EUeA?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? ?AAIA O?AIEA

EA?AIAIEE IENAIA ?AAI?AIA

OAeE
658.144

AEOe?THAAIIss

A OIIAAO ?EIEIAI? O?AINOI?IAOe??

AEIIII?EE OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 08.01.01.— aeiiii?/ia oai??y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

EUeA?A 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia
O?aiea, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

I a o e i a e e e a ? ? a i e e – eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Aaoaiaithe C?iia?e A?eai?iae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii?
oai??? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

I o ? oe ? e i ? i i i i a i o e:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oeaii/oe ?aai Iiaianiae/, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e oai?aoe/ii? aeiiii?ee oa aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie Aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio ?uoe ?aai ?aaiiae/, eaoaae?a
?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa aeiiii?/ii? oai??? Euea?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai??
aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie ?i.N.C.Aaeeoeueeiai

I ? i a ? ae i a o n o a i i a a – ?inoeooo ?aa?iiaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai ?icaeoeo
i?iieneiaino? ?aa?iio, i.Euea?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “23” ethoiai 1999?. i 15.20 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.051.01 Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea ca aae?anith 290008, I.Euea?a,
i?.Naiaiaee 18

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaiaO?aiea ca aae?anith i.Euea?a,
aoe.Ae?aaiiaiiaa 5.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee ”20” n?/iy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Iai/eoei N.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy oa nooi?iue ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie.
?eieiaa o?ainoi?iaoe?y aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee ia?aaeaa/a?
aeeaie? ci?ie o ??cieo noa?ao aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy, ianaiia?aae o oi?iao
aeaniino?. C aaaaoueio nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?e/ei o?ainoi?iaoe?y
aea?aeaaii? oi?ie aeaniino? noaea ?oo?eiith neeith oa na?oeaaeiith
?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee. O i?ioean? o?ainoi?iaoe??
aea?aeaaii? aeaniino? oi?io?oueny aaaaoioeeaaeia aeiiii?ea oa ?inoeooo
i?eaaoii? aeaniino?. Noaiiaeaiiy i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ? ??ciiiai?oieo
oi?i ?? ?aae?caoe?? ? neeaaeiei yaeuai, yea ii?iaeaeo? ianooaai?
?inoeoooe?ei? ci?ie o noni?euenoa? ? ia?aaeaa/a? ia?ao?ae noa’?eo?a
ainiiaea?thaaiiy aei iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei /a?ac caione ?eieiaeo
iaoai?ci?a.

Oi?ioaaiiy iaaea?aeaaieo oi?i aeaniino? noai?th? noeioee, ye? ?
?oo?eiith neeith ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Naia ?aaeeeaeueia ci?ia i?aa
aeaniino? ciiaea iiaeieaoe a?ae/oaeaiiy, aaeaeoae?noue oa ianeai?noue
ethaeae, a?ae?iaeeoe a ieo ?i?oe?aoeai?noue, oai?/ee ?ioa?an oa noeioee
aei i?aoe?. O?ainoi?iaoe?y a?aeiinei aeaniino? ni?eyoeia iiya? iiaeo
i?aeoiae?a aei i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa, noai?aiith
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aaeoiia ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
iaiaaeaieo aeiiii?/ieo ?ano?n?a— iaoa??aeueieo oa ethaenueeeo— oa
aoaeoeaiiio ?o ?iciiae?eia? a ainiiaea?noa?.

Ia?oei e?ieii aei i?eaaoecaoe?? oa naiino?eiiai aaaeaiiy ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? ? aeoe?thaaiiy. Aeoe?thaaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaniino? ia?
noeioethaaoe i?aei?e?iieoeueeo aeoeai?noue /a?ac o/anoue a?iiaaeyi o
aeeoi? aea?aeaaiiai iaeia, aeanoue iiaeeea?noue caeeanoe i?aea?oioy aeey
oi?ioaaiiy aeanieea, noai?eoue oiiae aeey aeoioethaaiiy a?ioiaeo eioo?a
o aeaeyae? aeoe?iia?iiai eai?oaeo, i?enei?eoue noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie
?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a a Oe?a?i?, iiceoeaii aieeia ia o?iainiao nenoaio
e?a?ie a oe?eiio. Aeoe?thaaiith a?aeaiaeyoue aaaeeeao ?ieue o i?ioean?
?ic?iaeaiiy iniiaieo iai?yi?a aeoiaeo aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa ?c
aeai?aneaiiai noaio.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy noo? aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie aeaniino?, ?? ia?aaaa oa
iaaeie?e?a, i?e/ei iioe?aiiy aeoe?iia?ieo i?aei?e?inoa a aeiiii?oe?
aaaaoueio e?a?i, na?oiaiai aeina?aeo aeei?enoaiiy aeoe?thaaiiy oa
aeoe?iia?ieo a?aeiinei, iaaoaathoue aeey oiia ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee
aeaaeae? a?eueoi? aeooaeueiino?.

O a?o/eciyi?e oa ca?oa?aei?e e?oa?aoo?? ?nio? /eiaei ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
i?aoeue, i?enay/aieo aea/aiith aeiiii?/ieo, i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo ?
nioe?aeueieo aniaeo?a aeoe?iia?ii? aeaniino?. ?? aiae?coaaee eeaneee
aeiiii?/ii? iaoee, cie?aia Aeae.N.I?eue, E.Ia?en oa A.Ia?oae.
Aeoe?iia?iei a?aeiineiai i?enay/ai? i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo aeiiii?no?a
I.Ooaai-Aa?aiianueeiai, A.Eoae?yoiaa, N.Ii/a?iiai, N.I?aea?ae?aa,
I.?uaiea, TH.Iaee?ia, A.Caai?nueeiai oa ?ioeo. Na?aae ca?oa?aeieo
aeiiii?no?a, ye? c?iaeee aaaiiee aianie o oai??th aeoe?iia?ii?
aeaniino?, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe I.Naithaeniia, Aeae.Aaea?aeoa, N.Oei?aina,
O.Iaoa?niia, E.Eaeni, Aeae.Naena oa ?i.

Iae/ano?oa ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c i?iaeaiaie aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie aeaniino?
oa aeoe?thaaiiy a Oe?a?i? aena?oeththoueny ? iieai?cothoueny ia
noi??ieao iaoeiaeo aeo?iae?a, oaeeo ye “Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie”, “O?iaine
Oe?a?ie”, “Aaie?anueea ni?aaa”, “?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae”, Aea?aeaai?noue”
oa o ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo, cie?aia o aacaoao “O?iainiaa Oe?a?ia”,
“Ca?eaei iaaeaee”, “?iaanoeoe?eia aacaoa”, “Aeaiue”, “Ae?ei”, “Oe?a?ia
Business” oa aeayeeo ?ioeo.

Iaeiae aeaeaei ia an? aniaeoe oe??? oe?iei? i?iaeaie c’yniaai? ?
iaa?oioiaai?, iniaeeai o?, ui noinothoueny aeoe?iia?ii? aeaniino? o
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?. Aiaeii/an aaaaoi ieoaiue iinyoue aeeneon?eiee
oa?aeoa?, a ??aaiue oai?aoe/iiai aea/aiiy aeaiiai ieoaiiy a?aenoa? a?ae
iio?aa i?aeoeee. ?nio? cia/iee ?ic?ea i?ae iioaioe?eieie iiaeeeainoyie,
ye? caeeaaeai? a aeoe?iia?i?e oi?i? aeaniino? oa ?aaeueiei ?o
aeei?enoaiiyi a e?a?iao, aea ca?iaeaeo?oueny ?eieiaa aeiiii?ea.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? iae?iaeiiii?/iiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy ainiiaea?nueei?
nenoaie Oe?a?ie ? iio?aaa iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo oa
iaoiaeieia?/ieo ieoaiue aeoe?thaaiiy, aea/aiiy eiai aeiiii?/ieo oa
i?aai?caoe?eieo iniaeeainoae, ia?aaeaa/aiiy iiaeeeaeo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iane?aee?a, ?ic?iaeaiiy i?iiiceoe?e oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c aeoe?thaaiiy c iaoith oieeiaiiy iaaaaeaieo iiieeie oa
aaeineiiaeaiiy oeueiai i?ioeano.

sse oaea cacia/aeiny, o a?o/eciyi?e iaooe? i?iaeaia aeoe?iia?ieo
oi?ioaaiue ?ic?iaeaia ua iaaeinoaoiuei. Ia?aaeon?i, iaaeinoaoiuei
aeine?aeaeaii ia’?eoeai? ia?aaeoiiae oa oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa a Oe?a?i?, ia i?iaiae?ciaaii iane?aeee i?ioean?a
aeoe?thaaiiy o iao?e e?a?i?, o?oaeiiu?, c yeeie noeeathoueny aeoe?iia?i?
ooai?aiiy, a oaeiae iiieeee, aeiiouai? o i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy
aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie aeaniino? a Oe?a?i?. ? iio?aaa o i?aaeiaoiiio aiae?c?
? ocaaaeueiaii? aeina?aeo aeoe?thaaiiy aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa o
“iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo” e?a?iao, ye? aeaui oaeaeoa noaee ia oeyo ?eieiaeo
?aoi?i. Aiaeii/an caeeoathoueny ua iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aieie oai?aoe/i?
aniaeoe oe??? i?iaeaie. Cie?aia, iniaeeaino? aeoe?iia?ii? aeaniino? o
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?. Ona oea ? coiiaeei aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaa?oiooaaiiy ?? iaoe, oe?eae, caaaeaiue, a oaeiae
eia?eo aeeeaaeaiiy iaoa??aeo.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aiae?c i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy
aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie aeaniino? a oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??
aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa a Oe?a?i?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe o aeena?oaoe?? iinoaaeaii oae?
caaaeaiiy:

