2

?inoeooo a?oioiciaanoaa oa aa?io?i?? ?i. I.I.Nieieianueeiai OAAI

IAAeOI*?E Iao?i Iao?iae/

OAeE 631.582:631.8

AA?IAEIEIA?*IEE NOAI A?OIO?A E?NINOAIO OE?A?IE, AAeINEIIAEAIIss
OI?AAE?IIss ?O ?IAeTH*?NOTH

? I?IAeOEOEAI?NOTH AA?IOeAIIC?A

06.01.03 — aa?ia?oioiciaanoai ? aa?io?ceea

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaith

aeieoi?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?,
i?aeii?yaeeiaaiiio Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ai?iaei?e Ieeiea Ieoaeeiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith aa?io?i?? oa yeino?

n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

1. Aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

O?oneaaaoeueeee ?iiai Noaiaiiae/, ?inoeooo

a?oioiciaanoaa oa aa?io?i?? ?i. I.I.Nieieianueeiai OAAI,

aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee.

2. Aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aicithe Noaiai Oeoiiiae/, Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaia

aeaaeai?y aiaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, ?aeoi?.

3. Aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aieiaei A?ano Aiaoie??ae/,

Oeaio?aeueiee aioai?/iee naae IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo aeaeiiao?? ?ineei.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo caiea?ianoaa, eaai?aoi??y
aa?ia?oioiciaanoaa, Oe?a?inueea aeaaeai?y aa?a?ieo iaoe, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “_16_”___04___ 1999 ?. i __10__
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.354.01
?inoeoooo a?oioiciaanoaa oa aa?io?i?? ?i. I.I.Nieieianueeiai OAAI,
310024, Oa?e?a, aoe.*aeeianueeiai, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
a?oioiciaanoaa oa aa?io?i?? ?i. I.I.Nieieianueeiai OAAI, 310024, Oa?e?a,
aoe.*aeeianueeiai, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_16__“________03________199_9_ ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee, eaiaeeaeao n.-a. iaoe
Iaaeaiei I.O.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iaoeiaeie i?aoeyie A.A.Aeieo/a?aa, E.A.O?i??yc?aa,
A.A.Einoe/aaa, A.?.A?eueyina, E.I.I?anieiaa, Ae.I.I?yi?oi?eiaa,
A.A.Eia-aee, A.A.Iaaea?ae?aa oa ?ioeo caii/aoeiaai? ooiaeaiaioaeuei?
iai?yie ?ia?o uiaei ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ? aeieia?/ii caaeainiaaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a a aa?ii?iieneiaiio ae?iaieoeoa?.

A E?ninoaiia?e a?oioia?e cii? Oe?a?ie (20105,2 oen.aa) aeiaaio?eaaea
ae?y aio?iiiaaiiiai /eiieea, iane?aeeii yei? ? aenieee nooi?iue
?ici?aiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue (75-85%), iaaeineiiae?noue
oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, caa?oaeiaiiy
aa?ioeaiic?a aaaeeeie iaoaeaie, ianoeoeeaeaie oa i?o?aoaie, a oaeiae
?io? iaaaoeai? i?ioeane, i?ecaaea aei cia/iiai iia??oaiiy
aa?iaeieia?/iiai noaio ? cieaeaiiy ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a. Ana /ano?oa
??aaiue o?iaeaeiino? ii/aee iaiaaeoaaoe aeaoi?iiaai? aio?iiiaaiiith
ae?yeuei?noth eiei?aeii-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? a?oioo.

Iane?aeeii iaaaoeaii? ae?? aio?iiiaaiiiai aieeao ? iia??oaiiy aaaaoueio
ooieoe?e a?oioo a aeinenoai?: aeieia?/ii?, o?oinai?oa?ii?, aooa?ii? oa
?ioeo. C?oeiiaaii noi?iiaaio a i?iaeiaae aaaaoueio oeny/ie?oue
aeeiai?/io ??aiiaaao i?ae neioacii ? ?iceeaaeii i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie —
iniiae i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue ? aeieia?/ii caaeainiaaiiai
iai?io ?a/iaei ? aia?a?? a nenoai? a?oio-?ineeia-aoiinoa?a (A.Ae.Oie?i,
1986, 1994, A.A.Eiaaea, 1991). ?icaeaathoueny i?ioeane ou?eueiaiiy oa
ii?ooaiiy aiaeii-iia?o?yiiai ? iiaeeaiiai ?aaeei?a (A.A.Iaaea?ae?a,
1993).

Neooaoe?y, ui neeaeany, aecia/a? aeooaeuei?noue aeaii? i?iaeaie.
Aeieeea iaio?aei?noue a i?iaaaeaii? aeaoaeueii? ioe?iee no/aniiai
aa?iaeieia?/iiai noaio a?oio?a aeaiiai ?aa?iio, a oaeiae iiooeo oeyo?a
iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy ?o ?iaeth/?noth ?
i?iaeoeoeai?noth aa?ioeaiic?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue IAO. Oae, c 1973 ii
1977 ??. aiia aoea neeaaeiaith /anoeiith IAe? ii oaiaoeoe?: ”Aea/eoe
aeeaeaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueo? oa ?ic?iaeoe nenoaio
oaeia?aiiy a n?aici?iao Iie?nny oa E?ninoaio O?N?” (iiia? aea?aeaaii?
?a?no?aoe?? 0.051.126), a a ia??iae c 1978-1995 ??. — ii oai?:
“?ic?iaeoe a?oioicaoenio nenoaio caiea?ianoaa aeey E?ninoaio O?N?”
(iiia? aea?aeaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 81081583) oa ii i?iaeoo AeEIO: “Aea/eoe
oiiae aeeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaeoe aeiiii?/ii iaa?oioiaaio nenoaio aeia?ea
eoeueoo? ca?iiai-ao?yeiai? n?aici?ie a oiiaao ?ioaineaiiai caiea?ianoaa”
(iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 870011696).

Iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue — anoaiiaeoe
caeiiii??iino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?oioiaeo aeinenoai a ??cieo oiiaao
?ioaineo?eaoe?? caiea?ianoaa E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie; aeyaeoe ci?ie
aa?iaeieia?/iiai noaio iniiaieo oei?a a?oio?a oa ?o eiei?aeii-o?i?/ieo
aeanoeainoae a caeaaeiino? a?ae ??cieo aa??aio?a aeiaaio?eaaeiai
nenoaiaoe/iiai aianaiiy aeia?ea a n?aici?i?; iaa?oiooaaoe oa
cai?iiiioaaoe ia’?eoeai? e?eoa??? aa?iaeieia?/iiai noaio a?oio?a,
?ic?iaeoe eiioeaioe?th oi?aa-e?iiy ?iaeth/?noth a?oio?a aeey no/anieo
aeieia?/ieo oiia, cai?iiiioaaoe ae?iaieoeoao eiie?aoi? caoiaee uiaei
i?aeaeuaiiy ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a, i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aa?ioeaiic?a oa ?o i?iaeoeoeaiino? c a?aooaaiiy aeieia?/ieo iaiaaeaiue.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy: aea/eoe ?aaeei
i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie a a?oio? (iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ?ineeiieo ?aooie, e?iaoeeo
i?ioeano ?o ?iceeaaeo, eiao?oe?aioe aoi?o?eaoe?? oa i?ia?ae?caoe??
caeaaeii a?ae ii?i aianaiiy aeia?ea oa aeeaeie ?o ca?iaee); aeine?aeeoe
e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni? ci?ie a aoioniaiio noai? oa acioiiio oiiae?
a?oioo; anoaiiaeoe eiao?oe?aioe aeei?enoaiiy ?ineeiaie niieoe acioo c
a?oioo oa aeia?ea, i?/aieo 15N, caeaaeii a?ae ??cieo niinia?a ia?ia?oeo
? ii?i ?o aianaiiy oa ?ic?aooaaoe aaeain i?aai?/iiai aoaeaoeth ? acioo
caeaaeii a?ae aieeao aeiaaio?eaaeiai aianaiiy aeia?ea o n?aici?i?;
?ic?iaeoe iiaeaeue e?oaiia?ao aoaeaoeth oa aecia/eoe e?eoa??? no?eeino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie aa?io?oioeaiic — aoionia? ?a/iaeie a?oioo;
aea/eoe o?ceei-o?i?/iee noai a?oio?a oa a?iaia?aaoeeo ?o i?aai?/i?
?a/iaeie; aeaoaeueii aea/eoe aooa?i? aeanoeaino? ??cieo ca aaiacenii ?
aeanoeainoyie a?oio?a oa anoaiiaeoe ?o ci?ie i?ae aieeaii o?eaaei? ae??
aio?iiiaaiiiai /eiieea, ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy, ioe?iee oa
neeaaeaiiy ea?oia?ai aooa?iino?, anoaiiaeoe ia’?eoeai?, e?euee?ni?
e?eoa??? ioe?iee o?ceei-o?i?/ii? aeaa?aaeaoe?? a?oio?a; aeine?aeeoe
aeieiai-aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue aianaiiy aeia?ea o n?aici?i? ? aea/eoe
aieea ?o aeiaaio?eaaeiai aeei?enoaiiy ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?; ?ic?iaeoe eiioeaioe?th iiaeaeueoiai
oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano oi?aae?iiy ?iaeth/?noth a?oio?a ?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? aa?ioeaiic?a aeey no/anieo aeieia?/ieo oiia oa
cai?iiiioaaoe eiie?aoi? aa?iiae?i?aoeai? ? aa?ioaoi?/i? caoiaee noiniaii
?aae?caoe?? ?ic?iaeaii? eiioeaioe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe ?yae iiaeo oai?aoe/ieo oa i?aeoe/ieo iieiaeaiue
noiniaii ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?oioiaeo ?einenoai o ??cieo oiiaao
?ioaineo?eaoe?? caiea?ianoaa E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie.

Aeieacaii, ui ii?ooaiiy i?iaeooe?eii-a?aeoai?thaaii? oa
nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ii? ooieoe?e a?oioo, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a
aeiaaio?eaaeiio aeei?enoaii?, a oaeiae eiai no?eeino?, iaoiiaeai? a
ia?oo /a?ao iaaeinoaoi?i iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi aei a?oioo oioineioaciaaii?
i?aai?/ii? iane o aeaeyae? i?neyaeieaieo ?aooie oa i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiy aaaaoaoe?eii-iieueiaeo aeine?ae?a c aeei?enoaiiyi
?cioii?a aeaio aeaiaio?a — acioo (15N) oa aoaeaoeth (14N) aeyaeai?
caeiiii??iino? o?ainoi?iaoe?? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie oa anoaiiaeaia
e?iaoeea iaaeoiaeaeaiiy i?iaeoeo?a ?? ?iceeaaeo a aoi?iia? eeneioe oa
ooeueaieeneioe. Aecia/aia oaeiae o?c?ieia?/ia oa i?iaeoeoeaia
aoaeoeai?noue ??cieo ii?i aeia?ea i?ae oeoe?ia? ao?yee, iceio ioaieoeth
oa eoeo?oaeco ia neein. I?e oeueiio anoaiiaeai? eiao?oe?aioe
aeei?enoaiiy acioo ?ineeiaie ?c a?oioo oa aeia?ea a caeaaeiino? a?ae
ii?i ?o aianaiiy oa ?i?oaoe?? niinia?a ia?ia?oeo a?oioo. I?aeoaa?aeaeaia
ia?aaaaa ??ciiaeeaieiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo a n?aici?i? ia?aae
i?i?iaeueiei.

Aeey iiaeeaeaiiai aiae?co ye?niiai neeaaeo aoiono oa aea/aiiy aieeao
??cieo aa??aio?a nenoai aeia?ea ia eiai ci?ie cai?iiiiiaaii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe a?aeiioaiiy aoaeaoeth aei acioo (N:N) o neeaae?
aeao?eoii? /anoeie aoiono oa o neeaae? aeania aoioniaeo ?a/iaeiao.
Iieacaii, ui i?e aeiaaio?eaaeiio ae?iuoaaii? eoeueoo? n?aici?ie a ??cii
oaeia?aieo aa??aioao, a ia?oo /a?ao, ci?ith?oueny acioiee oiiae
aeao?eoii? /anoeie aoiono.

Iaa?oioiaaia iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ia?aiao??a eeneioii-iniiaii?
aooa?iino? a?oioo ye ia’?eoeaieo e?eoa???a ioe?iee eiai ye?niiai noaio
aeey oe?eae a?oioiai-aeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea
?? aecia/aiiy oa ioe?iee, yea io?eiaea oe?iea aeciaiiy ye a Oe?a?i? oae
? ca ?? iaaeaie. Aeei?enoaaoe ?ic?iaeaio iaoiaeeeo, i?iaaaeaii
aeaoaeueia aea/aiiy aooa?ieo aeanoeainoae ??cieo ca aaiacenii oa
aeanoeainoyie a?oio?a, anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? aieeao aeiaaio?eaaeiai
nenoaiaoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy aeia?ea a n?aici?i? ia ci?io aooa?ieo
aeanoeainoae /i?iicaio oeiiaiai oa eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo. ?ic?iaeaia
iaoiaeeea neeaaeaiiy ea?oia?aie aooa?iino? a?oioo oa oeaea ?? ioe?iee.
I?iiiio?oueny nooe?eueia ianoaaeaiiy a?oio?a ia aooa?i? aeanoeaino?.

Aeey no/anieo aeieia?/ieo oiia cai?iiiiiaaia eiioeaioe?y ? i?eioeeiiai
?ioa iiaeaeue oi?aae?iiy ?iaeth/?noth a?oio?a oa i?iaeoeoeai?noth
aa?ioeaiic?a. Iaea?eueo aaaeeeaei aeo?aeiei iieiaeaiiyi eiioeaioe?? ?
iieiaeaiiy uiaei i?ia?aeii? ?ie? a?ieia?/iiai oaeoi?o o a?aeoai?aii? oa
caa?aaeaii? ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a ?aa?iio. Aio?iiiaaiia ao?o/aiiy a
i?ioean ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?oioiaeo aeinenoai iieeeeaii ni?eyoe
caa?aaeaiith i?e?iaeiueiai ??ciiiai?ooy oi?i aeeai? ?a/iaeie oa
iioei?caoe?? oiia ?? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. Ia iniia? oai??? eaoano?io, ye
no/aniiai iaoiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ?ic?iaeaia iiaeaeue e?oaiia?ao
aoaeaoeth oa aecia/ai? e?eoa??? no?eeino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie
aa?io?oioeaiic — aoionia? ?a/iaeie a?oioo. Cai?iiiiiaai? eiie?aoi?
aa?ioaoi?/i? oa iae?i?aoeai? caoiaee uiaei ?aae?caoe?? aeaii?
eiioeaioe??.

Anoaiiaeaia iiceoeaia ae?y aiaeiiai ?ic/eio iaoan?e?eaoo iao??th uiaei
caiia?aaiiy ia?aaiaeo aianaiiai c aeia?eaaie ?205 a aaaeei ?ic/eiio
oi?io, a oaeiae i?aeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo ?ic/eiaii? oi?ie ?205 ?c
oinoi?eo?a.

