18

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AA?A?IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

AAAeCAEI ss?INEAA IEOAEEIAE*

OAeE 632.931/935 : 634.7(477.4)

AA?IA?IEIA?*IA IAA?OIOOAAIIss ?IOAA?IAAIIAI CAOENOO ssA?AeIEO
IANAAeAEAIUe A?Ae OE?AeIEE?A

O I?AI?*II-CAO?AeIIIO E?NINOAIO ? IIE?NN? OE?A?IE

03.00.09 – aioiiieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

EE?A – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?, ia
ni?oiae?eueieoeyo ? a ainiiaea?noaao Euea?anueei? oa ?ioeo iaeanoae.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IIEIC?E Einei O?ioeiiae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, aieiaiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo naae?aieoeoaa OAAI

IAOA??ANUeEEE Ieaenaiae? Na?a?eiae/;

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, aee?aeoi? E?aniieoonueei?
aeine?aeii? noaioe?? naae?aieoeoaa, OA?OEOIEE Ieaenaiae? Noaiaiiae/;

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, aee?aeoi? Ie??anueeiai ?inoeoooo
naae?aieoeoaa ?i. E.I. Neie?aiea,

OIIAIEI ?aai ?aaiiae/.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Oiainueea n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea aeaaeai?y,

i. Oiaiue.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 13 eeiiy 1999 ?.

i 10.00 aiae. ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae
26.004.02

a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith:

252041, Ee?a-41, aoe. Aa?i?a Iai?iie, 15, iaa/aeueiee ei?ion 3, aoae.
65.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:

252041, Ee?a-41, aoe. Aa?i?a Iai?iie, 11, ei?ion 10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “12” /a?aiy 1999 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa? eaiae. a?ie. iaoe.,
aeioeaio

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Iaiaeaeoe A.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

ssa?aei? eoeueoo?e ae?iuothoue a Oe?a?i? ia ieiu? aeecueei 30 oen. aa, o
oiio /ene?: noieoey – 11,0 oen. aa, /i?ia nii?iaeeia ? ii??/ee – 4,5
oen. aa, iaeeia – 3,5 – 4 ? aa?on – 3,5 oen. aa. A?iaeaei?noue ya?ae
noaiiaeoue 37 – 38 oe/aa, a aaeiaee ca?? – 61 – 84 oen. o
(Ia?eianueeee, 1989).

Ca iaa?oioiaaieie iaaee/ieie ii?iaie ??/ia aaeeaaiiy ieiae?a ya?aeieo
eoeueoo? ia iaeio ethaeeio iiaeiii noaiiaeoe 4,5 – 5,5 ea, ui ia
ii?yaeie a?eueoa oaeoe/iiai. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?aie ca?eueoaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa ya?aeii? i?iaeoeoe?? a ENI, a?aee?eoeo aeoe?iia?ieo
oiaa?enoaao, o i?aeniaieo ? oa?ia?nueeeo ainiiaea?noaao,
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo oa eieaeoeaieo naaeao iaiao?aeii i?aeaeueoe
?ioaineo?eaoe?th ae?iaieoeoaa a aaeoc? ia i?aenoaa? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo
oaoiieia?e c aeei?enoaiiyi caei?iaiai aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai naaeeaiiai
iaoa??aeo, nenoaie oaeia?aiiy, c?ioaiiy, ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, caoiae?a
caoenoo a?ae eiiieaeno iaaacia/ieo oe?aeeeaeo i?aai?ci?a.

Ieiaee ya?aeieo eoeueoo? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieeie iiaeeaieie oa
niaeiaeie yeinoyie, oe?iieie e?eoaaeueieie aeanoeainoyie. Aiie i?noyoue
oeoe?e, i?ia?aeuei?, aeoaeeuei? oa a?iiaoe/i? ?a/iaeie, eeneioe,
a?oai?ie, ui ni?ey? e?ioiio canai?iith ?ae? i?aai?ciii ethaeeie.
Oe?ii?noue ieiae?a on?o ya?aeieo eoeueoo? aeoaea aeniea. Ieiaee /i?ii?
nii?iaeeie ca ai?noii a?oai?io N ? ? – aeoeaieo ?a/iaei caeiathoue iaeia
c ia?oeo i?noeue. ssaiaee ii??/ee ca ai?noii on?o ?a/iaei aeaui
iinooiathoueny ia?aae /i?iith nii?iaeeiith. Oe?ii? oaeiae yaiaee
nii?iaeeie cieioenoi?, noieoe? oa aa?ono, a yeeo i?noyoueny
eaaeicanaithaai? oeoe?e, eeneioe, a?oai?ie. Ca ai?noii ea?ioeio
nii?iaeeia cieioenoa caeia? ia?oa i?noea a ?iae? ??aan. ssaiaee iaeeie a
na?aaeiueiio i?noyoue a?ee?a – 0,8%, oeoe??a – 8 — 10, i?aai?/ieo eeneio
– 1,7%, cae?ca – 0,9 ia/100 a, a?oai?i?a: A – 0,3 ia/100 a, N – 30 – 75,
A – 0,01, A2 – 0,07, ?? – 0,03 ia/100 a (Ao?i?no?ia, 1985). Na?aae
?ioeo eoeueoo? iaeeia aeae?ey?oueny aenieei ai?noii cae?ca, a oaeiae
?ioiai aaiaoiaaiiiai aeaiaioa – i?ae? (o 2 – 3 ?ace a?eueoa, i?ae o
/i?i?e nii?iaeei?).

On? ya?aei? eoeueoo?e nei?iie?aei?. Ia?oee o?iaeae ieiae?a iaeeie
io?eiothoue ia ae?oaee ??e i?ney iinaaeee, aa?ono – ia ae?oaee – o?ao?e,
/i?ii? nii?iaeeie – ia o?ao?e – /aoaa?oee. Aea na?aaeiy a?iaeaei?noue
ya?aeiee?a iaaeniea.

Iaei??th c iniiaieo, a a ?yae? aeiaaee?a aieiaiith i?e/eiith iecueei?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?ineei, ? iacaaeia?eueiee aeiaeyae ca ?nioth/eie
ianaaeaeaiiyie, iecueeee ??aaiue aa?ioaoi?ee oa a?aenooi?noue iaae?eiiai
aeieia?/ii aacia/iiai caoenoo ya?aeiee?a a?ae oe?aeiee?a oa oai?ia.
O?aaeeoe?eiee o?i?/iee caoeno, yeee aeiaaee /an canoiniao?oueny a
ie?aieo aa?ioeaiicao, o oiio /ene? ? a ya?aeieo, i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ei?ioei/aniiai aoaeoo, iia’ycaiiai ?c ciaioaiiyi /enaeueiino? ?
oe?aeeeaino? o?oioaa?a. Iaeii/anii c oeei niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y
c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? ie?aieo ?o a?oi i?e canoinoaaii? ianoeoeeae?a o
cia/ieo ianyaao. Ianoeoeeaeia iaaaioaaeaiiy a aeayeeo aa?ia?ioeaiicao
aeinyaaei a?ae 10 aei 50 ea/aa, a e?aoi?noue ?o aianaiiy ca aaaaoaoe?th
c?inoaea aei 8 – 15 ? a?eueoa ?ac?a (Iaeueieeia oa ?i., 1981). Oea
i?ecaiaeeoue i?aeoe/ii aei aeieuaiiy ei?enieo aeae?a /eaienoiiiaeo,
eiiaoi?aeieo ioao?a oa caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey.

Nooo?aei oaeoi?ii, yeee aieeaa? ia a?iaeae ya?aeieo eoeueoo?, ?
iioeiaeaeaiiy ?o oe?aeeeaeie i?aai?ciaie. Oaeoeea caoenoo ianaaeaeaiue
a?ae a?eueoino? aeae?a o?oioaa?a aac o?aooaaiiy neeaaeiaeo ya?aeiiai
aa?ia?ioeaiico /anoi ia aei?aaaeiao? naaa iaa?oue i?e aeei?enoaii?
aoaeoeaieo ianoeoeeae?a ? ia ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith i?iaeoeoeaiino?
ianaaeaeaiue. Oiio iaei??th c aieiaieo oiia ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa
/enoi? ya?aeii? i?iaeoeoe?? ? canoinoaaiiy aeieia?/ii e aeiiii?/ii
iaa?oioiaaieo caoiae?a a ?ioaa?iaai?e nenoai? caoenoo ?ineei, ye?
?aaoeththoue /enaeuei?noue oe?aeiee?a ia ??ai? ii?ia?a oe?aeeeaino? i?e
i?i?iaeueiiio aeei?enoaii? o?i?/ieo cania?a.

Iaoa ?iaioa i?enay/aia aiae?co no/aniiai o?oinai?oa?iiai noaio iniiaieo
ya?aeieo eoeueoo?, ooi/iaiith a?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae, aea/aiith
aeeiai?ee ei?enieo ? oe?aeeeaeo aeae?a eiiao, aecia/aiith ??ai?a
aeiiii?/ieo ii?ia?a oe?aeeeaino? (AIO), eiiieaenieo aeiiii?/ieo ii?ia?a
oe?aeeeaino? (EAIO) ? ??ai?a aoaeoeaiino? ciioaa?a (?AC), ui eyaei a
iniiao ?ic?iaee aeieia?/ii e aeiiii?/ii iaa?oioiaaii? nenoaie
?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiue a Oe?a?i?.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa aenieiye?nii? ya?aeii?
i?iaeoeoe?? – aaaeeeaa caaaeaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. E?ninoaiia? e iie?nuee? ?aeiie Oe?a?ie ca aa?iee?iaoe/ieie
oiiaaie ni?eyoeea? aeey ae?iuoaaiiy ya?aeieo eoeueoo?. Aiae?c iaoa??ae?a
uiaei caaio?ae? ya?aeii? i?iaeoeoe??, a?iaeaeiino? ya?aeieo eoeueoo?,
?iciiiaeaiiy aieiaieo oe?aeiee?a ? ianya?a canoinoaaiiy o?i?/ieo cania?a
caoenoo a ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiiyo i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai E?ninoaio ? Iie?nny
Oe?a?ie ca 1988 – 1996 ??. na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue cai?ioii?
caeaaeiino? i?ae /enaeuei?noth, iniaeeai oe?aeeeaeo aeae?a o?oioaa?a, ?
e?euee?noth ye?nii? i?iaeoeoe??, yea caaioiaey?oueny. I?e oeueiio
o?i?/i? ia?iaee ia caaacia/othoue iio??aiiai caoenoo a?iaeath a ?iee
ianiaiai ?iciiiaeaiiy oe?aeiee?a ? cian?i aeiiii?/ii iaaea?aei? a ?iee c
iecueeith ?o /enaeuei?noth.

Ae??oaiiy aeineoue neeaaeii? i?iaeaie caoenoo ya?aeieo eoeueoo?, ye?
iathoue aeoaea ei?ioeee ia??iae a?ae ii/aoeo aaaaoaoe?? aei oea?o?iiy, a
iio?i a?ae e?ioey oea?o?iiy aei aeic??aaiiy a?iaeath, iio?aao? iiaeo
i?aeoiae?a o ?o caoeno?.

?ice?eooy aca?iica’yce?a i?ae o?oi- oa aioiiioaaaie, aaeineiiaeaiiy
iaoiae?a ?aaoethaaiiy /enaeueiino? oe?aeeeaeo eiiao c aeei?enoaiiyi
aeaiaio?a ?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo a aa?ia?ioeaiicao ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiue,
aecia/athoue iai?aaeai?noue ? aeooaeuei?noue aeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
?acoeueoaoe yeeo iniaeeai aaaeeea? aeey o??? /anoeie Oe?a?ie, aea
ya?aeieoeoai aeia?a ?icaeiaia, a nenoaie caoenoo ya?aeieo eoeueoo?
iio?aaothoue aeiii?aoethaaiiy.

O e?oa?aoo?? ? aaaaoi a?aeiiinoae i?i aeaeiaee neeaae oe?aeiee?a
ya?aeiee?a a ie?aieo ?aa?iiao ? i?i caoiaee caoenoo eoeueoo?, aea
i?aoeue c ocaaaeueiaiiyi iioae?eiaaieo iaoa??ae?a iaia?. Aeaia ?iaioa ?
ni?iaith oaeiai ocaaaeueiaiiy ? aeniiae?a c iueiai aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy
caoenoo ya?aeieo eoeueoo? i?e no/aniiio ??ai? ?icaeoeo ya?ae?aieoeoaa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy c
oaie aeena?oaoe?? ? /anoeiith aeeiiaiiy aea?aeaaieo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
caaaeaiue uiaei caoenoo ieiaeiai-ya?aeieo eoeueoo? a?ae oe?aeiee?a c
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?iaeai: AeIOI 4 “Aenieiaoaeoeai? oaoiieia?? ? caniae
caoenoo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?”, “?ic?iaeoe aeieia?/i?
iniiae ?aaoeyoe?? /enaeueiino? oe?aeiee?a ieiaeiai-ya?aeieo
aa?ia?ioeaiic?a, i?eeiie iiaeaethaaiiy i?iaiico ?o /enaeueiino? ?
oe?aeeeaino? a oiiaao Iie?nny ? E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie”. Iiia? Ae? 0196 O 013
093.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiue – iiooe iiaeeeainoae
i?aeaeuaiiy a?iaeaeiino? ya?aeiee?a ? yeino? i?iaeoeoe?? ca ?aooiie
oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo nenoai caoenoo a?ae iniiaieo oe?aeiee?a o
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiio E?ninoaio ? Iie?nn? Oe?a?ie. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy
oeueiai iio??aii aoei a ?aa?ii? aeine?aeaeaiue ae??oeoe ianooii?
caaaeaiiy:

1. Aeaoe aiae?c o?oinai?oa?iiai noaio ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiue, anoaiiaeoe
aeoeai?noue oa noaoe?eiee ?iciiae?e aioiiieia?/ieo ia’?eo?a oi?iaeiaae
ia??iaeo aaaaoaoe??.

2. Ooi/ieoe aeaeiaee neeaae ? iniaeeaino? a?ieia?? iniiaieo oe?aeiee?a
ya?aeieo eoeueoo?.

3. Oaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaeeeo iae?eo /enaeueiino? aieiaieo oe?aeeeaeo
aeae?a oa ?o aioiiioaa?a.

