiiiaith e?iieaia?e NEN-1I c? oaeaee?noth ceiiee 3000
eaae??a ca naeoiaeo. Io?eioaaee cia?aaeaiiy aea?eieea c ?ioa?aaeii /ano,
yeee ia ia?aaeuoaaa 10-3 n oa aecia/aee eiai aeiaaeeio c aaniethoiith
iioeaeith wmetafile8? ??‰????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a ???&??yyyy?????Ayyyayyy`??A?? ???&? ?MathType??
????u?th?????? O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?noyoueny ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo i?oaeiiai
aea?eieea o iie? cnoaieo iai?oa oa iaaaaeaii c?noaaeaiiy oeeo
?acoeueoao?a c oai?aoe/ieie ?ic?aooieaie. ?icaeyiooi neee, ye? ae?thoue
ia aeeneieaoe??, ui aea?eieeothoue, iaoai?ci ?o aaeueioaaiiy, aeeiai?eo
?icaeoeo oa cieeiaiiy i?oaeiiai aea?eieea.

Aeey oiai, uia anoaiiaeoe iaoai?ci aaeueioaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e, ui
aea?eieeothoue, aoee i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioe c aecia/aiiy nee, ye?
ae?thoue ia aeeneieaoe??, ui aea?eieeothoue, o eaac?noaoe/ieo oiiaao o
oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? (163 — 300 E), oiaoi iai?aa-eai? ia
aeyaeaiiy o?ce/ii? i?e?iaee oaiiiaiieia?/iiai ia?aiao?o noaoe/ii?
aeeneieaoe?eii? oai??? oiieeo aea?eiee?a S0. Oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue
oeueiai ia?aiao?o S0(O) aecia/aeanue c a?noa?aceno aeia-aeeie aea?eieea.
Ciaeaeaii aeoaea neeueio caeaaei?noue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e iaaaioaaeaiiy,
yea iaiao?aeia aeey ia?ai?uaiiy aea?eieea, ui ia ii-aea aooe iaoiiaeaia
oaiia?aoo?iith caeaaei?noth i?oaeieo iiaeoe?a eaeueoeeoo, oiio ui
inoaii? o oeueiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? iaei ci?-iththoueny.
Aenia?eiaioaeueiee o?ae caeaaeiino? S0(O) aeia?a ocaiae-aeo?oueny c
oai?aoe/ii ?ic?aoiaaiei, aea aoei i?eiouaiiy, ui ia-oai?ci aaeueioaaiiy
aeeneieaoe?e iae??enianueeee. Ae??oaeueiei ii-iaioii onoaiiaeaiiy
iaoai?cio aaeueioaaiiy ? aecia/aiiy aeoeaa-oe?eiiai ia`?io oa
ii??aiyiiy eiai c oei, yeee i/?eo?oueny oai?a-oe/ii. Io?eiaii cia/aiiy
10-21 ni3, yea a?aeiia?aea? aeoeaa-oe?eiiio ia`?io aeey iae??enianueeiai
iaoai?cio aaeueioaaiiy. Cia/aiiy aaee/eie oa caeaaei?noue S0(O)
na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao aecia/aeueio ?ieue i?e
aaeueioaaii? aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue, a?ae?a?a? iae??enianueeee
iaoai?ci.

Aea/aiiy aeeiai?ee aea?eieea i?iaiaeeeinue i?e eiai c?inoaii? i?ae
ae??th cina?aaeaeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy oa i?e eiai aeoiae? ?c e?enoaeo
i?ae ae??th nee iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao. Aeine?aeaeoaaeenue aea?eieee ia o?e
noaae?? ?icaeoeo, eiee aiie ? iae?ineii?/iei neoi/aiiyi aeeneieaoe?e.
Oaeaee?nia e?iiceiiea aeicaieeea i?ine?aeeoaaoe ca oaeaeeinoyie
ia?ai?uaiiy aeeneieaoe?e ia ??cieo aoaiao ?icaeoeo i?oaeiiai aea?eieea.
Onoaiiaeaii, ui o iiiaio ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ?inoo i?oaeiiai aea?eieea, a
oaeiae ia inoaii?o aoaiao eiai aeoiaeo ?c e?enoaea oaeaeeino?
ia?ai?uaiiy cia/i? (10 ni/n 102 ni/n), a ?o caeaaei?noue a?ae
aeiaaeeie aea?eieea aeey oeueiai ae?aiaciio oaeaeeinoae na?ae/eoue i?i
oa, ui ?oo aeeneieaoe?e ia? a`yceee oa?aeoa?. I?e iaeeo oaeaeeinoyo
?icaeoeo aea?eieea (1 ni/n 10 ni/n) ia inoaiiueiio aoai? eiai c?inoaiiy
oa ia ii/aoeo eiai nei?i/aiiy, eiee a?i aeoiaeeoue c e?enoaeo, oeae ?oo
ia? oa?iiaeoeaaoe?eiee oa?aeoa?, ui aeia?a ocaiaeaeo?oueny c
iieiaeaiiyie aeeiai?/ii? aeeneieaoe?eii? oai??? oiieeo aea?eiee?a.