— ?ice?eoe nooi?noue, iniaeeaino?, ia?aaaae, iaiaaeaiiy oa iaoai?ci
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie aeaniino?;

— aeine?aeeoe aaiethoe?th aeoe?iia?ii? aeaniino? oa ?? i?noea a nenoai?
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei o ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?;

— aecia/eoe ia’?eoeai? ia?aaeoiiae oa niaoeeo?eo aeoe?thaaiiy a Oe?a?i?;

— aea/eoe ? ocaaaeueieoe aeina?ae noaiiaeaiiy aeoe?iia?ieo oi?ioaaiue o
i?ioean? aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue o “iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo” e?a?iao;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe ae?yeuei?noue a?o/eciyieo aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa oa
aeyaeoe iniiai? iae?iaeiiii?/i? oiiae ?o aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy;

— nenoaiaoecoaaoe /eiieee, ui aieeaathoue ia noai ?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a
aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa o ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?;

— ii iiaeeeaino? cai?iiiioaaoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa i?iiiceoe??
uiaei iie?ioaiiy i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa
aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie aeaniino? a Oe?a?i?.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii?
iaoe ? caaaeaiue ? i?ioean aeieeiaiiy ? noaiiaeaiiy aeoe?iia?ieo
ooai?aiue a oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. Ia’?eoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ae?eia? i?aei?e?inoaa, ye? ooai?ththoueny a i?ioean?
aeoe?thaaiiy a Oe?a?i? oa ?ioeo e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith.

Oai?aoe/iith oa iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy noaea nenoaia aeiiii?/ieo caeii?a oa i?eioeei?a,
?ic?iaeaieo aeiiii?/iith oai???th noiniaii i?iaeaie aeoe?iia?ii?
aeaniino?. ?ioi?iaoe?eiith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee no/ani? oai???
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo
a/aieo-aeiiii?no?a, caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, ui noinothoueny ieoaiue
noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ?eieo aeoe?iia?ieo ?ino?oiaio?a, a oaeiae
i?iaeai aeoe?thaaiiy oa ei?ii?aoecaoe?? aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa,
io?oe?ei? noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee, iieacieee ae?yeueiino? aeoe?iia?ieo
i?aei?e?inoa.

O ?iaio? aeei?enoai? no/ani? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, oae? ye oaeoi?iee
oa noaoenoe/iee aiae?c, iaoiaee ni?anoaaeaiue, ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c,
nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, aiae?oe/i? ia/eneaiiy iieaciee?a, eio??
oa?aeoa?ecothoue aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeoe?iia?ieo ooai?aiue oa
?i.

Aei iniiaieo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, ye? noaiiaeyoue iniaenoee caeiaooie
aeena?oaioa ? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iaeaaeaoue:

— eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei ioe?iee ? oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?cio aeoe?thaaiiy a
oiiaao ia?aoiaeo Oe?a?ie aei ?eieo;

— iaa?oiooaaiiy aeioe?eueiino? oe?ieiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeoe?iia?ii?
oi?ie aeaniino? a aeiiii?/io nenoaio Oe?a?ie caaeey ?ica’ycaiiy
aaaaoueio aeiiii?/ieo oa nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai;

— eeaneo?eaoe?y /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia noai ?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a
aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa o ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?;

— i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy noaiiaeaiiy aeoe?iia?ieo i?aei?e?inoa
a Oe?a?i?.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano aeoe?thaaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa
aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie aeaniino?, i?inoaaeaii iniiai? caeiiii??iino? ?o
noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo a oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe, aeniiaee oa i?iiiceoe??, noi?ioeueiaai? a aeena?oaoe??,
aeioe?eueii aeei?enoaoe aeey iiaeaeueoiai cae?eniaiiy oa aaeineiiaeaiiy
i?ioean?a aeoe?thaaiiy a Oe?a?i?, i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino?
aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa. Io?eiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa iaoiaee/i?
i?aeoiaee aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe o i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i o aocao, ?ic?iaee niaoeeo?n?a ? iaoiaee/ieo iin?aiee?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a oa ani??aio?a
aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
ai?iaeiaae 1995-1997??., ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e nooaeaionueei-ani??aionuee?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 30-??//th aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo, yea a?aeaoeany o ea?oi?-o?aai?
1997?ieo, o iaoa??aeao i?aeia?iaeiiai e?oiueiai aeiiii?/iiai naiano?o
“?ioa?aei” o 1995-1996??.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii 7
iaoeiaeo noaoae caaaeueiei ianyaii 1,5 ae.a.: 4 noaoo? o oaoiaeo
iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, 3 noaoo? o iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao oa iaoa??aeao
eiioa?aioe?e, c yeeo iaeia o ni?aaaoi?noa?.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e. Iniiaiee ci?no
?iaioe aeeeaaeaii ia 147 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo. ?iaioa i?noeoue
13 oaaeeoeue ? 12 ?enoie?a oa noai. Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e
iae?/o? 167 iaeiaioaaiue.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia? oaeo no?oeoo?o:

ANOOI

?ICAe?E 1 Aeoe?thaaiiy ye iaoa??aeueia iniiaa i?eaaoecaoe??

1.1. Aeoe?iia?ia aeani?noue, iniaeeaino? ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa oi?ie
?aae?caoe??

1.2. Aeina?ae aeoe?thaaiiy aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa o e?a?iao c
ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith

1.3. Iniiai? neeaaeia? iaoai?cio aeoe?thaaiiy

1.4. Aeniiaee aei ia?oiai ?icae?eo

?ICAe?E 2 Aoaeoeai?noue oa ia?niaeoeae aeoe?thaaiiy a Oe?a?i?

2.1. Oi?ioaaiiy iae?iaeiiii?/ieo oa i?aaiaeo oiia aeoe?thaaiiy
aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa a Oe?a?i?

2.2. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ae?yeueiino? aeoe?eiaaieo ? iaaeoe?eiaaieo
i?aei?e?inoa

2.3. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? iane?aeee oa ia?niaeoeae aeoe?thaaiiy a
Oe?a?i?

2.4. Aeniiaee aei ae?oaiai ?icae?eo

AENIIAEE

NIENIE AEEI?ENOAIEO AeAEA?AE

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?EIIAI AeINE?AeAEAIIss

O anooi? iaa?oioiaothoueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, i?aaeiao oa
ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoa, iaoiaeieia?/ia aaca, oai?aoe/ia oa
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy oa iaoeiaa iiaecia.

Ia?oee ?icae?e ?iaioe “Aeoe?thaaiiy ye iaoa??aeueia iniiaa
i?eaaoecaoe??” a?aee?eaa?oueny aiae?cii aeaniino?, yea ? ooiaeaiaioii
aeiiii?/ii? oa caaaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? noni?eueiiai aeeooy, nai???aeiei
aeaeaoiii, ui aaia?o? aia?a?th aeey aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo. Aeani?noue,
ye a?aeiii, aecia/a? i?aaeea iiaaae?iee o/aniee?a ainiiaea?nueeiai
aeeooy, oiaoi “i?aaeea a?e” a aeiiii?oe?. Aeena?oaio aeoiaeeoue c oiai,
ui o ??cieo iiaeaeyo aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie iaio? iaeia c aeaio oi?i
aeaniino? ia aeiiii?/i? ?ano?ne— i?eaaoia aai aea?aeaaia, eiaeia c yeeo
i?eeia? aeae?eueea oi?i. Niaoeeo?eo o??? /e ?ioi? oi?ie aeaniino?
aecia/athoue o?e iniiai? /eiieee: noa’?eo i?aaa aeaniino?, ia’?eo i?aaa
aeaniino? oa aaciina?aaeiuei naia i?aai aeaniino? ? eiai ?aae?caoe?y. Ca
aeiiiiiaith naiiai i?aaa aeaniino? eiio?ieththoue aeei?enoaiiy
iaiaaeaieo ?ano?n?a ? ?iciiae?eythoue aeo?aoe ? aeaiaee, ui i?e oeueiio
aeieeathoue. Ci?ia oi?ie aeaniino? coiiaeth? ia?ao?ae a?ae iaei???
aeiiii?/ii? iiaeae? aei ?ioi?. Oeae ia?ao?ae aeiiii?noe iienothoue
??cieie oa?i?iaie— iaoe?iiae?caoe?y, ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy, i?eaaoecaoe?y,
aea?aaoethaaiiy,— ui /anoi ni?e/eiy? iaiaeiicia/i?noue ?o oeoia/aiiy.