4. Aea/eoe aieea oaeoi??a iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia /enaeuei?noue ?
oeiaei/eii?noue aieiaieo aeae?a oe?aeiee?a ya?aeieo eoeueoo?.

5. C’ynoaaoe aieea aeaiaio?a aa?ioaoi?ee ae?iuoaaiiy ya?aeieo eoeueoo?
ia /enaeuei?noue ? oeiaei/eii?noue iniiaieo aeae?a oe?aeiee?a.

6. ?ic?iaeoe ? aei?iaoaaoe nenoaio ?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo ya?aeieo
eoeueoo? a?ae iniiaieo oe?aeeeaeo aeae?a ? aeaoe ioe?ieo aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ?? canoinoaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeey i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai
E?ninoaio ? Iie?nny Oe?a?ie iaea?eueo iiaii aeyaeaii aeaeiaee neeaae
oe?aeiee?a ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiue, na?aae yeeo 162 aeaee – eiiaoe, 8 –
ee?u?, 2 — iaiaoiaee. ?c aioiiioaa?a 12 aeae?a ca?a?no?iaaii a aeaiiio
?aa?ii? aia?oa. Aecia/ai? iniiai? aeaee ianiaeo oe?aeiee?a (59 aeae?a)
oa ?o aioiiioaae. ?ic?iaeaia eiioeaioe?y aeieia?/ii ? aeiiii?/ii
iaa?oioiaaii? i?ia?aie caoenoo ya?aeieo eoeueoo?. Aeaia ioe?iea aieeao
ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie ia aeeiai?eo /enaeueiino? iaea?eueo iaaacia/ieo
oe?aeiee?a. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ??cieo eiioeaioe?e ?ioaa?iaaiiai
caoenoo ya?aeiee?a a?ae oe?aeeeaeo eiiao iaa?oioiaai? i?eioeeie
?aaoethaaiiy /enaeueiino? ? oe?aeeeaino? o?oioaa?a oeeo aa?ioeaiic?a.
?ic?iaeaia nenoaia caoiae?a caa?aaeaiiy ? i?eaaaethaaiiy ei?enii?
aioiiioaoie ? oeyoe iaeiie/aiiy ?? a aa?ioeaiicao ya?aeiee?a.
Iaa?oioiaai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? oeyoe ? niiniae canoinoaaiiy ie?aieo no/anieo
ianoeoeeae?a.

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo aaaaoi??/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? i?aeoe/iiai
aeina?aeo anoaiiaeaiee ca’ycie i?ae iecueeith aoaeoeai?noth ciioaa?a a
aa?ioeaiicao ? ia?aaoeueiaaiei canoinoaaiiyi ianoeoeeae?a. Iieacai?
oeyoe cieaeaiiy ianoeoeeaeiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi aeiiii?/iiai
ii?iao oe?aeeeaino? (AIO) oa ??ai?a aoaeoeaiino? ciioaa?a. O i?ia?ai?
caoenoo ya?aeieo eoeueoo? a?ae oe?aeiee?a ?ic?iaeaia nenoaia
iaeneiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?aaoethth/eo oaeoi??a naieo aa?ioeaiic?a ?
?aoe?iiaeueiiai canoinoaaiiy ianoeoeeae?a, i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo i?aia?ao?a
oa ?aaoeyoi??a ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo eiiao. ?ic?iaeai? ?aa?iiaeuei?
aeiiii?/i? ii?iae oe?aeeeaino? iniiaieo aeae?a oe?aeiee?a ia ya?aeieo
eoeueoo?ao ? iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy eiiieaeniiai aeiiii?/iiai ii?iao
oe?aeeeaino? (EAIO).

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aecia/aiee aeaeiaee neeaae
iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaieo a?oi oe?aeiee?a ya?aeieo ?ineei, anoaiiaeai?
aiaieua ?o ?iciiiaeaiiy ? ??aaiue oe?aeeeaino? aeae?a ia iaeei? oa
/i?i?e nii?iaeei?. ?ic?iaeaia ? ?aeiiaiaeiaaia nenoaia ?ioaa?iaaiiai
caoenoo ya?aeiee?a c i?i?iaeueiei canoinoaaiiyi o?i?/ieo i?aia?ao?a.
Nenoaia iniiaaia ia aeei?enoaii? eiiieaeno aa?ioaoi?/ieo, o?i?/ieo ?
a?ieia?/ieo caoiae?a, noeoiieo cia/aiue ??ai?a aoaeoeaiino? aioiiioaa?a
oa aeiiii?/ieo ii?ia?a oe?aeeeaino?. Nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae o ae??oaii?
i?iaeaie aeicaieea cia/ii nei?ioeoe ianyae i?iaaaeaiiy iai?eneoaaiue
?inaeoeoeeaeaie, ciaioeoe ?o aeo?aoo ia iaeeieoeth ieiu? aac cieaeaiiy
caoeniiai aoaeoo oa e?eueeino? ? yeino? a?iaeath.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeai? ?aa?iiaeuei? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
uiaei caoenoo ya?aeieo eoeueoo? a?ae oai?ia ? oe?aeiee?a (noaaeai?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith ?aaeith I-aa AIE, i?ioieie ? 5 a?ae 26 ethoiai 1999
?. ? ai?iaaaeaeai? o ae?iaieoeoai ia ieiu? 1,2 oen. aa). Aiie
aeei?enoiaothoueny oaeiae o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? ia oaeoeueoaoao, aea
aea/athoue caoeno ?ineei, ? eo?nao i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??.
Canoinoaaiiy iniiaieo aeaiaio?a ?ic?iaeaii? i?ia?aie aeicaieeei
nei?ioeoe ianya canoinoaaiiy ?inaeoeoeeae?a oa caanoe aei i?i?ioio
caa?oaeiaiiy ieie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Aeoe ? aeia?aeee uiaei
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaaaeai? a
aeiaeaoeao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue aeeeaaeai? a aeiiia?aeyo ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
IAO a 1987, 1994, 1996, 1997 ??., ia Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oa?iiiie
eenoie?ooie – oe?aeiee?a n?euenueeiai ? e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa” (i.
Oa?oo), ia eiioa?aioe?? “Iieiaeua enneaaeiaaoaee e i?aeoeee — ?acaeoeth
naeueneiai oicyenoaa Othiaineie iaeanoe” (i. Othiaiue, 1987), ia
eiioa?aioe?? “Ananithcia oeiea iieiaeeo a/aieo ? niaoe?ae?no?a ii
a?ieia?/iiio caoenoo ?ineei a?ae oe?aeiee?a, oai?ia ? ao?’yi?a” o 1990
?. (i. Eeoei?a), ia ae?iaie/eo nai?ia?ao ?c caoenoo ?ineei o 1987, 1988,
1989, 1990, 1992, 1993, 1998 ??.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 19 ae?oeiaaieo
i?aoeue, c yeeo: iiiia?ao?y “?ioaa?iaaiee caoeno ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiue
a?ae oe?aeiee?a o i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiio E?ninoaio ? Iie?nn? Oe?a?ie”
(1999).

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
ainueie ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa i?iiiceoe?e ae?iaieoeoao. Aiia
aeeeaaeaia ia 273 noi??ieao iaoeiiieno, i?noeoue 66 oaaeeoeue oa 27
?enoie?a. O aeiaeaoeao iiaeai? ee?iaoe/i? iieacieee ?aa?iio
aeine?aeaeaiue, a?ieia?/ia aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy ie?aieo
i?aia?ao?a, caeeoeiaa e?euee?noue ianoeoeeae?a o yaiaeao oa aeoe
ae?iaie/i? ia?aa??ee ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e neeaaea?oueny c 388 iaeiaioaaiue, o oiio
/ene? 105 ia ?iicaiieo iiaao.

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui eaiaeeaeaonueea aeena?oaoe?y caoeuaia aaoi?ii o
1986 ?. ia oaio “Aioiiioaoia iaeeie ? ai?ioueaa c oe?aeeeaeie aeaeaie a
Oeaio?aeueiiio E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie”, ? iaoa??aee ?? ia aa?eoee a aeaio
?iaioo.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

No/aniee o?oinai?oa?iee noai aaaaoi??/ieo ianaaeaeaiue ya?aeiee?a oa
aa?ioeaiioe/i? iniiae canoinoaaiiy ?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo ?ineei

Iiaeaii iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c aiae?cii no/aniiai o?oinai?oa?iiai noaio,
?ie? ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiue oa caoenoo ?ineei a?ae oe?aeeeaeo i?aai?ci?a
ye iaa?ae?iii? /anoeie oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy ya?aeieo eoeueoo?,
ocaaaeueiaii aeai? i?i iio?aao ? iiaeeeaino? ?? aaeineiiaeaiiy oeyoii
canoinoaaiiy ?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo ?ineei.

Caa?iooi oaaao ia o?niee caycie aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a c ?iciiiaeaiiyi
oe?aeeeaeo i?aai?ci?a o ya?aeieo aa?ioeaiicao (Aeyaea/ei, 1978, 1995;
Iaaeia, 1976; Oaae??a, 1979; Tette , 1989 oa ?i.). Iieacaii, ui
aeioe?euei?noue on?o aeaiaio?a oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy ?ineei iiaeiia
aecia/aoeny aieeaii ?o ia aaee/eio oa ye?noue o?iaeath. I?e oeueiio
ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe , ui aaaeo/a i?noea, yea caeia? a caoeno? ?ineei
o?i?/iee iaoiae, na?ae/eoue ia eeoa i?i i?ia?an o aaeoc? neioaco
a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei, aea e i?i iaaeinoaoi? aea/aiiy ?
aeei?enoaiiy ?ioeo iaoiae?a ai?ioueae c oe?aeeeaeie i?aai?ciaie
(Iaeueieeia, 1979; Iaeueieeia, Iiaiaeeeia, Aaneeueaa oa ?i., 1981).
I?ioa aeei?enoaiiy ie?aieo i?eeii?a ia iiaea caaacia/eoe
aeiaaino?ieiaiai i?eai?/aiiy /enaeueiino? iiioeyoe?? oe?aeiee?a
(E?aoeoe, Iao?ooiaa, 1981; Ieueoianueea-Ao?eiaa, Eoeyiiaa, Nooa, 1979 oa
?i.). ?ioaineai? ia?iaee ianoeoeeaeaie i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaathoue ia
u?euei?noue ?o iiioeyoe?e (Iai?aeiaa, Iiiia, 1984; Bodingius,
Mandersloot, Trapman, 1994 oa ?i.).

Ca iaoeie niinoa?aaeaiiyie, a eoeueoo?ao /i?ii? nii?iaeeie ENI “Oa?an
Oaa/aiei” Euea?anueei? iaeano? i?ney i’yoe ?ie?a ?aaoey?ieo ia?iaie
ianoeoeeaeaie canaeai?noue iaaii?a ee/eieaie ceaoee ? nee?aee c?inea aei
65-80 %, a oeiaei/eii?noue a?oiueeiaiai nii?iaeeiiaiai ee?ua noaea
i?e/eiith caaeaae? ie?aieo ianaaeaeaiue nii?iaeeie. Cia/ii ca?eueoeeanue
/enaeuei?noue eenoie?ooie, ye? ceiothoue o noaae?? aonaieoeue.
Aiaeia?/ia neooaoe?y aoea ? a ?ioeo ainiiaea?noaao, aea i?iaiaeeee
aaaaoi o?i?/ieo ia?iaie.

Aiane?aeie oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy ianoeoeeae?a iineeth?oueny caa?oaeiaiiy
a?inoa?e (Ia?aithe, 1984; ssaeieia, 1988 oa ?i.), c?inoa? iaaaciaea aeey
caei?iay ethaeae (Aea, 1984).

Nei?i/aiiy aeei?enoaiiy o?i?/ieo i?aia?ao?a i?ioe oe?aeiee?a ?ineei, o
oiio /ene? ? ya?aeiee?a, noaea iaaaeueiith iio?aaith ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aaaeaiiy n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. Aiii iiaeeeaa eeoa oeyoii
canoinoaaiiy ?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo eoeueoo?, iniiaith yeiai ?
ae?iuoaaiiy no?eeeo ni?o?a, iaeneiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy ciioaa?a oa ?ioeo
i?e?iaeieo nee — caoiae?a, ui ?aaoeththoue /enaeuei?noue oe?aeiee?a i?e
i?i?ioi? aeieia?/ieo ii?ooaiue (Oaae??a, 1979; Aea, 1984; Vincenot,
1987; Valmori, 1988; A?eoi?ia, 1975; Waggoner, 1996).

Oi?aae?iiy /enaeuei?noth i?aai?ci?a a aa?ia?ioeaiic? a?oioo?oueny ia
noai?aii? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ciioaa?a oa oe?aeeeaeo i?aai?ci?a ia ??ai?
ii?ia?a aoaeoeaiino? aioiiioaa?a ? oe?aeeeaino? o?oioaa?a (?eaaeia,
1971; Ia?c?eoeia, Oia?ia, 1979; ?oeaa?oi?eia, 1978).

Iaaaaeai? aeai? noiniaii eiioeaioe?? ?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo ?ineei ?
oai?aoe/iith iniiaith iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue. C ?? ci?noii ni?aiaaea?
aeniiaie a?aeiiiai iaoeiaoey a aaeoc? caoenoo ?ineei A.I.Aaneeue?aa
(1999): “No/ania ?ioaa?iaaia nenoaia caoiae?a a?oioo?oueny, ye ? a
30-o? ?iee, ia canoinoaaii? aa?ioaoi?/iiai, o?i?/iiai ? a?ieia?/iiai
iaoiae?a caoenoo ?ineei. Aieiaiith a?aei?iith ? iioei?caoe?y o?i?/iiai
caoenoo ia iniia? e?eoa???a aeioe?eueiino? canoinoaaiiy ianoeoeeae?a c
o?aooaaiiyi /enaeueiino? iiioeyoe?e oe?aeiee?a, iayaiino? aioiiioaa?a,
nooiaiy no?eeino? ni?o?a i?ioe iioeiaeaeaiiy eiiaoaie ? o?aaeaiiy
caoaeieeaie oai?ia “.