Aecia/aii oaiiiaiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e aeeiai?/ii? oai??? oiieeo
aea?eiee?a — eiinoaioo aeeiio??oaaiiy B, aia?a?th aeoeaaoe?? U,
aeoeaaoe?eiee ia’?i . Aia?a?y aeoeaaoe?? ?ooo aeeneieaoe?e, ui
aea?eieeothoue, yeo io?eiaii ?c aeaieo i?i aeeiai?eo ?icaeoeo aea?eieea,
neeaea aaee/eio U 0,1 yA. Aaee/eio aeoeaaoe?eiiai ia`?io aoei ioe?iaii
ye 10-19 — 10-20 ni3. Eiinoaioa A, yeo aecia/aii ?c aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo i?i aeo?ae aea?eieea, neeaea 3 10-4 I i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??.
Aeey c`ynoaaiiy o?ce/ii? i?e?iaee eiinoaioe aeeiio??oaaiiy aoei aeeiiaii
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?? caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e A(O) o
?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 243 — 723 E. Cia/aiiy A aeniiiaioe?eii ciaioo?oueny
i?e c?inoaii? oaiia?aoo?e, ui ia ocaiaeaeo?oueny c iiia?aaei?ie
oyaeaiiyie i?i oiiiiiee iaoai?ci aaeueioaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e.
Iaaiai?th?oueny iiaeeeaee ?aeaenaoe?eiee i?ioean, yeee coiiaeth? oaeo
iiaaae?ieo eiinoaioe aeeiio??oaaiiy.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? Aeonoe/i? aoaeoe, iia`ycai? c ?ooii
aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue i?noyoueny ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiai-oaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iniaeeainoae AA, ye? coiiaeai? ?ooii
aeenei-eaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue, o eaeueoeeo?. Aeine?aeaeaii aeonoe/i?
aoaeoe, iia`ycai? c ?ooii aeeneieaoe?e: ia?ao?aeia aei?ii?ithaaiiy
aeeneiea-oe?e, ye? aeoiaeyoue ia iiaa?oith e?enoaeo, aei?ii?ithaaiiy
caoeo i?e aeoiae? ie?aieo aeeneieaoe?e, ai?a?eyoe?eia aei?ii?ithaaiiy.
Iaaiai?ththoueny io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe oa iiaea?oue-ny
?o ii??aiyiiy c iieiaeaiiyie aeeneieaoe?eii? aeeiai?/ii? oai??? oiieeo
aea?eiee?a oa oai??? caoeiaiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e.

?aae?ciaaii neio?iiio ?a?no?aoe?th ia?ai?uaiiy aea?eieea oa AA,
yea i?e oeueiio aeieea?, o aeiaaeeo, eiee aea?eiee aeoiaeeoue ia
iiaa?oith e?enoaeo, oa o aeiaaeeo ai?a?eyoe?? aeeneieaoe?e o e?enoae?.
Caoeiaa aei?ii?ithaaiiy a?ae ?ooiiiai neoi/aiiy aeeneieaoe?e
niin-oa??aa?oueny o ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae, aea iaoai?ci aaeueioaaiiy
aeen-eieaoe?e ia? a`yceee oa?aeoa?. Iaeneioi AA niinoa??aa?oueny oiae?,
eiee oaeaeeino? ?ooo aeeneieaoe?e iaeneiaeuei? (4 102 ni/c). Oi?ia
neaiaeo AA iiai?noth ocaiaeaeo?oueny c oa?aeoa?ii aeeiai?/-ieo
i?ioean?a, ui ?icaeaathoueny i?e aeoiae? i?oaeiiai aea?eieea ?c
e?enoaeo. Aiie?ooaea neaiaeo i?iii?oe?eia oaeaeeino? aeeneieaoe?e.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeae?eaii ia?ao?aeia aei?ii?ithaaiiy caoeo
aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue, i?e ?o aeoiae? ia iiaa?oith e?enoaea oa
aeyaeaii ciio oi?ioaaiiy ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy caoeo neoi/aiiyi
aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeathoue. Ciaeaeaii ae?ac aeey aecia/aiiy
?ici???a oe??? ciie. I?iaiae?ciaaii oiiae ?a?no?aoe?? ?iioeuen?a AA, ui
aaia?othoueny ie?aieie aeeneieaoe?yie i?e aeoiae? ia iiaa?oith e?enoaeo.
Onoaiiaeaii, ui oe? oiiae oae?: ?ici?? ciie iaioee ca na?aaeith
a?aenoaiue i?ae aeeneieaoe?yie o neoi/aii? ia iiiaio aeoiaeo ia
iiaa?oith, a oaeaee?noue aeoiaeo aeeneieaoe?e aeinoaoiuei aeniea.
Aenia?eiaioaeueii ?aae?ciaaii oe? oiiae ? ca?a?no?iaaii ?iioeuene AA,
ye? aaia?othoueny ie?aieie aeeneieaoe?yie i?e aeoiae? ia iiaa?oith
e?enoaeo.