Oai?aoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe aeeeaaeaia a iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaii?
aa?iaeieia?/iiai iai?yio a?aeoai?aiiy ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a, i?aeaeuaiiy
??aiy i?iaeooe?eiiai i?ioeano oa no?eeino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aa?ioeaiic?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa?: o anoaiiaeaii? caeiiii??iinoae
aieeao aeiaaio?eaaeiai canoinoaaiiy aeia?ea o n?aici?i? ia ye?niee
neeaae ? aeanoeaino? aoiono oa acioiiai oiiaeo, aia?aaoe/iee noai ?
aooa?i? aeanoeaino? a?oioo; a ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy oa ioe?ioe?
eeneioii-iniiaii? aooa?iino? a?oioo oa iaoiaeeee neeaaeaiiy ea?oia?ai
eeneioii-iniiaii? aooa?iino? a?oio?a, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e
ioe?ioe? ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo aocao oa
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo onoaiiaao; o ?ic?iaoe? ia’?eoeaieo e?eoa???a ioe?iee
aa?iaeieia?/iiai noaio a?oio?a, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny iaoeiaeie
onoaiiaaie; a canoinoaaii? aeca?a?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aeey
aeieiai-aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aeia?ea o
n?aici?i?; a ?ic?iaoe? eiie?aoieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey ae?iaieoeoaa ii
i?aeaeuaiith ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a o no/anieo oiiaao. Noai?aia aaoi?ii
i?ia?aia “Aecia/aiiy aooa?ii? caeaoiino? a?oioo” ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
?ioi?iaoe?eii-iiooeiai? nenoaie “*i?iiaeeue” I?iaa?ii?iio Oe?a?ie. Aiia
aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey ?ic?aooieo ii?i aaiia a ainiiaea?noaao
?icoaoiaaieo a cii? ?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy aiane?aeie aaa??? ia
*AAN. Oea aea? ciiao cieaeoaaoe eiao?oe?aioe iaaeoiaeaeaiiy
?aae?iaeoeaiiai no?iioe?th a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo i?iaeoeoe?th.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Cacia/ai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aenoioo?, iaa?oioiaai? ? ?ic?iaeai? iniaenoi aaoi?ii. Eiio iaeaaeeoue
iinoaiiaea i?iaeaie, ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue uiaei ?? ae??oaiiy,
cae?eniaiiy iieueiaeo, aaaaoaoe?eii-iieueiaeo, eaai?aoi?ieo ?
iiaeaeueieo aeine?ae?a, ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue,
oi?ioaaiiy aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ae?iaieoeoao.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?
aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue, iaaiai?thaaeenue ? iaae?oeiaai? a
iaoa??aeao: O ? XY Iaiaeaea?anueeee c’?cae ii caaaeuei?e ? i?eeeaaei?e
o?i?? (Aeia-Aoa, 1975 ? I?inuee, 1993), ?aa?iiaeueia ia?aaea o/aniee?a
Aaia?ao?/ii? ia?aaee aeine?ae?a c aeia?eaaie a Oe?a?inuee?e oa
Iieaeaanuee?e ?N? (Iieoaaa, 1975), Iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y AANAI?E
(E?aniiaea?, 1981), Ia?aaea, i?enay/aia noi??//th eieae “?onneee
/a?iicai” (Oa?e?a, 1983), ?? c’?cae a?oioiciaaoe?a oa aa?io?i?e?a
Oe?a?inueei? ?N? (Oa?e?a, 1986), Iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y ii aaaeeei iaoaeai
? iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeuo (Iineaa, 1982), ?? iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y
“Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a, a?ieia?caoe?? caiea?ianoaa oa
io?eiaiiy aeieia?/ii aenieiye?nii? i?iaeoeoe?? (Iineaa, 1994),
I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y ii ?aoi?ioaaiith caiaeueieo a?aeiinei
(Ee?a, 1996) oa ?io.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 8
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ae?iaieoeoao, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, ui
aeeth/a? 512 aeaea?ae (c ieo 24 — eaoeieoeath). Caaaeueiee ianya
iniiaiiai iaoa??aeo aeena?oaoe?? — 315 noi??iie, ? 54 oaaeeoe? oa 13
iaethie?a. Aei aeena?oaoe?? aeiaeai? aeia?aeee i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie.

Aieiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

1. Ia’?eoe ? iaoiaeeea cae?eniaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ia’?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiue aoee /i?iicaie oeiia?, /i?iicaie ii?aecieai?,
eo/ii-/i?iicaii? ? n??? e?nia? a?oioe, ?ineeiia i?iaeoeoe?y
aa?ioeaiic?a, a oaeiae i?aai?/i? ? i?ia?aeuei? aeia?eaa. Iniiai?
iieueia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiai? a o?ueio noaoe?iia?ieo n?aici?iao,
i’yoe oei/aniaeo ? iaeiiio aaaaoaoe?eii-iieueiaiio aeine?aeao.
Aeiaeaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeai? oaeiae a oiiaao i?e?iaeieo
oeaiic?a oa aa?ioeaiic?a ia oa?eoi??? Ee?anueei?, A?iieoeueei?,
Noinueei?, ??aiainueei? oa *a?i?a?anueei? iaeanoae.

Noaoe?iia?ia aeanyoei?eueia ca?iiai-ao?yeiaa n?aici?ia (Aa?iiii?/ia
aeine?aeia noaioe?y IAO “Ieoieoey”) aoea caeeaaeaia ia
eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiio a?oio? a 1960-1961 ??. c iaoith aea/aiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ae?? ??cieo aa??aio?a nenoaie aeia?ea ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue eoeueoo? ?
eiai ?iaeth/?noue. Nei?eaiaai? a 1989 ?. aa??aioe nenoaie aeia?ea
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aea/aoe aoaeoeai?noue ae?? oaeeo ii?i aeia?ea (a
?ic?aooieo ia 1 aa n?aici?iii? ieiu?): aiith — 13-15 o, acioo 80-116 ea,
oinoi?o 85-131 ea, eae?th 88-131 ea.

Iiaoi?thaai?noue aeine?aeo o?e?aciaa. N?aici?ia ?icai?iooa a 10 iieyo o
i?inoi??. *a?aoaaiiy eoeueoo?: eiithoeia, iceia ioaieoey, oeoe?ia?
ao?yee, eoeo?oaeca ia neein, iceia ioaieoey, ai?io, iceia ioaieoey,
oeoe?ia? ao?yee, eoeo?oaeca ia ca?ii, y/i?iue c i?aen?aaiiyi eiithoeie.
?ici?? iae?eiai? ae?eyiee — 100 i2.

Noaoe?iia?ia aeanyoei?eueia ca?iiai-ao?yeiaa n?aici?ia
(Aenia?e-iaioaeueia aaca ?inoeoooo o?c?ieia?? ?ineei AI Oe?a?ie).
Aeine?ae caeeaaeaii o 1972?. ia n??iio e?niiio i?uaii-eaaeinoaeeieiaiio
a?oio?.

E?euee?noue aianaieo aeia?ea caeaaeii a?ae aeine?aeaeoaaieo aa??aio?a
noaiiaeea (a ?ic?aooieo ia 1 aa n?aici?iii? ieiu?): 18 o aiith, 48-96 ea
acioo, 58,5-117 ea oinoi?o, 58,5-117 ea eae?th, 0,5 ea iie?aaeaio.
*a?aoaaiiy eoeueoo? ? ieiua iae?eiaeo ae?eyiie iiae?ai? aei
iiia?aaeiuei? n?aici?ie. Iiaoi?thaai?noue aeine?aeo — /ioe?e?aciaa.
N?aici?ia ?icai?iooa a 10 iieyo o i?inoi??.

51 n?aici?ia Ie?ii?anueeiai ?inoeoooo ioaieoe? ?i. A.?.?aianea.
Aeine?aee i?iaaaeai? c a?oioiaeie c?aceaie, ye? aoee a?ae?a?ai? c i?iiai
(0-20 ni) oa i?aei?iiai (20-40 ni) oa??a /i?iicaio oeiiaiai c oaeeo
aa??aio?a: 1 — eiio?ieueia nenoaia oaeia?aiiy, 2 — i?aai?/ia
iaeneiaeueia, 3 — i?ia?aeueia iaeneiaeueia, 4 — ci?oaia
i?aaii-i?ia?aeueia, 5 — i?ia?aeueia ii?iaeueia nenoaia oaeia?aiiy.
Aeaoaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea n?aici?ie oa a?oioiai-aa?io?i?/i? aeanoeaino?
a?oioo iioae?eiaai? a ?iaioao TH.E.Eoaec?ia, N.A.Nooia?ona (1966),
A.?.Aaoiaioey oa ?io. (1973).

Aaaaoaoe?eii-iieueiaee aeine?ae c aeei?enoaiiyi noaa?eueiiai ?cioiio
15N ? caaaeueii i?/aii? 14N ?ineeiii? o?oiiane. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiue —
aea/aiiy i?ioean?a o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?ineeiieo ?aooie a /i?iicai? oeiiaiio
? aeei?enoaiiy acioo i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea eoeueoo?aie n?aici?ie c
??cieie aa??aioaie nenoaie oaeia?aiiy oa ?i?oaoe?? niinia?a ia?ia?oeo
a?oioo. Aeine?ae i?iaaaeaiee a o/aiaiio ainiiaea?noa? IAO
“Aaeeeini?oeinueeee” a 1985-1992 ??.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoaeaa? iinoaeeie aac aeia
eoa?/ii? oi?ie (0,5 o 0,5 o 0,5 i), ye? caeiioaaee a a?oio aac ii?ooaiiy
i?e?iaeiiai ceiaeaiiy eiai i?io?eth. *a?aoaaiiy eoeueoo? ca ?ieaie
aeine?aeaeaiue oaea: oeoe?ia? ao?yee, eoeo?oaeca ia neein, iceia
ioaieoey, eoeo?oaeca ia ca?ii, ai?io, iceia ioaieoey, aaaaoi??/i? o?aae.
E?euee?noue aianaieo aeia?ea a ?ic?aooieo ia 1 aa i?ae oeoe?ia? ao?yee
(1985/1986 ??.) caeaaeii a?ae aeine?aeaeoaaieo aa??aio?a noaiiaeea: 4-12
o i?/aii? 14N o?oiiane y/iaith, 15N75-195?120-240E120-240 + CaCO3 5o
(iniiaia oaeia?aiiy) +15N45 (i?aeei?iea).

Aeice aianaiiy aeia?ea i?ney 1986 ?. ii an?o aa??aioao aeine?aeo (e??i
eiio?ieth) aoee iaeiaeia? ? noaiiaeee aeey eoeo?oaece ia neein
N60?60E60(iniiaia aianaiiy); aeey iceii? ioaieoe? — N60?60E60(iniiaia
aianaiiy) + N30 (aaniyia i?aeaeeaeaiiy); aeey eoeo?oaece ia neein 20
o/aa aiith + N90?120E120 (iniiaia aianaiiy ainaie) + N30 (aaniyia
i?aeaeeaeaiiy); aeey ai?ioo — N30?45E45 (iniiaia aianaiiy); aeey iceii?
ioaieoe? N45?60E60 (iniiaia aianaiiy) + N30 (aaniyia i?aeaeeaeaiiy).
I?ae aaaaoi??/i? o?aae aeia?eaa ia aiineee.

Ia aa??aioao 4 oa 8 o i?ioean? caeeaaeaiiy aeine?aeo (in?iue 1985 ?.)
aa?oi?e 0-10 ni oa? a?oioo aoa ia?ai?uaiee ia aeeaeio 20-30 ni, a oa? c
aeeaeie 20-30 ni — ia iiaa?oith. ?i?ooaaiiy ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ? ca?iaee
aeia?ea i?ae ?io? eoeueoo?e ii an?o aa??aioao aeine?aeo, ca aeiyoeii
ae?oaiai aa??aioo, i?iaiaeeee ia aeeaeio 0-20 ni. O ae?oaiio aa??aio?
i?ioyaii anueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeaeia ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ? aianaiiy
aeia?ea ia ia?aaeuoaaea 10 ni. Acio o aeaeyae? caaaeueiii?/aii? ai?a/ii?
nae?o?e aiineee i?ae oeoe?ia? ao?yee. Nooi?iue caaaa/aiiy noaiiaeea
47,91 aoiiiiai a?aenioeo iaaeeeoeo 15N. Iiaoi?thaai?noue aeine?aeo —
o?ee?aoia.

I?e caeeaaeaii? oa i?iaaaeaii? aeine?ae?a ? eaai?aoi?ieo ?ia?o
ea?oaaeeny caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeeeaie ? iaoiaee/ieie ?ic?iaeaie,
iioae?eiaaieie a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??. Aeieiai-aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy aeia?ea o n?aici?i? ioe?ithaaee ca iaoiaeeeith, iienaiith
A.A. I?i??aei oa ?io. (1993).

2. Eoeueoo?iee a?oioioai?iee i?ioean ? aoioniaee noai a?oio?a.

Eoeueoo?iee a?oioioai?iee i?ioean ni?e/eiea nooo?a? ci?ie a oiae?
i?e?iaeieo i?ioean?a i?iaeoeoaaiiy oa aeano?oeoe?? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie:
aieeioa ia i?ioeane ?? iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy, o?ainoi?iaoe??, o?ainii?ooaaiiy
? i?ia?ae?caoe??. A?aeaoeiny ii?ooaiiy a?iaaio?i?/iiai oeeeeo aoaeaoeth
a aeinenoaiao. Iniiaiei iaoa??aeii aeey oi?ioaaiiy a?oioiai? i?aai?/ii?
?a/iaeie ? ?ineeii? ?aooee (iaaecaiia /anoeia oa ei??iiy) eoeueoo?ieo
?ineei ? ao?’yi?a, a oaeiae i?aai?/i? aeia?eaa.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a /i?iicai? oeiiaiio (ia?ae?a) caeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy
a?iaeiaaiino? caaaeueia e?euee?noue i?aai?/iiai aoaeaoeth a neeaae?
a?iiane ?ineei eieeaa?oueny a?ae 1,4 aei 3,9 o/aa, a eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiio
aeinyaa? 3,4 o/aa. Oeae iieaciee a caiia?aeiiio noaio “Ieoaee?anueei?
oe?eeie” nyaa? a?aei?oee 8,4 o/aa. E?euee?noue aoaeaoeth, ui
iaaeoiaeeoue ui??/ii a i?iee oa? a?oioo c i?neyaeieaii-ei?aiaaeie
?aooeaie, caeaaeii a?ae aeaeo eoeueoo?ieo ?ineei, a aa?ioeaiicao
eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao 0,56-3,3 o/aa. I?e oeueiio iaeiaioa ?o e?euee?noue
aeyaeaia i?ae oeoe?iaeie ao?yeaie, a iaea?eueoa — i?ae eiithoeiith.
Oaeei /eiii, aeiaeia c eoeueoo?ieo ?ineei ia ni?iiiaeia caaacia/eoe
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a a?oio oaei? e?eueeino? i?aai?/iiai aoaeaoeth c
i?neyaeieaii-ei?aiaaeie ?aooeaie, ye oea ? a i?e?iaeieo oeaiicao
“Ieoaee?anueei? oe?eeie”.

Ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy ?iaeth/?noth a?oio?a,
io?eiaiiy iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy o?iaeaeiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eoeueoo? oa i?iaeoeoe?? aeniei? yeino? a oiiaao E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie
iia’ycaii c? ci?iith aoioniiai noaio a?oio?a. Eiai iie?ioaiiy
aeinyaa?oueny ca ?aooiie iiooeo aeiaeaoeiaeo aeaea?ae i?aai?/ii?
?a/iaeie, oeyo?a ?? iioeiaeueii? o?ainoi?iaoe??, aeieia?/ii aeaaaeaieo
ii?i i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea.

*eneaii? e?oa?aoo?i? aeai? i?i aieea aeia?ea ? niinia?a ia?ia?oeo ia
o?ainoi?iaoe?th i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie, a oaeiae i?i aeei?enoaiiy acioo
?ineeiaie ia iaeiicia/i? ? iathoue noia?a/eea? oa?aeoa?enoeee. Aeyaeoe
caeiiii??iino? oeeo i?ioean?a, a oaeiae o?c?ieia?/io ? i?iaeoeoeaio
aoaeoeai?noue ??cieo aeic aeia?ea iiaeia eeoa caaaeyee i?iaaaeaiith
aeine?aeaeaiue c aeei?enoaiiyi ?cioii?a aeaio aeaiaio?a — acioo oa
aoaeaoeth.

E?iaoeea i?ia?ae?caoe?? aoaeaoeth caaaeueii i?/aii? 14N ?ineeiii? iane
y/iaith ? eiai iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a aoionia? ?a/iaeie iaaaaeaia ia iae.1
I?ney 7-??/iiai ia??iaeo i?ia?ae?caoe??, caeaaeii a?ae aa??aio?a
aeine?aeo ? c o?aooaaiiyi noaoenoe/ii? ?ica?aeiino? aeaieo, caa?aaeiny
eeoa 15,5-21,2% 14N, ui aoa aianaiee a a?oio o aeaeyae? i?/aii? o?oiiane
y/iaith. I?e/iio 61,5-68,1% ?c cacia/aii? e?eueeino? aoea aeeth/aia aei
neeaaeo aoi?iiaeo eeneio ? ooeueaieeneio. Iaea?eueo ?ioaineaii i?ioeane
i?ia?ae?caoe?? a?aeaoaaeenue o ae?oaiio aa??aio?, aea i?aai?/io ?a/iaeio
aiineee ia aeeaeio 0-10 ni.

??e

Iae.1. E?iaoeea i?ia?ae?caoe?? ia/aii? 14N o?oiiane

y/iaith ? eiai iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a aoi?iia? eeneioe oa ooeueaieeneioe

/i?iicaio oeiiaiai

Iicia/aiiy: 1,2 — e?ea? i?ia?ae?caoe?? N ?ineeiieo ?aooie o aa?.2 (oa? —
0-10 ni) ? aa?.8 (20-30 ni) a?aeiia?aeii; 3,4 — e?ea? aeeth/aiiy N
?ineeiieo ?aooie a aoi?iia? eeneioe oa ooeueaieeneioe o aa?.8 (oa? 20-30
ni) ? aa?. 2 (oa? 0-10 ni) a?aeiia?aeii.