A?oioiai-ee?iaoe/i? oiiae ?aa?iio ? iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue

Oa?eoi??y, aea i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ioiieth? i?aaiaa?aaeia
Iie?nny ? i?ai?/io (i?aaiaa?aaeio) iieiaeio e?ninoaiiai? ciie Oe?a?ie:
Euea?anueea, Aieeinueea, ??aiainueea, Oa?iii?euenueea, Oiaeueieoeueea,
A?iieoeueea, AEeoiie?nueea, Ee?anueea iaeano?. ?aeue?o a?eueoi? /anoeie
??aieiiee, oa?aeoa?iee aeey Iie?nueei? oa I?eaei?i?ianueei? iecei ?
Aieeii-Iiae?euenueei? aeni/eie. Ca aa?iaioiiieia?/iei ?aeiioaaiiyi
Oe?a?ie e?ninoaiiaa /anoeia ?aa?iio aeine?aeaeaiue iaeaaeeoue aei
Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeiai ie?oao ? /anoeiai (a?ey ?. Aei?i?i) aei
Na?aaeiuei-Aei?i?ianueeiai (Aaneeue?a, 1987).

Ee?iao ?aa?iio eiioeiaioaeueiee. ??/ia noia iiaae?a o Iie?nn? noaiiaeoue
580-620 ii , o E?ninoaio aiia ciaioo?oueny aei 600 ii ia caoiae? ? aei
430-480 ii o no?aei?e /anoei?. Oaieicaaacia/ai?noue ia??iaeo aeoeaii?
aaaaoaoe?? ca noiith na?aaei?o aeiaiaeo oaiia?aoo? iiiaae 0i neeaaea?
2300-2600i, noia aoaeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? iiiaae 10i — 840-980i.

Ia??iae na?aaeiueiaeiaiai? oaiia?aoo?e iiiaae 15i o?eaa? 95-110 ae?a,
AOE (Naeyi?iia , 1928) ??aeei aoaa? iaioa 1,0 a Iie?nn?, a ie?ai? ?iee
nyaa? 1,8-2,2; a E?ninoaio ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae — o na?aaeiueiio
0,9-1,2.

Aaaaoi??/i? aeai? i?i na?aaeiueii?ny/io oaiia?aoo?o iia?o?y, aieia?noue
a?oioo, e?euee?noue iiaae?a, o?eaae?noue niiy/iiai ina?oeaiiy ca
o?aaaiue-na?iaiue na?ae/aoue, ui oiiae aeey ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ya?aeiee?a
ia an?e oa?eoi??? ni?eyoeea?. O ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue (1987-1998) aiie
cia/ii eieeaaeenue, aea a oe?eiio iaaeeaeaeenue aei aaaaoi??/ieo
na?aaeiueii?ny/ieo iieaciee?a ? ia aieeaaee iii?oii ia aeeiai?eo
/enaeueiino? oe?aeiee?a.

A?oioe. A Iie?nn? aei 60 % ieiu caeiathoue aea?iia? neaai- ?
na?aaeiueiii?aecieai? a?oioe, ye? i?noyoue iacia/io e?euee?noue aoiono ?
iathoue iecueeo ?ie?noue iiaeeiaiiy. Aeecueei 20 % ieiu caeiyoi eo/ieie
? aea?iiaeie a?oioaie, ui ?icoaoiaai? ia caieaaieo oa?anao. Aei 10 %
ieiu iathoue oi?oyi? oa oi?oyiiaieioi? a?oioe. O E?ninoaio cia/i? ieiu?
caeiathoue /i?iicaie oeiia?, ii?aecieai?, aeaa?aaeiaai?, a oaeiae n???,
na?oei-n??? ? oaiii-n??? ii?aecieai?, /anoeiai aea?iiai-i?aecieeno?,
aeeienoi-i?uai? a?oioe. A oe?eiio oiiae ?aa?iio ni?eyoeea? aeey
ae?iuoaaiiy an?o ya?aeieo eoeueoo? ? ?icaeoeo ia ieo ??cieo oe?aeiee?a.

Iaoa??ae ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue. Ia?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aoa
ciioeaiic ya?aeieo eoeueoo? oa caoeno ?o a?ae oe?aeeeaeo i?aai?ci?a.
Aea/aiiy aeaeiaiai neeaaeo oe?aeiee?a, ?o aioiiioaa?a ? aea?eoaa?a,
a?ieia?? oa aeeiai?ee /enaeueiino?, canaeaiino? eoeueoo?, ii?ia?a
oeiaei/eiiino?, aieeao aioiiioaa?a oa aea?eoaa?a ia oe?aeiee?a,
caa?aaeaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy aioiiioaa?a ? aea?eoaa?a i?iaiaeeee ca?aeii
?c caaaeueiii?eeiyoith iaoiaeeeith (Einia, Iieyeeia, 1958; O?yi?oeei,
Oai??i, Uaiao?eueieeiaa, 1965; Aeyaea/ei, Aieoaiei, 1989; Oainueeee,
1982; Aaneeue?a, 1988 oa ?i.).

Ia?iaee ianaaeaeaiue i?e aea/aii? aoaeoeaiino? o?i?/ieo ? a?ieia?/ieo
i?aia?ao?a i?iaiaeeee ca aeiiiiiaith iai?eneoaa/?a: IAN-A; II-400-5;
IIA-400; II-2000, II-630. sse?noue iai?eneoaaiiy ioe?ithaaee
noaiaea?oieie iaoiaeaie (AeNO-0191-43 “Iai?eneoaa/? oa iaieethaa/?”) ?
oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy ea?oie naiio?enoth/eo e?aie? ??aeeie, cai?iiiiiaaieo
o??iith N?aa-Aaea? (Oaaeoea??y). Ioe?ieo a?ieia?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
canoiniaaieo i?ai?ao?a i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeeeith AIAe?OCC? (Aa?, 1973).

Aeey aea/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo i?aia?ao?a,
a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei oa oa?iiii?a aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiaeeeo A?C?
(Ao?ia oa ?i., 1991).

Aoaeoeai?noue naciiii? eieii?caoe?? o?eoia?aie aecia/aee ca?aeii c
“?oeiaiaenoaii ii ianniaiio ?acaaaeaieth o?eoia?aiiu” (1979), caeeoeiao
e?euee?noue ianoeoeeae?a — a ?inoeooo? caei?iay IAI Oe?a?ie ca
iaoiaeeeith I.?.Ee?naiei (1978).

?ic?aooiee aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? i?iaiaeeee a?aeiia?aeii aei ?ic?iaie
Oe?a?inueeiai ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa “Iniiaiua
iieiaeaiey aeiiiie/aneiai aooaeoa io eniieueciaaiey ?acoeueoaoia IE? “
(1987), a oaeiae caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeaie, aeeeaaeaieie a i?aoeyo
I.A. Ae?aiaa, ?.I. *aie?ia (1988) oa A.A.Caoa?aiei, A.O.*?ie?ia ( 1986).

Aa??aoe?eii-noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?iaiaeeee
ca?aeii ?c caaaeueiii?eeiyoith iaoiaeeeith (Aeini?oia, 1979).

I?aaeeuei?noue aecia/aiiy aeaeiaiai neeaaeo oe?aeiee?a ? aioiiioaa?a
ia?aa??aia ? i?aeoaa?aeaeaia ia eaoaae?? aioiiieia?? ? a?ieia?/iiai
caoenoo ?ineei IAO aeieoi?ii a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?ii I.I.Aeyaea/ei.

Oai?aoe/i? iniiae oi?aae?iiy /enaeuei?noth /eaienoiiiaeo a
aa?ia?ioeaiicao ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiue

Ieoaiiyi oi?ioaaiiy oaoie oe?aeiee?a ya?aeieo eoeueoo? a Oe?a?i?
i?enay/aii cia/io e?euee?noue ioae?eaoe?e, aea ocaaaeueithth/eo aeaieo
iaia?. ssa?aeieee iioeiaeaeothoueny iiiaae 380 aeaeaie eiiao, ee?u?a,
iaiaoiae, o /ene? yeeo 39 aeae?a iaea?eueo iaaacia/ieo (Aioiithe, 1989).
C? ci?iith oiia ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua a ya?aeieeao a?aeaoaa?oueny
ci?ia aeaeiaiai neeaaeo ? /enea aeii?ioth/eo aeae?a o?oioaa?a.

O ianaaeaeaiiyo, aea ?aaoey?ii i?iaiaeyoueny ?ioaineai? caoiaee caoenoo
eoeueoo? a?ae oe?aeiee?a, niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y ciaioaiiy
e?eueeino? caaaeueieo aeae?a (Eica?, 1987). sseui ?ai?oa aieiaieie
oe?aeieeaie naae?a ? ya?aeiee?a c /enea eenoie?ooie aoei 12 aeae?a
(AEeaaeueoeaaa, 1959), oi a aeaiee /an ainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy iathoue
5-6 aeae?a. O ?aa?ii? iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia ia?oa i?noea ca
/enaeuei?noth aeeoee n?o/anoa ? ?icaiia eenoie?ooee. A inoaii? 10 ?ie?a
ainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy iaaoee iie?, iyaeoie, ieeueueee, ee?u?,
iiiaeeoe?, oe?aeieee a?eie ? iaaii?a, ia?inoa? /enaeuei?noue aaeeoeue.

Aieea aio?ii?/ieo oaeoi??a ia aeeiai?eo /enaeueiino? /eaienoiiiaeo
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?yii /e iiina?aaeeiaaii /a?ac ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo
nenoai ? oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy eoeueoo? (noaie iinaaeie, ia??cea
iaaii?a, niiniae ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, aianaiiy aeia?ea oiui).

Cia/iee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy iiioeyoe?e oe?aeiee?a ia? canoinoaaiiy
o?i?/ieo i?aia?ao?a, ui aeeeeea? ooai?aiiy iiioeyoe?e c i?aeaeuaiith
aeeoo?caeaoi?noth i?e ciaioaii? e?eueeino? ciioaa?a. ?acoeueoaoii
oeueiai ? c?inoaiiy a??ia?aeiino? ianiaeo ?iciiiaeaiue oe?aeiee?a (Ao?ia
oa ?i., 1991). I?e iaeiaeia?e e?eueeino? cieuaieo oe?aeiee?a ?
aioiiioaa?a ooai?th?oueny ia?aaaaa aeey iiiiaeaiiy /enaeueiino?
oe?aeieea (Oae?iaa, 1952). Aeniea u?euei?noue iiioeyoe?e inoaiiueiai
ciaioo? eiai ei?iia? ?ano?ne, aeae caiiaith? an? aeieia?/i? i?oe ,
i?eaaaeth? aei naaa oeaeae?a ? ia?aceo?a, i?enei?th? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
oai?ia, o ?acoeueoao? /iai a?aeaoaa?oueny ?aaoethaaiiy /enaeueiino?
o?oioaa?a (A?eoi?ia, 1973; Ia?c?eoeia, Oia?ia, 1979; Aeyaea/ei, 1985).

Nenoaie caoenoo, ye? canoiniaoaaeenue aei 1984 ?. , aoee neeaaeai? aac
o?aooaaiiy ?aaoethth/i? ?ie? i?e?iaeieo ai?ia?a o?oioaa?a. Aiie
iaiaaeothoue ?icaeoie i?ioeano naii?aaoethaaiiy /enaeueiino? aeae?a a
aa?ia?ioeaiicao, o oiio /ene? ? a ya?aeieeao. I?ioa aeey a?ae/ooiiai
i?iyaeaiiy ae?? i?e?iaeieo iaoai?ci?a naii?aaoeyoe?? iio??aai aeayeee
ia??iae, i?ioyaii yeiai a i?ioean? aaiethoe?? oa?oiiaaiiy
a?aeaoaathoueny aoaie oi?ioaaiiy oeo iaoai?ci?a, ye? ci?iththoue
o?io?/io no?oeoo?o aa?ia?ioeaiico a iai?yieo eiai aeieia?/ii?
noaa?e?caoe?? (A?eai?ue?aa, AEaai?iieiaa, 1973). Oaeee i?ioean a
aa?ia?ioeaiicao i?e o?eaae?e iiiieoeueoo?? (5-7 ?ie?a) oe?eeii
iiaeeeaee, yeui ethaeeia aoaea iaeneiaeueii caa??aaoe i?e?iaeieo
ciioaa?a ? i?e?ii?aai?cie, ?iiae? iiiiaithth/e ?o ooo/ii.

Aeaeiaee neeaae oe?aeiee?a ya?aeieo eoeueoo?

Iaea?eueo /eneaiiee aeaeiaee neeaae oe?aeiee?a ya?aeieo eoeueoo? a
Oe?a?i? ? a ciiao Iie?nny ? E?ninoaio.

Oe?aeieee noieoe?. A Oe?a?i? i?aaenoaaeai? iiiaae 160 aeae?a (Aioiithe,
1989). Iaie aeyaeaii 64 aeaee (58 aeae?a eiiao, 4 aeaee ee?u?a, 2 aeaee
iaiaoiae). Ca /enaeuei?noth ? oeiaei/eii?noth ia?aaaaeathoue iie?oaae oa
ie?aioaae, ye? o?io?/ii iiaycai? c aeeeith ?ineeii?noth (aeeea e?niaa
noieoey, a?aa?eao, aony/a eaiea, iaiaeaoea, e?iieai?, aiaia? oa ?i.) aai
? oe?iei ?iciianthaeaeaieie a?oioiaeie aeaeaie. Na?aae aaaaoi?aeieo
iniaeeai oe?aeeeaeie ? aaaeiaaeee (aia/ie, eaionoyiea), ee/eiee
ieao?aeiaoneo, eiaaeee?a, ei?aiaaeo aeiaaiiinee?a, i?aea?ecath/eo niaie.
?c /enea ie?aioaa?a ca oe?aeeea?noth aeae?ey?oueny iaeeiiai-noie/iee
aeiaaiiinee, ?iciianthaeaeaiee ii an?e Oe?a?i?. Iaea?eueo iaaacia/iei ?
noie/iee ee?u.