Ia iaoo aeoieo, iaei??th c iae?icaeioo?oeo oi?i aeaniino? ? aeoe?iia?ia.
Aeieeiaiiy aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie aeaniino? aoei caeiiii??iei aoaiii
aaiethoe?? iaeiiin?aii? i?eaaoii? aeaniino?. Aeiiii?/ia nooue
aeoe?iia?ii? aeaniino? aeyaey?oueny a i?aaao ia aieiae?iiy ? oi?aae?iiy
iaaiith /anoeith aeaniino?, ye? iaaea? oie /e ?ioee oe?iiee iai?? eiai
aeanieeo. Oe?ii? iaia?e aaia?othoue cia/iee iioeaaoe?eiee ?iioeuen, yeee
caaacia/o? o?eaaeee ?ioa?an ?o aeanieea aei aoaeoeaii? ae?yeueiino?
ai?oaioa. Oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeoe?iia?ii? aeaniino?
cae?enith?oueny /a?ac aeione iniaeeaiai aeaeo oe?iieo iaia??a— aeoe?e.
Aeoe?y ? aeo?aeiei, aai no?eaeiaaei a?aeiioaiiyi oeueiai ??ciiaeaeo
aeaniino?. Ca oa?i?iii aeoe?y e?e?oueny oeooe aeaniino?— i?aai ia
aieiae?iiy.

Ie aeae?ey?ii o?e iniiai? i?e/eie, ye? coiiaeee aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoie
aeoe?iia?ii? aeaniino?. Ii-ia?oa, iaiaaeaia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
caniiaaii? ia aeoe?iia?i?e oi?i? aeaniino? o??ie. Ii-ae?oaa, aeoe?iia?ia
aeani?noue iieaaoo? caeo/aiiy ?iaanoeoe?e. Oaea o??ia ia? iaee?au?
iiaeeeaino? aeey caeo/aiiy eai?oaeo oa ?icoe?aiiy ianooaa?a nai??
ae?yeueiino?. Ii-o?ao?, ?iaanoeoe?? a aeoe?iia?iee eai?oae iathoue
aenieo e?ea?aei?noue.

Aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia oiio, ui aeoe?iia?ia oi?ia aeaniino? caa??aa?
ona iiceoeaia, ui i?noeoue a nia? i?eaaoia aeani?noue—
i?aei?e?iieoeueeee ?ioa?an, naiaiaeo aeai?o oa i?aai aacno?ieiaiai
oniaaeeoaaiiy. O ?iaio? aeae?eaii ieceo ia?aaaa aeoe?iia?ii? aeaniino?,
ui aeieeaathoue ?c iniaeeainoae ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Ii-ia?oa, /?oei
aecia/a?oueny /anoea aeaniino?, yeith aeaniee aeoe?? iiaea a?eueii
?icii?yaeaeaoeny. Ii-ae?oaa, noai?aiiy aeoe?iia?ii? aeaniino? i?enei?th?
oi?ioaaiiy oae caaiiai na?aaeiueiai eeano, yeee ? no?eaeiai noni?euenoaa
c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith. Ii-o?ao?, aeoe?iia?ia oi?ia caeo/aiiy a?ioiaeo
?ano?n?a ?noioii iineaaeth? ?ioeyoe?eiee oene caiuaaeaeaiue ia
niiaeea/ee ?eiie aai, ?ioeie neiaaie, aeicaiey? “ca’ycaoe” cia/io
/anoeio a?eueieo a?ioae /a?ac eoi?aeth aeoe?e oa iae?aaoe?e.
Ii-/aoaa?oa, oey oi?ia aeaniino? aea? iiaeeea?noue aeoioethaaoe
o?iainia? ?ano?ne oa oi?ioaaoe aeiaeaoeia? eiooe aeey o?iainoaaiiy
ae?iaie/iai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo ae?eiaeo i?aei?e?inoa. Ii-i’yoa, ca
aeoe?iia?ii? aeaniino? caaaeyee oi?ioaaiith aeoe?iia?iiai i?eaooeo
ii?aeiothoueny ?ioa?ane o??ie ? iaeiyoeo i?aoe?aiee?a. Ia?aoo?, aeoe?y ?
aeaiaioii nenoaie ? iaoa??aeueiiai, ? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai
noeioethaaiiy ?? aeaniee?a.

Aeae? a ?icae?e? a?aecia/aii, ui ia iniia? aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie aeaniino?
ooai?th?oueny i?eioeeiiai iiaee oei o??ie, i?aai?caoi?e yei? noathoue
noa’?eoaie aeoe?iia?ii? aeaniino?. C i?aai?caoe?eii? oi/ee ci?o,
aeoe?iia?ia aeani?noue ?aae?co?oueny o aeaeyae? ei?ii?aoe?e, aai
aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa, ye? oi?iothoueny ia aeuiio nooiai? aaiethoe??
aeiiii?ei-th?eaee/ieo oi?i a?ciano. A?ae ?ioeo iayaieo oi?i
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa aeoe?iia?io ae??ciythoue i?eoaiaii? o?eueee ?e
i?aai?caoe?ei?, i?aaia? oa aeiiii?/i? iciaee, ui iaoiiaeee ?? oe?iea
iioe?aiiy o no/ani?e ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?. Aeena?oaio aeae?ey? oae?
ia?aaaae aeoe?iia?ieo i?aei?e?inoa: iaiaaeaia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
ni?aaeaniee?a, aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y ?eceeo, aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?aneaieo
oaoiieia?e oa iaiaaeaeiaioo, iayai?noue ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey
ia?niaeoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo, oi?aa?naeuei?noue,
?ioaa?aoeai?noue oa aeanoe/i?noue. A aeoe?iia?i?e eiiiai?? cia/ii
a?eueoee aeinooi aei a?ioiaiai ?eieo ? ?eieo eai?oae?a. Oea aea?
iiaeeea?noue aio/ei ia?ai???ioiaoaaoenue c iaeiiai aeaeo ae?yeueiino? ia
?ioee, cie?aia a ?iee niaaeo. Aiaeii/an caaacia/o?oueny ai?eciioaeueia
oa aa?oeeaeueia ia?ai?uaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ? o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a, ui
?noioii i?aeaeuo? iaiaa?ai?noue o??ie oa ?? eiieo?aioicaeaoi?noue.

?icaeyaeath/e ae?eia? i?aei?e?inoaa aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie aeaniino?, aaoi?
ii?yae ?c cacia/aieie ia?aaaaaie iaae ?ioeie oi?iaie a?ciano, aeae?ey? ?
iaai? ?o iaiaaeaiiy. Iniiaieie c ieo ? a?aeiinii aenie? aeo?aoe ?
neeaaei?noue i?ioeaaeo?e canioaaiiy, iecueea iia?aoeai?noue ooaaeaiiy
??oaiue, iaiiaeeea?noue aaaaoueio ae??aieo aeoe?iia??a aieeaaoe ia
i?ioean oi?aae?iiy ae?eiaei i?aei?e?inoaii.

Ioaea, aeoe?iia?ia oi?ia aeaniino? ? neeaaeiith nenoaiith, yeo
oa?aeoa?eco? iecea iniaeeaeo iciae, ye? a?ae??ciythoue ?? a?ae
aoaeue-yei? ?ioi? oa coiiaeththoue niaoeeo?eo aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie
i?aai?caoe?? a?ciano. Caaaeii aeoe?iia?ia aeani?noue caaacia/o? i?aaa
noa’?eo?a— o?ce/ieo oa th?eaee/ieo in?a— ia aieiae?iiy, ei?enooaaiiy oa
?icii?yaeaeaiiy oe?iieie iaia?aie, cie?aia aeoe?yie. Aieiae?iiy aeoe?yie
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? o/anoue o aeoe?iia?iiio eai?oae? oiaa?enoaa.
Ei?enooaaiiy— i?eiineoue aeio?ae o oi?i? aeea?aeaiaeo oa eo?niaiai
i?eaooeo ? aea? iiaeeea?noue a?aoe o/anoue o i?ioean? oi?aae?iiy
oiaa?enoaii, a ?icii?yaeaeaiiy— ooaaethaaoe ia na?e ?icnoae ??oaiiy
uiaei eoi?ae?-i?iaeaaeo aeoe?e.

I?aaeeueia ?icoi?iiy aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo aeoe?iia?ii? aeaniino?,
i?eoaiaiieo ?e iciae ? i?eioeei?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea? ciiao
aeei?enoiaoaaoe caeeaaeai? a i?e ia?aaaae ? iii’yeooaaoe ?? neaaeie. Oea
iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ianaiia?aae oei i?aei?e?inoaai, ye? noathoue ia
oeyo aeoe?thaaiiy.