Ao?aoe i?aai?/iiai aoaeaoeth ?c aianaii? o?oiiane a oeueiio aa??aio?
noaiiaeee 84,5 2,4%, a oie /an ye i?e aianaii? o?oiiane a oa? 0-20 ni —
80,0 2,9 %. Aaiioaaiiy a?oioo ni?eyei ca?eueoaiith iaaeoiaeaeaiiy
aoaeaoeth c i?ia?ae?ciaaieo ?aooie o aoionia? ?a/iaeie. ?i?ooaaiiy
niinia?a ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, ca oiiae ca?iaee aeia?ea a oa? 0-20 ni,
nooo?ai ia aieeioei ia oe? iieacieee.

I?iaaaeai? niinoa?aaeaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui ia ai?no aiaei?ic/eiii?
i?aai?ee ? aa??aaaeuei?noue ?? a /an? aieeaathoue aa??aioe nenoaie
aeia?ea, e?euee?noue i?aai?/ieo ?aooie, ye? iaae?eoee a a?oio, eiai
o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino?. Iaeneiaeueiei aaniethoiei ai?noii
aiaei?ic/eiieo ?a/iaei oa?aeoa?ecothoueny /i?iicaie oeiia?
na?aaeiueinoaeeieia? i?e?iaeieo o?oioeaiic?a. A oiiaao caiia?aeiiai
noaio “Ieoaee?anueea oe?eeia” a?o?iiaoia aeoeai?noue a oa?ao 0-10 ni oa
10-20 ni noaiiaeea a?aeiia?aeii 8,1 o 1,10-2 oa 6,2 o 1,10-2 % N aei
iane a?oioo (1,47 oa 1,20 % aei i?aai?/iiai N a?oioo). A i?iiio oa??
eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo, caeaaeii a?ae aa??aio?a nenoaie aeia?ea,
e?euee?noue aiaei?ic/eiii? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie aa??thaaea a iaaeao
0,72-1,5% N a?ae caaaeueiiai ai?noo i?aai?/iiai aoaeaoeth a a?oio?.
I?i?iaeueiei cia/aiiyi oa?aeoa?ecoaaany eiio?ieueiee aa??aio. E??i oiai,
o aa??aio? i?ia?aeueii? nenoaie aeia?ea e?euee?noue aiaei?ic/eiiiai
aoaeaoeth aeua, i?ae o i?aei?iiio oa??, ui ia oa?aeoa?ii aeey ?ioeo
aa??aio?a.

O i?ioean? ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?oio?a i?ae i?e?iaeiith ?ineeii?noth c
/anii anoaiiaeth?oueny eaac?a??aiiaaaeaiee noai i?ae i?ioeanaie
i?iaeoeoaaiiy oa aeano?oeoe?? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie. Oi?ioaaiith oaei?
neooaoe?? ni?ey?, ia?o ca ana, caaeainiaai?noue i?ae iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi oa
i?ia?ae?caoe??th i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei o iaaeao noaa?eueiiai a?ioeaiico.
I?e o?eaaeiio n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio aeei?enoaii? a?oio?a iino?eii
cieaeo?oueny caian aoiono. I?ioa, a no/anieo oiiaao cia/aiiy i?aai?/ii?
?a/iaeie aecia/a?oueny ia eeoa ye aeaea?aei aeaiaio?a aeeaeaiiy ?ineei.
Ia ia?aaei?e ieai aenooia? ?? aeieia?/ia ooieoe?y — caaacia/aiiy
ni?eyoeeaeo eiei?aeii-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae a?oioo.

Aeiaaino?ieia? aeine?aee c aeia?eaaie aeathoue iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeoe
oaeaee?noue ? iai?yi e?euee?niiai oa ye?niiai ia?aoai?aiiy i?aai?/ii?
?a/iaeie, a oaeiae ia’?eoeaii ioe?ieoe aoaeoeai?noue oiai /e ?ioiai
aa?icaoiaeo (aa??aioo aeine?aeo).

A ia??iae 1974-1994 ??. i?iaaaeaii aea/aiiy aieeao aa??aio?a nenoaie
aeia?ea ia e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni? ci?ie i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie a
eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiio a?oio?. Caeaaeii a?ae aeine?aeaeoaaieo aa??aio?a
(oaae.1), eiai e?euee?noue ca 32 ??/iee ia??iae a i?iiio oa?? a
ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai ca?eueoeeany ia 0,12-0,76%, a eiai caiane a 0-50
ni oa?? — ia 6,93-33,94 o/aa. A e?euee?niiio a?aeiioaii? ia aaeaeiny
aeeoe ia iiceoeaiee aaeain aoiono ii a?aeiioaiith aei a?oioo, ui
ciaoiaeeany i?ae ia?aeiaii. A?ae’?iia naeueaei aaeaino aeey 0-50 ni oa?o
aeine?aeaeoaaieo aa??aio?a aeine?aeo aa??thaaei a?ae 6,98 aei 40,32
o/aa. Iaea?eueo nooo?a? ci?ie aeyaeaii a ia?o? 13 ?ie?a i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?ae?a. A?aeiinia ??cieoey caian?a aoiono ii aa??aioao ci?ithaaeany
a iaaeao 2,3-7,6% a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai. A ianooii? 10 ?ie?a
(1974-1975 ??.) caa?aaeany ?ai?oa anoaiiaeaia caeiiii??i?noue. I?ioa,
iiaeaeueo? eiai ao?aoe ia eiio?ie? aoee nei?i/ai? aei i?i?ioio.
Ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea aei 13 o/aa ia aaeoa?
n?aici?iii? ieiu? ni?eyoeeai a?aeia?aceeiny ia iiaeaeueoiio a?aeiiniiio
i?aeaeuaii? aoiono a 0-50 ni oa?? — c 6,4% a 1984 ?. aei 8,5% a 1994 ?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui caeaaeii a?ae e?eueeino? ? ?aaoey?iino? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy
a a?oio i?aai?/ii? iane o aeaeyae? i?aai?/ieo ?aooie oa i?aai?/ieo
aeia?ea, a oaeiae a?ae ?ioaineaiino? i?ioean?a ?o i?ia?ae?caoe?? a
/i?iicaiieo a?oioao (/i?iicaie oeiia? oa eo/ii-/i?iicaii? a?oioe) c
/anii anoaiiaeth?oueny iiaee ??aaiue a?aeiinii a??aiiaaaeaiiai noaio
i?ae ai?noii aoiono ? aeano?oeoe??th i?aai?/ieo ?aooie. Aeey
i?aiao?iaiai oa?o i?e ?nioth/eo nenoaiao ia?ia?oeo a?oioo oa nenoai?
oaeia?aiiy a?i noaiiaeoue 297-300 o/aa.

1. Aieea aeiaaino?ieiaiai nenoaiaoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy aeia?ea o

n?aici?i? ia ai?no ? caiane aoiono a eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiio a?oio?

(Aa?inoaioe?y IAO “Ieoieoey”, 2-a iiea noaoe?iia?ii? n?aici?ie)

Aeeaeia1974?.1984?.1994?.Aa??aio
nenoaiea?aeai?o%caiane%caiane%caianeaeia?eac?ace?a,nio/aao/aao/aaEiio?ie
ue
(aac0-254,63137,74,60136,74,52135,6aeia?ea)25-504,10125,14,10125,14,1212
7,7I?aai?/ia0-254,93145,44,95146,05,02148,025-504,32131,84,38133,64,4613
7,1I?aaii-i?ia?aeueia0-255,04148,75,08149,95,17155,1(ai?e+ 1,0
N?E)25-504,38133,64,38133,64,41136,7I?aaii-i?ia?aeueia0-255,13151,35,151
61,95,28158,4(ai?e+ 1,5
N?E)25-504,31131,44,36132,94,46138,3I?ia?aeueia0-254,76141,64,70139,84,6
4140,4(1N?E)25-504,17127,24,17127,24,16129,9I?ei?oea. ?ica?aei?noue
i?ae iieacieeaie ia?aeaeueieo aecia/aiue ai?noo aoiono ia ia?aaeuoaaea
0,05%.

Oei aoiono a /i?iicai? oeiiaiio ooeueaaoii-aoiaoiee, a a eo/ii-
/i?iicaiiiio — aoiaoiee. O?aeoe?eiee neeaae aoi?iiaeo ? ooeueaieeneio ia
iaeii??aeiee. A e?euee?niiio a?aeiioaii? a neeaae? aoi?iiaeo eeneio
/i?iicaiieo a?oio?a ia?aaaaea? o?aeoe?y 2 (aoi?iia? eeneioe, ui
ia?aoiaeyoue o aeoyaeeo 0,1i NaII i?ney aeaeaeueoe?thaaiiy a?oioo). ??
a?aeiiniee ai?no a i?iiio oa?? noaiiaeoue 30,2-32,7% N a?ae caaaeueiiai
ai?noo i?aai?/iiai aoaeaoeth o a?oio?.

Nenoaiaoe/ia aianaiiy ye iaeiiai aiith, oae ? aiith ?acii c
i?ia?aeueieie aeia?eaaie ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith a?oi ye aoi?iiaeo eeneio,
oae ? ooeueaieeneio. I?ioa, aaniethoia ca?eueoaiiy aoi?iiaeo eeneio
a?eueo ae?aaeaia ? a?aei?/a?oueny a iniiaiiio ca ?aooiie ?ooiii?
o?aeoe?? oa o?aeoe??, ui ca’ycaia c eaeueoe??i.

A neeaae? /i?iicaiieo a?oio?a ia?aaaaea? ianeaia oi?ia aoiono.
Ciaioaiiy eiai ai?noo ? caian?a o /i?iicaiieo a?oioao, ui ciaoiaeyoueny
a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio aeei?enoaii?, coiiaeaia, a iniiaiiio,
a?aeiiniei cieaeaiiyi o neeaae? aoiono aeao?eoii? eiai /anoeie. A?oioe
i?e?iaeieo o?oioeaiic?a iathoue ieae/ee iieaciee ?aaeoe?eii? caeaoiino?
aoiono i?ae ?o aiaeiae, ui ia?aaoaathoue o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio
aeei?enoaii?.

3. Acioiee oiiae /i?iicai?a ? ae?y aeia?ea.

*i?iicaie E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ii??aiyii aenieei
ai?noii caaaeueiiai acioo (1805 — 2290 ia/ea a?oioo a i?iiio oa??). I?ae
/an ?o aenieoaoaoe?? aiie ooieoe?iioaaee oae, ui a?eueo?noue niieoe
oeueiai aeaiaioo iaaeoiaeeei a ?ineeie caaaeyee iacai?ioiiio i?ioeano
ieia?ae?caoe?? aoiono.

Aeey acioiiai oiiaeo aeacaieo a?oio?a oa?aeoa?iee aenieee ai?no niieoe,
ye? ia i?aeaeathoueny a?ae?ie?co (57,0-66,8% a?ae caaaeueiiai ai?noo N o
a?oio?) ? ye? aaaeei a?ae?ie?cothoueny (28,5-34,4%). *i?iicaie oeiia? c
ieae/ei aaniethoiei ai?noii acioo (ii??aiyii c eo/ii-/i?iicaiieie)
i?noeoue a?aeiinii aenieith e?euee?noth o?aeoe??, ui i?aeaea?oueny
a?ae?ie?co. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeeaeie caeyaaiiy oa?o a?oioo
niinoa??aa?oueny ye aaniethoia, oae ? aeayea a?aeiinia ?? cieaeaiiy.
Aaniethoi? caiane eaaeia?ae?ie?co?ii? oi?ie ciaoiaeyoueny a i?yi?e
caeaaeiino? a?ae caaaeueiiai ai?noo acioo, a a?aeiiniee — ia ia?aaeuo?
1,86 %.

Nenoaiaoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy aeia?ea ii?yae c? ci?iith caaaeueieo
caian?a acioo a a?oio? i?ecaiaeeoue aei nooo?aiai ia?a?iciiae?eo eiai
oi?i (iae.2). Oae, ia oaeia?aieo aa??aioao aeine?aeo niinoa??aa?oueny
nooo?aa ca?eueoaiiy i?ia?aeueieo niieoe acioo ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai (a
1,2-1,5 ?aca). A?aeiiniee ai?no niieoe, ui a?ae?ie?cothoueny, a i?iiio
oa i?aei?iiio oa?ao ia ia?aaeuo? a?aeiia?aeii 33,6 % ? 32,8 % .

Aeey i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? caaacia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo oiia ?inoo ?
?icaeoeo ?ineei aaaeeeai noai?eoe a a?oio? iioeiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
i?ae e?euee?noth ?ia?a??, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a ia?ao i?ioyaii ??/iiai
oeeeeo, oa aeaiaioaie aeeaeaiiy. Iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo aa?iaeieia?/ieo
iieaciee?a iioei?caoe?? oiia ?icaeoeo ?ineei, yeee ?aaoeth?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae acioii oa aia?a??th, ? a?aeiioaiiy N:N o a?oio?.
Aeine?aeaie anoaiiaeaii, ui N:N a /i?iicaiieo a?oioao aa??th? a iaaeao
10,314 : 1. Nenoaiaoe/ia aianaiiy aeia?ea nooo?ai aieeaa? ia ci?io
oeueiai iieacieea aei caoaeaiiy.

Iae.2. Aieea aeiaaino?ieiaiai nenoaiaoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy

aeia?ea a n?aici?i? (1962-1993 ??.) ia acioiee oiiae eo/ii-

/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo, ia N/ea a?oioo (Aa?inoaioe?y IAO “Ieoieoey”)

Iicia/aiiy. ?1 — i?ia?aeueia; ?2 — i?aai?/ia; ?3 — aaaeeia?ae?ie?co?ia;
?4 — iaa?ae?ie?co?ia oi?ie acioo. 1,2 — eiio?ieue (aac aeia?ea); 3,4 —
i?aai?/ia; 5,6 -i?aaii-i?ia?aeueia (ai?e + 1,0 NPK); 7,8 —
i?aaii-i?ia?aeueia (ai?e + 1,5 NPK); 9,10 — i?ia?aeueia (1,0 NPK);
11,12 — ia?ae?a (1,3,5,7,9,11 — oa? 0-25 ni; 2,4,6,8,10,12 — oa? 25-50
ni).

I?ioa, a?aeiioaiiy N:N, ye ooiaeaiaioaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aoioniaiai
noaio a?oio?a, ia aea? ciiae a iiai?e i??? ?iaeoe aeniiaee i?i oi?ie
acioiai?nieo eiai eiiiiiaio?a ? ia a?aeia?aaea? iaeaaeiei /eiii nooiaith
?o a?ae?ie?ciaaiino? oa aeinooiiino? i?aaii-i?ia?aeueieo niieoe acioo
?ineeiai.

Iaie i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ainoi?iaoe?? acioo i?aai?/ieo oa
i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea o aoionia? ?a/iaeie, a oaeiae aieeao nenoaiaoe/iiai
aeei?enoaiiy aeia?ea o n?aici?i? ia ia?a?iciiae?e acioo ii aeaio
o?aeoe?yo aoiono (aeao?eoi?e /anoei? ? aeania aoioniaeo ?a/iaei).
Anoaiiaeaii, ui a?aeiioaiiy N aei N a neeaae? aeania aoioniaeo ?a/iaei
aeey i?iiai oa?o eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo, caeaaeii a?ae ii?i aeia?ea,
aa??thaaei a?ae 10,6 o aa??aio? ci?oaii? nenoaie aeia?ea, aei 12,7 ia
eiio?ie?. Aa??thaaiiy oeueiai iieacieea a aeao?eoi?e /anoei? aoiono aoei
oe?oei 13,530,4 : 1. I?i?iaeueiei cia/aiiyi oa?aeoa?ecoaaany aa??aio
i?aaii-i?ia?aeueii? nenoaie, aea aiineeany iieooi?ia ii?ia i?ia?aeueieo
aeia-

?ea. Oaeei /eiii, nenoaiaoe/ia aianaiiy aeia?ea aieeaa? o ia?oo /a?ao ia
acioiee oiiae aeao?eoii? /anoeie aoiono. A?aeiinii a?eueoa cieaeaiiy
acioo a aeao?eoi?e /anoei? aoiono, i?ae acioo aeania aoioniaeo ?a/iaei,
i?ae aieeaii eoeueoo? n?aici?ie ia eiio?ieueiiio aa??aio?, na?ae/eoue
i?i ?ioaineaiee ?iceeaae acioiai?nieo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei oe??? /anoeie
aoiono. Ia?aaaaeia /anoeia niieoe acioo ciaoiaeeoueny a neeaae? aeania
aoioniaeo ?a/iaei, yeei i?eoaiaiia no?ee?noue aei i?ia?ae?caoe??.