Oe?aeieee iaeeie. A Oe?a?i? ?o ? iiiaae 230 aeae?a (Aioiithe, 1989). ?c
ieo a?ae/ooio oeiaeo iaiinyoue 51 aeae. Iniiaieie oe?aeieeaie iaeeie ?
aeae?eueea niaoe?ae?ciaaieo aeae?a, o oiio /ene? iaeeiiaa iaaiiiaa
iiiaeeoey, caaaeueiee aeey iaeeie ? noieoe? iaeeiiai-noie/iee
aeiaaiiinee, aeaye? aaaaoi?aei? aeaee (?icaiia eenoie?ooea ? a?oioia?
oe?aeieee) , ee?u?. A ia?o? i?ney iinaaeee ?iee iaeei? oeiaeyoue
ia?aaaaeii ee/eiee ieao?aeiaoneo oa e?aa/ee-aieiaa/. Iaie aeyaeaii 51
aeae oe?aeiee?a , 49 aeae?a eiiao ? 2 aeaee ee?u?a, c yeeo
iaea?ae/ooi?oo oeiaeo iaiinyoue 18 aeae?a, a ?io? 33 ?iciiiaeothoueny a
iania?e e?eueeino? a ie?ai? ?iee ? eieaeueii oeiaeyoue ia iaaaeee?e
ieiu? aai cono??/athoueny ui??/ii a cia/i?e e?eueeino?, ia caaaeath/e
aaeeei? oeiaee. Oea eeiie, iaeeiieoey. iaeeiiaee oiaeii?yae, aa?aciaee
iyaeoi oa ?i. ?aooa (ie??i 51) , aeecueei 180 aeae?a — ia?aaaaeii
iie?oaae ? ia iaeei? ? aeiaaeeiaeie.

Oe?aeieee nii?iaeeie oa aa?ono. A Oe?a?i? iae?/o?oueny aeecueei 200
aeae?a oe?aeeeaeo eiiao ia nii?iaeei? oa aa?on?. C ieo iaaacia/ieie ? 20
aeae?a, 39 aeae?a iaiinyoue a?ae/ooio oeiaeo ia??iaee/ii i?ae /an
ianiaeo ?iciiiaeaiue (Aioiithe, 1989).

Iaie aeyaeaii 57 aeae?a, c yeeo 55 iaeaaeaoue aei eeano eiiao, a 2 aeaee
— ee?u?. A ?aa?ii? iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue iaea?eueo oe?aeeeaeie ? :
nii?iaeeiiaee a?oiueeiaee ee?u, nii?iaeeiiaa ceaoea, nii?iaeeiiaa
nee?aea, nii?iaeeiiaa iaaiiiaa iiiaeeoey, aaeeea nii?iaeeiiaa iiiaeeoey,
aeiaoee aa?oniaee ieeueuee, ae?aeiiiaee aa?oniaee ieeueuee, aa?oniaa
aiai?aea, aa?oniaa iaaiiiaa iiiaeeoey. Inoaii? 4 aeaee a?eueoa oeiaeyoue
aa?ono. A oe?eiio aeaeiaee neeaae oe?aeiee?a ia nii?iaeei? a?eueoee,
i?ae ia aa?on?. ?c iiiioaa?a ? aocueeiniaoe?ae?ciaaieo oe?aeiee?a
nii?iaeei? oeiaeyoue: nii?iaeeiiaa a?oiueeiaa i?eue, /a?aiiinii?iaeeiiaa
aaeiaa ? aeaye? ?io? aeaee iiiaeeoeue, iaeeiiaa iaaiiiaa ? ea?oeiaa
aaeeoe?, /i?iinii?iaeeiiaee ya?aeiee ieeueuee oa ?i. C /enea
aaaaoi?aeieo oe?aeiee?a iaea?eueo oe?aeeeaeie ? ee/eiee o?ou?a,
iniaeeai a ia?oee ??e i?ney iinaaeee, aeiia?aaeii-ieiaeiaee neiiee,
a?oiueeiaee aeiaaiiinee, ?icaiia , nii?iaeeiiaa oa ?io? aeaee
eenoie?ooie, cae/aeiee iaaooeiiee ee?u, ye? o?io?/ii o?nii iiaycai? c
??cieie aea?aaieie /aaa?ieeiaeie ? ieiaeiaeie ii?iaeaie, ui a?aeiii c
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae (Aioiithe, Aaaecaei, 1999).

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui ?c /enea aieiaieo oe?aeiee?a ya?aeieo eoeueoo?
?iciianthaeaeai? ne??cue, aea eoeueoeaothoueny ya?aei? ?ineeie, oae?
aeaee: nii?iaeeiiaa nee?aea, nii?iaeeiiaa ceaoea, iaeeiiaee aeoe,
iaeeiiai-noie/iee aeiaaiiinee, iaeee /i?iee neina?, aeiaoee aa?oniaee
ieeueuee, iceia oa ?io? i?aea?ecath/? niaee, ?icaiia oa nii?iaeeiiaa
eenoie?ooee, aieiai? aeaee o?ou?a, eiaaeee?a, eaionoyiea cae/aeia,
iaaiiiaa iaeeiiaa iiiaeeoey, aa?oniaa iaaiiiaa iiiaeeoey oa aeaye? ?io?
aeaee. E??i iacaaieo, o Iie?nn? oa E?ninoaio oe?iei?iciianthaeaeai? ?
iiaeooue iii?oii oeiaeeoe : nii?iaeeiiaa iiiaeeoey, iiiaeeoey Oiaeaea?a,
ii??/eiaa iiiaeeoey, aaeeea nii?iaeeiiaa; i?noeyie Aphis varians
Pateh, ae?aeiiiaee aa?oniaee ieeueuee, a a a?eueo caieiaeai? ?iee ? a
caieiaeaieo ?aeiiao — noaaeiaa oa eenoiaa aaeeoe?, i?noeyie nooo?ao
caa?ico ooai?th? aa?oniaee i’yaeoi oa ie?ai? aeaee eenoie?ooie.

Ainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy aieiaieo oe?aeiee?a, ?o a?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino?,
aioiiioaae oa aea?eoaae

Iineeaiiy oe?aeeeaino? ??cieo aeae?a cia/iith i??ith iiaycaii c
ee?iaoe/ieie oiiaaie, oaoiieia??th ae?iuoaaiiy eoeueoo?, iniaeeai ?c
canoinoaaiiyi o?i?/ieo cania?a caoenoo ?ineei.

I?e?iee?iao a ya?aeieeao niaoeeo?/iee — oaiia?aoo?a a iaaeao eou?a o
aea?e? niiy/i? aei? ieae/a, a a i?/i?, ?aieia? aiaeeie ? a iioio?o
iiaiaeo — aeua, i?ae ia a?aee?eoiio i?inoi??, ?iiae? ia 2-3 a?aaeone;
a?aeiinia aieia?noue o e?iiao aeua i?ioyaii onueiai aeiy, oaeaee?noue
a?o?o iaioa. Oea ni?ey? ?iciiiaeaiith o?oioaa?a, ?icaeoeo ?o
caoai?thaaiue oa oni?oo ia?iaie a?ii?aia?aoaie, ?icaeoeo caoai?thaaiue
?ineei.

Iniiaieie oe?aeieeaie ya?aeiee?a i?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiue aoee : ee?u?,
iie?, iyaeoie, aiai?aee, eenoie?ooee, ieeueueee, iiiaeeoe?, nii?iaeeiiaa
nee?aea. I?noeyie oeiaeeee aaeeoe? ? aeiaaiiineee.

A?oiueeiaee nii?iaeeiiaee oa ?io? aeaee ee?u?a. A?oiueeiaee ee?u
oeiaeeoue ui?ieo o Euea?anuee?e, Aieeinuee?e, Oa?iii?euenuee?e,
AEeoiie?nuee?e, Ee?anuee?e oa ?ioeo iaeanoyo. O iinooeea? ?iee c?inoa?
/enaeuei?noue iaaooeiiiai ? noie/iiai ee?u?a. Iania? ?iciiiaeaiiy ee?u?a
aoee a 1987, 1988, 1990, 1994 ??. I?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo ia
nii?iaeei? a?aeaoaathoueny 2 i?ee /enaeueiino? a?oiueeiaiai ee?ua: ia
ii/aoeo eeiiy ? a na?aaeei? na?iiy. Iaie aea/aia no?ee?noue aei oeueiai
aeaeo 12 ni?o?a nii?iaeeie oe?a?inueei? naeaeoe??. No?eeeie aeyaeeeny
Aieoaea oa Ieiae Oie?ueia. ?icaeoie iaei??? aaia?aoe?? a?oiueeiaiai
ee?ua o?eaa? 2-3 oeaei?. A?i ceio? a noaae?? ?iaai a a?oiueeao, ui
oi?iothoueny ae?oeo. Naiee i?ney cei?ae? ii/eiathoue a?aeeeaaeaoe yeoey
i?e na?aaeiueiaeiaia?e oaiia?aoo?? aeua 5i. Iaeneioi a?aeeeaaeaiiy
y?oeue a?aeaoaa?oueny /a?ac 2 oeaei?. A a?oiueeao , ui ia?aceioaaee,
?icaeaa?oueny 2 iieie?iiy ee?ua. Iia? a?oiueee ia iieiaeeo iaaiiao ee?u
canaey? i?ney ?o iiyae. I?a?aoe?y ee?u?a o?eaa? 35-50 aei?a ?
i?eieiy?oueny ia ii/aoeo caaa?aeaiiy ya?ae. Canaeaia a?oiueea noiaea ia
ai?ioeio. O aeayeeo ni?o?a iaaani? /anoeia canaeaieo a?oiueie ia
aoaiya?? ? caneoa?, a ee?u? a ieo aeiooue. O ie?aieo a?oiueeao
cono??/athoueny oeae? ee?u?, oeae? o?eine ? ?o ee/eiee oa ee/eiee
?caeoey ?iaeo oao?anoeoon, ye? aeieuothoue oe?aeieea. Aei?ine? ?caeoe?,
aeoiaey/e c a?oiueie, aeiinyoue ia nai?io o?e? ee?ua, ui ni?ey? eiai
?icnaeaiith. C /enea ?ioeo aeae?a ee?u?a iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeai?
noie/iee — ia noieoe? ? cae/aeiee iaaooeiiee ee?u — ia aaaaoueio aeaeao
?ineei. Iae?eaie a 1988 -1991 ??. cae/aeiee iaaooeiiee ee?u ia
aeyaeaiee ia noieoe? ni?o?a Eoeueaa? ? Oaaaooa. O ?iciiiaeaii? noie/iiai
ee?ua a?aei?/aii 2 i?ee ia?inoaiiy /enaeueiino? ia ni?o? Ei?aeiaa 100 —
a ae?oa?e aeaeaae? /a?aiy ? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? na?iiy, a ia ni?o? ssnia
— eeoa 1 i?e o ae?oa?e iieiaei? e?oa. Oaea ??cieoey iaoiiaeaia
oaiieia??th ?icaeoeo ni?o?a oa ae?yeuei?noth aea?eoaa?a, /enaeuei?noue
yeeo caeaaeeoue a?ae e?aoiino? o?i?/ieo ia?iaie ya?aeiee?a.

Naiee iaeeiiaiai ee?ua ceiothoue o a?oiueeao aai a?ey ?o iniiae.
AEeaeyoueny eenoeaie. Iaeia iieie?iiy ?icaeaa?oueny ca 14-23 aei?. Ca
aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae aoaa? 4-6 iieie?iue. Cieaeaiiy a?iaeaeiino?
noieoe? i?e na?aaeiueiio nooiai? iioeiaeaeaiiy noie/iei ee?uii nyaa?
10-20 % , a i?e neeueiiio — 40-70 %. Ee?u? ia iaeei? cieaeothoue
o?iaeaei?noue i?e na?aaeiueiio iioeiaeaeaii? ia 20-30 %, i?e neeueiiio —
ia 50-80 % , ye?noue ieiae?a iia??oo?oueny, ceiino?ee?noue ?ineei
ciaioo?oueny. Ianiaa ?iciiiaeaiiy a i?iieneiaeo ianaaeaeaiiyo iaoiiaeaii
?nioth/ith i?aeoeeith o?i?/iiai caoenoo. I?e cia/iiio cieaeaii? ianya?a
canoinoaaiiy ?inaeoeoeeae?a ? aea?eoeeae?a ?iciiiaeaiiy oe?aeeeaeo
ee?u?a eiio?ieththoue aea?eoaae, iniaeeai cieioii/ee, ee?ua?aeiee o?ein,
aeaie?aieiaa ei??aea oa ?i.

Iie? ? iyaeoie, aiai?aee. ?c ainueie aeae?a iie?, ye? aeyaeai? iaie a
ya?aeieeao, o cia/i?e e?eueeino? cono??/aeenue iaeeiiaa ? nii?iaeeiiaa.
Aonaieoe? ?o ae?aeathoue ana?aaeei? a?oiueee, ye? iio?i caneoathoue. E?o
iaoaeee?a ni?aiaaea? c iiyaith caeaieo ya?ae. Naiee a?aeeeaaeathoue
yeoey a ieiaee. Canaeythoue on? ya?aei? eoeueoo?e. I?ci? ni?oe aiie
canaeythoue neeuei?oa, oiio ui ?aii? ni?oe iaioa ia?iaeythoueny
ianoeoeeaeaie ? /enaeuei?noue oe?aeiee?a no?eiothoue aioiiioaae.
Nii?iaeeiiaa i?eue canaeyea a na?aaeiueiio ca 1989-1993 ??. nii?iaeeio
/i?io aei 1,6 % , /a?aiio — 17,6 % , cieioenoo — 23,2 % , aa?on — 3,2 %
. Iaeeiiaa i?eue o na?aaeiueiio canaey? iaeeio eoeueoo?io aei 17,2 % ,
iaeeio e?niao — 22, 6 %, iaeeio — 8 %. A inoaii? ?iee ca?eueoeeanue
/enaeuei?noue iaeeiiai? iie?-e?eo?oee ? aeiaeiai? e?oaeeiai? iie?.
Ianiaa ?iciiiaeaiiy ?o a?aeaoaaeinue o caiaaeaaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo, aea
a?oio ia ia?iaeyee, a ianoeoeeaee canoiniaoaaee o?eaaeee /an. I?e
ciaioaii? ianoeoeeaeiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ? canoinoaaii? a?aeiia?aeieo
aa?icaoiae?a i?ioth/? iie? ao?a/athoue ainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy. A
ianaaeaeaiiyo, ia?iaeaieo ianoeoeeaeaie c? cieaeaieie ii?iaie,
nia?oi?noue ia?aceoiaaieo iniaei aoea cia/ii iaioith, i?ae iacanaeaieo
ia?aceoaie.