Iieacaii, ui a oiiaao, eiee iai?yiie oaeaeeino? aeeneieaoe?e ii
a?aeiioaiith aei iiaa?oi? ia ci?ieany, a ci?ieany eeoa ciae
aeeneieaoe??, oi ci?ieeanue oaeiae ? iiey?i?noue neaiaeo ai?n??. Ciae
neaiaeo AA aecia/a?oueny ciaeii aeiaooeo bv (b — aaeoi? Ath?aa?na, v —
oaeaee?noue aeeneieaoe??). Ciae oeueiai aeiaooeo aecia/a? ? ciae
eiiiiiaio oaici?a aonoeie iioieo aeeneieaoe?e. Oea aea? iiaeeea?noue,
aei??thth/e AA, io?eioaaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i oa, c?inoa? /e ciaioo?oueny
ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y aea?eieeoaaiiyi c /anii.

Iane/aia AA i?e ai?a?eyoe?? aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue,
niinoa??aa?oueny ia inoaiiueiio aoai? cieeiaiiy aea?eieea. C?iaeaii
ioe?ieo ?aae?ona ai?a?eyoe?? aeeneieaoe?e, yeee aeey aeeneieaoe?e, ui
aea?eieeothoue, aei??aith? i?eaeecii 10-7 ni. Io?eiaii eooiao oa
i?inoi?iao caeaaeiino? aei?ii?ithaaiiy caoeo, yea noi?iaiaeaeo?
ai?a?eyoe?th aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue. Onoaiiaeaii ?o ye?nia
ocaiaeaeaiiy c oai???th.

O i`yoiio ?icae?e? Aeonoe/ia ai?n?y i?e oaciaeo ia?aoai-?aiiyo oa
iaai?oiaeonoe/ieo yaeuao i?eaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
iniaeeainoae AA i?e oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiiyo oa iaai?oiaeonoe/ieo yaeuao o
oaa?aeeo o?eao. ?icaeyiooi i?ioeane caoaeaeaiiy i?oaeieo oaeeue i?e
aaeueioaaii? aeeneieaoe?e, c`yniaaii aieea iaai?oii?oaeii? aca?iiae?? ia
?aeaenaoe?ei? i?ioeane oa iiaaae?ieo aeiiaiieo no?oeoo? iiaeeco oaciaeo
ia?aoiae?a.

Oai?aoe/ii io?eiaii ae?ace aeey nee aaeueioaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e o
aioeoa?iiaaiaoeeao oeio eaaea a?nue. Iieacaii, ui o ae?aeaeo?eeao
aeeiai?ea aeeneieaoe?e aecia/a?oueny iaai?oieie oa oiiiiieie neeaie
aaeueioaaiiy, ? i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy caeaaeiino? oeeo nee a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e, iaai?oiiai iiey oa oaeaeeino? aeeneieaoe?e. Aiaeia?/iee
?icaeyae aoei c?iaeaii o aeiaaeeo aioeoa?iiaai?oiiai iaoaeo. Io?eiaii
ae?ace aeey caeaaeiino? ia-?aiao??a oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue o
aaaaoiaeiiaiieo aioeoa?iiaaia-oeeao a?ae aiie?ooaee caoeiaiai iiey.
Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicai-eythoue i?iaiae?coaaoe aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeai?, ye? aei??yi? ca aei-iiiiaith aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeee, ui
?a?no?othoue aeonoe/io ai?n?th.

AENIIAEE

1. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aea/aii oaiia?aoo?io caeaaei?noue neee oa?oy,
yea ae?? ia aeeneieaoe?th, ui aea?eieeo?, o eaeueoeeo?. Ia i?aenoaa?
oe??? caeaaeiino? oa a?aeiieo aeaieo i?i aaee/eio aeoeaaoe?eiiai ia`?io
anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao (163 — 300 E) aecia/aeueio
?ieue o aaeueioaaii? aeeneieaoe?e a?ae?a?a? iae??enianueeee iaoai?ci
aaeueioaaiiy. Oeei naiei c`yniaaii o?ce/io i?e?iaeo oaiiiaiieia?/iiai
ia?aiao?o noaoe/ii? aeeneieaoe?eii? oai??? oiieeo aea?eiee?a — S0.

2. Ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo oaeaee?nii? e?iiceiiee aea/aii aeeiai?eo
?icaeoeo i?oaeiiai aea?eieea i?ae ae??th cina?aaeaeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
oa eiai aeoiaeo c e?enoaeo, eiee a?aenooiy ciai?oiy iai?oaa (i?ae ae??th
nee iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao). Onoaiiaeaii, ui i?e iaeeo oaeaeeinoyo
c?inoaiiy /e nei?i/aiiy aea?eieea (1 ni/n 10 ni/n) ?oo ia?
oa?iiaeoeaaoe?eiee, a i?e aaeeeeo oaeaeeinoyo (10 ni/n 102 ni/n) —
a`yceee oa?aeoa?.

3. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/aii ia?aiao?e aeeneieaoe?eii? oai???
aeeiai?/ii? iiaaae?iee i?oaeiiai aea?eieea — eiinoaioo aeeiio??oaaiiy A,
aia?a?th aeoeaaoe?? U, aeoeaaoe?eiee ia`?i , ? iieacaii iiaeeeaino?
canoinoaaiiy oe??? oai??? aeey iieno aeeiai?/ii? iiaaae?iee aea?eieea o
ae?aiacii? aaeeeeo ? iaeeo oaeaeeinoae ?ooo.

4. Aeyaeaii aiiiae?th oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? (a ?ioa?aae?
oaiia?aoo? 243 — 723 E) eiinoaioe aeeiio??oaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e, ui
aea?eieeothoue, yea iieyaa? o oiio, ui ?? cia/aiiy ie ca?eueoo?oueny ?c
c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e, ye oea iiaeiii aoei a aooe o aeiaaeeo oiiiiiiai
iaoai?cio aaeueioaaiiy, a aeniiiaioe?eii ciaioo?oueny. Oea na?ae/eoue
i?i oa, ui aecia/aeueiee iaoai?ci aaeueioaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e, ye?
ni?e/eiththoue aea?eieeoaaiiy, o aeine?aeaeaiiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? oa
oaeaeeinoae iaoiiaeaiee ia?aa?aii ?aeaenaoe?eieo i?ioean?a, ye?
noeioeueiaaii ?ooii aeeneieaoe?e.

5. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo neio?iiii? ?a?no?aoe?? ?ooo neoi/aiiy
aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue, ca aeiiiiiaith oaeaee?nii? e?iiceiiee
oa neaiae?a aeonoe/ii? ai?n??. Canoinoaaiiy oe??? iaoiaeeee aeicaieeei
iiaeeaeoe oyaeaiiy i?i aeeiai?eo aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue, oa i?i
o?ce/io i?e?iaeo caoeiaiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

6. Iieacaii, ui caoeiaa aei?ii?ithaaiiy, yea aaia?o?oueny ?ooii
neoi/aiiy aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue, niinoa??aa?oueny o?eueee i?e
aaeeeeo oaeaeeinoyo ?ooo aeeneieaoe?e (10 ni/n 102 ni/n), eiee a?i ia?
a`yceee oa?aeoa?. Iaeneioi aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? niinoa??aa?oueny i?e
iaeneiaeueieo oaeaeeinoyo ?ooo aeeneieaoe?e, a aiie?ooaea ?? neaiaeo
i?iii?oe?eia oaeaeeino? aeeneieaoe?e.

7. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeae?eaii ia?ao?aeia aei?ii?ithaaiiy caoeo
aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue, i?e ?o aeoiae? ia iiaa?oith e?enoaea,
oa aeyaeaii ciio oi?ioaaiiy ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?-ithaaiiy, ?ici??e yei?
ca?aathoueny c oai?aoe/ii ?ic?aoiaaieie.

8. Onoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ci?i? ciaeo aeeneieaoe?e, ye? aeoiaeyoue ia
iiaa?oith e?enoaea, niinoa??aa?oueny ? ci?ia iiey?iino? neaiaeo
aeonoe/ii? ai?n??. Ciae neaiaeo caoeiai? ai?n?? aecia/a?oueny ciaeii
oaici?a aonoeie iioieo aeeneieaoe?e, ui aeicaiey? i?e iayaiino? aeaieo
i?i caoeiao ai?n?th c?iaeoe aeniiaee i?i oa, c?inoa? /e ciaioo?oueny
ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y i?oaeiei aea?eieeoaaiiyi e?enoaeo c /anii.

9. Aenia?eiaioaeueii ?aae?ciaaii oiiae ?a?no?aoe?? aeonoe/ii?
ai?n??, i?e yeeo ia oii? neaiaeo a?ae neoi/aiiy aeeneieaoe?e aaeaeiny
niinoa??aaoe ?iioeuene aeonoe/ii? ai?n??, ye? aaia?othoueny ie?aieie
aeeneieaoe?yie i?e ?o aeoiae? ia iiaa?oith e?enoaeo.