A a?oio?, ii?yae c aeoeaiith i?ia?ae?caoe??th ??cieo a?oi aoioniaeo
?a/iaei, ? ?o iiaiooai?aiiy ca ?aooiie i?neyaeieaii-ei?aiaaeo ?aooie,
ei?aiaaeo aeae?eaiue oa i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea. Oe?eeii eiia??ii, ui ae?enia
i?ia?ae?caoe?y aoiono, a ?acii c oei ? i?aai?/iiai acioo a a?oio? cia/ii
a?eueoa, i?ae cieaeaiiy ?o ai?noo, ui aeyaeaii ca aeiiiiiaith aiae?c?a.

Oeyoii iae?eo iniiaieo neeaaeiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy acioo,
a oaeiae ia iniia? oaeoe/iiai eiai ai?noo a eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiio a?oio?,
i?iaaaeaiee ?ic?aooiie naeueaei aaeaino oeueiai aeaiaioo ca aea?
?ioaoe?? n?aici?ie (1974-1984 ??. ? 1984-1994 ??). C o?aooaaiiyi
a?aeiia?aeieo aeiiouaiue ??aiyiiy acioiiai aaeaino ia? oaeee aeaeyae:

Niae + Niae + Nai + Nii + Nn + Nin + Ni? = Na + Naa + N?o, aea

Niae — acio i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea; Niae — acio i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea; Nai
— acio aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a; Nii — acio iin?aiiai iaoa??aeo; Nn —
neia?ioe/iee acio ?aneeiieo ?aooie aiaiaeo eoeueoo?; Nin — acio ia
neia?ioe/ii? o?enaoe??; Ni? — acio i?aai?/ieo ?aooie, ui iaaeoiaeyoue o
a?oio; Na — acio, ui aeiineoueny c o?iaea?i eoeueoo?, Naa — acio
aaciiiae?aieo ao?ao ; N?o — acio, yeee ao?a/a?oueny i?ae /an i?ioeano
?io?eueo?aoe??.

?ic?aooiee na?ae/aoue, ui naeueaei aaeaino caaaeueiiai acioo a 0-50 ni
oa?? aeine?aeaeoaaieo aa??aio?a aa??thaaei a?ae -25 ea/aa ia eiio?ie?
aei 82 ea/aa ia aa??aio? iaeii/aniiai canoinoaaiiy aiith oa iaeeia?ii?
aeice i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea. ?aooa aa??aio?a caeiaea i?ii?aeiee noai. O
ianooiiee aeanyoe??/iee ia??iae ia eiio?ie? niinoa??aaeiny iiaeaeueoa
cieaeaiiy ai?noo acioo a a?oio? (naeueaei aaeaino noaiiaeei — 79 ea/aa).
Nei?eaiaai? aeice aianaiiy aiith oa i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea ni?eyee
nooo?aiio ca?eueoaiith ai?noo acioo a a?oio?. Ia aa??aioao i?aai?/ii? oa
i?aai?/ii-i?ia?aeueieo nenoai aeia?ea naeueaei aaeaino acioo ii??aiyii c
eiio?ieai noaiiaeei 116-136 ea/aa.

4. O?ceei-o?i?/iee noai /i?iicai?a ? a?iaia?aaoeea ?o i?aai?/ii?
?a/iaeie.

O?ceei-o?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oio?a ae?ae iaiao?aei? i?e ?ic?iaoe?
niinia?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? nenoaie aeia?ea ? ia?ia?oeo a?oioo.
Iiae?aia ?ioi?iaoe?y aea? iiaeeea?noue aeeaoa ?ice?eoe iaoai?cie
aca?iiae?? i?ae a?oioii, ?ineeiith oa aeia?eaaie, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeoe
aeineiiae? iaoiaee eiio?ieth oa i?iaiico ci?i ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a ?
ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeiaaio?eaaea n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea aeei?enoaiiy
/i?iicai?a oeiiaeo i?ecaaei aei cieaeaiiy ?I nieueiai? aeoyaeee oa
ca?eueoaiiy a?ae?ie?oe/ii? eeneioiino?. Iaea?eueo neeueiee aieea ia
i?ioeane o?ceei-o?i?/ii? aeaa?aaeaoe?? ni?e/eiy? aianaiiy eeoa
i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea. Ii an?o oaeia?aieo aa??aioao aeine?aeo ci?ia
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?aeue?oi?oa ae?aaeaia a i?iiio oa??
a?oioo. Ia a?aei?io a?ae /i?iicaio oeiiaiai, a eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiio a?oio?
?I aiaeii? aeoyaeee nooo?ai i?aeaeuo?oueny ii??aiyii c ia?aeiaii.

Aeey /i?iicai?a ? eo/ii-/i?iicaiieo a?oio?a oa?aeoa?iee a?aeiinii
aenieee ai?no o neeaae? AAE eao?iio eaeueoe?th (19,1-31,4 i-aea/100 a
a?oioo), ui noaiiaeoue 78-82% a?ae AEI. Ai?no iai?iiiai eao?iio iaai?th
noaiiaeoue 3,6-4,9 i-aea/100 a a?oioo. Ia aeieth iai?iiiai iao??th ?
eae?th i?eiaaea? 0,3-0,4 i-aea/100 a a?oioo. A?aeiioaiiy Na2+ : Ig2+ a
neeaae? AAE aa??th? a iaaeao 4,55,5 : 1.

A oiiaao ?iaeono??ae?caoe?? caiea?ianoaa iineeaiee aio?iiiaaiiee aieea,
ca ie?aieie aeiyoeaie, e??i ci?ie o?ceei-o?i?/iiai noaio a?oio?a, a
oe?eiio i?ecaiaeeoue aei ni?iuaiiy no?oeoo?e a?oioiai? aeinenoaie,
ii?ooaiiy ?? aia?aaoe/ii-o??aiiaaaeaiiai ??aiy, iaiao?aeiiai aeey
a?aeoai?aiiy ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a. No?ee?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aa?ioeaiic?a i?aeo?eio?oueny, oaeei /eiii, ia eeoa e?euee?nii-ye?niei
neeaaeii aeaiaio?a aeeaeaiiy i?ioyaii ia??iaeo aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei, a e ?
iaiao?aeiei caianii aia?a??, aeinooiii? aeey aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a.

Aea/aiiy aia?aaoeee aoiono i?iaiaeeeiny a noaoe?iia?iiio aeine?ae?
Aa?inoaioe?? IAO “Ieoieoey”. Caeaaeii a?ae aa??aio?a aeine?aeo caiane
aia?a?? a neeaae? aoiono a eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiio a?oio? (oa? 0-50 ni)
eieeaathoueny a iaaeao 2646 — 3222 iei.eeae/aa. Anoaiiaeai?
caeiiii??iino? a?aeia?aaeathoue a iniiaiiio ci?ie a neeaae? aoiono.
Iaeiaioo e?euee?noue aia?a?? aeyaeaii o aa??aio? i?ia?aeueii? nenoaie
aeia?ea.

Aa??aioe iaeii/aniiai aeei?enoaiiy i?aai?/ieo ? i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea
caeiathoue i?ii?aeia iieiaeaiiy i?ae i?aai?/iith ? i?ia?aeueiith
nenoaiaie. A i?aei?iiio oa?? i?ia?aeueii? nenoaie aeia?ea ? ia eiio?ie?
e?euee?noue aia?a?? a neeaae? aoiono aeua, i?ae a i?iiio. I?e?iaeia
?ineeii?noue ia?aeia?a ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith o i?aiao?iaiio oa?? a?oioo
aeao?eoii-aoioniaiai eiiieaeno ?c cia/ii a?eueoei ai?noii aeinooiii?
aia?a??, i?ae n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? eoeueoo?e. I?e/iio iaea?eueoa ??
e?euee?noue cina?aaeaeaia a 0 -10 ni oa??.

5. Eeneioii-iniiaia aooa?i?noue — ?ioaa?aeueiee iieaciee
aa?iaeieia?/iiai noaio a?oio?a.

Eeneioii-iniiaia aooa?i?noue neeaaea?oueny ?c caeaoiino? /eneaiii?
e?eueeino? i?ia?aeueieo, i?aai?/ieo oa i?aaii-i?ia?aeueieo eiiiiiaio?a,
ui aoiaeyoue ye neeaaeia? oaa?aeeo, ??aeeeo oa aaciiiae?aieo niieoe,
i?ioenoiyoe ci?i? ?? eeneioii-iniiaiiai noaio. A e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao?
aoaeoeaia ae?y aenieiaooa?ieo a?oio?a ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue aa?ioeaiic?a
coiiaeaia, ia?o ca ana, caeaoi?noth a?oioiaeo nenoai aaneoe aenieo
aiie?ooaeo aeoeaiino? i?ioii?a o ?aaeoe?yo, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a
a?oioiaiio ?ic/ei? ca caaaeueiith noaiith eeneioa eoa i?ioii.

Iayai? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy oa ioe?iee eeneioii-iniiaii? aooa?iino? ia
aeathoue iiaeeeaino? aea/aoe iaoai?cie ? caeiiii??iino? aooa?ieo
aeanoeainoae a?oio?a, iathoue iaaeineiiaeo aeey i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy
nenoaio iieaciee?a.

Iaie ii?aoeueiaaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy eeneioii-iniiaii? aooa?iino?
a?oio?a (I.I.Iaaeoi/?e, 1993). ?? iniiaia i?eioeeiiaa a?aei?ia a?ae
?ioeo aiaeia?a iieyaa? o aeei?enoaii? iiaeo oa?aeoa?enoe/ieo iieaciee?a,
ui ia’?eoeaii a?aeia?aaeathoue cia/aiiy eeneioii-iniiaii? aooa?iino?
a?oio?a. Ca ioeueiao aacenio e?i?th a?ae?aooieo (aoaeii c ioeueiaith
aooa?i?noth) aoea acyoa e?eaa iioaioe?iiao?e/ii? caeaaeiino? eeneioe ?
eoao, ye? aeei?enoiaoaaee aeey aiae?co.

Aoaeiiaie ii??aiyiiy neoaoaaee oaeiae ieiu? aooa?iino? oiiaieo c?ace?a,
ye? i?iyaeythoue iiaio aooa?io caeaoi?noue o aeei?enoiaoaaieo ?ioa?aaeao
eeneioe oa eoao (0-0,05i), ? ye? iathoue aiaeia?/iee aeine?aeaeoaaiiio
c?aceo ?I aiaeii? noniaic?? (aoaeii 1) ? ?I 7 (aoaeii 2). E?i??th ?o
aooa?ii? caeaoiino? ? a?aeiia?aeii i?yi? ia?aeaeuei? in? aanoeen, ui
i?ioiaeyoue ia in? i?aeeiao a?ao?ea /a?ac oi/eo, ui a?aeiia?aea? ?I
aiaeii? noniaic?? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai c?acea ? ?I 7 (iae.3).

Ca iniiaiee iieaciee ioe?iee aooa?iino? a?aee iaaaaeaiee nooi?iue
aooa?iie caeaoiino? (NAC), yeee ae?aoiaoaaee ca oaeith oi?ioeith:

(Iaec — Iaec) 100

NAC, % = ————————————,
aea (1)

I2

Iaec — ieiua aooa?iino? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai c?acea, ni2; I2 — ieiua
aooa?iino? aoaeiia 2 ni2; Iaec — /anoeia ieiu? aooa?iino?
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai c?acea, ui ciaoiaeeoueny ca iaaeaie aooa?ii? ieiu?
aoaeiia 2, ni2.

Ca aeiiiiiaith ianooaao aooa?iino? aoaeiio 2 iiaeia ii??aithaaoe
aooa?i? aeanoeaino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo c?ace?a a?oioo ? ii??ae a noai?i
o?eniaaieo ae?aiaciiao ?I aeaio ?ioa?aae?a: 1,3-7,0 o iaaeao eeneioiiai
oa 7,0-12,7 — a iaaeao eoaeiiai ?ioa?aae?a. Oai?aoe/ii nooi?iue aooa?ii?
caeaoiino? iiaea ci?ithaaoeny a iaaeao a?ae 0 aei 100%.

E?ea? aooa?iino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo c?ace?a, ?I aiaeii? noniaic?? yeeo ia
a?aeiia?aea? iaeo?aeuei?e ?aaeoe??, i?aeeiaoa a?ao?ea ? e?i?y
aooa?iino?

NaOH ii?iaeuei?noue HNl

i-aea/100 a a?oioo

Iae.3. Eeneioii-iniiaia aooa?i?noue /i?iicaio oeiiaiai
na?aaeiueinoaeeieiaiai, oa? 0-12 ni

Iicia/aiiy. 1 — e?eaa caeaaeiino? ?I ?ic/ei?a HNl ? NaOH a?ae ci?ie ?o
eiioeaio?aoe?? ( N); 2 — e?eaa aooa?iino?; 3 — e?i?y aooa?iino? aoaeiio
1; 4 — e?i?y aooa?iino? aoaeiio 2.

aoaeiia 2 ae?eeoue ?? ia 3 a?ae??cee. A?ae??cie AN e?eai? aooa?iino?
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai c?acea, ui ciaoiaeeoueny ca iaaeaie ieiu? aooa?iino?
aoaeiia 2 oa?aeoa?ecoaaee iieacieeii iaeo?ae?caoe?? (II).

Iieaciee iaeo?ae?caoe?? a?aeiia?aea? e?eueeino? i-aea eeneioe /e eoao,
yeo iio??aii aeiaeaoe aei 100 a aeine?aeaeoaaiiai c?acea, uia io?eiaoe
iaeo?aeueio ?aaeoe?th aiaeii? noniaic??. A?ae??cee e?eaeo aooa?iino?, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao eeneioiiai ? eoaeiiai ?ioa?aae?a, oa?aeoa?ecoaaee
nooiaiai aooa?ii? caeaoiino? (CACe oa NACe). Ieiu? aooa?iino? eeneioiiai
oa aooa?iiai ?ioa?aae?a aecia/aee ca oi?ioeaie 2 ? 3.

h n

S1 = —— Ci f2(Xi) — f1(Xi) ;
(2)

3 j=0

h n

S2 = —— Ci f1(Xi) — f2(Xi) ,
aea (3)

3 j=0

S1 — ieiua aooa?iino? a iaeano? eeneioiiai ?ioa?aaeo, ni2; S2 — ieiua
aooa?iino? a iaeano? eoaeiiai ?ioa?aaeo, ni2; Ci= 1, 4,2,4,2, …, 4,1;
n = 2v. v = 1, 2 , 3, 4, …; f1(Xi) — ?I ?ic/ei?a IN1 (NaII), ye?
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aeey aiae?co; f2(Xi) — ?I a?oioiai? noniaic?? a
iaaeao eeneioiiai (eoaeiiai) ?ioa?aaeo; h — cia/aiiy e?ieo
eiioeaio?aoe?? (ii?iaeueiino?) aeei?enoiaoaaieo ?ic/ei?a eeneioe ?
eoao.

I?e aaaaeaii? a noniaic?th 12,5 i-aea eeneioe ? eoao ia 100 a a?oioo
ieiu? aooa?iino? eeneioiiai ? eoaeiiai ?ioa?aaeo aoaeiia 2 ?
??aiiaaeeeeie ? a i?eeiyoiio ianooaa? aeine?aeaeaiue (ca i?aeeiaoith 1
ni = 1 iae. ?I, ca aanoeenith 1 ni = 0,01 i) noaiiaeyoue 26,32 ni2.
Ieiu? aooa?iino? eeneioiiai ? eoaeiiai ?ioa?aae?a ci?iththoueny caeaaeii
a?ae ?I eiai aiaeii? noniaic??, aea a noi? ia ia?aaeuothoue 52,64 ni2.

A oaaeeoe? 2 iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i aooa?i? aeanoeaino? aeayeeo i?ia?a-

e?a, a?oioioai?ieo ii??ae ? a?oio?a. ??ci? oeie a?oio?a a i?iiio oa??
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny NAC aeey eeneioiiai ? eoaeiiai ?ioa?aae?a a?ae 6-8
aei 85-90%, a a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao iaa?oue ? 100%. A naith /a?ao II, ye
i?aaeei, ia ia?aaeuo? 12,5 i-aea ia 100 a a?oioo.

2.Aooa?i? aeanoeaino? aeayeeo i?ia?ae?a, a?oioioa??ieo ii??ae ? a?oio?a

?I aiaeieeIieaciee iaeo?ae?caoe??, i-yea 100 a

1 : 2Nooi?iue iaaaaeaii? aooa?ii? caeaoiino?,%

1 : 2NACe

———-

NACeAenieiaeenia?niee e?aiiicai3.70 — 4,51,5690,010.02Eaa?oeaaee
i?nie5,96-0,15,657,860,72Aa?ieeoe?o8.6212,5-10060,931,64Na-iiioii?eeii?o
7,951,2-79,8366,841,19Ii?aii? a?aeeeaaeaiiy5,40
-0,57.429,480,76Nieiioethaaoee ean8,659,15-94,1115,436.01N??ee e?niaee
eaaeinoaeeieiaee a?oio (10-20 ni)6,10-0,6330,2844,030,69*i?iicai oeiiaee
na?aaeiueinoaeeieiaee (ia?ae?a, 10-20
ni)7,250,50-61,6465,020,93Eo/ii-/i?iicaiiee a?oio (ia?ae?a, 10-20
ni)7,154,25-93,6451,481,82I?ei?oea. 1 -eeneioiee: 2 — eoaeiee
?ioa?aaee.