Aeena?oaio aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui oni?oiee ia?ao?ae Oe?a?ie aei ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee ia?aaeaa/a? a?aooaaiiy cia/iiai na?oiaiai aeina?aeo noai?aiiy
? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa, iniaeeai o e?a?iao
Oeaio?aeueii? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie. Caaaeoth/e ia iiceoeai? iane?aeee
?aoi?i o oeeo e?a?iao, a Oe?a?i?, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aeioe?eueii aoei a
nei?enoaoeny ?o aeina?aeii uiaei o/ano? a?o/eciyiiai oa ?iicaiiiai
eai?oaeo o i?ioean? aeoe?thaaiiy aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa, i?eioeei?a
?ic?iaee i?iaeo?a aeoe?thaaiiy oa ?o caoaa?aeaeaiiy, iaaeaiiy i?euea
ie?aiei eaoaai??yi in?a, a?aooaaiiy o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai noaio
i?aei?e?inoaa i?e aecia/aii? e?eoa???a aeiioneo i?aei?e?inoa aei
aeoe?thaaiiy, ?ie? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a oa iina?aaeieoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e
o oiae? ?aoi?i oiui.

Aiae?c aeina?aeo ?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaniino? o e?a?iao
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie i?ea?a aeena?oaioa aei aeniiaeo, ui i?eaaoecaoe?y
ioneoue ioiiethaaoe a?eueoa iieiaeie i?iaeoeoeaii? aeaniino? aea?aeaae,
?? ne?ae cae?enithaaoe c iaeneiaeueiith oaeaee?noth, yeo aeicaieythoue
iayai? iie?oe/i? oa aeiiii?/i? ianoaaeie, a o?yae ia? ?ica’ycoaaoe
nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie, ui aeieeathoue o oiae? aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue.
Aiaeii/an aaoi? cacia/a?, ui i?e ?icaoaeia? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee ia
iiaeia ne?ii eii?thaaoe /oaeee aeina?ae, cie?aia o ?ica’ycaii?
iaaaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo ieoaiue. A Oe?a?i? ?niothoue nai? niaoeeo?/i?
noa?oia? oiiae ? oea coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue oi?ioaaiiy aeanii?
eiioeaioe?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee, aeeth/ath/e i?eaaoecaoe?th oa
aeoe?thaaiiy.

Aeena?oaio aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui aeoe?thaaiiy— oea ia?oee e?ie ia oeyoo
aei iiaii? i?eaaoecaoe??. Eiai ?acoeueoaoii ? noaiiaeaiiy i?aei?e?inoa
aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie aeaniino? ia iniia? aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa. Oea
a?aeaoaa?oueny /a?ac i?iaeaae aea?aeaaith aeoe?e, ye? ia?aaoaathoue o ??
aeaniino?, aai ae aeoe?e a?ae iiaeo ai?n?e. Aeae? i?iaiae?ciaaii niiniae
i?iaeaaeo aeoe?e. O caeaaeiino? a?ae oiai, ooi aenooia? iieoioeai aeoe?e
ae?eiaiai i?aei?e?inoaa, aeie?aieaii ?ioa?iee oa aenoa?iee ?o i?iaeaae.
I?iaeaae aeoe?e ia?niiaeo oa i?e??aiaiei aei iueiai iniaai (ia?aaaaeii
iain?iia?ai aeaiiai i?aei?e?inoaa) ca oe?iaie ieae/eie a?ae ?eieiaeo
iaceaathoue ?ioa?iei iaoiaeii. Ia i?aeoeoe? oeae iaoiae iae/ano?oa
iaceaathoue cae?eoith i?aeieneith ia aeoe??. Aeena?oaio aiae?co?
i?eueae, ye? caaacia/o? ?ioa?iee iaoiae. ?ici?? cieaeie caeaaeeoue
cacae/ae a?ae noaaeo ?iaioe aai ca?ia?oii? ieaoe i?aoe?aieea. Ia??aeei
i?aoe?aieeai i?aei?e?inoaa iaaeathoue ua ? oaeo i?eueao i?e eoi?ae?
aeoe?e— ia?aianaiiy no?ieo ?o iieaoe. Aenoa?iee i?iaeaae /anoi
iaceaathoue a?aee?eoith i?aeieneith ia aeoe??. Oeae niin?a aeoe?thaaiiy
aea? iiaeeea?noue ia eeoa ia?niiaeo i?aei?e?inoaa, a on?i iniaai (/anoi
? ?iicaiiei) eoioaaoe aeoe?? i?aei?e?inoaa.

O ?icae?e? cacia/aii, ui iiaeie aeanieeaie aeoe?e i?aei?e?inoaa, yea
aeoe?th?oueny, iiaeooue aooe aea?aeaai? i?aaie oi?aae?iiy, th?eaee/i? oa
o?ce/i? iniae, a oiio /ene? /eaie o?oaeiaiai eieaeoeao i?aei?e?inoaa.
Aeae? i?iaiae?ciaaii iniiai? aa??aioe iaoai?cio aeoe?thaaiiy:
ei?ii?aoecaoe?th, aeeoi eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoa aeoe?e i?aoe?aieeaie
i?aei?e?inoaa, iai?i aeoe?e ia na?oeo?eaoe, i?iaeaae aeoe?e /a?ac
aoeoe?iie aai eiieo?ne a?o/eciyiei oa ?iicaiiei ?iaanoi?ai.

Iaoai?ci aeoe?thaaiiy a Oe?a?i? ia?aaeaa/a? o?e iai?yie i?iaaaeaiiy
ei?ii?aoecaoe??. Ii-ia?oa, ia?aoai?aiiy o i?ioean? i?eaaoecaoe??
aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa ia a?aee?eo? aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa. Ii-ae?oaa,
ia?aoai?aiiy ia a?aee?eo? aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa cae?eoeo, a?eueoa i?ae
75% noaoooiiai oiiaeo yeeo ia?aaoaa? o aea?aeaai?e aeaniino?, a oaeiae
ae?iaie/eo ? iaoeiai-ae?iaie/eo ia’?aeiaiue. Ii-o?ao?, ia?aoai?aiiy
aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa oa ?oi?o no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a, ia?aaeaieo
a i?aiaeo, ia a?aee?eo? aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa.

Aaoi? aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui ei?ii?aoecaoe?y aea? ciiao ?iciaaeoaaoe
athaeaeao aea?aeaae oa o?iaine i?aei?e?inoa, aianoe a?aeiia?aei? ci?ie o
no?oeoo?o ?oiueiai oi?aae?iiy oa i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy. Iaeiae aiia ua ia
icia/a? a?ae/oaeaiiy iaeia a?ae aea?aeaae, a eeoa ci?io noaoono
aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa, a?eueo?noue c yeeo o iaeaooiueiio aoaea
i?eaaoeciaaii. Oe? i?aei?e?inoaa /a?ac ei?ii?aoecaoe?th i?aeaiaeyoueny
aei i?eaaoecaoe??, iinooiiai ia?aoiaey/e aei iiaeo i?eioeei?a
aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

O ?aoa?iaaiiio ?icae?e? cacia/aii, ui niaoeeo?eith i?ioeano aeoe?thaaiiy
aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa a Oe?a?i? ? aeei?enoaiiy na?oeo?eao?a, ye?
iaaeathoue a?iiaaeyiai i?aai ia aaceiooiaia i?eaeaaiiy nai?? /anoee o
aea?aeaai?e aeaniino?. Ca oiia a?aenooiino? cia/ieo a?eueieo eioo?a o
e?a?i? na?oeo?eaoia i?eaaoecaoe?y caaacia/o? a?aeiinii oaeaeea
cae?eniaiiy ?aoi?i, oi?ioth/e noa?oiao no?oeoo?o iiaeo aeaniee?a. I?ioa,
ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iniiaiith neaaeiith na?oeo?eaoii? i?eaaoecaoe?? ? oa,
ui aiia ia ?iaeoeo? ?iaanoeoe?eiee eai?oae.

Aeena?oaio aiae?co? ?aaeueiee noai ni?aa c aeoe?thaaiiyi a Oe?a?i?. Ca
ia?o? o?e ?iee aeoe?thaaiiy (1992-1994 ??.) ia iniia? aea?aeaaieo
i?aei?e?inoa aoei noai?aii 2659 a?aee?eoeo aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa, a ca
iaiiai? aeaa ?iee, ii/eiath/e c n?/iy 1995?., ?o noai?aii 5089, oiaoi
iaeaea a aeaa ?ace a?eueoa. I?ioean aeoe?thaaiiy iaeia noaa iaeiei ?c
iniiaieo aeaea?ae oi?ioaaiiy ei?ii?aoeaiiai naeoi?a a?o/eciyii?
aeiiii?ee. Ia ii/aoie 1997?. noai?aii 47633 ainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?enoaa,
o oiio /ene? a?eueoa 9oen. aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa. Ia 1 n?/iy 1993?. a
Oe?a?i? iae?/oaaeiny anueiai 59 aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa, ye? aieiae?ee
i?aaaie ai?n?? oe?iieo iaia??a. Cae?eniaiiy i?ia?aie na?oeo?eaoii?
i?eaaoecaoe?? a Oe?a?i? aeaei ciiao i?eoaeaeoeoe noai?aiiy aeoe?iia?ieo
oi?ioaaiue. Oae, o?eueee o 1996?. /a?ac o?ainoi?iaoe?th aaeeeeo oa
na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoa aoei noai?aii 3009 aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa.