Cia/io caa?ico a aaaaoueio ianaaeaeaiiyo aa?ono ? nii?iaeeie ooai?th?
aa?oniaee iyaeoi. A?i ?iciianthaeaeaiee aiaieuaie. Ianiaa ?iciiiaeaiiy
aoei i?noeyie a 1988-1989 ??. a AEeaea/?anueeiio ?aeii? (NNA
“Aieiaeeie??aoe?”) ? a 1990-1992 ??. — a caiaaeaaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo
Eaiyiei-Aocueeiai ?aeiio Euea?anueei? iaeano?. Aonaieoe? eiai
iaa?ecathoue eenoy, caeyeueeiaothoueny a /a?ai? ia eenoeao aai iaaiiao.
Iaoaeeee e?oathoue c 2-? aeaeaaee /a?aiy ? a eeii?. Ceiothoue aonaieoe?
2-ai a?eo o iaaooeiieo eieiiao ia iiaeiio eeno?. E??i aaa?oniaiai, ia
nii?iaeei? ? aa?on? iaie aeyaeaiee n??ee eouiaee iyaeoi. Aonaieoe? eiai
iaa?ecathoue eenoy, ea?oee ? caayc?. Ceio? a noaae?? yeoey ia a?ei/eao.
Ie?ai? aiaieua ia /i?i?e ? /a?aii?e nii?iaeei? ooai?ththoue iyaeoie c
?iaeo Lygris /ano?oa a caiaaeaaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo. Aonaieoe? oeiaeyoue c
ii/aoeo o?aaiy aei na?aaeeie /a?aiy. Caeyeueeiaothoueny ia eouao. O
/a?ai?-na?ii? naiee a?aeeeaaeathoue yeoey ia ieaeiueiio aioe? eenoy.

I?noeyie a?ae/ooio oeiaeo iaiineoue aa?oniaa aiai?aea. Iaoaeeee ??
e?oathoue o E?ninoaio c e?ioey ea?oiy, a a Iie?nn? — c ii/aoeo o?aaiy.
Naiee a?aeeeaaeathoue yeoey a ea?oee, ??aeei ia eenoy. Iaeia aonaieoey
iioeiaeaeo? 3-7 ya?ae aa?ono aai 6-12 ya?ae /i?ii? nii?iaeeie. A 1988 ?.
a ainiiaea?noaao Euea?anueei? iaeano? aiia iioeiaeaeoaaea 30-55 % ya?ae
ni?oo O?i?e ? 21-36% ya?ae /i?ii? nii?iaeeie. A ae?oa?e iieiaei?
/a?aiy (na?aaei? ca 5 ?ie?a) aonaieoe? caeyeueeiaoaaeenue ia iiaa?oi?
a?oioo i?ae ?ineeiieie ?aooeaie, /anoeiai a a?oio? ia aeeaei? aei 3 ni;
78-86 % eieii?a ciaoiaeeeeny a?ey ei?aiaai? oeeee a ?aae?on? aei 5 ni
ia i?uaieo a?oioao, a ?ioeo oiiaao — o ?aae?on? 25-40 ni. A?ae
ithnea?aeeie aeia aei 12 %, a a?ae canaeaiiy ?caeoeai Pimpla spuria —
aei 10 % eyea/ie. ?iaai ?caeoey aeeaa 1 oeaeaeaiue , a c aeiaeaoeiaei
aeeaeaiiyi — 2-4 oeaei?, ca?eueooth/e ieiaeth/?noue o 4 ?ace.

Ieeueueee. ssa?aeieeai o ?aa?ii? oeiaeyoue 25 aeae?a ieeueuee?a. Ia
noieoe? iniiaieie ? noie/iee /i?iiieyienoee ? a?aa?i/anoiaonee ?icaiiee
ieeueueee. Inoaii?e o e?oa?aoo?? a?aecia/aiee ye ae?oai?yaeiee, aea a
?aa?ii? a?i aeineoue oe?aeeeaee. O na?aaeiueiio ca 5 ?ie?a o iueiai
caeyeueeiaoaaeinue: i?e aeeaeaii? ia noieoe? — 84 %, iaeei? — 20, aa?on?
— 11, /i?i?e nii?iaeei? — 9, ia o?iyiae? — 87 % ee/eiie. ?icaeaa?oueny
c e?ioey o?aaiy aei aa?aniy a 2-o iieie?iiyo. Ee/eiea aeeaa 25-45 aei?a.
Iioeiaeaeo? ?aiiueinoeae? ni?oe ia 65 % , na?aaeiueinoeae? — 39, i?ci? —
ia 5 %. *i?iiieyienoee noie/iee ieeueuee ?icaeaa?oueny a 2-o iieie?iiyo.
Ee/eiea ?icaeaa?oueny 25-27 aei?a. Ae?aiaocothoue ee/eiee 2-ai ?
/anoeiai ia?oiai iieie?iiy. Iaie aeyaeaii aaaaoi ceioth/eo ee/eiie o
noaaeao ao?yi?a.

Aa?ono oa nii?iaeei? neeueii oeiaeyoue ae?aeiiiaee aa?oniaee ? aeiaoee
aa?oniaee ieeueueee. Iania? ?iciiiaeaiiy ?o aoee o 1968, 1972, 1984-1986
oa 1996 ??. o ??aiainuee?e, Aieeinuee?e oa Euea?anuee?e iaeanoyo.
Ee/eiee ia’?aeathoue iieiaea eenoy, a oea cieaeo? a?iaeaei?noue,
caeeaaeaiiy ieiaeiaeo a?oiueie ? ceiino?ee?noue ?ineei. Ee/eiee iaio
aeae?a aeia?a aeaeeaathoue ia aa?on? ? /a?aii?e nii?iaeei?. I?e
aeeaeaii? a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao /i?iith nii?iaeeiith aeia 67-95 %
ee/eiie ae?aeiiiaiai ? 90-100 % — aeiaoiai aa?oniaiai ieeueuee?a. O
na?aaeiueiio ca 3 ?iee ieiaeth/?noue naiie , ui ooai?eeenue c aeaeeaoeo
ee/eiie, aoea: o ae?aeiiiaiai ia aa?on? — 48, /a?aii?e nii?iaeei? —
28-36 , /i?i?e nii?iaeei? — 5 y?oeue, a o aeiaoiai — a?aeiia?aeii 42,
89-92; 0,6.

Ia iaeei? a a?eueoino? c 12 aeyaeaieo aeae?a ieeueuee?a ee/eiee
aeeaeyoueny eenoyi, a iaioa /anoeia — aaia?aoeaieie i?aaiaie ? eenoyi.
Aei iaea?eueo oe?aeeeaeo iaeaaeeoue iaeeiiaee ieeueuee. Iaeia iieie?iiy
eiai ?icaeaa?oueny ca 35-37 aei?a. Ca ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aea? 3 iieie?iiy.
E?o ?icoyaiooee. Ee/eiee oeiaeyoue c e?ioey o?aaiy aei aa?aniy. C aanie
/enei ?o a?eueoa a ieaeiueiio y?on? eoua, a o aa?ani? — ia aa?o?aeao.
Aeae a?aeiiee ye iiiioaa, aea ie aeyaeee aeeaeaiiy ee/eiie eenoyi
iaeeie.

A?ae/ooio oeiaeo ?iiae? iaiinea iaeei? /a?aioiaee ieeueuee, ee/eiea
yeiai aei 10 ii, ieeaeiai-caeaia c? na?oeeie ai?iaeaaeaie ? aieineaie,
aieiaa na?oei-ao?a c /i?iith ieyiith; c ieaeiueiai aieo eenoea aea?eca?
aeiaaano? ioai?e; aeeaa 28-30 aei?a, eyea/ea — 12-15 aei?a. Iaeia
iieie?iiy ?icaeaa?oueny ca 42-55 ae?a, ceio? i?ii?ioa a eieii? o a?oio?.

Eenoie?ooee. Ia ya?aeieeao iaie aeyaeaii 16 aeae?a: ia iaeei? — 4,
aa?on? — 3, /i?i?e nii?iaeei? ? ii??/eao — 6, noieoe? — 3. Ui?ieo
eenoie?ooee iioeiaeaeothoue 10-90 % eenoy ? 10-25 % ya?ae aa?ono oa
/i?ii? nii?iaeeie. A iaei?e aaia?aoe?? ?icaeaathoueny :
naeioeaai-nioaanoa, ?icaiia, no?ieaoi-cieioenoa, i?ieeaa, i?aeei?iaa; a
aeaio aaia?aoe?yo — nii?iaeeiiaa, aa?aiaa, n?o/anoa, ana?aeia,
na?iie?eea, iaeeiiaa, eeoeoeaiinia. Iaaani? , eiee na?aaeiueiaeiaiaa
oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y i?ioyaii 4-6 aei?a nyaa? 8i, ii/eiathoue aea?ecaoe
a?oiueee aonaieoe? nioaanoi?, iieioeeai? ? a?oiueeiai?, a i?e 10-12i
ii/eiathoue oeiaeeoe ee/eiee n?o/anoi? , nii?iaeeiiai?, aa?aiai? oa
ana?aeii? eenoie?ooie. I?e iainiaeaii? aooii?a ? noi? aoaeoeaieo
oaiia?aoo? (ii??a 8i) 44i iaiinyoue oeiaeo aonaieoe? ?icaiii?, a c
aeinyaiaiiyi 57i — no?ieaoi-cieioenoi? eenoie?ooie. AEeaeaiiy
aaia?aoeaieie i?aaiaie, ye i?aaeei, a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e aenie?e
/enaeueiino? oe?aeiee?a. Naiee ?icaiii? ? n?o/anoi? eenoie?ooie o aea?eo
nooo iiaiaeo a?aeeeaaeathoue yeoey a ieaei?o y?onao eou?a, a i?ae /an
iioieiaeaiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy aieiaino? — ia aa?o?aeao iaaii?a, aea ?o
aoaa? aei 95 % (ca aeaieie 1993 ?.). Ci?ia noaoe?? eenoie?ooie a
ya?aeieeao, ye yaeua ia iienaia, aea oe? aeai? iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie
aeey i?iaiico iiaaae?iee ? /enaeueiino? aeaeo. A on? ?iee niinoa?aaeaiue
/enaeuei?noue aeae?a, ye? ceiothoue o noaae?? yeoey, aoea aeinoia??ii a
18-20 ?ac?a a?eueoith, i?ae aeae?a, ye? ceiothoue o noaae?? aonaieoe?.
Ca /enaeuei?noth ia?aaaaeaea ?icaiia eenoie?ooea. Aiia neeueii canaeyea
caaouai? noa?ia?eia? (6-7 ?ie?a), caao?yiai? ianaaeaeaiiy, a oaeiae
i?noey, aea caeeoeeenue o eoeueoo?ao ia??cai? iaaiie. Canaeai?noue
yeoeaeeaaeeaie aeaiiai aeaeo 3-4-??/ieo eoeueoo? aoea a 3,7 ?aca
iaioith, i?ae 6-7-??/ieo i?i??aeaeaieo ia??ceith ? a 7,7 ?aca iaioith,
i?ae caaouaieo iaia??caieo ianaaeaeaiue.

O?e??/ieie aeine?aeaie uiaei eoeueoo?, aea canoiniaoaaee i?ioe
oe?aeiee?a i?ia?aeuei? ie?? ? AeIIE, aeyaeaii cao?eieo aia??iiaeueiiai
?icaeoeo ?icaiii? eenoie?ooee — aonaieoe? a?ae?iaeaeothoueny aei
na?aaeeie /a?aiy. O eenoie?ooie ?icaeaa?oueny ?acenoaioi?noue aei
ianoeoeeae?a. Oae, caaeaaeue aonaieoeue a?ae ia?iaie aeaoeenii o 1987 ?.
aoea 98 %, a a 1990 ?. ca oaeeo aea ianoaaei — 85 % . Canoinoaaiiy
aaeoa??aeueieo i?aia?ao?a cao?eio? ?icaeoie ? ?iciiiaeaiiy oe?aeiee?a,
cieuo? iniiaio /anoeio iiioeyoe?e.

Iiiaeeoe?. Aeyaeaii 11 aeae?a. Ui?ieo iii?oii oeiaeyoue aaeeea
nii?iaeeiiaa, aa?oniaa, iaaiiiaa, ii??/eiaa, aaeiaa, nii?iaeeiiaa ?
iiiaeeoey Oiaeaea?a. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy iiiaeeoeue iaaani? a?aeaoaa?oueny c
1-2 aeaeaaee ea?oiy, o?eaa? 5-9 aei?a. Ni?aiaaea? c ?icioneaiiyi
a?oiueie /i?ii? nii?iaeeie, eiee noia aoaeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? (ii??a 5i)
noaiiaeoue 49,5-52,3i. Ianiaa a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny c na?aaeeie
ea?oiy, ee/eiee naiie-caniiaieoeue ?icaeaathoueny 20-22 aei?, eeiythoue
2 ?ace. Iiyaa ?iaai-caniiaieoeue (e?iaoeue ea?oiy-ii/aoie o?aaiy)
ni?aiaaea? c oacith iainiaeaiiy aooii?a nii?iaeeie. Ia?oeie cyaeythoueny
caniiaieoe? iaaiiiai? nii?iaeeiiai? /a?ac 3-4 aei? — eenoeiai?
nii?iaeeiiai?, a i?ney ia? — iaeaea iaeii/anii naiee ?ioeo aeae?a
iiiaeeoeue. Naiee -caniiaieoe? a?ae?iaeaeothoue ee/eiie o oaco
aooii?caoe??-oea?o?iiy nii?iaeeie. Ieiaeth/?noue 30-175 ee/eiie. C
na?aaeeie ae?oai? — ii/aoeo o?aouei? aeaeaaee o?aaiy cyaeythoueny
e?eeao? ?icnaeeoaeueieoe?; e?o a?aeaoaa?oueny aei e?ioey eeiiy.
Naiee-noaoaiinee cyaeythoueny a ae?oa?e -o?ao?e aeaeaaeao aa?aniy,
ieiaeth/?noue ?o 4-9 y?oeue . A?aeeeaaeaiiy y?oeue a?aeaoaa?oueny
i?ioyaii aa?aniy — aeiaoiy. A ?aa?ii? nii?iaeeiiaa iaaiiiaa iiiaeeoey
?icaeaa?oueny a 11-15 iieie?iiyo: iaaani? 4-6, ae?oeo 5-6, ainaie 2-3.