A?oioioai?i? ii?iaee oa i?ia?aee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ??cieie iieacieeaie
aooa?iino?, aea ia a?aei?io a?ae aa?oi?o noi?iiaaieo ia ieo aa?oi?o
oa??a a?oioo iathoue, ye i?aaeei, oe?oee ?iciao aa??thaaiiy ?iaeaeno
eeneioii-iniiaii? ??aiiaaae (E? = NACe : NACe). A i?ioean?
aaiethoe?eiiai ia?aoai?aiiy ii?iaee a a?oio i?ioiaeeea caeiiii??ia ci?ia
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aa?oi?o eiai oa??a. A /i?iicai? oeiiaiio ?
iaaeeaeaiiy ?I aiaeii? noniaic?? aei 7, E? 1, a NACe + NACe 200%.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui iieaciee iaeo?ae?caoe?? ? nooi?iue iaaaaeaii? aooa?ii?
caeaoiino? a?oioo ? ia’?eoeaieie e?eoa??yie ioe?iee eiai aa?iaeiei-
a?/iiai noaio, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue e?euee?nii ioe?ieoe ae?th
aio?iiiaaiiiai /eiieea ia aooa?i? aeanoeaino? a?oio?a. Oae, a /i?iicai?
oeiiaiio aianaiiy aeia?ea oa eoeueoo?e n?aici?ie aeeeeeaee cieaeaiiy
aooa?ii? caeaoiino? a iaaeao eeneioiiai ?ioa?aaeo. Iaea?eueo nooo?ai oea
yaeua i?iyaeeiny ia aa??aio? i?ia?aeueii? nenoaie aeia?ea. A
eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiio a?oio? — iaaiaee, cacia/ai? oaeoi?e ni?e/eieee a
i?iiio oa?? cia/ia cieaeaiiy aooa?ii? caeaoiino? a iaaeao eoaeiiai
?ioa?aaeo.

Cai?iiiiiaaia aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoiaeeea neeaaeaiiy ea?oia?aie
eeneioii-iniiaii? aooa?iino? a?oioo (I.I.Iaaeoi/?e, 1994, A.N.I??noa? oa
?io., 1998) oa oeaea ioe?iee aooa?iino? (oaae.3). Iaa?oioiaaia oaeiae
iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ia?aiao??a eeneioii-iniiaii? aooa?iino? aeey
?ic?aooieo ii?i aaiia ye eiio?caoiaeo, ui cieaeo? eiao?oe?aioe
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ?aae?iaeoeaiiai no?iioe?th a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo
i?iaeoeoe?th ia ?aae?iaeoeaii caa?oaeiaieo a?oioao.

3. Oeaea ioe?iee iaaaaeaii? eeneioii-iniiaii? aooa?iino? a?oio?a

Iiia?

Ioe?iea iieacieea?aeiiaiaeiaaiee eie?? aeey eiioo?a iaNooi?iue aooa?ii?
caeaoiino? (NAC), %
a?oieea?oia?ai?12?A?aie/ii iecueea*a?aiiee< 7,7-??Aeoaea iecueea?iaeaaee7,6 - 20> 10???IecueeaAEiaoee21 — 4011 — 30?Y
Na?aaeiyNei?e41 — 6031 — 50YAenieaNa?oei-caeaiee61 — 80 51 — 70YI Aeoaea
aeniea Caeaiee > 81> 71I?ei?oea. 1 — eeneioiee; 2 — eoaeiee
?ioa?aaee.

6. Aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy ?iaeth/?noth a?oio?a ? i?iaeoeoeai?noth
aa?ioeaiic?a.

I?aeoe/i?e ?aae?caoe?? aeieia?/ii iaa?oioiaaii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
?iaeth/?noth a?oio?a ia?aaeo? noai?aiiy iiaeae? ?iaeth/ino?, iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaii? eiioeaioe?? oi?aae?iiy ? a?aeiia?aeii? iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue oi?aae?iiy (iae.4) aaco?oueny ia caaaeueiiio
i?eioeei? nenoaiii? no?oeoo?e, ui ? a on?o neeaaeieo aeeiai?/ieo
nenoaiao.

Eaiaeoaooii-?aa?iiaeueiee ??aaiue oi?aae?iiyAaeaioeaii-eaiaeoaooia
iioeiecaoe?y no?oeoo?e n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ? i?e?iaeieo
oa?aeueueAa?ieaiaeoaooii-eieaeueiee ??aaiue oi?aae?iiyIioeiecaoe?y
no?oeoo?e iin?a-ieo ieiu a aa?ieaiaeoaooaoOaa?eiieoeueeee aeie
(ae?ia-ieoeoai i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea)A?oioiai-aeinenoaiiee ??aaiue
oi?aae?iiyAIAIAINo?ee?noue a?oiooI?iaeooe?eii-a?aeoai?thaaeueia
ooieoe?yNai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ia ooieoe?y12 3I?iaeoeoeai?noue
aa?ioeaiic?a (a?iiana, a?iaeae)Neoaeaa oi?aae?iiy aa?a?iei eiiieaenii
ainiiaea?noaaAI ?aaeei i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeieIa?ia?oie
a?oiooAiaeii-iia?o?yiee ?aaeeiNenoaia aeia?eaIiaeeaiee ?aaeeiNenoaia
caoenoo ?ineeiIeenethaaeueii-a?aeiiaiee ?aaeeiNi?oe oa a?a?eaeeOaieiaee
?aaeeiO?i?/ia iae?i?aoe?yNieueiaee ?aaeeiO?oiiae?i?aoe?yO?ceei-o?i?/i?
aeanoeaino?I?e?iaeia?eaa oa a?inoeioeyoi?eO?i?/i?
aeanoeaino?C?ioaiiyA?ieia?/i? aeanoeaino?Inooaiiy Neoaeaa
a?oioiai-aeieia?/iiaiiii?oi?eiao

Iae. 4. Eiioeaiooaeueia iiaeaeue oi?aae?iiy ?iaeth/?noth
a?oio?a.

Iicia/aiiy: 1 — no?oeoo?ii-noaoe?iia?ia no?ee?noue; 2 —
ooieoe?iiaeueii-

aeeiai?/ia no?ee?noue; 3 — aooa?i?noue; AI — aeiaaeeia?
iiae?aciaiiy;

— aeo?aeia aaee/eia; — oi?aaeyth/a ae?y; — — — —
cai?ioiee caycie;

<-----------------> — iioiee ?ioi?iaoe??.

I?e oi?ioaaii? no?oeoo?e iiaeae? caeeaaeaia ?aeay, ui an? ci?ie a
a?oioiai-aeieia?/ieo nenoaiao coiiaeai? “eaioethaaie cai?ioieo
ca’yce?a”, ye? i?aaenoaaeythoue caieiooa e?eueoea aca?iiae??, ui
ii?aeio? aeo?aeio ae?th c ?? ?acoeueoaoii. Io?eiaiee ?acoeueoao ia
“aeoiae?” ?, oaeei /eiii, i?e/eiith ci?ie oa?aeoa?enoee iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua ? neoao? o nenoai? “?ioi?iaoe??th” aeey iiaeaeueoiai
ei?eaoaaiiy ae?? aeiaaeeiaeo iiae?aciaiue (ia?aaoaeiae a nenoai?
oi?aae?iiy) c iaoith ?? aaeineiiaeaiiy. I?aai?/ia ?a/iaeia, ui iio?aiey?
a a?oio, neoaeeoue aia?aaoe/iei aeaea?aeii ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?oioiai?
aeinenoaie, a nai i?ioean ?? o?ainoi?ioaaiiy o?nii iia’ycaiee c
?iaeth/?noth. A?i aoa acyoee iaie ca iniiao iiaeae? ?iaeth/ino?.

Eiioeaioe?y oi?aae?iiy ?iaeth/?noth a?oioo aaco?oueny ia ?aea?
iioei?caoe?? oiia ooieoe?iioaaiiy ??ciiiai?ooy oi?i aeeai? ?a/iaeie
(a?ioe/ii? /anoeie aeinenoaie). Aieiaiith ea?oth/ith ae??th ethaeeie,
yea caaacia/o? no?ee?noue a?oioo, i?iaeooe?eii-a?aeoai?io ?
nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/io ooieoe?? ? oi?aae?iiy ?aaeeiii i?aai?/ii?
?a/iaeie, yea caiaeeoueny aei ?aaoethaaiiy ?? ??ai?a ? iioie?a a
aeinenoai?. Aeiaaaeaii, ui a no/anieo aeieia?/ieo oiiaao oi?aae?iiy
?iaeth/?noth iiaeiii cae?enithaaoeny ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio,
aa?ieaiaeoaooiiio ? a?oioiai-aeinenoaiiiio ??aiyo.
Eaiaeoaooii-?aa?iiaeueiee ??aaiue oi?aae?iiy caaacia/o? iioei?caoe?th
no?oeoo?e (c o?aooaaiiyi aeieia?/ieo aeiia) i?e?iaeieo ?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue. A E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie ? iio?aaa a
nei?i/aii? ia iaioa ye ia 10% ieiu i?ieo oa?aeue ? a?aeoai?aiiy ia oe?e
iniia? ni?eueiioe i?e?iaeii? oaoie ? oei?e, i?e?iaeieo caiia?aeiee?a,
iii?ieo ae?eyiie c i?e?iaeiith ?ineeii?noth, e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiue oa ?i.
Oi?aae?iiy ia aa?ieaiaeoaooii-eieaeueiiio ??ai? ia? caaacia/eoe
iioei?caoe?th no?oeoo?e iin?aieo ieiu o eiie?aoiiio ainiiaea?noa?.
A?oioiai-aeinenoaiiee ??aaiue aea? ciiao oi?aaeyoe ?iaeth/?noth a?oioo a
iaaeao ie?aiiai iiey n?aici?ie, /e iaa?oue oe?ei? n?aici?ie.

Ia iniia? no/anieo iaaeiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny i?e
ioe?ioe? i?ioeano a?oo?eaoe??, i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c no?eeino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeeiai?/ii? i?e?iaeii? nenoaie o?oioeaiic — aoionia?
?a/iaeie a?oioo. Eiioeaiooaeueia iiaeaeue nenoaie (iae.5) — oea iioieiaa
ae?aa?aia i?aai?/iiai aoaeaoeth, ui iaaeoiaeeoue o a?oio o aeaeyae?
a?iiane.

Noaiaoe/ia no?oeoo?a iiaeae? yaey? niaith /ioe?e cae/aei?
aeeoa?aioe?ei? ??aiyiiy, ui iienothoue aaeainiaee oei e?oaiia?ao
aoaeaoeth a nenoai?:

dX2

——- = E32O3 — E2O2 + Nae;
(4)

dt

dX3 O2

—— = ?iEi ———- — ( E3 + E31 + E32) O3;
(5)

dt Aae + O2

d( X1 + X2)

————— = ( E31 + E32 ) O3 — E1O1 — E2O2 + Na;
(6)

dt

dX3 (O*1 + O2)

—— = ?iEi ———————— — ( E3 + E31 + E32) O3 ,
aea (7)

dt Aa + O1 + O2

Aae, Aa — eiinoaioa I?oaae?na — ia?aiao?e, /enaeueii ??ai? caianai
aoaeaoeth a aeao?eoi?e /anoei? aoiono ? a neeaae? aoiono, i?e yeeo
aeinyaa?oueny 1/2 ?i (caeaaeeoue a?ae aeanoeainoae a?oioo); Nae, Na —
noia oaeaeeinoae aa?ioe/iiai iaaeoiaeaeaiiy (I) ? a?ae/oaeaiiy (A)
i?aai?/iiai N.

Caaaeyee aeeeth/aiith ia?ai?iii? O3 nenoaia 4-7 aoea caaaeaia aei
aeaio ??aiyiue ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo aoee ?ic?aoiaai?
e?eoa??? no?eeino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie o?oioeaiic — aoionia?
?a/iaeie a?oioo.

Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? iiaeae?, a oaeiae iayaieo o e?oa?aoo?? aeaieo oa
?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, anoaiiaeaii iioiee i?aai?/ii?
?a/iaeie, yea iiaeiia iaaeoiaeeoe a i?iee oa? a?oioo (/i?iicai oeiiaee)
aeey i?aeo?eiee aacaeao?oeeoiiai aaeaino aoiono. ?? e?euee?noue, i?e
a?aenooiino? aa?ioe/ieo ao?ao ?c naiiai a?oioo, iiaeiia noaiiaeoe ia
iaioa, i?ae 62% a?ae caaaeueii? iane aoaeaoeth, yea i?noeoueny a
i?aai?/i?e ?a/iaei?, ui neioaco?oueny i?e?iaeiith aaoio?ioiith
?ineeii?noth a aeaieo oiiaao i?ioyaii ??/iiai oeeeeo. I?e iayaiino?
a?ic?eieo i?ioean?a ?ic?aooieiaa e?euee?noue i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie cia/ii
c?inoa?. Aeieacaii, ui aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy iioeiaeueii iao?e/iiai ai?noo
aoiono a /i?iicai? oeiiaiio eaaeinoaeeieiaiio a oiiaao ae?th/i? nenoaie
caiea?ianoaa ui??/ii a a?oio iiaeiii iaaeoiaeeoe ia iaioa 6,2 o/aa
i?aai?/iiai aoaeaoeth.

Oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith ae??caeaoiino? cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae? ?
ni?aiaaeaiiy ?ic?aoiaaieo eiao?oe??io?a aoi?o?eaoe?? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie
? i?ia?ae?caoe?? aoiono c e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie (A.Ae.Oie?i, 1987).

I?e cae?eniaii? oei/aniaeo iieueiaeo, aaaaoaoe?eii-iieueiaeo oa
iiaeaeueieo eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?ae?a aecia/aii iiaeeeaino? iioei?caoe??
acioiiai ?aaeeio aeeaeaiiy eoeueoo?ieo ?ineei oa anoaiiaeaii
eiao?oe?aioe aeei?enoaiiy acioo eoeueoo?ieie ?ineeiaie c aeia?ea.

Iieacaii, ui ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioeano i?o?eo?eaoe?? iiaeeeaa caaaeyee
ci?i? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ai?noii i?aai?/iiai aoaeaoeth ? acioo, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny a neeaae? i?aai?/ieo oa i?ia?aeueieo niieoe, caeo/aieo o
i?ioean i?ia?ae?caoe??. Ia ?ioaineai?noue iaeiie/aiiy N-N03 aieeaa?
aianaiiy a a?oio nieiie. Iaeneiaeueiith aoaeoeai?noth i?ioeano
i?o?eo?eaoe?? ? iaeiie/aiiy N-N03 ca 40-aeaiiee oa?i?i oa?aeoa?ecoaaany
aa??aio iaeii/aniiai aianaiiy a a?oio nieiie ? acioo. Oa?aeoa?iith
iniaeea?noth aeine?aeaeaiue ? iecueea i?o?eo?eaoe?eia caeaoi?noue
(0,14-0,22 ia N/ea a?oioo ca aeiao) o c?aceao a?oioo, ui a?ae?a?ai? c
ia?aeia?a.

I?ei?oea. Aecia/aiiy neiaie?a iieacaii ia iae. 5.

Io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui aianaiee a a?oio o aeaeyae? aeia?ea acio
a cia/i?e i??? ii?ooo? o?ae i?ia?ae?caoe?eii-?iiia?e?caoe?eieo
i?ioean?a, ni?e/eiy? nooo?a? ci?ie ai?noo ?ooiieo ? aeinooiieo oi?i
oeueiai aeaiaioo ? a e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo cia/ii aieeaa? ia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue eoeueoo?. Noia?iee eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy acioo
aeia?ea (i?yia ae?y + 2 ?iee i?neyae??) caeaaeii a?ae aeic ?o aianaiiy ?
aeeaeie ca?iaee a a?oio aa??thaaa a?ae 27,7 aei 39,8%. Iaeneiaeuei?
iieacieee a?aei?/aii ia aa??aio?, aea ?i?ooaaany ci?oaiee ??ciiaeeaeiiee
ia?ia?oie a?oioo i?e iaeii/aniiio aianaii? o?oiiane, i?ia?aeueieo
aeia?ea oa aaiia. Oe?eeii eiia??ii, ui ?ineeii? ?aooee, aianai? a a?oio,
? ia eeoa aeaea?aeii iiiiaiaiiy aoioniaeo ?a/iaei. Aiie aa?ooue aeoeaio
o/anoue oaeiae o ca’ycoaaii? i?ia?aeueieo acioieo niieoe, caoeuathoue ?o
a?ae aeieaaiiy ? iai?iaeoeoeaieo ao?ao ?c aa?oiueiai oa?o a?oioo.