Aaoi? aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui i?ioean aeoe?thaaiiy aeicaiey? ae??oeoe
/eiaei i?iaeai ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee. Ianaiia?aae aea? ciiao
iia?e?coaaoe ?ano?ne ? noeioeth? aeei?enoaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai
i?ia?ano aeey i?iaaaeaiiy no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae aeiiii?ee. Aiaeii/an
c?inoathoue iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy i?eaaoieo iaa?iiaaeaeaiue a?iiaaeyi
aeey ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee. Aeoe?thaaiiy noai?th? aea?aeiee
iaoai?ci ?iaanooaaiiy ? ?icoe?th? noa?o aieeao eai?oaeo ia aeiiii?/i?
i?ioeane; oi?io? ?inoeooo aeaniee?a oa iaiaaeaea??a; iioei?co? aaeocaao,
ae?iaie/o ? ?aa?iiaeueio no?oeoo?o oeyoii ia?aeeaaiiy eai?oaeo; aea?
ciiao oeyoii ?ici?uaiiy aeoe?e na?aae iinoa/aeueiee?a ? niiaeeaa/?a
iie?aueoe nenoaio aca?iieo ?ic?aooie?a i?aei?e?inoa; ni?ey?
ai?iaaaeaeaiith iiaeo iaoiae?a iaoa??aeueiiai ?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai noeioethaaiiy aei i?aoe?, ui aacothoueny ia
?aae?caoe?? i?aa aeoe?iia?a ye aeanieea.

Ia?aoo?, o ia?oiio ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui aeoe?thaaiiy a Oe?a?i?
cae?enith?oueny a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai iae?iaeiiii?/iiai
na?aaeiaeua. Oiio o?ainoi?iaoe?y aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa ? iniaeeai
neeaaeiei caaaeaiiyi. Aeoe?thaaiiy ia?aaeaa/a? cai?io aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy oi?aae?iiyi c aieo i?eaaoieo aeaniee?a, noai?aiiy nenoaie
aoaeoeaiiai ei?ii?aoeaiiai eiio?ieth, anoaiiaeaiiy anueiai io/ea i?aa
aeaniino? oa ?icaeoie o?iainiaeo ?eie?a.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e ?iaioe “Aoaeoeai?noue oa ia?niaeoeae aeoe?thaaiiy a
Oe?a?i?” ?icii/eia?oueny c ?icaeyaeo iniiaieo i?iaeai aeoe?iia?ieo
oiaa?enoa a oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. Aeena?oaio
aiae?co? iae?iaeiiii?/ia na?aaeiaeua ?o ae?yeueiino?, yea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaei??iei c?inoaiiyi oe?i ia iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/i?
?ano?ne, iiaeaoeiaei i?anii, caoaeaiiyi ?eie?a caooo, ianoaa?euei?noth
a?ioiai? nenoaie e?a?ie, e?ecith iaieaoaae?a, ui i?iyaey?oueny o
a?aenooiino? ?aaeueieo a?ioiaeo iioie?a oiui. Aeey ?aae?caoe??
?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a /eiaei aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa aeei?enoiao?
aaie?anuee? e?aaeeoe, niea/oth/e ca ei?ioeioa?i?iia? iiceee aenie?
i?ioeaioe. O ?icae?e? i?aee?aneaii, ui aeioneath/e aeoe??, aeoe?iia?ia
oiaa?enoai iiaea io?eiaoe ia ?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a iaiao?aei?
?iaanoeoe?? aacoa?i?iiai. A i?iaeaae aeoe?e ?iicaiiei ?iaanoi?ai ia? ua
e iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioeano aeeth/aiiy Oe?a?ie aei
na?oiaiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Aeae? o aeena?oaoe?? cacia/aii, ui aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa iiaeooue
iiaiith i??ith ?aae?coaaoe nai? ia?aaaae ? ae?yoe ia ?eieo ye naiino?ei?
ainiiaea?nuee? iaeeieoe?, eeoa ca oiia ?icaeiooiai ?eieo oe?iieo
iaia??a, aai oiiaeiaiai ?eieo. Oiiaeiaee ?eiie iinoa/a? ae?eiaei
i?aei?e?inoaai eiooe, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey ca?eueoaiiy /e
iiiaeaiiy iniiaiiai eai?oaeo. I?e oeueiio oiiaeiaee ?eiie ni?ey?
i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy caeo/aieo eioo?a, ine?eueee
inoaii? ni?yiiaothoueny ianaiia?aae o o? ae?eia? i?aei?e?inoaa, aea
ia?aaeuaiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiue iaae aeo?aoaie iaea?eueoa. Oiiaeiaee ?eiie
caaacia/o? aacia?a?ai?noue oa aeuo iia?euei?noue i?ioean?a ?iaanooaaiiy
? ae?iaieoeoaa.

O oeueiio ae ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui ii?iaeueia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
oiiaeiaiai ?eieo a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? ia?aaeaa/a? ieceo oiia.
Ii-ia?oa, iio??aia aeniea /anoioa iai?ioo oe?iieo iaia??a. Ii-ae?oaa,
oiiaeiaee ?eiie iiaeiai aeeth/aoe cia/io e?euee?noue o/aniee?a, ye c
aieo iiieoo, oae ? c aieo i?iiiceoe??, ui caaacia/o? eiieo?aioe?th
na?aae o?iainiaeo iina?aaeiee?a. Ii-o?ao?, a noni?euenoa? ia? ?nioaaoe
aenieee nooi?iue aeia??e aei oe?iieo iaia??a, ?o ai?oaio?a oa
iina?aaeieoeueeeo no?oeoo?. Oaeoe/ii eeoa o? ae?eia? i?aei?e?inoaa,
aeoe?? yeeo iiaeia a?eueii i?iaeaaaoe aai eoioaaoe, ia?aoai?thaaoe a
aio?aeo /e a ?io? aeoe?? iiaiith i??ith ?aae?cothoue on? ia?aaaae
aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie aeaniino?.

Eoi?aey oa i?iaeaae oe?iieo iaia??a ia oiiaeiaiio ?eieo iiaea
cae?enithaaoeny aai /a?ac a??ae?, aai iicaa??aeiao oi?aiaaeueio nenoaio.
O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaii iniiai? /eiieee, ye? aieeaathoue ia ?eiie
oe?iieo iaia??a aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa o ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?:
a?aeaea/a ? nooi?iue ?eceeo ia iniiaieo a?o/eciyieo ?eieao (oiaa?ieo,
aaethoieo, e?aaeeoieo, ?iaanoeoe?eieo), noai ?iaeeeaoi??a ae?eiai?
aeoeaiino? o ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao, iae?iaeiiii?/i? iieacieee a?o/eciyii?
aeiiii?ee (AAI, ??aaiue ?ioeyoe??, ii?ia aac?ia?ooy, naeueaei
aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo, aaethoiee eo?n oiui) oa /eiieee aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy ? ?aaoethaaiiy o?iainiaiai ?eieo (ii?iaoeae ae?yeueiino? ia
?eieo, a?ioiaa ai?n?y, noaaee iiiaeaoeoaaiiy).

Aeena?oaio aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui aeo?aeiith oiiaith noai?aiiy
ni?eyoeeaiai na?aaeiaeua aeey ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa a
Oe?a?i? ? oi?ioaaiiy iaeaaeii? ii?iaoeaii? aace. Ia?o? e?iee o oe?e
ni?aa? aaea c?iaeaii, i?ioa iio?aaothoue iiaeaeueoiai caeiiiaeaa/iai
?ica’ycaiiy oae? i?iaeaie ae?yeueiino? aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa, ye
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue oa aca?iia ca?oi?noue ie?aieo eaiie nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy aeoe?iia?iei oiaa?enoaii, a?aooaaiiy ?ioa?an?a oa caoeno i?aa
ae??aieo aeoe?iia??a, i?aaeea neeeeaiiy cai??a aeoe?iia??a oa oi?ie
aieinoaaiiy i?e i?iaaaeaii? caaaeueieo cai??a, i?ioeaaeo?a ia?aiiy oa
a?aeeeeeaiiy iinaaeiaeo in?a oiui.

O ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii caaaeueio e?euee?noue aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa a
Oe?a?i? o i?iieneiaino? oa i?iaiae?ciaaii ?o aaeocaaee oa
oa?eoi??aeueiee ?iciiae?e. Aaoi? a?aecia/a?, ui oeae ?iciiae?e cia/iith
i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae oiaeo aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i a ie?aieo ?aa?iiao
e?a?ie, ui, o naith /a?ao, aieeaa? ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa
iaaea?aeaaii? aeaniino?. Ine?eueee eiaeiiio c ?aa?ii?a i?eoaiaiia naiy
aaeocaaa niaoe?ae?caoe?y, oi e?euee?noue aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa a
ie?aieo aaeocyo i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie /anoi coiiaeaia ?o oa?eoi??aeueiei
?ici?uaiiyi. E??i oiai, /anoea aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa o ??cieo aaeocyo
i?iieneiaino? caeaaeeoue a?ae iniaeeainoae eiaeii? ie?aii? aaeoc?
(iai?eeeaae, a?ae aaee/eie oa no?oeoo?e iniiaieo i?aei?e?inoa), ye?
aecia/eee niin?a o?ainoi?iaoe?? aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa oe??? aaeoc?.

Iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? ie?aieo aeoe?eiaaieo
i?aei?e?inoa o aeiaaino?ieiaiio ? ei?ioeino?ieiaiio ia??iaeao ia
?ic?iaeai?. Aaoi? ioe?ith? aoaeoeai?noue ae?yeueiino? ie?aieo
aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa o ei?ioeino?ieiaiio ia??iae? ia iniia? aeeiai?ee
iniiaieo ae?iaie/i-o?iainiaeo iieaciee?a.

O ?iaio? aiae?co?oueny ae?yeuei?noue aeaaiaaeoeyoe aeoe?iia?ieo
oiaa?enoa Euea?anueei? iaeano?. Aeo?aeieie aeaieie aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
aiae?co noaee iieacieee ianyao ae?iaeaii? i?iaeoeoe??, aaeainiaiai
i?eaooeo, ae?o/ee a?ae ?aae?caoe??, nia?aa?oino? aeaioiaeaii?
i?iaeoeoe??, na?aaeiuei??/ii? aa?oino? iniiaieo ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a,
oiiaeo iieaoe i?aoe?, na?aaeiueinieneiai? /enaeueiino? ia?niiaeo oa
ianyao niiaeeoi? aeaeo?iaia?a??.

Ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? oeeo aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa cae?eniaia
ia iniia? ia/eneaiiy ianooiieo iieaciee?a: ?aioaaaeueiino? i?iaeoeoe??
oa iniiaieo oiiae?a, i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, oiiaeiica?i?iino?,
na?aaeiueii?ny/ii? ca?ieaoe iaeiiai i?aoe?aieea, oiiaeii?noeino?,
oiiaeia?aeaea/? oa aia?aii?noeino?.

Aiae?c aeacaieo iieaciee?a, a oaeiae ?o ni?anoaaeaiiy c aiaeia?/ieie
iieacieeaie ia aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoaao iaaeaa iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe
iaai? aeniiaee i?i o?iainiao ae?yeuei?noue eiaeiiai i?aei?e?inoaa,
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy iei o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo ? iniiaiiai
eai?oaeo. Ona?aaeiai? aeai? ii aeaio a?oiao i?aei?e?inoa
a?aeia?aaeathoue e?aua aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/eo iiaeeeainoae
aeoe?iia?ieie oiaa?enoaaie o ii??aiyii? c aea?aeaaieie i?aei?e?inoaaie.
I?i oea na?ae/aoue aeu? iieacieee ?aioaaaeueiino? iniiaieo oiiae?a (4,6%
i?ioe 1,9%), na?aaeiueii?ny/ii? ca?ieaoe iaeiiai i?aoe?aieea (239a?i.
i?ioe 119a?i.), i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? (29oen.a?i//ie. i?ioe
8,6oen.a?i.//ie.) oa oiiaeia?aeaea/? (2,4% i?ioe 0,5%).

Aeena?oaio aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui iane?aeee i?ioeano aeoe?thaaiiy a
Oe?a?i? o aeiaaino?ieiaiio ia??iae? iiaeia ioe?ieoe, aiae?coth/e
aeiiii?/i?, ?inoeoooe?ei?, nioe?aeuei? oa i?aaia? ci?ie. O
ei?ioeino?ieiaiio ia??iae? oe? iane?aeee ioe?ieoe ua aeineoue aaaeei.
Oea coiiaeaii iaiao?aei?noth i?enoinoaaiiy aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa aei
ae?yeueiino? a iiaeo oiiaao ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua. Eiaeiiio
aeoe?iia?iiio oiaa?enoao iio??aai iaaiee /an aeey oiai, uia iiai?ioe
iei?oi? o?iainiai-aeiiii?/i? o?oaeiiu?, iaeaaiaeeoe iia? ainiiaea?nuee?
ca’ycee, cae?enieoe oaoi?/ia iiiaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa, noi?ioaaoe iiao
nenoaio oi?aae?iiy oiui. I?ioa iiceoeaiee aoaeo aeoe?thaaiiy ii/eia?
i?iyaeyoeny o na?aaeiueino?ieiaiio ia??iae? ? aieiaiei /eiii o
aeiaaino?ieiaiio.

O ?icae?e? a?aecia/aii, ui o iaaecae/aeii neeaaeieo oiiaao
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee aeoe?iia?i?
i?aei?e?inoaa noeo?eii i?enoiniaothoueny aei ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua, yea
oi?io?oueny. O ai?iouea? ca nai? aeaeeaaiiy aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa
aeoeaii aeeaa?neo?eothoue naith ainiiaea?nueeo oa ?iaanoeoe?eio
ae?yeuei?noue.

Aeena?oaio aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui eiio?ieueiee iaeao aeoe?e
caeeoa?oueny a ?oeao o?oaeiaeo eieaeoea?a aai ?icii?ioo?oueny na?aae
aaaaoueio aeaniee?a, ye? noathoue oi?iaeueieie ainiiaea?yie, aea ia
ciathoue nai?o i?aa aeoe?iia??a ? ia ai?thoue i?aai?coaaoe ?iaioo o
i?ieeaiio ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu?. Aiaeii/an ea??aieee aeoe?eiaaieo
i?aei?e?inoa /anoi ia iathoue aeina?aeo ae?yeueiino? oa oi?aae?iiy a
iiaeo oiiaao, a oaeiae aaaeaiiy “iiae?eeoe” aeaaeo c ?ioeie aeanieeaie.

Aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui ca?eueoaiiy a inoaii? ?iee e?eueeino?
aeoe?iia?ieo i?aei?e?inoa o a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?oe? iiaeiii i?ecaanoe o
iaaeaeaeiio iaeaooiueiio aei ao?oeeaiai c?inoaiiy ?oiuei? aaae a
aeiiii?oe? ca an?ia i?ieacieeaie. I?ioa, ia iao iiaeyae, oea
a?aeaoaeaoueny eeoa ca oiiae iine?aeiaiiai aeoeaiiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy
a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee oa noai?aiiy oe?e?nii? nenoaie ?eieiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa. Aiaeii/an, ?icaeoie aeoe?iia?iiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
cia/iith i??ith aecia/aoeiaoueny noaiii on?o neeaaeiaeo aeiiii?/ii?
nenoaie Oe?a?ie.

O i?ioean? aeoe?thaaiiy a Oe?a?i? aaea noai?aii oeny/? aeoe?iia?ieo
oiaa?enoa, a ua /eiaei i?aei?e?inoa aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie aeaniino?
oi?iothoueny ia iniia? i?eaaoiiai eai?oaeo. I?eueeiie a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie
noaee aeoe?iia?aie ? ?oi? noaaeaiiy aei iiai? ei?ii?aoeaii? oi?ie
aeaniino? ? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee caaaeii aaeeeith i??ith caeaaeaoeia a?ae
oiai, ye i?aoethaaoeiooue aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa, /e ciiaeooue aiie ia
i?aeoeoe? aeiaanoe naith aoaeoeai?noue ? ia?aaaae iaae ?ioeie oi?iaie
i?aai?caoe?? i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?.

AENIIAEE OA ?AEIIAIAeAOe??

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noi?ioeueiaai?
oae? aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

1.Aeieeiaiiy aeoe?iia?ii? aeaniino?, a oaeiae i?aai?caoe?eii? oi?ie ??
?aae?caoe??— aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa— aoei caeiiii??iei aoaiii aaiethoe??
??cieo oi?i i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?. ?oo?eiith neeith oi?ioaaiiy
aeoe?iia?ii? aeaniino? noaea noia?a/i?noue i?ae iio?aaith o c?inoaii?
eai?oaeo ae?eiaiai i?aei?e?inoaa aeey ?aae?caoe?? iaooaaieo i?iaeo?a ?
iaiaaeaieie iiaeeeainoyie iaeiiin?aii? aeaniino?. Eai?oae aeoe?iia?iiai
oiaa?enoaa, ui oi?io?oueny ia iniia? i?iaeaaeo aeoe?e, coiiaeth?
aeiiii?/io i?e?iaeo aeoe?iia?a ye aeanieea, a ia ye e?aaeeoi?a, a
aeoe??— ye ?ino?oiaioa aeaniino?, a ia e?aaeeoo. Oaeee niin?a
ia’?aeiaiiy eai?oae?a c?iaea aeoe?iia?ia oiaa?enoai iaeonoaeai?oith
oi?iith ae?eiaeo i?aei?e?inoa c i?aeoe/ii iaiaiaaeaiith
aeeoo?caeaoi?noth.