Iaaiiiaa aaeiaa iiiaeeoey ?icaeaa?oueny a 9-11 iieie?iiyo (5-6 — ia
nii?iaeei?, 4-5 — ia i?ii?aeieo aeeaeoaeyo). sseoey a?aeeeaaea? c e?ioey
na?iiy ? aei caii?ice?a. O iaeeiiai? iiiaeeoe? iaeaeua ieiaeth/?noue
ia?oaiiaaiaoe/ieo naiie o ia?oiio iieie?ii? — 58-79, a a 11-io — 2-11
ee/eiie.

Iioeiaeaeaiiy ?ineei iiiaeeoeyie aeeeeea? aeaoi?iaoe?th eenoy ?
iaaii?a; ??no iaaii?a oiia?eueith?oueny aai coieiy?oueny; aceieo aei 80
% ?o aeia. I?e??no oeo, ui ia?aceioaaee, aeinoia??ii oiia?eueith?oueny a
3-6 ?ac?a, o?iaeaei?noue ciaioo?oueny a 10-12 ?ac?a ii??aiyii c
iaiioeiaeaeaieie; ye?noue o?iaeath iia??oo?oueny: a yaiaeao — ia 2,2 %
iaioa oeoe??a ? ia 0,5 % — caaaeueiiai acioo, iana yaiaee ciaioo?oueny
ia 24% .

Iaea?eueoa canaeai?noue iiiaeeoeyie ??cieo ni?o?a /i?ii? nii?iaeeie
i?eiaaea? ia 3-th aeaeaaeo /a?aiy, a iaeeie — ia 2-3 aeaeaaeo /a?aiy.
I?ney oeueiai /enaeuei?noue iiiaeeoeue iinooiiai ciaioo?oueny a cia/i?e
i??? i?ae aieeaii aioiiioaa?a, /enaeuei?noue yeeo ia?inoa? ne?aeii ca
?inoii /enaeueiino? iiiaeeoeue. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aioiiioaa?a ? iiiaeeoeue
ia ii/aoeo ea?oiy a 1987-1991 ??. a na?aaeiueiio aoei 1:188 c
eieeaaiiyi a?ae 1:80 (o 1987 ?.) aei 1:448 (o 1988 ?.). Iinooiiai aei
e?ioey naciio na?aaei? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy cieceeinue aei 1:10 a na?aaeei?
na?iiy c eieeaaiiyi a?ae 1:4 (o 1987 ?.) aei 1:24 (o 1988 ?.).

Nii?iaeeiiaa nee?aea ? ceaoea. A?ieia?y nii?iaeeiiai? nee?aee iio?aao?
ooi/iaiiy. A ?aa?ii? o?eaae?noue ?? aaia?aoe?? caeaaeeoue a?ae
iaoai?ieia?/ieo oiia ?ieo. I?ney aeiuiaiai ? i?ioieiaeiiai e?oa ia
iiaoi?io cei?aeth eaea 12-28 % aonaieoeue ? ?icaeoie ?o a?aeaoaa?oueny
ca aeai??/iei oeeeeii. O iinooeea? ?iee a?eueoa iniaei ?icaeaa?oueny ca
iaeii??/iei oeeeeii. Caeyeueeiaoaaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny ia i?aaei? ?aa?iio
iai?ee?ioe? ea?oiy- ii/aoeo o?aaiy (27-29.04.1989 ?. ; 5-8.05.1988 ?.) ,
a ia i?aii/? — a ae?oa?e iieiaei? o?aaiy (17-20.05.1988 ?.). Ii/aoie
eiai ni?aiaaea? c e?ioeai oea?o?iiy nii?iaeeie, noaae?y eyea/ee o?eaa? a
oaie? ?iee 8-12 aei?a, a i?ioieiaei? aeiuia? — 28-30 aei?a. Iaoaeeee
e?oathoue o /a?ai?, ie?ai? iniaeie — iai?ee?ioe? eeiiy. Aeiaeaoeiaa
aeeaeaiiy — ia ea?oeao nii?iaeeie, aa?ono, iaeeie, ao?yi?a. Aiii
aeinoia??ii i?aeaeuo? ieiaeth/?noue ia 30-40 %. Iioeiaeaeai?noue iaaii?a
nee?aeith a ?aa?ii? nyaa? 11,8 % a 3-4-??/ieo ? aei 56,6 % o 6-7-??/ieo
ianaaeaeaiiyo nii?iaeeie. Oea aeeeeea? cieaeaiiy a?iaeaeiino? ii??/ie ia
18-27 %, a /i?ii? nii?iaeeie — aei 40 %, ai?no a?oai?io N a yaiaeao
ciaioo?oueny c 159 aei 91 ia %. Canaeai?noue nee?aeith /i?ii? nii?iaeeie
ni?oo THiao a 6-7-??/iiio a?oe? neeaaeaea 4,3 % i?e canaeaiino? ?ioeo 5
ni?o?a — 27-49 %..

?io? oe?aeieee. E??i iienaieo aeua, a ie?ai? ?iee a?ae/ooio oeiaeo
ya?aeieeai iiaeooue caaaeaaaoe aeaye? aeaee aeiaaiiinee?a ? aaeeoeue.
Iaie aeyaeaii 18 aeae?a aeiaaiiinee?a. Na?aae ieo caeaiee o?aa’yiee
(Eusomus ovulum Gtrm.) oa Fhytonomus auspersus F. aia?oa ca?a?no?iaai? a
Oe?a?i? ye oe?aeieee. Ai?icai/anoee neina? oa neina? iaeee /i?iee aia?oa
a?aei?/ai? ye oe?aeieee iaeeie a E?ninoaiia?e /anoei? ?aa?iio. Ca
/enaeuei?noth ia?aaaaeaee n??ee a?oiueeiaee, iaeeiiai-noie/iee,
e?iieaiee eenoiaee, caeaiee o?aayiee ? ei?ioeiaonee aeiaaiiineee. Ia
aeieth ?o i?eoiaeeeinue 12-21 % iniaei, o?aoiaaieo i?ae /an iae?e?a.
Ia?aaaaeaee ia?o? aeaa aeaee. Ianiaa ?iciiiaeaiiy n??iai a?oiueeiaiai
aeiaaiiineea aoei a 1987, 1992, 1993 ??., eiee a ie?aieo ainiiaea?noaao
canaeai?noue ieie iaeeie neeaaeaea 7 aec. ia ?ineeio, a ia aeayeeo
iaaiiao ciaoiaeeee aei 38 iniaei (eieaini ?i. ?.O?aiea Euea?anueei?
iae., 1992 ?.), a a eoeueoo?ao /i?ii? nii?iaeeie — 13-16 aec. ia iaa?i.
Canaeai?noue e?iieaiei eenoeiaei aeiaaiiineeii i?noeyie nyaaea 3,8 aec.
ia iaa?i iaeeie ? aei 10 aec. ia iaa?i nii?iaeeie oa aa?ono.
Ei?ioeiaonee aeiaaiiinee — iie?oaa, o aaeee?e e?eueeino? ?iciiiaeoaaany
a ya?aeieeao Ee?anueei? iaeano? a 1987-1988 ??., Euea?anueei? — a 1988,
1994 ??., Oa?iii?euenueei? — a 1989 ?., Aieeinueei? — a 1987 ?. Caeaiee
o?aa’yiee aeiaaiiinee — iie?oaa, aeyaeaiee ia caao?yiaieo ieaioaoe?yo a
on?o ainiiaea?noaao ?aa?iio; ia aeayeeo ?ineeiao o ian? cyaey?oueny
iai?ee?ioe? o?aaiy. A ya?aeieeao oeiaeeoue i?ioyaii onueiai
aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo. A eoeueoo?ao ii?yae c ca?inoyie ??cieo eou?a oa
caiaaeaaieie naaeaie canaeai?noue aoaa? 5-7 aec./iaa?i (?aaeaini
“Oi?ouee?anueeee” ? “?ineaae/?” Ee?anueei? iae.); a aeia?a aeiaeyiooeo
ya?aeieeao canaeai?nue aoea 0,3-0,6 aec./iaa?i. Aeiaaiiinee oo?eaoe?y
eoneiaa cono??/a?oueny iaeaea aanue ia??iae aaaaoaoe??, a o aaeee?e
e?eueeino? — i?ae /an oea?o?iiy.I?e ianiaiio ?iciiiaeaii? a 1987 ?.
canaeai?noue iaeeie neeaaeaea i?noeyie 30-46 aec. ia iaa?i, /anoi ia
iaeiiio eenoeo aoei aei 6-8 iniaei, ui neaeaooaaee eenoy (?aaeaini
“?ineaae/?” Ee?anueei? iae.), ?io? aeaee aeiaaiiinee?a ia caaaeaaaee
a?ae/ooii? oeiaee.

ssa?aeieee iioeiaeaeothoue 7 aeae?a aaeeoeue. ?c ieo o ?aa?ii? aeoaea
iioe?ai? 3 aeaee. Ea?oeiaa aaeeoey ?icaeaa?oueny a iaeiiio iieie?ii?.
Ceio? ee/eiea a eieii? o a?oio?, caeyeueeiao?oueny i?ae /an ?icioneaiiy
a?oiueie /i?ii? nii?iaeeie. I?ae /an aooii?caoe?? aeoiaeyoue ?iaai ?
a?aeeeaaeathoue yeoey a aooiie, ye? neeueii ?ic?inoathoueny o aeaeyae?
niethuaii? eoe? /a?aiioaaoiai eieuei?o. Eenoeiaa nii?iaeeiiaa aaeeoey
ca nacii aea? 2-3 iieie?iiy. Neeueii canaey? caao?yiai? ya?aeieee ia
aieiaeo i?noeyo, aea a na?aaeiueiio ca 4 ?iee iioeiaeaeoaaea eenoy ia 86
%, i?e 44 % ia /enoeo ae?eyieao. Ceiothoue ee/eiee a a?oio?,
caeyeueeiaothoueny a ia??iae ?icioneaiiy a?oiueie, ?iaai e?oathoue, eiee
aenoaathoueny aooiie. sseoey a?aeeeaaeathoue o eenoee, ye? o?eueee
ii/eiathoue ?icai?oaoeny ia aa?o?aeao iaaii?a. Eeno ne?o/o?oueny
ai?iaeiaae oeaio?aeueii? aeeeee ? aeaeyaea? iaia/a ?aaiee. Ee/eiee
caeyeueeiaothoueny a a?oio?. Iiaa iieie?iiy e?oa? iai?ee?ioe? oea?o?iiy
nii?iaeeie.

Iaaiiiaa nii?iaeeiiaa aaeeoey aea? 2 iieie?iiy ca nacii. Ceio? ee/eiea
i?ae ei?ith iaaii?a, a?eie ? o aa?oiueiio oa?? a?oioo. ?iaai (eiia?eee)
e?oathoue i?ae /an oea?o?iiy /i?ii? nii?iaeeie, yeoey a?aeeeaaea? a
?aiee ? o??ueie ei?e. Iioeiaeaeai? a?eee caneoathoue ? iaeaiothoueny.

Aioiiioaae ? aea?eoaae. O i?iieneiaeo ianaaeaeaiiyo i?e?iaei? ciioaae ia
iathoue nooo?ai? ?ie? a ?aaoeyoe?? /enaeueiino? oe?aeiee?a ?c-ca iaei?
/enaeueiino? ?o iiioeyoe?e. A ya?aeieeao ?aa?iio aeyaeaii 79 oeaeeo, 107
ia?aceoe/ieo aeae?a eiiao, 6 aeae?a oeaeeo ee?u?a. ?c oeaeeo eiiao
iaea?eueo /enaeuei? eieoeeiae?aee ? cieioii/ee. Na?aae cieioii/ie 3
aeaee iie?oaae (Chrysopa carnta Steph., Ch. formosa wesm., Ch. perla
Br.), iathoue ainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy a ?aaoethaaii? /enaeueiino?
nenieo oe?aeiee?a, eenoie?ooie, iyaeoi?a. Ee/eiee ?o a?aeaeathoue
ia?aaaao iiiaeeoeyi. Aeaeeaaiiy ? ieiaeth/?noue oeaeeo aeae?a caeaaeeoue
a?ae iniaeeainoae ei?io. Oae, o aeine?ae? c Hippodamia 13-punctata L.
ee/eiie ?? aiaeoaaee iiiaeeoeyie, ioaie/iei o?einii ? ca?iiaith i?eeth.
Aeaeeaai?noue ?o a?aeiia?aeii noaiiaeea: 69-85 %; 6,6 %; 4,5 %, a
ieiaeth/?noue — 293-370 y?oeue, 0, 0. O aeine?ae? c cieioii/eith
Chrysopa carnea ee/eiie aiaeoaaee iiiaeeoeyie, o?einaie, iaaeyieoeyie.
Aeaeeaai?noue a?aeiia?aeii neeaaeaea: 60-66 %; 10-18 %; 4,4 %, a
ieiaeth/?noue ?iaai — 52-54; 8-12; 5-7 y?oeue.

U?euei?noue iiioeyoe?e aioiiioaa?a caeaaeeoue a?ae /anoioe canoinoaaiiy
ianoeoeeae?a. O Aeoiyinueeiio ?aaeaini-oaoi?eoi? Euea?anueei? iaeano? a
ya?aeieeao, aea ia canoiniaoaaee ianoeoeeaee, a na?aaeiueiio ca 1992 ?
1993 ??. /enei eieoeeiae?ae aoei 3,7 aec., cieioii/ie – 2,2 aec. ia
eou; i?e iaei?e ?aiiueiaaniyi?e ia?iaoe? — a?aeiia?aeii 0,6 ? 0,3 aec.
ia eou, a i?e aeaio ia?iaeao ?o ia aoei cian?i.