Iaaoaeoeaiei aeyaeany aa??aio, aea i?ia?aeuei? aeia?eaa ?acii c
o?oiianith ca?iaethaaeeny ia aeeaeio aei 10 ni (oaae.4). *anoea acioo
i?/aieo aeia?ea a?ae aeice i?ae oeoe?ia? ao?yee a caaaeueiiio aeiin?
o?ueiia eoeueoo?aie (oeoe?iaeie ao?yeaie, eoeo?oaecith ia neein oa
iceiith ioaieoeath) a oeueiio aa??aio? aeyaeeany ia 12,1% ieae/ith, i?ae
o aa??aio? iaeii/aniiai aianaiiy o?oiiane ? i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea.
I?e/eie iecueeiai aeei?enoaiiy acioo, ia iao iiaeyae, iia’ycai? c
a?ieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie eoeueoo?e, a oaeiae oiiaaie ia?aa?ao i?ioeano
i?ia?ae?caoe?? i?aai?/ieo

Aoaeaoeue NI2 aoiinoa?e ? a?oioiaiai iia?o?y
A?ae/oaeaia /anoeia ia?aeiii? i?iaeoe-

oe?? (ainiiaea?nueeee o?iaeae), ?i(1 — Ei)
Oioineioac*enoa ia?aeiia
i?iaeoeoe?y aa?ioeaiic?a, ?iAeiey ia?aeiii? i?iaeoeoe?? a neeaae? i?a.
aeia?ea,

Eo = (1 — Ei)?i -Eo

I?aaie/ia ?a/iaeia, ui iaaeoiaeeoue a a?oio o aeaeyae?

iiaeieaii-ei?aiaaeo ?aooie, iiaaeo, ei?aiaaeo aeae?eaiue ? i?a. aeia?ea
, E = Ei?i +Eo?iI?ia?ae?caoe?y, E3O3Aoaeaoeue ii?oiane,
O3I?ia?ae?caoe?y, E2O2Aoaeaoeue aeao?eoii? /anoeie aoiono, O 2
Aoi?o?eaoe?y

(E32 + E31)O3Aoi?o?eaoe?y

Aa?ioe/ia iaaeoiaeaeaiiy i?aai?/iiai aoaeaoeth, IAoaeaoeue
iniaenoi-aoioniaeo ?a/iaei, O1I?ia?ae?caoe?y, E1O1

Aa?ioe/ia a?ae/oaeaeaiiy i?aai?/iiai aoaeaoeth, A?en.5. Eiioeaiooaeueia
iiaeaeue o?ainoi?ioaaiiy i?aai?/iiai aoaeaoeth a nenoai?

aa?ioeaiic — aoionia? ?a/iaeie a?oioo (iiyniaiiy a oaeno?)

?a/iaei.

4. Aieea aeia?ea ? aeeaeie ?o ca?iaee ia o?iaeaei?noue eoeueoo?

o aaaaoaoe?eii-iieueiaiio aeine?ae?, a/noaeeio

? aa??-aioaAianaii aeia?ea i?ae oeoe?ia? ao?yee ii aa??aioao
aeine?aeoOeoe?ia? ao?yeeEoeo?oaeca ia neein*Iceia ioaieoey1Eiio?ieue
(aac aeia?ea)900.8806.580.7214N o?oiiana 4 o/aa + 15N75P120K120 +
15N451141.2808.180.7314N o?oiiana 8 o/aa + 15N195P240K240 +
15N451298.2900.490.3414N o?oiiana 12 o/aa + 15N195P240K240 +
15N451340.8929.090.85O?oiiana 8 o/aa887.0816.379.3615 N195P240K240 +
15N451237.7829.586.5715 N195P240K240 + 15N45 + CaCO3 5
o/aa1324.1883.688.0814N o?oiiana 12 o/aa +15N195P240K240+ 15N45 + CaCO3
5 o/aa1417.0938.190.7HCP05, a/noaeeio80.261.39.8Sx, %2.214.092.77

I?ei?oea. * Aeice aeia?ea aeey eoeo?oaece ia neein ? iceii? ioaieoe?
aoee iaeiaeiaeie ? noaiiaeee a?aeiia?aeii N60P60K60 (iniiaia aianaiiy) ?
N60P60K60 (iniiaia aianaiiy) + N30 (aaniyia aeeaeaiiy).

O i?neyae?? aa??thaaiiy /anoee i?/aiiai acioo aeia?ea o caaaeueiiio ?o
aeiin? aoei ia cia/iei. Aeey eoeo?oaece ia neein ? iceii? ioaieoe? aiia
noaiiaeea a?aeiia?aeii 5,4-6,7 ? 1,5-2,0%. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?c noia?iiai
o?e??/iiai aeei?enoaiiy acioo aeia?ea, aianaieo aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae
oeoe?ia? ao?yee, 82,0- 90,1% i?eiaaea? ia i?yio ae?th.

A oaaeeoe? 4 iaaaaeaii aieea aeia?ea oa aeeaeie ?o ca?iaee ia
o?iaeaei?noue eoeueoo?. Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei aeyaeany aa??aio
iaeii/aniiai aianaiiy i?ae oeoe?ia? ao?yee 5 o/aa NaNI3 a ii?aeiaii? c
i?ia?aeueieie ? i?aai?/ieie aeia?eaaie i?e ?i?oaoe??
a?aeaaeueii-aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo.

?aaoethaaiiy oinoi?iiai oa acioiiai aeeaeaiiy ?ineei. Iei? a Oe?a?i?
noai iinoa/aiiy oinoi?ieo aeia?ea n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noao ia
a?aeiia?aea? iio?aaai. C?inoa? aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie iia?e?caoe??
a?oioiaeo oinoao?a ? ?aaoethaaiiy aeinooiieo oi?i ?2I5.

Ia?niaeoeaiei ? iiooe o?i?/ieo niieoe, caeaoieo i?yii /e
iiina?aaeeiaaii aieeaaoe ia i?ioeane a?ieia?/ii? ? o?i?/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? oeueiai aaaeeeaiai aeaiaioo aeeaeaiiy.

C iaoith io?eiaiiy iaiao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i iiaeeea?noue ca?eueoaiiy
?ooeeaino? oinoi?o a a?oio? ? i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy canai?iiy ?ineeiaie
?2I5, a oaeiae aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeaino? caiia?aaiiy ia?aoiaeo oinoao?a,
aianaieo c i?ia?aeueieie aeia?eaaie, o aaaeeiaeinooii? oi?ie, aoea
i?iaaaeaia na??y a?aeiia?aeieo eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?ae?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aianaiiy iaoanee?eaoo iao??th o aeaeyae? aiaeiiai
?ic/eio ni?ey? c?inoaiith ?ooeeaino? ?2I5 a eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiio a?oio? ?
a /i?iicai? oeiiaiio. Aeyaeaii oaeiae iiaeeea?noue caiia?aaiiy ia?aoiaeo
oinoao?a oinoi?iai?nieo aeia?ea o aaaeei?ic/eiio oi?io. I?e oeueiio
iaeaeuo aoaeoeai?noue iaea eiioeaio?aoe?y iaoanee?eaoo iao??th a
?ic?aooieo 0,2-0,3 a/e S?I2 (20-30 ia S?I2 ia 1 ea a?oioo). Ia iao
iiaeyae, ae?y iaoanee?eaoo iao??th caiaeeoueny ia eeoa aei aeo?niaiiy
aaeni?aiaaiiai oinoi?o, a e aei ooai?aiiy aeineoue no?eeiai eiiieaeno a
?ic/ei?, ui c iaeiiai aieo — caiia?aa? aaeni?aoe?? oinoao?a oaa?aeith
oacith a?oioo, a c ?ioiai — ca?eueoo? aeinooii?noue oinoi?o ?ineeiai.

A no?oeoo?? i?ieo oa?aeue E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie iaea?eueo cia/io ieoiio
aaao caeiathoue iin?ae iceii? oaieoe?. Aeey oi?ioaaiiy ca?ia c
i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii a?eea ?ineeie iiaeii? aooe caaacia/ai? acioii ia
eeoa a ?aii? ia??iaee iioiaaiaco, a e o i?ci?o? oace aaaaoaoe??.
Aeei?enoaiiy eenoiai? ae?aaiinoeee aea? iiaeeea?noue i?iaiicoaaoe
o?i?/iee neeaae ca?ia ceae?a ?, yeui iaiao?aeii, ao?o/aoenue, oaeei
/eiii, o i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy yeino? i?iaeoeoe??. I?iaaaeai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui iaea?eueo o?nii ai?no a?eea a ca?i?
ei?aeth? c ai?noii acioo a eenoeao 1-ai oa 2-ai y?on?a o ia??iae
eiein?iiy (r = 0,91-0,94). Io?eiaia ?aa?an?eia caeaaei?noue (O = 9,82 +
1,01O) aeey iiina?aaeeiaaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aaee/ei (O1 (O= 2,82) =
12,67% ; O2 (O=4,67) = 14,54%) na?ae/eoue, ui ca?eueoaiith a?eea ia 1%
a?aeiia?aea? i?aeaeuaiiy caaaeueiiai acioo a eenoeao (oaca eiein?iiy) a
na?aaeiueiio ia 0,9-1,0%.

Ia i?aeoeoe? i?e i?iaaaeaii? iicaei?aiaaiai i?aeaeeaeaiiy aaaeeeai
caa/anii ciaoe i?i iiaeeea?noue io?eiaiiy ca?ia, yea ca a?eeia?noth
iiaeia aoei a a?aeianoe aei ?ic?yaeo neeueieo ioaieoeue. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
na?ae/aoue, ui iicaei?aiaaa aeeaeaiiy a aeic? 30-35 ea/aa acioo ni?ey?
i?aeaeuaiith ai?noo a?eea aei 1,5%, a “ne?i?“ eeaeeiaeie aei 2%. Ia
iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaia a?aeiia?aeia oeaea iio?aae
iin?a?a iceii? ioaieoe? a i?iaaaeaii? i?ciueiai iicaei?aiaaiai
i?aeaeeaeaiiy.

Anoaiiaeaia oaeiae iiceoeaia ae?y aianaiiy iie?aaeaiiaeo i?e?iaeia?ea
(0,5 ea/aa Ii ia 1 aa n?aici?iii? ieiu?) ia n??eo e?niaeo a?oioao ia
i?aeaeuaiiy a?eeiaino? ca?ia oa ai?noo a iueiio eeaeeiaeie.

7. Aeieiai-aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy aeia?ea o n?aici?i?.

Ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeaeuaiiy ?iaeth/ino? oa i?iaeoeoeaiino? aa?ioeaiic?a
caoiaee, a oiiaao no/anieo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, e??i aeieia?/ii?
iaiaaeaiino? oa iaa?oioiaaiino?, iiaeii? aooe aeiiii?/ii aea?aeieie ?
aia?aaoe/ii aeioe?eueieie.

Aeieiai-aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy aeia?ea i?ae iniiai?
eoeueoo?e n?aici?ie (iceio ioaieoeth ii ??cieo iiia?aaeieeao, oeoe?ia?
ao?yee oa eiithoeio) ?ic?aoiaaia ca: ieoii?noth aeei?enoaieo aeia?ea
iaeeieoeath o?iaeath a?aeiia?aeii? eoeueoo?e, ai?noii caaaeueii? aia?a??
a o?iaea? iniiaii? i?iaeoeoe?? caeaaeii a?ae aa??aio?a nenoaie aeia?ea,
aia?aicao?aoaie i?aai?/ieo ? ieia?aeueieo aeia?ea ia 0,1 o i?e?inoo
o?iaeath oa aia?aaoe/iei eiao?oe?aioii ei?enii? ae?? (EEAe) aeei?enoaiiy
aeia?ea.

A oaae.5 iaaaaeaiee ?ic?aooiie ieoiiino? aeia?ea ca?iii iceii?
ioaieoe?, yeo ae?iuoaaee ii ??cieo iiia?aaeieeao.

Ai?no aia?a?? a iniiai?e i?iaeoeoe?? iceii? ioaieoe?, oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a
? eiithoeie caeaaeii a?ae aa??aio?a nenoaie aeia?ea aa??thaaa o oe?ieeo
iaaeao (IAeae o 102/aa) a?ae 559,7 a eiithoei? (eiio?ieueiee aa??aio)
aei 1346,6 a ei?aiaieiaeao oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a (aa??aio ai?e + 1,5 N?E).
Eiio?ieuei? aa??aioe aeine?aeaeoaaieo eoeueoo? ii a?aeiioaiith
iaeiie/aiiy aia?a?? a iniiai?e i?iaeoeoe?? ?iciiae?eai? oae: eiithoeia
iceia ioaieoey i?ney aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa iceia ioaieoey i?ney eoeo?oaece
ia neein oeoe?ia? ao?yee. Iiia?aaeieee iceii? ioaieoe? nooo?ai ia
aieeioee ia iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy aia?a?? a ca?i? a ?ic?aooieo ia iaeeieoeth
iin?aii? ieiu?.

Aia?aicao?aoe i?ia?aeueieo oa i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea ia 0,1 o i?e?inoo
iniiaii? i?iaeoeoe?? (IAeae) caeaaeii a?ae eoeueoo? n?aici?ie ?
aa??aio?a aeine?aeo aa??thaaee a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? — a?ae 122,5 (iceia
ioaieoey i?ney eiithoeie, aa??aio 1,0 N?E) aei 1113,7 (iceia ioaieoey
i?ney eoeo?oaece ia neein, aa??aio ai?e + 1,0 N?E).

5. Ieoii?noue aeia?ea ca?iii iceii? ioaieoe? (ca?iiai-ao?yeiaa n?aici?ia
aa?inoaioe?? IAO “Ieoieoey”, ea ca?ia/ea ae?th/i? ?a/iaeie i?ia?aeueieo
ooe?a)

Na?aaei? ca 1985-1989 ??.Na?aaei? ca 1990-1994 ??.Aa??aio
aeine?aeoo?iaeae, oe/aa*ieoii?noue**o?iaeae, oe/aaieoii?noueIiia?aaeiee
— ai?ioEiio?ieue(aac aeia?ea)36,2-42,4-20 o/aa aiith — oii46,350,558,1
77,0Oii + N80?80E8048,55,159,47,1Oii +
N110?120E12047,63,365,29,1N80?80E8051,06,258,96,9Iiia?aaeiee —
aaaaoi??/i? o?aaeEiio?ieue(aac aeia?ea)35,1-34,4-20 o/aa aiith —
oii49,672,545,153,5Oii + N60?80E8055,19,153,58,7Oii +
N75?120E12057,77,270,011,3N60?60E6051,87,661,012,1Iiia?aaeiee —
eoeo?oaeca ia neeinEiio?ieue(aac aeia?ea)37,5-42,4-I?neyae?y aiith —
oii45,1ia aeci.58,1 ia aeci.Oii + N90?80E8052,35,959,44,8Oii +
N135?120E12053,24,265,24,2N90?80E8052,76,358,96,4I?ei?oea. *IN?05 i?ae
aa??aioaie aeine?aeo ii ?ieao aeine?aeaeaiue ia ia?aaeuoaaea 3,3 oe/aa.

** Ieoii?noue o aa??aio? i?aai?/ii? nenoaie aeia?ea iiaeaia
a ea ca?ia ia 1 oiiio aiith.

Aia?aaoe/iee EEAe aeey cacia/aieo eoeueoo? ? aa??aio?a aeine?aeo
oa?aeoa?ecoaaany ae?aiaciiii a?ae 1,48 aei 13,43. E?aei? aeno?aiaeuei?
cia/aiiy a?aei?/ai? a?aeiia?aeii ii icei?e ioaieoe? i?ney eoeo?oaece ia
neein (aa??aio c aii?i + 1,5 N?E) ? ii icei?e ioaieoe? i?ney
aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa (aa??aio 1,0 N?E).

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
ae?iuoaaiiy iceii? ioaieoe? i?ney eoeo?oaece ia neein ? oeoe?iaeo
ao?ye?a o aa??aioao i?aaii-i?ia?aeueii? nenoaie c aeei?enoaiiyi 1,5 N?E
ia aoaeoeaia. Cia/aiiy aia?aicao?ao oa?aeoa?ecoaaeiny i?e oeueiio 1113,7
oa 514,6 IAeae. Io?eiai? aeai? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeieia?/io
aeioe?euei?noue aianaiiy i?ae oeoe?ia? ao?yee ia /i?iicai? oeiiaiio
iaeiiai aiith a aeic? C0 o/aa, aai oaei? ae e?eueeino? aiith c iii??ieie
aeicaie i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea ( N90?120E140).