10. Iieacaii, ui ?ioaineaia aeonoe/ia ai?n?y i?e ai?a?eyoe??
aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue, niinoa??aa?oueny ia inoaiiueiio aoai?
cieeiaiiy aea?eieea. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aea/aii eooiao oa i?inoi?iao
caeaaeiino? ai?a?eyoe?eiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy caoeo, ye? aeia?a
ocaiaeaeothoueny c oai???th.

11. Aeine?aeaeaii i?ioeane ooai?aiiy ? iioe?aiiy i?oaeieo eieeaaiue
o iaai?oiaii?yaeeiaaieo e?enoaeao c aeaoaeoaie e?enoae?/ii? no?oeoo?e
(aeeneieaoe??) oa iaai?oii? no?oeoo?e (aeiiaie) o ca`yceo c aiaeia??th
i?ae i?oaeieie aea?eieeaie ? iaai?oieie aea?eieeaie (aeiiaiaie).
Io?eiaii ae?ace aeey nee aaeueioaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e o aioeoa?iiaaiaoeeao
oeio eaaea a?nue. Iieacaii, ui o ae?aeaeo?e/ieo aioeoa?iiaaiaoeeao
aeeiai?ea aeeneieaoe?e aecia/a?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi i?ae neeaie
iaaiiiiiai oa oiiiiiiai aaeueioaaiiy, ye? ii ??ciiio caeaaeaoue a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e, ciai?oiueiai iaai?oiiai iiey ? oaeaeeino? aeeneieaoe?e, ui
aeia?a ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie.

12. Aeine?aeaeaii aianie aeiiaiieo no?iie o i?ioeane iioe?aiiy oa
ca?iaeaeaiiy caoeiaeo oaeeue a aioeoa?iiaaiaoeeao o i?ii?aeiiio noai?.
Ia/eneaii aaee/eie ci?uaiiy iaai?oieo iie?a oa oaiia?aoo? oaciaeo
ia?aoiae?a, ui aeeeeeathoueny a?ia?caoeii.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CAeIAOAA*A

CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Aieei A.N., Aa?aa? ?.E., Eeaoee A.O. Oaiia?aoo?iay caaeneiinoue neeu
o?aiey, aeaenoaothuae ia aeaieieeothuoth aeeneieaoeeth // OOO. — 1970. —
O.12, ?11. — N.3198-3201.

2. Aieei A.N., Aa?aa? ?.E., Eeaoee A.O. Aeeiaieea en/aciiaaiey oi?oaiai
aeaieieea // OOO. — 1974. — O.16, ?3. — N.591-593.

3. Neio?iiiay ?aaeno?aoeey ia?aiauaiey aeeneieaoeee e aaia?e?oaiiai eie
caoeiaiai eceo/aiey / A.N.Aieei, ?.E.Aa?aa?, A.O.Eeaoee, E.O.E?eaaiei //
OOO. — 1975. — O.17, ?5. — N.1541-1543.

4. Aieei A.N., Eeaoee A.O., E?eaaiei E.O. Oneiaey ?aaeno?aoeee
eiioeuenia aeonoe/aneie yiennee, aaia?e?oaiuo i?e auoiaea ia
iiaa?oiinoue ioaeaeueiuo aeeneieaoeee // AEYOO. — 1982. — O.82, ?2. —
N.504-508.

5. Aieei A.N., Aa?aa? ?.E., Eeaoee A.O. Enneaaeiaaiea oaiia?aoo?iie
caaeneiinoe neeu o?aiey, aeaenoaothuae ia aeaieieeothuoth aeeneieaoeeth
// Oece/aneea i?ioeannu ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee i?e ieceeo
oaiia?aoo?ao. — Eeaa: Iaoeiaa aeoiea. — 1974. — N.267-272.

6. Aieei A.N., Eeaoee A.O. Aiiiaeey oaiia?aoo?iie caaeneiinoe eiinoaiou
aeaiioe?iaaiey aeaieieeothuae aeeneieaoeee // OOO. — 1983. — O.25, ?3. —
N.722-726.

7. Aieei A.N., Aa?aa? ?.E., Eeaoee A.O. Aeeiaieea ?acaeoey aeaieieea
iiae nin?aaeioi/aiiie iaa?oceie // OOO. — 1975. — O.17, ?12. —
N.3655-3657.

8. Yenia?eiaioaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea ia?aoiaeiiai eceo/aiey caoea
aeeneieaoeeyie i?e eo auoiaea ia iiaa?oiinoue / A.N.Aieei, ?.E.Aa?aa?,
A.O.Eeaoee, E.O.E?eaaiei // AEYOO. — 1976. — O.71, ?2(8). — N.708-713.

9. Enneaaeiaaiea aeonoe/aneie yiennee, nii?iaiaeaeathuae aiieaeeyoeeth
aeeneieaoeee e eo auoiae ia iiaa?oiinoue / A.N.Aieei, ?.E.Aa?aa?,
A.O.Eeaoee, E.O.E?eaaiei // Oeceea ieanoe/iinoe e?enoaeeia. Oacenu
aeiee. eiioa?aioeee 4-7 ieoya?y 1976 a. — OOEIO. — 1976. — N.58-59.