2.Aeoe?iia?ia aeani?noue, ii?aeioth/e ?eieia? oa nioe?aeuei? i?eioeeie
aeaiie?aoe/iiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ? aioo??oiueith ?iaiaioiith
aeiiii?/iith iniiaith oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai
?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa. Oea, ia iao iiaeyae, coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue
i??i?eoaoiiai ?icaeoeo aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie aeaniino? o i?ioean?
?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

3.Aeoe?thaaiiy ? iniiaiei iai?yieii aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??
iaaeiiiiiie?ciaaii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. Aiii neoao?
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iith oa i?aai?caoe?eiith iniiaith noaiiaeaiiy ?
?icaeoeo aeoe?iia?ieo i?aei?e?inoa. Aiaeii/an aeoe?thaaiiy aeicaiey?
iia?e?coaaoe eiooe aeey ?iaanoeoe?e, ui iio??ai? aeey noai?aiiy iiaiai
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ae?eiaeo i?aei?e?inoa. Aeiaaino?ieia? ae?iaie/?
?iaanoeoe?? cacae/ae iia’ycai? c? cia/iei ?eceeii, oiio io?eiaoe eiooe
aeey ieo ia e?aaeeoi?e iniia? iei? i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai. Ca oeeo oiia
aeoioethaaiiy iaiao?aeieo o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a iiaea oni?oii
cae?enithaaoeny /a?ac aeoe?thaaiiy. Aeoe?iia?ia oi?ia ?iaanooaaiiy ia?
oo ia?aaaao, ui ooo ?ecee iaiaaeaiee aa?o?noth aeoe?e. Aeiaeaoeiaei
/eiieeii, ui aa?aioo? iaae?ei?noue aeeaaeaieo eioo?a a aeoe?iia?i?
oiaa?enoaa ? ioae?/i?noue ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? oa ca?oi?noue
aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa. A oiiaao ?aaeeeaeueii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee aeei?enoaiiy oi?eaeueiiai iioaioe?aeo aeoe?iia?ii?
oi?ie aeaniino? iaaoaa? iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy.

4. O i?ioean? ?aoi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa
iieeeeai? a?ae?a?aoe aaaiio ?ieue o noai?aii? iiaiai iae?ina?aaeiaeua o
a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?oe?. I?e oeueiio iio??aii ona?aeiiethaaoe, ui
iiceoeaiee aoaeo o oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua aeoe?thaaiiy
i?eaiana eeoa oiae?, eiee ci?ia oi?ie aeaniino? i?aai?/ii
ii?aeioaaoeiaoueny ?c aeiei??iieie ci?iaie i?eioeei?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy
oa noai?aiiyi iiai? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aeoe?iia?iei oiaa?enoaii.

5. Aeoe?thaaiiy ia iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye can?a iiaeieaiiy on?o
ae?iaie/i-o?iainiaeo iaaa?acae?a a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee. Aiii eeoa aea?
ciiao i?ae?eoe aei ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie aoaeoeaiiai aeanieea. Iaeiei ?c
iai?yi?a oeueiai i?aeoiaeo iiaeooue, ia iaoo aeoieo, noaoe ?aae?caoe?y
aea?aeaaii? /anoee iaeia ca ?iaanoeoe?eieie eiieo?naie, ?icaeoie
aoi?eiiiai ?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a, aeiaeaoeiaee aeione aeoe?e
aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa c iaoith caeo/aiiy ii?ooaeueieo ?iaanoeoe?e oiui.

6. Aeey iineeaiiy iiceoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e o ?icaeoeo aeoe?iia?ieo
oiaa?enoa, ?icoe?aiiy «iiey» ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy o a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?oe?
iio??aia, ia iao iiaeyae, aeoeai?oa ? oe?oa aea?aeaaia i?aeo?eiaiiy
aeoe?iia?iiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, ia?aaeian?i o noa?ao iiiaeaoeoaaiiy,
e?aaeeooaaiiy oa no?aooaaiiy, a oaeiae noeioethaaiiy ?o ?iaanoeoe?eii?
aeoeaiino?. Aeioe?eueii aeaaaeaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe o? iaoai?cie, ye?
iai?aoeueiaai? o ?icaeioo?e ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?, aea aeoe?iia?i?
i?aei?e?inoaa aaea aeaaii caeiaoee iaeaaeia aeciaiiy ? ? i?ia?aeiith
oi?iith aaaeaiiy a?ciano.

7. Iie?oeea i?aeo?eiaiiy aeoe?iia?iiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa iiaeiia, ia iao
iiaeyae, oaeiae ni?yiiaoaaoeny ia aecia/aiiy oa onoiaiiy ia?aoeiae aeey
eiai ?icaeoeo, iie?ioaiiy aeinooio aei ciai?oi?o aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy,
noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey caeo/aiiy ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo,
caaacia/aiiy ?icaaeoaeaii? ia?aae? onoaiia oa ?inoeoooe?e, ui
caaacia/othoue ii?iaeueia ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?th aeoe?iia?ii?
oi?ie aeaniino? /a?ac ?oo oe?iieo iaia??a ia ?eieo.

8. E?eoe/iee aiae?c noaio aeoe?thaaiiy oa ae?yeueiino? aeoe?iia?ieo
oiaa?enoa i?ea?a ian aei aeniiaeo, ui aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano
aeoe?thaaiiy o a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?oe? iaiao?aeii:

ia?aaeyiooe ia?ae?e i?aei?e?inoa, ye? aeeo/ai? c i?ioeano aeoe?thaaiiy;

onoiooe ceiaaeeaaiiy ? ei?oioe?th i?e ioe?ioe? aea?aeaaiiai iaeia;

— iaaeaoe a?iiaaeyiai Oe?a?ie caeiiiaeaa/i ia?aaeaa/aiee ??aiee aeinooi
aei ia’?eo?a aeoe?thaaiiy, iineeeoe ?ioi?iiaai?noue a?iiaaeyi i?i o?ae
aeoe?thaaiiy oa iaaeaoe oeueiio i?ioeano a?eueoi? “i?ici?ino?”;

— a?ae?aaoethaaoe iaoai?ci ?iaeaenaoe?? i?eaaoecaoe?eiiai iaeiiaiai
na?oeo?eaoa oa ia?aaeaa/eoe iiaeeea?noue eiai aeeaa?neo?eaoe??, a oaeiae
ci?ieoe oiiae i?iaaaeaiiy na?oeo?eaoieo aoeoe?ii?a, iaaeaaoe a?iiaaeyiai
i?aai iaiaaeaiiy oe?ie oa iiaeeea?noue a?aeeeeeaiiy cayae;

— eiooe a?ae i?iaeaaeo aea?aeaaiiai iaeia iai?aaeyoe ia ?icaeoie
aeoe?eiaaieo i?aei?e?inoa;

— iaeaaiaeeoe iaoai?ci aacaio?aeiaiai ia?ao oa iiaeeea?noue eiiaa?oaoe??
oe?iieo iaia??a, yeee ae ia?aaeaa/aa ?o a?eueiee ia?a ia ?eieo;

— aaanoe nenoaio aa?aio?e oa no?aooaaiiy i?aa aeeaaeiee?a oa aecia/eoe
o?iainia? ?inoeoooe, ye? a aenooiaee aa?aioii noaa?eueiino? aeoe?iia?ieo
oiaa?enoa;

— noai?eoe ?aa?iiaeuei? a??ae? aeey aeoea?caoe?? iai?ioo oe?iieo iaia??a
aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa c iaaaeeeeie noaoooieie oiiaeaie, a oaeiae
i?aai?coaaoe neoaeao a??aeiai? noaoenoeee, a??aeiaee atheeaoaiue
eioe?oaaiue;

— a?aei?aoethaaoe iaoai?ci i?euea aeey ii?ooaeueieo ?iaanoeoe?e.

9. Iie?ioaiiy ae?yeueiino? ie?aieo aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa iiaeia, ia
iaoo aeoieo, aeinyaoe caaeainoaaiiyi no?oeoo?e aeoe?iia??a ca o?ueiia
iniiaieie eaoaai??yie o/aniee?a— o?oaeiaee eieaeoea, ea??aieee oa
ciai?oi?e ?iaanoi?; noai?aiiyi ae??aieie aeoe?iia?aie anioe?aoe?e aeey
aeianaiiy nai?o i?iiiceoe?e ia ?icaeyae caaaeueieo cai??a;
iaeaaiaeaeaiiyi ni?ai?aoe? c i?ioan?eieie o/anieeaie ?eieo oe?iieo
iaia??a, ia?aaeaea?aie ei?ii?aoe?e e?a?i c ?icaeiooith ?eieiaith
aeiiii?eith.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe

1. Aiaothe I.?, Ea?aiaiee I.?. Ni?eueia i?aei?e?iieoeoai a oiiaao
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee.// Oai??y ? i?aeoeea i?aei?e?iieoeoaa: i?iaeaie
aea/aiiy oa aeiiii?/ii? i?ina?oe a Oe?a?i?./ Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeiiai
e?oiueiai aeiiii?/iiai naiano?o “?ioa?aei”. Euea?a, 1997.— N.16-18.
Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a: ?icaeyiooi aeoe?iia?io oi?io i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?.