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE

1. Aeiaai/ania ?ioaineaia aeei?enoaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oa?aeue E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie i?ecaaei aei caoaeaiiy noa?e oa cieaeaiiy
?ioaineaiino? a?ieia?/iiai e?oaiia?ao ?a/iaei oa aia?a?? a
aa?iaeinenoaiao. Iaaei??i? aio?iiiaaii? oa oaoiiaaii? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
a?oioia? aeinenoaie ii?ooeee ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a cai?ioieo
ca’yce?a, iaoiiaeee ao?aoo aeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae i?ae i?ioeanaie
i?iaeoeoe?? oa aeano?oeoe?? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie a iai?yi? cia/iiai
ciaioaiiy ai?noo aoiono a a?oioao. Ia? i?noea i?iya ??cieo aeae?a
aeaa?aaeaoe?eieo i?ioean?a: o?ce/iiai, o?ceei-o?i?/iiai, a?ic?eiiai oa
aio?iiiaaiii-aeaaoi?o?eaoe?eiiai.

2. Iieacaii, ui iaei??th ?c iniiaieo oiia ae??oaiiy caaea/? i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? aa?ioeaiic?a a no/anieo aeieia?/ieo oiiaao ?
iioei?caoe?y ?aaeei?a i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie i?ieo a?oio?a oa acioiiai
aeeaeaiiy ?ineei oeyoii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie aeia?ea
eoeueoo? n?aici?ie, yea aeeth/a? iaia’yceiaa aianaiiy aiith oa ?ioeo
oi?i i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea.

3. Aeine?aeaeaiiyie, i?iaaaeaieie a aeiaaio?eaaeeo aeine?aeao,
anoaiiaeaii, ui iia??oaiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa aa?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a
i?ieo a?oio?a iaoiiaeaia ia?aae on?i caaeuaiei a?ae/oaeaeaiiyi
i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie ca iaae? aa?io?oioeaiic?a, yea oioineioaco?oueny a
?o ??/iiio oeeee?, iaaeinoaoiueith e?euee?noth aianaiiy i?aai?/ieo
aeia?ea, a oaeiae iaiaa?oioiaaii iaaei??ieie ii?iaie canoinoaaiiy
i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea.

4. Aea/aii ai?no, caiane oa ye?niee neeaae aoiono, /i?iicaio oeiiaiai
oa eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo, ?o ci?ie i?ae aieeaii aeiaai/aniiai
canoinoaaiiy aeia?ea o n?aici?i?. Aeacaii, ui oe? a?oioe
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?aeiia?aeii aoiaoii-ooeueaaoiei ? aoiaoiei oeiii
aoiono. Aaea a ia?o? 10-13 ?ie?a ?ioaineaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo a?aei?/a?oueny nooo?aa ciaioaiiy aoiono a
i?iiio oa??. Caeaaeii a?ae ii?i nenoaiaoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy aeia?ea o
ca?iiai-ao?yeia?e n?aici?i? i?ney cae?i/aiiy cacia/aiiai ia??iaeo a
eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo anoaiiaeth?oueny iiaee ??aaiue a?aeiinii
a??aiiaaaeaiiai ?aaeeio i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie. Oi?ioaaiiy a?oioiaiai
i?io?eth, iaaeeaeaiiai ca caianaie aoiono a 0-50 ni oa?? aei ia?aeia?a,
aeinyaa?oueny i?e aianaii? ca ?ioaoe?th ia aaeoa? n?aici?iii? ieiu?
13-15 o aiith, 80-116 ea acioo, 80-130 ea oinoi?o, 90-130 ea eae?th.
Iioeiaeueii-iao?e/iei ai?noii aoiono a i?iiio oa?? eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai
a?oioo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy ne?ae aaaaeaoe 4,9-5,2%.

5. O?eaaea n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea aeei?enoaiiy a?oio?a i?ecaiaeeoue
aei cieaeaiiy a?aeiioaiiy N : N a neeaae? aoiono, aei i?aeaeuaiiy
?aaeoe?eii? eiai caeaoiino?. Nenoaiaoe/ia canoinoaaiiy iaeiiai aiith ?
aiith a eiiieaen? c iaeeia?iith aeicith i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea ia
eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiio a?oio? ni?e/eith? a?aeiinia cieaeaiiy aeoeaii?
/anoeie aoiono. Aianaiiy iaeieo i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea nooo?ai cieaeo?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aoaeaoeth aoi?iiaeo eeneio aei aoaeaoeth ooeueaieeneio.

6. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia i?ioeane ?iceeaaeaiiy ? aoi?o?eaoe?? ?ineeiieo
?aooie a /i?iicai? oeiiaiio, a oaeiae aeei?enoaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie eoeueoo?aie acioo i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea
aieeaa? aeeaeia ?o ca?iaee, e?euee?noue aianaieo i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea oa
aaiioaaiiy. I?ney naie??/iiai ia??iaeo i?ia?ae?caoe?? (1985-1992 ??.) o
a?oio? caa??aa?oueny 15,5-21,2% aoaeaoeth a?ae aianaii? eiai e?eueeino?
a a?oio o aeaeyae? oioaeueii i?/aii? 14C o?oiiane i?ae oeoe?ia? ao?yee.
*an iiaiiai ?o ?iceeaaeaiiy, caeaaeii a?ae aeine?aeaeoaaieo aa??aio?a
aeine?aeo, noaiiaeoue 9-11 ?ie?a, a eiao?oe??io aoi?o?eaoe?? —
15,5-19,5%.

7. *i?iicaie oeiia? ? eo/ii-/i?iicaii? a?oioe oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
aenieei a?aeiiniei ai?noii iaa?ae?ie?co?ii? oa aaaeeia?ae?ie?co?ii? oi?i
acioo. Aaniethoia ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo caaaeueiiai acioo a
eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiio a?oio? i?ae aieeaii nenoaiaoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy
aeia?ea coiiaeaia ca ?aooiie eaaei-, aaaeei- ? iaa?ae?ie?ciaaieo eiai
oi?i. Aianaiiy iaeieo i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea ni?ey? a?aeiiniiio
ca?eueoaiith e?eueeino? a?ae?ie?ciaaii? o?aeoe?? acioo ? cieaeaiith
iaa?ae?ie?ciaaieo eiai niieo/aiue.

8. E?euee?noue aia?a??, iayaii? a neeaae? aoioniaeo ?a/iaei o oa??
0-50 ni, caeaaeii a?ae niinia?a aeei?enoaiiy eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo,
noaiiaeoue 2856-3607 iei. eeae/aa. Ca aoaeoeai?noth iaeiie/aiiy aia?a??
a neeaae? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie a?oioo o?eaaeee ia?ae?a oa aeine?aei?
aa??aioe nenoaie aeia?ea ?icoaoiaothoueny o oaeee ?yae: ia?ae?a >
i?aai?/ia nenoaia aeia?ea > i?aaii-i?ia?aeueia (ai?e + 1,0 NPK) >
i?aaii-i?ia?aeueia (ai?e + 1,5 NPK) > eiio?ieue (aac aianaiiy aeia?ea)
> i?ia?aeueia nenoaia aeia?ea (1,0 NP).

9. ?ioaineai?noue i?ioeano i?o?eo?eaoe?? a /i?iicai? oeiiaiio ?
eo/ii-/i?iicaiieo a?oioao caeaaeeoue a?ae aeo?aeiiai ai?noo
aeao?eoii-aoioniaeo ?a/iaei, e?eueeino? aianaieo acioieo aeia?ea ?
iiaeieaii-ei?aiaaeo caeeoe?a. Iayai?noue aeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino?
a?iaia?aaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo a a?oio? ni?eyoeeai aieeaa? ia iaeiie/aiiy
i?o?ao?a i?e aeiaeaoeiaiio aianaii? acioieo aeia?ea.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui noia?iee eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy acioo aeia?ea (i?yia
ae?y + 2 ?iee i?neyae??) aa??thaaa a?ae 27,7 aei 39,8 %, c yeiai ia
i?yio ae?th i?eoiaeeoueny 82,0-90,1%.

10. Oai?aoe/ii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue ianiaiai
ianoaaeaiiy a?oio?a ia eeneioii-iniiaio aooa?i?noue ye e?eoa??y ioe?iee
?o aa?iaeieia?/iiai noaio, neeaaeaiiy ea?oia?ai aooa?iino? oa oeaee
ioe?iee aooa?ii? caeaoiino? a?oio?a. Iieacaii, ui eeneioii-iniiaia
aooa?i?noue ? ?ioaa?aeueiith ooieoe??th an?o o?i?/ieo eiiiiiaio?a a?oioo
— iaei??th ?c iniiaieo ?? ooieoe?e a aa?iaeinenoaiao.

11. ?ic?iaeaia a?eueo aeineiiaea iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy ? ioe?iee
eeneioii-iniiaii? aooa?iino? a?oio?a. Aooa?i?noue i?iiiio?oueny
ioe?ithaaoe ca ia’?eoeaii-e?euee?nieie e?eoa??yie — iieacieeii
iaeo?ae?caoe?? (II) oa nooiaiai aooa?ii? caeaoiino? (NAC) aeey
eeneioiiai oa eoaeiiai ?ioa?aae?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui cai?iiiiiaai?
ia?aiao?e a?aeiia?aeathoue iniiaiei aeiiaai, ye? noaaeyoueny aei
e?eoa??y ye aei iciaee ioe?iee ye?niiai noaio a?oio?a ?
?aeiiaiaeothoueny aeey oe?eae a?oioiaiai iii?oi?eiao, ye e?eoa???
ioe?iee o?ceei-o?i?/ii? aeaa?aaeaoe?? a?oioo.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea neeaaeaiiy ea?oia?aie aooa?iino? ? oeaea ioe?iee
aooa?ieo aeanoeainoae a?oio?a. Ii iieacieeao aooa?iino? cai?iiiiiaaii
aecia/aoe ii?io aaiia ye eiio?cao?ae, ui cieaeo? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy
?aae?iaeoeaiiai no?iioe?th a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? ?ineeie ia
?aae?iaeoeaii caa?oaeiaieo a?oioao.