10. Oai?aoe/aneia e yenia?eiaioaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea aeeiaieee oi?oaiai
aeaieieea / A.N.Aieei, ?.E.Aa?aa?, A.O.Eeaoee, E.O.E?eaaiei // Oeceea
ieanoe/iinoe e?enoaeeia. Oacenu aeiee. eiioa?aioeee 4-7 ieoya?y 1976 a.
— OOEIO. — 1976. — N.87.

11. Aieei A.N., Eeaoee A.O., E?eaaiei E.O. Yenia?eiaioaeueiia
enneaaeiaaiea caoeiaiai eceo/aiey i?e aiieaeeyoeee aeeneieaoeee a
e?enoaeea // AEYOO. — 1980. — O.78, ?2. — N.797-801.

12. Aieei A.N., Eeaoee A.O., E?eaaiei E.O. ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeeneieaoeee a
aeaeaeouainy neiieaiee e aaia?e?oaiay eie aeonoe/aneay yienney // OOO. —
1984. — O.26, ?6. — N.1625-1629.

13. Eeaoee A.O., Eeaieeia A.O. Oi?iiaeaiea aeeneieaoeee e aeonoe/aneay
yienney a iaaiaoeeao // AAIO. Aaeooi, /enoua iaoa?eaeu,
naa?oi?iaiaeieee. — 1998. — ?1(2). — N.102-105.

14. Eeaoee A.O., Eeaieeia A.O. Iniaaiiinoe aeonoe/aneie yiennee a
iaoa?eaeao n iae?iaeaoaeoaie oeia aeiiaiiuo a?aieoe // AAIO. Aaeooi,
/enoua iaoa?eaeu, naa?oi?iaiaeieee. — 1998. — ?1(2). — N.106-108.

15. Aeonoe/aneay yienney eae i?iyaeaiea aeeiaie/aneeo yaeaiee a oaa?aeuo
oaeao / A.A.A?thoiaaoeeee, A.O.Eeaoee, A.O.Eeaieeia, ?.E.Eociaoeiaa //
Nia?aiaiiua i?eai?u, iaoa?eaeu e oaoiieiaee aeey oaoie/aneie
aeeaaiinoeee e ia?ac?ooathuaai eiio?iey i?iiuoeaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey.
Yeaiaioiay aaca e eiiieaeoothuea aeey i?eai?ia IE. Iiaeaioiaea
niaoeeaeenoia a noa?a IE e OAe. Na. iao/i. o?oaeia Iaaeaeoia?.
iao/ii-oaoi. eiio. 16-19 ia?oa 1998 a. — Oa?ueeia, 1998. — N.228-230.

16. Eeaoee A.O., Eeaieeia A.O., Eociaoeiaa ?.E. Oaciaua e no?oeoo?iua
i?aa?auaiey eae enoi/iee aeonoe/aneie yiennee // Iaoaeeu e nieaau:
Oaciaua i?aa?auaiey, no?oeoo?a, naienoaa. Oacenu aeiee. Iaii?eaeueiiai
neiiiceoia aeaaeaieea A.I.A?eaeiaaa 21-25 naioya?y 1998 a. — Eeaa: EIO.
— 1998. — N.28.

E?aoee Aieiaeeie? Oaaei?iae/. Aeonoe/ia ai?n?y ye i?iya aeeiai?ee
aeaoaeo?a e?enoae?/ii? a?aoee. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.07 — o?ceea oaa?aeiai
o?ea. Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aca?iica`yceo i?ae ?ooii aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue,
? aeonoe/iith ai?n??th, yea aaia?o?oueny oeei ?ooii. Onoaiiaeaii neee,
ye? ae?thoue ia ia?ooiio aeeneieaoe?th, ui aea?eieeo?, o eaeueoeeo? i?e
iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao oa iaoai?ci aaeueioaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e o oeeo
oiiaao. Aecia/ai? ia?aiao?e oaiiiaiieia?/ii? aeeiai?/ii? oai???
aea?eieeoaaiiy. Aeyaeaii aiiiae?th caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e
eiinoaioe aeaiio??oaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue. ?aae?ciaaii
iaoiaeeeo neio?iiii? ?a?no?aoe?? ?ooo aeeneieaoe?e, ui aea?eieeothoue,
yea neeaaea?oueny c oaeaee?nii? e?iiceiiee oa ?a?no?aoe?? neaiae?a
aeonoe/ii? ai?n??. Aeae?eaii ia?ao?aeia aei?ii?ithaaiiy caoeo
aeeneieaoe?yie, ui aea?eieeothoue oa aecia/aii ciio oi?ioaaiiy oeueiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Io?eiaii eooiaee oa i?inoi?iaee ?iciiae?ee
aei?ii?ithaaiiy caoeo, yeee noi?iaiaeaeo? ai?a?eyoe?th aeeneieaoe?e, ui
aea?eieeothoue. Anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue ciaea neaiaeo aeonoe/ii? ai?n??
a?ae iai?yieo aaeoi?a Ath?aa?na aeeneieaoe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeonoe/ia ai?n?y, aeeneieaoe??, ui aea?eieeothoue,
noaoeea oa aeeiai?ea i?oaeiiai aea?eieeoaaiiy, eaeueoeeo,
iaai?oiaii?yaeeiaai? e?enoaee.