2. Ea?aiaiee I.?. Aeaye? aniaeoe ?aae?caoe?? aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie
aeaniino?.// Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie: no/ani? i?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae
?icaeoeo: Ca.iaoe.i?. Euea?a:EAeO, aeiiii?/iee oaeoeueoao, 1997.—
N.55-57.

3. Ea?aiaiee I.?. Aeoe?iioaaiiy— iaeei c iai?yie?a o?ainoi?iaoe??
aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa.// Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a
ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae: Ca.iaoe.i?. Euea?a: IAI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo
?aa?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, 1997.— aeione 2.— N.413-417.

4. Ea?aiaiee I.?. Aeoe?iioaaiiy ye can?a iae?iaeiiii?/ii?
noaa?e?caoe??.// Iaoe?iiaeueia aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy,
ia?niaeoeae. A?niee Euea?a. oi-oo. Na??y aeiiii?/ia.— Aei. 27.— 1997.—
N.44-46.

5. Ea?aiaiee I.?. Aeoe?iioaaiiy ye iniiaiee can?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy
aea?aeaaii? aeaniino?.// Oe?a?ia ia oeyoo aei ?eieo. A?niee Euea?a.
oi-oo. Na??y aeiiii?/ia.— Aei. 28.— 1997.— N.142-145.

6. Ea?aiaiee I.?. No/ani? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo aeoe?iia?ieo i?aei?e?inoa
a Oe?a?i?.// Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee a Oe?a?i?: Iaoe.ca., Euea?a,
1997.— aeione 2.— N.59-60.

7. Ea?aiaiee I.?. Oeyoe o?iainoaaiiy aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa a Oe?a?i?.//
O?iaine Oe?a?ie.— 1998.— ?5.— N.82-85.

AIIOAOe?ss

Ea?aiaiee I.?. Aeoe?thaaiiy a oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie.— ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.01.01— aeiiii?/ia oai??y . Euea?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, Euea?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny iniiai? i?iaeaie cae?eniaiiy i?ioeano
aeoe?thaaiiy a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. Oai?aoe/ii
iaa?oioiaai? ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? oa ia?aaaae aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie
aeaniino?. ?icaeyiooi aeina?ae aeoe?thaaiiy o e?a?iao ia?ao?aeii?
aeiiii?ee Oeaio?aeueii? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie. I?iaiae?ciaaii ae?yeuei?noue
aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa, iae?iaeiiii?/i? oiiae ?o noaiiaeaiiy oa
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a Oe?a?i?. Iai?/aii iniiai? iai?yie aaeineiiaeaiiy
i?ioeano aeoe?thaaiiy oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoa aeoe?iia?ii?
oi?ie aeaniino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeani?noue, aeoe?thaaiiy, aeoe?y, aeoe?iia?,aeoe?iia?ia
oiaa?enoai, oiiaeiaee ?eiie.

AIIIOAOeEss

Ea?aiaiee I.E. Aeoeee?iaaiea a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie o?ainoi?iaoeee
yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.01.01.— yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey Eueaianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia O?aiei, Eueaia, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeothony aeaaiua i?iaeaiu inouanoaeaiey i?ioeanna
aeoeee?iaaiey a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu. A ?aaioa
i?iaiaeece?iaaiu iniaaiiinoe aeoeeiia?iie oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe,
ii?aaeaeaii aa yeiiiie/aneoth nouiinoue, i?aeiouanoaa e neaaua noi?iiu
aeoeeiia?iuo i?aaei?eyoee, i?ineaaeaii yaiethoeeth aeoeeiia?iie
nianoaaiiinoe. A aeenna?oaoeee oaeaea iaiauaaony iiuo aeoeee?iaaiey a
“iinonioeeaeenoe/aneeo” ainoaea?noaao, eioi?ua ?aiueoa noaee ia iooue
?uii/iuo i?aia?aciaaiee, oaeeo eae, Iieueoa, *aoey, Aaia?ey. Oiae ?aoi?i
a eaaeaeie no?aia, a oaeaea ?acoeueoaou yeiiiie/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee
i?iaiaeece?iaaiu ia iniiaa aeaaiuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniio?aiu iniiaiua ninoaaiua iaoaiecia aeoeee?iaaiey a
Oe?aeia. A /anoiinoe, ii?aaeaeaia nouiinoue i?ioeanna aeoeee?iaaiey,
aeaaiua aai aeaeu e niiniau i?iaaaeaiey— ei?ii?aoecaoeey, aueoi
eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoa aeoeee ?aaioieeaie i?aaei?eyoey eee i?iaeaaea aai
ia eiieo?na iiae eiaanoeoeeiiiua iaycaoaeuenoaa, eniieueciaaiea
i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo aoiaa. A ?aaioa auaeaeythony neeueiua noi?iiu e
iaaeinoaoee na?oeoeeaoiie i?eaaoecaoeee.

Aoi?ay /anoue ?aaiou iinayuaia niaoeeoeea noaiiaeaiey aeoeeiia?iuo
i?aaei?eyoee a Oe?aeia, yeiiiieei-i?aaiecaoeeiiiui e i?aaiaui oneiaeyi
eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. Caeanue ?anniio?aiu i?iaeaiu oeiaine?iaaiey
aeoeeiia?iuo i?aaei?eyoee a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea, caeiiiaeaoaeueiay
aaca eo aeayoaeueiinoe e aiciiaeiua iooe aa oniaa?oainoaiaaiey, aii?inu
?acaeoey oiiaeiaiai ?uiea. A ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey
oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua aeeytho ia ninoiyiea ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa aeoeeiia?iiai
oiaa?euanoaa a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?iaiaeece?iaaii io?aneaaia e oa??eoi?eaeueiia
?ani?aaeaeaiea aeoeeiia?iuo oiaa?euanoa a Oe?aeia, a oaeaea iniiaiua
iieacaoaee eo aeayoaeueiinoe: ?aioaaaeueiinoue, i?eaueue,
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea.

Ia iniiaa i?iaaaeaiiiai iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey naeaeaiu auaiaeu, eioi?ua
eanathony nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo iineaaenoaee aeoeee?iaaiey,
aeiiouaiiuo a oiaea yoiai i?ioeanna aeaaiuo ioeaie. Iaia/aiu aeaaiua
iai?aaeaiey oniaa?oainoaiaaiey i?ioeanna aeoeee?iaaiey e ia?niaeoeau
?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoee aeoeeiia?iie oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe, a oaeaea
?anniio?aii cia/aiea ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee aeayoaeueiinoe
aeoeeiia?iuo oiaa?euanoa a Oe?aeia ia yoaia eo noaiiaeaiey.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aeoeeiia?iay oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe, iauaaeeiyy ?uii/iua e
nioeeaeueiua i?eioeeiu aeaiie?aoe/aneiai oicyenoaiaaiey, aunooiaao
aioo?aiiae yeiiiie/aneie iniiaie oi?ie?iaaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
?uii/iie yeiiiieee. Yoei aeieacaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?ei?eoaoa ?acaeoey
i?aaei?eyoee aeoeeiia?iie oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe a i?ioeanna ?aoi?ie?iaaiey
yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nianoaaiiinoue, aeoeee?iaaiea, aeoeey, aeoeeiia?,
aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai, oiiaeiaue ?uiie.

ANNOTATION

Karbovnyk O.I. Corporatization in the market transformation of the
Ukrainian economy. Manuscript.

The thesis submitted for a candidate’s degree in economics, speciality
08.01.01—Theory of Economics. Lviv State University, Lviv, 1999.

The thesis analoses the main issues of corporatization in the transition
economy of Ukraine. It also analyses particularities and advantages of
corporate property. Special attention is given to the corporatization
experience of Central and Eastern European emerging markets. This thesis
researches the activity of corporations: macroeconomics conditions of
their emergence and development. It also contains the main ways for
improving the process of corporatization and prospects of corporate
development.

Key words: property, corporatization, share, shareholder, corporation,
capital market.

Aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue c i?eaaoecaoe?? aaeeeeo ? na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoa o
1995-1996??.// Aea?aeaaiee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee atheaoaiue i?i
i?eaaoecaoe?th.— 1997.— ?11.— N.10.

I?an-neoaeaa OAeIO ?ioi?io?.// Aea?aeaaiee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee atheaoaiue
i?i i?eaaoecaoe?th Ae?AI.— 1997.—?3.— N.2.

Aoaan TH.Aeoe?iia?e oi/ooue iaoe noaa?eueia caeiiiaeaanoai.\\ Ae?ei.—
1995.— ?86.— N.4.

Oe?a?ia a /eneao (ca?o ca 1996?.).// Aeiiii?/iee atheaoaiue
(i?aeaioiaeaiee i?i?noa?noaii aeiiii?ee Oea?ie oa a?oiith aeiiii?/ieo
?aaeiee?a oiiaeo Ni?ina).— 1996.— ?22.—N.35.

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