I?eaanoe a ae?th iaoai?ci i?e?iaeii? naii?aaoeyoe?? /enaeueiino?
oe?aeiee?a ? ?o ciioaa?a o ya?aeieeao iiaeia i?e ciaioaii?
ianoeoeeaeiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy oeyoii cai?ie o?i?/ieo i?aia?ao?a
a?ieia?/ieie, a?eueo oaaaeiiai aeei?enoaiiy aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a,
caa?aaeaiiy ciioaa?a, /anoeiaiai aeei?enoaiiy i?aia?ao?a aea??eiai? ae??
ia iniia? aea/aiiy o?oinai?oa?iiai noaio a eiie?aoieo ianaaeaeaiiyo.

Oeyoe ciaioaiiy ianya?a canoinoaaiiy ianoeoeeae?a o i?iieneiaeo
ianaaeaeaiiyo ya?aeieo eoeueoo?

Iiooe oeyo?a iaiaaeaiiy aeei?enoaiiy ianoeoeeae?a o ya?aeieeao iiaeiai
aeeth/aoe an? aniaeoe ?o canoinoaaiiy, a o./. ? i?ioe oai?ia ?ineei.

Ca iaoeie niinoa?aaeaiiyie, ni?o /i?ii? nii?iaeeie Ieiae Oie?ueia,
neeueii o?aaeaiee ai?ioienoith ?inith, cieaeo? a?iaeaei?noue ya?ae o 7-9
?ac?a; aa?on i?e neeueiiio o?aaeaii? iaeaea cian?i ia aea? a?iaeath a
ianooii? 2 ?iee, ? ?ineeie aeinoia??ii neeuei?oa canaeythoueny
oe?aeieeaie ii??aiyii c iao?aaeaieie. I?e ?aaoey?iiio ? nai?/aniiio
iiaiiio ia??coaaii? oa cieuaii? o?aaeaieo iaaii?a iieiaeeo ianaaeaeaiue
i?aeoe/ii a?aeiaaea? iio?aaa a canoinoaaii? ooia?oeeae?a aeey caoenoo
eoeueoo?e a?ae ai?ioienoi? ?ine. Ni?oe ? oo?eiaiiy a?oioo a i?ae?yaeaeyo
ya?aeiee?a ia aieeaathoue ia ?ineeiii?aeieo ee?u?a, e??i
nii?iaeeiiai-a?oiueeiaiai ee?ua. Ia??cea eou?a nii?iaeeie (1987,1988
??.) iia??oo? oiiae aeey eenoie?ooie. ?iciooaiiy a?oioo a i?ae?yaeaeyo
ia aeeaeio 10-15 ni ca 2-3 aei? aei aeeueioo iaoaeee?a-iyaeoi?a o?aaio?
aei 41 % ?o eyea/ie, a aeiaeaoeiaa ?iciooaiiy i?ney a?aeoiaeo
aonaieoeue ia caeyeueeoaaiiy ni?ey? caaeaae? ?o aei 55 %. Cieaeaiiy
ii?ie aeo?aoe ?iai/i? ??aeeie aei 500 e/aa oa ?inaeoeoeeae?a ia 20-45 %
?noioii ia ciaioo? a?ieia?/io aoaeoeai?noue ia?iaie i?ioe oe?aeiee?a
nii?iaeeie. Nooi?iue iie?eooy ?ineei e?aieyie i?e iai?eneoaaii?
cieaeaieie ii?iaie aeo?aoe aei 500 e/ aa ?iai/i? ??aeeie a 1,5-2,5 ?aca
aeua, i?ae i?e aeo?ao? 1000 e/aa.

O ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo INA Oe?a?ie ( 1977, 1987, 1991) cai?iiiiiaaii
iianthaeia canoinoaaiiy a ya?aeieeao AeIIE ? i?aia?aoo ? 30 iaaani?
i?ioe ceioth/eo noaae?e oe?aeiee?a ? oai?ia. Ie anoaiiaeee, ui a
ia?iaeaieo oeeie i?aia?aoaie eoeueoo?ao a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aonaieoeue c
y?oeue aeiaeiai? oa ?icaiii? eenoie?ooie i?iaeiaaeoaaeinue aei na?aaeeie
/a?aiy, a oie /an, ye o iaia?iaeaieo eoeueoo?ao aiii cae?i/eeinue o
o?aai?. Ioaea, aoaeoeai?noue ia?iaie oeeie i?aia?aoaie i?ioe
eenoie?ooie, ceioth/eo o noaae?? yeoey, iecueea. Caaeaaeue ?o ia
eiio?ie? a 1987 ?. aoea 3,9 %, a ia ia?iaeaieo eoeueoo?ao — 12-16 %;
/enei aioiiioaa?a o 1988-1992 ??. aoei ia ia?iaeaieo eoeueoo?ao o 2-25
?ac?a iaioa, i?ae ia eiio?ie?. *a?ac 2 ?iee i?ney a?aei?ie
?aiiueiaaniyieo o?i?/ieo ia?iaie /enaeuei?noue eieoeeiae?ae, ui
ceiothoue o i?aenoeeoe? ? iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao a?oioo, ca?eueoeeanue o 4,5
?aca, oeaeeo aeoaeaeeoeue — a 7,1 ?aca, iaaoe?a — o 12 ?ac.
Ca?eueoeeinue /enei aea?eoaa?a. E?euee?noue yeoeaeeaaeie ?icaiii?
eenoie?ooee, c?aeaieo oa iioeiaeaeaieo oeaeeie /eaienoiiiaeie, c 5 % o
1987 ?. ca?eueoeeanue aei 26-30 % o 1990-1991 ??.; ao?aoeee nai?
cia/aiiy iyaeoie, iie? oa ee?u?, i?ioa iiaia a?aeiiaa a?ae o?i?/iiai
caoenoo a aeaiee ia??iae naaa ia aei?aaaeiao?, ai ia aenoa/a?
a?ii?aia?ao?a. Iio??aii ?ic?iaeyoe ? aaeineiiaethaaoe ?ioaa?iaaiee
caoeno eoeueoo?.

Aeieia?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy aacia/iino? ?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo
ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiue

?ieue aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a o cieaeaii? /enaeueiino? oe?aeiee?a.
Aa?ioaoi?/i? oa i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nuee? caoiaee, ye? ? neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy eoeueoo?, — iniiaa no/aniiai
?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo ?ineei a?ae oe?aeiee?a. O ya?aeieeao ia??cea
eou?a ni?ey? nooo?aiio cieaeaiith /enaeueiino? oe?aeiee?a, ye? ceiothoue
ana?aaeei? iaaii?a ? caa?oo ia ieo (yeoey iiiaeeoeue, ee?u?a, aeayeeo
eenoie?ooie, iyaeoi?a oiui), a oaeiae icaei?iaeaiith eoeueoo? a?ae
ai?ioienoi? ?ine. Ia??cea ? cieuaiiy ia??caieo iaaii?a o ENI “C??ea”
Euea?anueei? iaeano? a 1988 ?. cieceee /enaeuei?noue aonaieoeue ia 48,5
%, a iioeiaeaeai?noue eenoy — ia 35,8 %. O 1989 ?. a oeeo aea eoeueoo?ao
ciaioaiiy a?aeiia?aeii noaiiaeei 30,5 ? 20,7 %. ?c
i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueeeo i?eeii?a ia??cea iaaii?a ? iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaiith noiniaii cieaeaiiy /enaeueiino? eenoie?ooie, iiiaeeoeue,
iyaeoi?a, aaeeoeue, ueo?aie, iani?aaaei?o ueo?aie oa ?i. ?iciiiaeaiiy
iieae a ya?aeieeao iiaycaia c ianiaei canoinoaaiiyi ?inaeoeoeeae?a ?
iecueeith aa?ioaoi?eith. I?aeaeuaiiy ii?ie aianaiiy acioieo aeia?ea
iineeth? ??no iaeii??/ieo iaaii?a oa eenoy, ui ni?ey? ianiaiio
?iciiiaeaiith iiiaeeoeue ? ee?u?a. I?aiea i?ae?yaeue ? ia?aeiioaaiiy
a?oioo i?ae eouaie cieaeo? /enaeuei?noue nii?iaeeiiai? eenoeiai? ?
ea?oeiai? aaeeoeue, /i?iinii?iaeeiiaiai ya?aeiiai, aeiaoiai
/i?iinii?iaeeiiaiai ? aa?oniaiai ieeueuee?a. Aianaiiy a a?oio ai?a/ii?
aiaee 2-4 oe/aa aeeeeea? caaeaaeue oe?aeiee?a, ye? iaoeathoue o iueiio,
ia 65 %, a aonaieoeue i?aea?ecath/eo niaie — ia 29 % (?aeiiaiaeaoe?? INA
Oe?a?ie, 1991). Ia ?icaeoie ? ieiaeth/?noue o?oioaa?a (eiiaoe ? ee?u?)
iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ca?eueoaiiy aeic oinoi?ieo, eae?eieo ?
oinoi?ii-eae?eieo aeia?ea i?e iioeiaeueiiio ??ai? acioieo. I?ia?aeuei?
aeia?eaa aieeaathoue ia no?ee?noue ?ineei i?ioe o?oioaa?a.

A?ioeaiioe/i? iniiae canoinoaaiiy ?inaeoeoeeae?a o ?aaoethaaii?
/enaeueiino? oe?aeiee?a. I?e ?ic?iaoe? ? canoinoaaii? ?ioaa?iaaiiai
caoenoo ya?aeiee?a c i?i?iaeueiei aeei?enoaiiyi ianoeoeeae?a ie
a?aoiaoaaee ia eeoa ae?th ia ciioeaiic ee?iaoe/ieo ? a?ioe/ieo
(aioiiioaae, aea?eoaae, oai?iae eiiao oa ?i.) oaeoi??a. Aaaeeeaa ?ieue
iaaea?oueny aio?ii?/iei oaeoi?ai (i?aea?? ni?o?a, eiino?oeoe?y
ianaaeaeaiue, aa?ioaoi?/i? caoiaee, ?aoe?iiaeueia canoinoaaiiy
ianoeoeeae?a, aeia?ea oiui) c iaoith ooai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey
?ineeie, iaeneiaeueiiai caa?aaeaiiy ciioaa?a ? ni?eyiiy i?aeaeuaiith ?o
aoaeoeaiino? a cieaeaii? /enaeueiino? oe?aeiee?a.

O 1988-1996 ??. aei?iaiaoaaee ia ae?iaie/eo ieiuao 3 aa??aioe caoenoo
ya?aeiee?a a?ae oe?aeiee?a :

1) aaciaee aa??aio — caoeno o?i?/ieie i?aia?aoaie ca?aeii c
“?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie … (1977-1991)”;

2) a?ieia?/iee caoeno — aeei?enoaiiy a?ieia?/ieo i?aia?ao?a
(aeaiae?iaaoeeee?i, eai?aeioeeae, ae?iae, a?oieneaaoeeee?i oa ?i.);

3) ?ioaa?iaaiee caoeno — iaeneiaeueia iaiaaeaiiy canoinoaaiiy o?i?/ieo
i?aia?ao?a, cai?ia ?o a?ieia?/ieie (i?e iaei?e ?aiiuei-aaniyi?e ia?iaoe?
o?i?/ieie, aeioneii o?eoia?aie, i?ney cae?aiiy ya?ae ia?iaea o?i?/iei, a
iio?i a?ieia?/iei i?aia?aoaie).

*enaeuei?noue eenoia?eco/eo oe?aeiee?a o aa??aioao a?ieia?/iiai oa
?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo a on? ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue aoea ieae/ith, i?ae o
aaciaiio aa??aio?. I?ioa ia an?o aa??aioao aiia aoea ieae/a ii?iao
e?eoe/ii? u?eueiino?. Ia aaciaiio aa??aio? iaaeniea /enaeuei?noue
iiioeyoe?e oe?aeiee?a oo?eioaaeanue a iniiaiiio ca ?aooiie canoinoaaiiy
?inaeoeoeeae?a, a a ?ioeo aa??aioao — caaaeyee ae?yeueiino? ciioaa?a ?
canoinoaaiith a?ii?aia?ao?a. ??ci? aeaee oe?aeiee?a ?aaaoaaee ia
a?ieia?/i? i?aia?aoe iaiaeiicia/ii. Caaeaaeue ia 11-e aeaiue i?ney
ia?iaee a na?aaeiueiio ca 3 ?iee aoea: eenoie?ooie — 69-82 %, ee/eiie
ieeueuee?a — 79-92 %. Aea iio??aii a?aoiaoaaoe i?neyae?th i?aia?ao?a:
caaeaaeue aonaieoeue eenoie?ooie i?ae /an cei?ae? ia aa??aio?
a?ieia?/iiai caoenoo noaiiaeea 50-57 %, a i?e ?ioaa?iaaiiio caoeno? —
45 %; aeo?ae iaoaeee?a ?c eyea/ie oeueiai iieie?iiy ia aa??aio?
a?ieia?/iiai caoenoo neeaaeaa 25%, a i?e ?ioaa?iaaiiio caoeno? — 82 %.
Naiee, ui aeeoee, a?aeeeaaeaee y?oeue o 5 ?ac?a iaioa, i?ae o aa??aio?,
aea i?iaiaeeany o?i?/iee caoeno. I?iaaaeaiee i?ioyaii ?yaeo ?ie?a aiae?c
noaio iiioeyoe?e eenoie?ooie, ye? ia?aceioaaee, na?ae/eoue, ui i?e
a?ieia?/iiio caoeno? aei noaae?? ?iaai aeiaeeaa? 42-45 %, aeia a?ae
aaeoa??aeueieo caoai?thaaiue 30-37 %, a?ae aioiiioaa?a — 25-30 %.
Aa?o/e aei oaaae iiaeeea?noue caa?aaeaiiy a ia?iaeaiiio ianaaeaeaii?
aeeoo?caeaoiino? nii? caoaeieea oai?ia Baccillus thuringiensis i?ioyaii
1-2 ?ie?a ( Aoeaooi?a, E?neiaa, 1979 ), iio??aii a?aoiaoaaoe ?
i?neyae?th a?ieia?/ieo i?aia?ao?a (Oaaei?ei/ee, 1970,1972; Oaeanoiaa,
1986) o ianooii? ?iee. A aaciaiio aa??aio? ? i?e ?ioaa?iaaiiio caoeno?
caaeaaeue eenoie?ooie a?ae caoai?thaaiue aoea 15-21%, a?ae aioiiioaa?a —
10-13 %. Cai?ia ?inaeoeoeeae?a a?iii?aia?aoaie aeicaiey? caoenoeoe
eoeueoo?e a?ae eenoia?eco/eo oe?aeiee?a ? caa?aaoe aioiiioaa?a, ye?
no?eiothoue ?iciiiaeaiiy oaeiae ?ioeo oe?aeiee?a. Aeioe?eueii i?ioe
iieie?iiy, yea ia?aceioaaei, canoiniaoaaoe cieaeai? ii?ie a?ii?ai?ao?a,
a i?ioe e?oi?o iieie?iue — i?aeaeuai?. I?ioe n?o/anoi?,
no?ieaoi-cieioenoi? ? aa?aiai? eenoie?ooie aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe
aeione o?eoia?aie, uia cieceoe /enaeuei?noue ?o aei oiai ia??iaeo, ye
aiie ii/eiathoue iioeiaeaeoaaoe yaiaee. I?ioe ee?u?a o aaciaiio aa??aio?
? i?e ?ioaa?iaaiiio caoeno? ?aaoey?ii i?iaiaeeee ia?iaee aea?eoeeaeaie.
I?e a?ieia?/iiio caoeno? oaeeo ia?iaie ia i?iaiaeeee, aea /enaeuei?noue
ee?u?a ia ia?aaeuoaaea aeiiii?/iee ii??a oeiaei/eiiino?.