Kivshik Vladimir Fedorovich. Acoustic emission as a manifestation of
dynamics of crystal lattice. Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate degree of physics and mathematics by
specialty 01.04.07 — physics of solid state. Kharkiv State University,
Kharkiv, Ukraina, 1998.

Dissertation contains results of experimental investigations of
the interplay between the mobility of twinning dislocations and the
acoustic emission generated by them. The forces that influence the
twinning dislocations in calcite at low temperatures and the mechanism
of deceleration of dislocations under these conditions are determined.
The phenomenological parameters of dynamically twinning theory are
defined. The anomaly of the temperature dependence of the twinning
dislocations damping constant is found. The method of synchronous
registration of the movement of twinning dislocations, which includes
speed video filming and registration of signals of acoustic emission, is
realized. The transition radiation of sound of twinning dislocations is
extracted and a zone of formation of that radiation is defined. The
angular and spatial distributions of radiation of the sound produced by
the annihilation of twinning dislocations are obtained. The dependence
of the sign of signal of the acoustic emission on the direction of
Burger’s vector of dislocation is determined.

Key words: acoustic emission, twinning dislocations, statics and
dynamics of elastic twinning, calcite, magnetically ordered crystals.

Eeaoee Aeaaeeie? Oaaei?iae/. Aeonoe/aneay yienney eae i?iyaeaiea
aeeiaieee aeaoaeoia e?enoaeee/aneie ?aoaoee. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.07 — oeceea
oaa?aeiai oaea. Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia,
1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth nayce iaaeaeo aeonoe/aneie
yienneae, aaia?e?oaiie aeaeaeoueiny ainaiaeai aeaieieeothueo
aeeneieaoeee, e aeeiaie/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aeeneieaoeee, a oaeaea a
onoaiiaeaiee oece/aneie i?e?iaeu caoeiaiai eceo/aiey, nii?iaiaeaeathuaai
aeaeaeaiea aeeneieaoeee, eae a eiiiuo e?enoaeeao eaeueoeeoa, oae e a
iaaieoioii?yaei/aiiuo e?enoaeeao.

Ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo i oaiia?aoo?iie
caaeneiinoe neeu o?aiey e aaee/eiu aeoeaaoeeiiiiai iauaia onoaiiaeaii,
/oi i?e ieceeo oaiia?aoo?ao (O = 163 300 E) ii?aaeaeythuoth ?ieue
ea?aao iaea?enianeee iaoaieci oi?iiaeaiey aeaieieeothueo aeeneieaoeee,
eioi?ue e i?eaiaeeo e aenoa?aceniui yaeaieyi i?e oi?oaii aeaieieeiaaiee.
Oai naiui onoaiiaeaia oece/aneay i?e?iaea oaiiiaiieiae/aneiai ia?aiao?a
noaoe/aneie aeeneieaoeeiiiie oai?ee oiieeo aeaieieeia — S0. Eco/aiu
aeeiaieea ?inoa aeaieieea iiae nin?aaeioi/aiiie iaa?oceie e aai auoiae
ec e?enoaeea iiae aeaenoaeai nee iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey. Ii?aaeaeaiu
oaiiiaiieiae/aneea ia?aiao?u aeeiaie/aneie oai?ee oiieeo aeaieieeia —
eiinoaioa aeaiioe?iaaiey A, yia?aey aeoeaaoeee U e aeoeaaoeeiiiue iauai
. Iaia?oaeaia aiiiaeey oaiia?aoo?iie caaeneiinoe eiinoaiou
aeaiioe?iaaiey aeaieieeothueo aeeneieaoeee — a? yeniiiaioeeaeueiia
nieaeaiea n iiauoaieai oaiia?aoo?u, /oi i?ioeai?a/eo i?aaenoaaeaieth i
oiiiiiuo iaoaieciao oi?iiaeaiey e naeaeaoaeuenoaoao a iieueco i?ioaeaiey
?aeaenaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a e?enoaeea, noeioee?iaaiiuo aeaeaeaieai
aeeneieaoeee. ?aaeeciaaia iaoiaeeea neio?iiiie ?aaeno?aoeee aeaeaeaiey
aeaieieeothueo aeeneieaoeee, aeeth/athuay nei?inoioth eeiinuaieo e
?aaeno?aoeeth neaiaeia aeonoe/aneie yiennee, aeey neo/aaa auoiaea
aeaieieea ia iiaa?oiinoue e aiieaeeyoeee aeeneieaoeee a e?enoaeea.
Caoeiaia eceo/aiea aeaeaeouaainy neiieaiey aeaieieeothueo aeeneieaoeee
iaaethaeaaony a aeeaiaciia nei?inoae, aaea eiaao ianoi ayceee iaoaieci
oi?iiaeaiey aeeneieaoeee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaeneioi yiennee eiaao ianoi,
eiaaea nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey aeeneieaoeee iaeneiaeueiu (420 ni/c). Oi?ia
neaiaea caoeiaie yiennee iieiinoueth niaeanoaony n oa?aeoa?ii
aeeiaie/aneeo i?ioeannia, ?acaeaathueony i?e auoiaea oi?oaiai aeaieieea
ec e?enoaeea, a aiieeooaea neaiaea i?iii?oeeiiaeueia nei?inoe
aeeneieaoeee. Yenia?eiaioaeueii auaeaeaii ia?aoiaeiia eceo/aiea caoea
aeaieieeothueie aeeneieaoeeyie i?e eo auoiaea ia iiaa?oiinoue e?enoaeea
e iaia?oaeaia ciia oi?ie?iaaiey ia?aoiaeiiai eceo/aiey caoea neiieaieai
aeaieieeothueo aeeneieaoeee. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu oneiaey ?aaeno?aoeee
eiioeuenia aeonoe/aneie yiennee, aaia?e?oaiuo i?e auoiaea ia
iiaa?oiinoue e?enoaeea ioaeaeueiuo aeeneieaoeee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi yoe
oneiaey oaeiau: ?acia? ciiu iaiueoa n?aaeiaai ?annoiyiey iaaeaeo
aeeneieaoeeyie a neiieaiee a iiiaio auoiaea ia iiaa?oiinoue, a nei?inoue
auoiaea aeeneieaoeee aeinoaoi/ii auniea. Yenia?eiaioaeueii ?aaeeciaaiu
yoe oneiaey e ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu eiioeuenu aeonoe/aneie yiennee,
aaia?e?oaiua i?e auoiaea ia iiaa?oiinoue ioaeaeueiuo aeeneieaoeee.
Iieacaii, /oi eioaineaiay aeonoe/aneay yienney i?e aiieaeeyoeee
aeaieieeothueo aeeneieaoeee iaaethaeaaony ia iineaaeiai yoaia
en/aciiaaiey aeaieieea. Iieo/aiu oaeiaia e i?ino?ainoaaiiia
?ani?aaeaeaiey eceo/aiey caoea, nii?iaiaeaeathuaai aiieaeeyoeeth
aeaieieeothueo aeeneieaoeee. Ioeaiai ?aaeeon aiieaeeyoeee aeeneieaoeee,
eioi?ue aeey aeaieieeothueo aeeneieaoeee ?aaai i?eaeeceoaeueii 10-7 ni.
Onoaiiaeaia caaeneiinoue ciaea neaiaea aeonoe/aneie yiennee io
iai?aaeaiey aaeoi?a Ath?aa?na aeeneieaoeee, /oi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue,
ecia?yy aeonoe/aneoth yienneth, iieo/aoue eioi?iaoeeth i oii, ?anoao eee
oiaiueoaaony ieanoe/aneay aeaoi?iaoeey aeaieieeiaaieai ai a?aiaie.
Oai?aoe/anee iieo/aiu au?aaeaiey aeey nee oi?iiaeaiey aeeneieaoeee a
aioeoa??iiaaiaoeeao oeia e?aeay inue. Iieacaii, /oi a aeeyeaeo?eeao
aeeiaieea aeeneieaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony iaaiiiiuie e oiiiiiuie neeaie
oi?iiaeaiey, e i?iaaaeaii n?aaiaiea caaeneiinoe yoeo nee io oaiia?aoo?u,
iaaieoiiai iiey e nei?inoe aeeneieaoeee. Aiaeiae/iia ?anniio?aiea
auiieiaii aeey neo/ay aioeoa??iiaaieoiiai iaoaeea. Iieo/aiu au?aaeaiey
aeey caaeneiinoe ia?aiao?ia oaciauo i?aa?auaiee a iiiaiaeiiaiiuo
aioeoa??iiaaiaoeeao io aiieeooaeu caoeiaiai iiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeonoe/aneay yienney, aeaieieeothuea
aeeneieaoeee, noaoeea e aeeiaieea oi?oaiai aeaieieeiaaiey, eaeueoeeo,
iaaieoioii?yaei/aiiua e?enoaeeu.

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