12. Aea/aii aieea n?aici?ie ? aeiaai/aniiai nenoaiaoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy
aeia?ea ia aooa?i? aeanoeaino? /i?iicaiieo a?oio?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a
i?iiio oa?? /i?iicaio oeiiaiai, ii??aiyii c ia?aeiaiaeie aiaeiaaie,
aooa?ia caeaoi?noue iia??oo?oueny o eeneioiiio ? eoaeiiio ?ioa?aaeao.
Aaaaoi??/ia canoinoaaiiy aeia?ea cieceei aooa?io caeaoi?noue o
eeneioiiio ?ioa?aae? i?e iaeii/aniiio i?aeaeuaii? ?? a eoaeiiio.
Iaea?eueo ?aeue?oii cacia/aia caeiiii??i?noue aeyaeeany o aa??aio?
i?ia?aeueii? nenoaie oaeia?aiiy. Aieea aio?iiiaaiiiai oaeoi?a a i?iiio ?
i?aei?iiio oa?ao eo/ii-/i?iicaiiiai a?oioo aeyaeany ia cia/iiio
cieaeaii? aooa?iino? a eoaeiiio ?ioa?aae?. Ca aoaeoeai?noth iaaaoeaii?
ae?? (a ii?yaeeo ciaioaiiy) aeine?aeaeoaai? aa??aioe nenoaie oaeia?aiiy
?icoaoiaothoueny oae: eiio?ieue (aac aeia?ea) < i?ia?aeueia nenoaia < i?aaii-i?ia?aeueia nenoaia < i?aai?/ia nenoaia. 13. I?ioean ?aaoethaaiiy aooa?ieo aeanoeainoae iiaeiai aacoaaoeny ia oi?ioaaii? aenieiaooa?iiai eiiieaeno, e?eoa???i ioe?iee yeiai iiaea neoaeeoe noia NACe + NACe oa ?ioaa?aeueiee ?iaeaen eeneioii-iniiaii? ??aiiaaae E?(E? = NACe : NACe). Aeey /i?iicai?a oeiiaeo ? eo/ii-/i?iicaiieo a?oio?a E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie NACe + NACe iiaeiai aooe ia iaioa 100-105% , a E? - a iaaeao 0,6-3,5. 14. Caoiaee uiaei iioei?caoe?? i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy eoeueoo? n?aici?ie (aea?? oi?i aeia?ea oa anoaiiaeaiiy ii?i) ne?ae cae?enithaaoe c o?aooaaiiyi aooa?ieo aeanoeainoae a?oio?a ia i?aenoaa? iieacieea iaeo?ae?caoe?? oa nooiaiy aooa?ii? caeaoiino? aeey eeneioiiai ? eoaeiiai ?ioa?aae?a. 15. Aeey no/anieo aeieia?/ieo oiia cai?iiiiiaaia eiioeaioe?y oi?aae?iiy ?iaeth/?noth a?oio?a. Iieacaii, ui aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy a?oioiaith ?iaeth/?noth iiaeiii aacoaaoeny ia iioei?caoe?? ?aaeeio i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie a aa?ieaiaeoaooao oa a?aeiiaeaii? i?ia?aeii? ?ie? a?ieia?/iiai oaeoi?a. I?e oeueiio oi?aae?iiy ?iaeth/?noth a?oio?a iiaeiii cae?enithaaoeny ia o?ueio ???a?o?/ieo ??aiyo: eaiaeoaooii-?aa?iiaeueiiio, aa?ieaiaeoaooii-eieaeueiiio ? a?oioiai-aeinenoaiiiio. ?c ooieoe?e a?oioo, ye? iaea?eueoa i?aeaeathoueny aeaoi?ioaaiith, a a?aeiia?aeii ? iaea?eueoa iio?aaothoue oi?aae?iiy, ? i?iaeooe?eii-a?aeoai?ia, nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ia ? aooa?ia. 16. ?ic?iaeaia iiaeaeue o?ainoi?iaoe?? i?aai?/iiai aoaeaoeth, ia i?aenoaa? yei? anoaiiaeaii e?eoa??? no?eeino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie aa?io?oioeaiic - aoionia? ?a/iaeie a?oioo. Aeiaaaeaii, ui aeey a?aeoai?aiiy iioeiaeueii iao?e/iiai ai?noo aoiono a /i?iicai? oeiiaiio neaaiaoioniaaiiio a oiiaao ae?th/i? nenoaie caiea?ianoaa oa a?aenooiino? aa?ioe/ieo iioie?a i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei iio??aia ui??/ia iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a a?oio ia iaioa 6,2 o/aa i?aai?/iiai aoaeaoeth. 17. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoanee?eao iao??th o aeaeyae? aiaeiiai ?ic/eio c eiioeaio?aoe??th 0,2-0,3 a/e i?aeaeuo? nooi?iue canai?iiy ?ic/eiiiai P2O5 ?ineeiaie, caiia?aa? iiaeeeaino? ia?aoiaeo oinoao?a o /i?iicaiao oeiiaeo ? a eo/ii-/i?iicaiieo a?oioao o aaaeei-?ic/eii? oi?ie, a oaeiae ca?eueoo? aeo?ae eaaei?ic/eiii? oi?ie P2O5 c aaaeei?ic/eiieo oinoi?iai?nieo aeia?ea, ui aeicaiey? aiineoe ?o a a?oio aac iiia?aaeiuei? o?i?/ii? ia?iaee. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ae?iaieoeoao 1. A E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie ia eo/ii-/i?iicaiieo a?oioao aeey caaacia/aiiy aeniei? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ca?iiai-ao?yeiai? n?aici?ie oa aacaeao?oeeoiiai aaeaino aoiono ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aianaiiy ia 1 aa n?aici?iii? ieiu? 13 o/aa aiith oa N80?85E88. 2. I?iiiio?oueny i?aeoe/ia iiaeaeue e?oaiia?ao aoaeaoeth ? e?eoa??? no?eeino? nenoaie aa?ioeaiic - aoionia? ?a/iaeie a?oioo, ia iniia? yeeo iiaeia oi?ioaaoe aacaeao?oeeoiee aaeain i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie a a?oio?. 3. Aeey iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo oe?eae ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny: a) iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy eeneioii-iniiaii? aooa?iino? a?oioo; a) iaoiaeeea neeaaeaiiy ea?oia?aie eeneioii-iniiaii? aooa?iino? a?oioo; a) ia’?eoeai? e?eoa??? aa?iaeieia?/iiai noaio a?oio?a (nooi?iue aooa?ii? caeaoiino? (NAC) oa iieaciee iaeo?ae?caoe?? (II); a) niaoe?aeueia i?ia?aia ?ic?aooieo ii?i aaiia ia ?aae?iaeoeaii caa?oaeiaieo eeneeo oa neaaieeneeo a?oioao, aianiiy yeiai ni?ey? cieaeaiith iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ?aae?iaeoeaiiai no?iioe?th a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? ?ineeie. 4. C iaoith aeyaeaiiy ieiu iin?a?a iceii? ioaieoe? aeey io?eiaiiy ia /i?iicaiao oeiiaeo ca?ia, yea ca ye?noth iaeaaeeoue aei neeueieo, i?iiiio?oueny i?iaiaeeoe ae?aaiinoeeo ia ai?no acioo a aaaaoaoeaieo i?aaiao ?ineei o ia??iae eiein?iiy. Iin?ae, ?ineeie yeeo iathoue ai?no acioo a 1-io oa 2-io y?onao eenoe?a ia iaioa 3,4%, i?e aeiaeaoeiaiio i?ciueiio iicaei?aiaaiio i?aeaeeaeaii? acioii o aeic? 30-45 ea/aa caaacia/othoue io?eiaiiy ca?ia c ai?noii a?eea 13,5% ? a?eueoa. Nienie iniiaieo i?aoeue, iioae?eiaaieo ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??. 1. Iaaeoi/?e I.I., Aieueaa/ O.A., Aa?iaoaiei A.A. Aeieia?y a?oioo oa eiai caa?oaeiaiiy. Ee?a. Aa?a?ia iaoea, 1998. - 286 n. 2. ?aae?aoe?eia neooaoe?y ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?uenueeeo oa?aeaeyo *a?i?a?anueei? iaeano? oa caoiaee uiaei cieaeaiiy ?? iaaaoeaii? ae?? (Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??)/ A.N. I??noa?, I.I. Eaca??a, E.I.?iiaiia , I.I. Iaaeoi/?e, A.?. Aaeaea, A.?. Iaeueiee; Ca ?aae. I.I.Iaaeoi/?y. Ee?a, Aa?a?ia iaoea, 1998. - 80 n. 3. Iaaeoi/ee I.I. Eeneioii-iniiaiay aooa?iinoue ii/au - e?eoa?ee ioeaiee aa ea/anoaaiiiai ninoiyiey // Ii/aiaaaeaiea. 1998. ? 9. - N. 1094 -1102. 4. Iaaeoi/ee I.I. Ii?aaeaeaiea eeneioii-iniiaiie aooa?iinoe ii/a // Ii/aiaaaeaiea. 1993. N 4. - N.34-39. 5. Iaaeoi/ee I.I. Iiuo ninoaaeaiey ea?oia?aii eeneioii-iniiaiie aooa?iinoe ii/a // Aa?ioeiey, 1996, ? 6. - N. 20-26. 6. Iaaeoi/ee I.I. Oi?aaeaiea ieiaei?iaeeai ii/a Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu a oneiaeyo yeieiae/aneiai e?ecena // A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee. 1996. ? 11. - N. 10-17. 7. Iaaeoi/ee I.I. Iauaeoeaiua e?eoa?ee aeey oeaeae ii/aaiiiai iiieoi?eiaa // Aeiiia?ae? IAI Oe?a?ie, 1995, ? 1. - N. 110-112. 8. Iaaeoi/ee I.I. Niaea?aeaiea e ninoaa aoiona a eoaiai-/a?iicaiiie ii/aa i?e aeeeoaeueiii i?eiaiaiee oaeia?aiee a naaiiai?ioa // Iiauoaiea ieiaei?iaeey ii/a. Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia ONOA. Eeaa. 1982. - N. 47-54. 9. Iaaeoi/ee I.I. Ioeaiea aooa?iuo naienoa ii/a // Yeieiae/aneia iainiiaaiea nenoaiu i?eiaiaiey oaeia?aiee a naaiiai?ioao Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu. Na. iao/iuo o?oaeia Oe?ainaa?ioieaa?neoaoa. Eeaa, Ecae-ai ONOA. 1994. - N.143-149. 10. Iaaeoi/ee I.I. I?eiaiaiea iaoiaea /eneaiiiai eioaa?e?iaaiey e iee?iYAI aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ieiuaaeae aooa?iinoe ii/a / Aii?inu ii/aicaueoiie aanieoaeiie nenoaiu caieaaeaeey. Iao/iua o?oaeu ONOA. Eeaa. 1986. - N. 75-85. 11. Nadtochiy P.P. Determination of Acid-Base Buffer Capacity of Soils // Eurasion Soil Science. Vol.25. N 6. June, 1993. - P. 30-38. 12. Iaaeoi/ee I.I., Aaeaaa A.Ae. Eniieueciaaiea acioa oaeia?aiee ?anoaieyie e i?ioeannu o?ainoi?iaoeee ?anoeoaeueiuo inoaoeia a /a?iicaia oeie/iii (ii ?acoeueoaoai iiuoia n 15N e 14 N) // Aa?ioeiey. 1994. ? 6. - N.3-9. 13. Iaaeoi/ee I.I., Aieueaa/ O.A. Iiaeaeue e?oaiai?ioa oaea?iaea e e?eoa?ee onoie/eainoe nenoaiu oeoioeaiic-aoioniaua aauanoaa ii/au // Aeieeaaeu AI Oe?aeiu. 1993. ? 8. - N. 165-171. 14. Iaaeoi/?e I.I., ?aiean A.O., Oaa/aiei A.?. Aieea nenoaiaoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy aeia?ea a n?aici?i? ia aooa?io caeaoi?noue a?oioo // A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee. 1994. ? 11. - N.29-34. 15. Ai?iaeiee I.I., Iaeaeaao?a A.E., Iaaeoi/ee I.I. Aeiaaioeiey iee?iyeaiaioia a ii/aao Oe?aeiu e i?eiaiaiea iee?ioaeia?aiee // Iao/iua o?oaeu ONOA, aui.145, Eeaa, 1975. - N. 139-141. 16. Aeanthe I.A., I.I.Ai?iaeiee I.I., Iaco?eaae/ E.E., Iaaeoi/ee I.I. Aeeyiea iae?i- e iee?ioaeia?aiee a naaiiai?ioao ia ea/anoai e o?iaeae iceiie ioaieoeu // Iao/iua o?oaeu ONOA. Aui.180. Eeaa, 1976.- N. 4-11. 17. Ai?iaeiee I.I., Iaaeoi/ee I.I., AEio?ei I.A. Aeeyiea oaeia?aiee, aianaiiuo a naaiiai?ioa, ia o?iaeae e ea/anoai ca?ia iceiie ioaieoeu “Eeuee/aaea” // Niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aiiaeaaaiey aa?ioeiee a n.-o. aocao NNN? e aa naycue n i?iecaiaenoaii. Eeaa. ONOA, 1976. - N. 93-95. 18. Ai?iaeiee I.I. ,?oaeoe A.A., Iaco?eaae/ E.E., Iaaeoi/ee I.I. Ea/anoai ca?ia ioaieoeu a caaeneiinoe io aianaiiuo oaeia?aiee a naaiiai?ioao // O?oaeu OeEIAI, aui. 44, *anoue 2. I., 1976. - N. 69-78. 19. Ai?iaeiee I.I.,Aaeaaaeei A.O., Iaco?eaae/ E.E., Iaaeoi/ee I.I. O?iaeae e ea/anoai ca?ia iceiie ioaieoeu ni?oa “Eeuee/aaea” a caaeneiinoe io i?eiaiaiey i?aaie/aneeo e ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee a oneiaeyo naaa?iie /anoe Eaninoaie ONN? // Iao/iua o?oaeu ONOA, Aui. 228, Eeaa, 1979. - N.105-110. 20. Iaoia/eoei N.A., Aiaeio?oa I.O.,*oeei I.O., Iaaeoi/ee I.I. Aeeyiea ieo?aoiiai aiiiiey ia i?ioeannu no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiey iiioii?eeeiieoa // Oe?aeineee oeie/aneee aeo?iae. O.50, ? 5, 1984. - N.471-478. 21. Iaoia/eoei N.A., Aiaeio?oa I.O., Iaaeoi/ee I.I. , *oeei I.O. Iaeioi?ua oeceei-oeie/aneea naienoaa ii/a, ioeaiea eo nia/eaaaiinoe e iaaooaaiinoe a eaai?aoi?iuo oneiaeyo // Aii?inu ii/aicaueoiie aanieoaeiie nenoaiu caieaaeaeey. Iao/iua o?oaeu ONOA, Eeaa, 1986. - N. 39-50. 22. A.n. ? 1490130 NNN?. Niinia oeie/aneie iaeei?aoeee ii/a / A.TH. O?aoeiiee, I.O. *oeei, O.A. Aieueaa/, I.A. Aaneeueaa N.A. Iaoia/eoei, I.I. Iaaeoi/ee, A.I. Oaeueaec ( NNN?). Cayaeaii 28.01.87. Iioaeeeiaaii 30.06.89. Athe. ? 24. - 10 n. 23. Aieueaa/ O.A., Iaaeoi/ee I.I., *oeei I.O.Aaioeie/aneea nayce yeaiaioiiai e ieia?aeiae/aneiai ninoaaa ian/aiuo ii/a e eo cia/aiea aeey oeaeae iiieoi?eiaa // Oyaeaeua iaoaeeu a ie?oaeathuae c?aaea e io?aia i?e?iaeu. I.IAO, 1988. - N. 351-354. 24.Iaaeoi/?e I.I., ?aniooiee I.A. I?iaiicoaaiiy yeino? ca?ia iceii? ioaieoe? // Iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? ?ic?iaee “A?ieia?caoe?y caiea?ianoaa c iaoith ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy oa io?eiaiiy ye?nii? i?iaeoeoe??”. Ee?a. IAO, 1995. - N. 6-7. 25. Iaaeoi/ee I..I. Eciaiaiea oeceei-oeie/aneeo naienoa /a?iicaia oeie/iiai e eoaiai-/a?iicaiiie ii/au iiae aeeyieai oaeia?aiee // Oac. aeiee. I nuacaea ii/aiaaaeia e aa?ioeieeia Oe?aeineie NN?. Oa?ueeia. 1986. - N. 87-88. Aiioaoe?y Iaaeoi/?e I.I. Aa?iaeieia?/iee noai a?oio?a E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie, aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy ?o ?iaeth/?noth ? i?iaeoeoeai?noth aa?ioeaiic?a. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.01.03 - aa?ia?oioiciaanoai ? aa?io?ceea. - ?inoeooo a?oioiciaanoaa oa aa?io?i?? ?i. I.I.Nieieianueeiai OAAI; Oa?e?a, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiith aea/aiiy no/aniiai aa?iaeieia?/iiai noaio a?oio?a E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie. A aeena?oaoe?? ii?aoeueiaai? oai?aoe/i? ia?aaeoiiae iioei?caoe?? ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a ? aeacai? eiie?aoi? oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy i?iaeooe?eiei i?ioeanii a aa?ioeaiicao c o?aooaaiiyi aeieia?/ieo iaiaaeaiue, ni?yiiaaieo ia noaa?e?caoe?th aa?iaeieiae/ii? neooaoe?? a ?aa?ii?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui o?eaaea n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea aeei?enoaiiy a?oio?a i?ecaaei aei i?iyaeaiiy ??cieo aeae?a aeaa?aaeaoe?eieo i?ioean?a: o?ceei-o?i?/iiai, a?ic?eiiai ? aio?iiiaaiii-aeaaoieo?eaoe?eiiai. Aea/aii aoioniaee noai ? acioiee oiiae a?oio?a ? ?o ci?ie i?ae aieeaii nenoaiaoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy aeia?ea a n?aici?i?. ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy eeneioii-iniiaii? aooa?iino? a?oio?a ? neeaaeaiiy ea?oia?aie aooa?iino?. Aea/ai? aooa?i? aeanoeaino? a?oio?a. Cai?iiiiiaaia eiioeaioe?y oi?aae?iiy ?iaeth/?noth a?oio?a. ?ic?iaeaia iiaeaeue o?ainoi?iaoe?? i?aaie/iiai aoaeaoeth a nenoai? aa?ioeaiic-aoionia? ?a/iaeie a?oio?a. ?ic?aoiaaia aeieiai-aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy aeia?ea a aa?ioeaiicao. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aa?iaeinenoaia, n?aici?ia, i?aai?/ia ?a/iaeia a?oioo, aoi?o?eaoe?y, ?iaeth/?noue a?oioo, eeneioii-iniiaia aooa?i?noue, a?oioiai-aeieia?/iee iii?oi?eia, iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue, oi?aae?iiy, aeieiai-aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue. Aiiioaoeey Iaaeoi/ee I.I. Aa?iyeieiae/aneia ninoiyiea ii/a Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu, niaa?oainoaiaaiea oi?aaeaiey eo ieiaei?iaeeai e i?iaeoeoeaiinoueth aa?ioeaiicia. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.03 - aa?iii/aiaaaeaiea e aa?ioeceea. - Einoeooo ii/aiaaaeaiey e aa?ioeiee ei. A.I.Nieieianeiai OAAI; Oa?ueeia, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai eco/aiey nia?aiaiiiai aa?iyeieiae/aneiai ninoiyiey ii/a Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu. A ?aaioa io?aaioaiu oai?aoe/aneea i?aaeiinueee iioeiecaoeee ieiaei?iaeey ii/a e oeacaiu eiie?aoiua iooe niaa?oainoaiaaiey oi?aaeaiey i?iaeoeoeeiiiui i?ioeannii a aa?ioeaiicao n o/aoii yeieiae/aneeo ia?aie/aiee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia noaaeeecaoeeth aa?iyeieiae/aneie neooaoeee a ?aaeiia. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aeeeoaeueiia naeueneioicyenoaaiiia eniieueciaaiea ii/a i?eaaei e i?iyaeaieth ?acee/iuo aeaeia aeaa?aaeaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia: oeceei-oeie/aneiai, y?iceiiiiai e aio?iiiaaiii-aeaaoieoeeaoeeiiiiai. Eco/aii aoioniaia ninoiyiea e acioiue oiiae ii/a e eo eciaiaiea iiae aeeyieai nenoaiaoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey oaeia?aiee a naaiiai?ioa. ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeeee ii?aaeaeaiey eeneioii-iniiaiie aooa?iinoe ii/a e ninoaaeaiey ea?oia?aiiu aooa?iinoe. Eco/aiu aooa?iua naienoaa ii/a. I?aaeeiaeaia eiioeaioeey oi?aaeaiey ieiaei?iaeeai ii/a. ?ac?aaioaia iiaeaeue o?ainoi?iaoeee i?aaie/aneiai oaea?iaea a nenoaia aa?ioeaiic-aoioniaua aauanoaa ii/au. Ii?aaeaeaia yeieiai-yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?eiaiaiey oaeia?aiee a aa?ioeaiicao. Eeth/aaua neiaa: aa?iyeinenoaia, naaiiai?io, i?aaie/aneia aauanoai ii/au, aoieoeeaoeey, ieiaei?iaeea ii/au, eeneioii-iniiaiay aooa?iinoue, ii/aaiii-yeieiae/aneee iiieoi?eia, iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue, oi?aaeaiea, yeieiai-yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue. Annotation P.P.Nadtochiy. Agroecological Status of Soils of the Forest-Steppe Zone of Ukraine and the ways to improve Soil Fertility and Agrocenosis, Productivity Control. - Manuscript. Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 06.01.03 - agropedology and agrophisycs. - The Institute pedology and agricultural chemistry of Academy agrarian of Ukraine; Kharkow, 1999. A thesis is defended which is devoted to the up-to-date agroecological status of the Forest-Steppe Soils of Ukraine. Theoretical concepts are proposed for soil fertility optimization and the ways are shown to improve the production processes control in agrocenosis which take into account the environmental limitations directed towards the stabilization of agroecological situation in the region. It has been shown that long-term agricultural management of soils caused varios kinds of soil degradation: physico-chemical changes, soil erosion and anthropogenic-caused organic matter losses. Much research work is devoted to organic matter and nitrogen forms in soils and their changes under the impact of systematic use of fertilizers in crop rotation. The methods have been elaborated for the determination of acid-basic buffer capacity of soils and preparation of soil buffer capacity maps. Buffer properties of soils has been thoroughly studied. A concept is proposed for soil fertility control. A model of organic carbon transformation in the system: agrocaenosis-soil humic substances was elaborated. Ecologic and economic effectivenes was determined under the using of fertilizers in agrocenoses. Key words: agroecosystem, crop rotation, soil organic matter, soil fertility, acid-basic buffer capacity, soil and environmental monitoring, mathematical model, management, ecologic and economic effectiveness.

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