A?ioeaiioe/i? iniiae canoinoaaiiy a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei ?inoo ?
?icaeoeo eiiao o ?aaoethaaii? ?o /enaeueiino?. ?icaeyiooi e?oa?aoo?i?
aeai? uiaei ?acoeueoao?a aea/aiiy ae?? ia eiiao a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo
?a/iaei, ye? aieeaathoue ia ??no, ?icaeoie ? ?iciiiaeaiiy eiiao,
cie?aia, ae?? ?ia?a?oi??a neioaco oeoeio oa aeioe?eueiino? ?o
aeei?enoaiiy aeey caoenoo ?ineei a?ae oe?aeiee?a. Iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe
aea/aiiy aaoi?ii o 1987-1992 ??. aieeao aeei?e?io oa ?inaaa?o ia
oe?aeeeaeo eiiao ? aioiiioaa?a i?e ia?iaeao ieie eoeueoo? /i?ii?
nii?iaeeie ? iaeeie o aa??aioao ?ioaa?iaaiiai e a?ieia?/iiai caoenoo.
I?iaiaeeee ii 2 ia?iaee c ?ioa?aaeii 15 aei?a ? ii?iith aeo?aoe
aeei?e?io 1 ea/aa oa ?inaaa?o — 0,6 ? 0,8 ea/aa. Ioe?ithaaee aieea ia
aa?aiao e?eaiaono eenoie?ooeo, i?ioth/o i?eue-e?eo?oeo, iaeeiiao
eeoaoeaiinio eenoie?ooeo, eenoia?eco/eo ee/eiie ieeueuee?a, nii?iaeeiiao
ceaoeo, iaeeiiaiai aeoea, noie/ii-iaeeiiaiai aeiaaiiineea, oeaeeo oa
ia?aceoe/ieo eiiao ? iaaoe?a. A?ieia?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ia?iaie i?ioe
eenoia?eco/eo eenoie?ooie o na?aaeueiio ca 1987-1992 ??. neeaaeaea :
o?i?/iiai caoenoo — 68 %, ?ioaa?iaaiiai — 82, aeei?e?io — 77, ?inaaa?o —
89 %. Ca ia??iae aei?iaoaaiue o 1989-1992 ??. /enaeuei?noue aioiiioaa?a
c ?yaeo oaa?aeie?eeeo i?e o?i?/iiio caoeno? cieceeanue ii??aiyii c
eiio?ieai ia 83 %, a a eoeueoo?ao, ia?iaeaieo aeei?e?iii oa ?inaaa?ii,
aiia aoea aeua, i?ae ia eiio?ie?; e?euee?noue oeaeeo eeii?a
ca?eueoeeanue o 2,4 ?aca, n?o/anoie?eeeo — a 1,7; iaaoe?a — 3,6 ?aca.
?inaaa? ? aeei?e?i aoaeoeai? i?ioe oe?aeeeaeo eenoie?ooie oa iieae ? ia
aieeaathoue iaaaoeaii ia ciioaa?a.

Oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? iiiiaiaiiy aa?ioeaiico ya?aeieo eoeueoo?
a?aenooi?ie aeaeaie aioiiioaa?a. Onoaiiaeaii, ui /enaeuei?noue
i?e?iaeii? o?eoia?aie a ya?aeieeao i?ney cei?ae? aeoaea iecueea.
Iaeiie/aiiy ?? a?aeaoaa?oueny a ae?oa?e iieiaei? e?oa. Aiai?aeiaa oi?ia
o?eoia?aie ii??aiyii c neoio?iaeiith neeuei?oa canaey? yeoey
nii?iaeeiii? ? n?o/anoi? eenoie?ooie. Iaeaea? oi?ie o?eoia?aie i?e
a?aeeeaaeaii? y?oeue a?eueoa canaeythoue yeoey eenoie?ooie, ye?
a?aeeeaaeai? naieaie, ui aeeoee ?c eyea/ie c? cieaeaiith ianith o?ea
(ineaaeaieo). sseoey eenoie?ooie, a?aeeeaaeai? naieaie aeniei?
aeeoo?caeaoiino?, a?eueo no?ee? aei canaeaiiy yeoeaia?aceoii. O aeiaaeeo
canaeaiiy oaeeo y?oeue o?eoia?aiith yeoey ia?aceoa a ieo
?ieainoeththoueny aai ?ic/eiythoueny. Canoinoaaiiy o?eoia?aie i?ioi?
i?ioe eenoie?ooie ia oii? ae?? i?e?iaeii? o?eoia?aie a ya?aeieeao ia
aoaeoeaia. O?eoia?aia i?ioi? ia eiieo?aioiicaeaoia ii??aiyii c
i?e?iaeiith. Iio??ai? iia? i?aeoiaee a oaeoeoe? canoinoaaiiy o?eoia?aie,
yea ia?iaey?oueny a a?ieaai?aoi??yo.

?ieue ciioaa?a o cieaeaii? /enaeueiino? oe?aeiee?a. ?aaoethth/a ?ieue
i?e?iaeieo ciioaa?a ca?eueoo?oueny a i??o cieaeaiiy ianoeoeeaeiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy. A?eueo aoaeoeaiei ? eiiieaen aeae?a, a ia iaeei
eiie?aoiee aeae. O ianaaeaeaiiyo c a?ieia?/iei oa ?ioaa?iaaiei caoenoii
/enaeuei?noue eenoia?eco/eo ieeueuee?a ciaioeeanue i?ioyaii aeaio ?ie?a
(1988, 1989) aiane?aeie iineeaiiy ia?aceooaaiiy ee/eiie oao?iaie.
Caaaeyee canoinoaaiith i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo i?aia?ao?a aioiiioaae
caa??aathoueny ? oiio c 1990 ?. /enaeuei?noue ieeueuee?a oo?eio?oueny ia
ainiiaea?nueei iaa?ae/ooiiio ??ai?. Cieioii/ee, eieoeeiae?aee, ne?o?aee
? oeae? eeiie cieuothoue 85-90 % nii?iaeeiiai? oa iaeeiiai? iiiaeeoeue.
Ao?ae?one ? aecth?/aeee ianiai cyaeyeeny a ianaaeaeaiiyo, aea a
i?ae?yaeaeyo aen?aaee iaaeiiine. A 1992 ?. a eoeueoo?ao c a?ieia?/iei
caoenoii o 20 % eieii?e iiiaeeoeue aoee iniaeie, ia?aceoiaai?
ao?ae?onaie, a i?e ?ioaa?iaaiiio caoeno? oaeeo eieii?e aoei aei 5 %. Oea
na?ae/eoue i?i aieea ia aioiiioaa?a iaeii-aeai?aciaiai canoinoaaiiy
ianoeoeeae?a. O eoeueoo?ao c i?aen?aii iaaeiiin?a caaeaaeue y?oeue
eenoie?ooie e?oi?o iieie?iue nyaaea 89 %. O na?aaeiueiio ca 1990-1993
??. canaeaii?noue y?oeue eenoie?ooie o?eoia?aiith i?e canoinoaaii?
?inaaa?o aoea 68 %, i?e ?ioaa?iaaiiio caoeno? — 76 %, i?e o?i?/iiio — 26
%. O ?acoeueoao? cieaeaiiy e?aoiino? oa ianya?a aeei?enoaiiy
?inaeoeoeeae?a caaaeueia e?euee?noue ia?aceoiaaieo iniaei i?ioth/eo
iieae i?e ?ioaa?iaaiiio caoeno? nyaaea 95-80 %. Aeei?enoaiiy
iie?oiene/ieo ?inaeoeoeeae?a, ye? cieuothoue aea??oaa?a, ni?ey? ianiaiio
?iciiiaeaiith oao?ai?oiaeo ee?u?a. Aaaaeaiiy a aa?ioeaiice no?eei? aei
oinoi?i?aai?/ieo niieoe ?ane iaoanaeoethna aea? ciiao i?e canoinoaaii? a
?ac? iaaaeueii? iio?aae cieiio caa?aaoe aea??oaaa. I?e ia?aaeuaii?
ii?iaiai? /enaeueiino? iaaooeiiiai ee?ua o 3-5 ?ac?a ia?iaee aeioe?eueii
i?iaiaeeoe i?aia?aoaie, a yeeo NE50 aeey oeaeaea ieae/a i?ae aeey
oe?aeieea. E??i ciaioaiiy ianoeoeeaeiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
?ie? i?e?iaeieo ciioaa?a o aa?ia?ioeaiicao ? a?ey ieo aeioe?eueii
noai?thaaoe oiiae aeey ?o aeaeeaaiiy oa i?aeaeuaiiy aeeoo?caeaoiino?
(iin?ae iaeoa?iiin?a, e?ni- oa naaeicaoeni? nioae, caa?aaeaiiy iiaeeco
aa?ioeaiic?a aeeei? ea?oo/i? ?ineeiiino? oiui).

Aeiiii?/i? ii?iae oeiaei/eiiino? aieiaieo oe?aeiee?a ya?aeieo
ianaaeaeaiue ? ??aaiue aoaeoeaiino? ciioaa?a. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ? aeaieo nai?o aeine?aeaeaiue aea?oueny
iaa?oiooaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo aaoi?ii aeey ?aa?iio aeiiii?/ieo ii?ia?a
oeiaei/eiiino? (AIO) iniiaieo aeae?a oe?aeiee?a. AIO a?ae?a?athoue
noaa?e?coth/o ?ieue a aa?ioeaiicao a oiiaao oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy
ianoeoeeae?a (A?eoi?ia, 1974; Oaae??a, 1979). Noaa?e?coth/a ?ieue
iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiie ni?eythoue nei?i/aiith canoinoaaiiy
ianoeoeeae?a, /ei noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey aeaeeaaiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy
?ie? ciioaa?a. Ca iaoeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie, canoinoaaiiy ianoeoeeae?a
?aii iaaani? i?ioe eiiieaeno oe?aeiee?a oi/ ? cieaeo? e?euee?noue ?o o
1,5-5,3 ?aca, aea ia i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? ?o iioiinoaa.
Oiio aeieea? iio?aaa ia?iaie o ianooii? no?iee. Aeieia?/iee caeoie i?e
oeueiio oaea aei??aith? noi? aeo?ao ia ?aiiueiaan?iith ia?iaeo ie?eieie
aioeuen?yie oa AeIIE-ii. O iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo i?e oo?eiaii? a
?cieyoi?ao aonaieoeue eenoie?ooie, ye? ia?aceioaaee, aei 30-oe iniaei ia
100 eenoe?a e?euee?noue iioeiaeaeaieo eenoe?a aoea aei 10 %, a i?e
aeeaeaii? aonaieoeue e?oiueiai iieie?iiy — 25 %. Aeei?enoaiiy naiiai
aenieiai AIO eenoie?ooie aeicaieeei nei?ioeoe e?euee?noue ia?iaie
?inaeoeoeeaeaie a 1,7 ?aca. Oeiaei/eii?noue iieie?iiy eenoie?ooie, ye?
ia?aceioaaee, ca?eueoo?oueny o?eueee a ia?oee ??e cieaeaiiy
ianoeoeeaeiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy (a?aei?ia ia?iaie AeIIE). O iiaeaeueoiio
/enaeuei?noue ? oeiaei/eii?noue ?o noaa?e?co?oueny ia iecueeiio ??ai?.
Aeioe?eueii i?ioe eenoie?ooie iaaani? i?iaiaeeoe eeoa iaeio ia?iaeo
i?ney oea?o?iiy, canoiniaoth/e aaeoa??aeuei? i?aia?aoe i?e AIO 6-9
aonaieoeue ia 100 a?oiueie /e ?icaoie eenoe?a /i?ii? nii?iaeeie, aa?ono,
iaeeie. A iiaeaeueoiio i?e i?aeneeaii? ?ie? ciioaa?a ? ni?yiiaaii?
aa?ioaoi?ee AIO iiaea aooe aei 15 ? a?eueoa aonaieoeue. Iioeiaeueiei
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ciioaa?a ? oe?aeiee?a o aaaaoi??/ieo ianaaeaeaiiyo
noiniaii eiiao ? 1:15 aai 1:20 (Aaeueneee, 1978), a noiniaii ee?u?a —
1:50 (Hall, Ehler, 1996). AIO ia ii/aoeo aaaaoaoe?? (o?aaaiue-/a?aaiue)
— 5-6 ?ooiieo iniaei ee?u?a ia eenoie, o ae?oa?e iieiaei? aaaaoaoe?eiiai
ia??iaeo — 10-15 ? a?eueoa. A i??o iineeaiiy ?aaoethth/i? ?ie?
aea?eoaa?a ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy ?o /enaeueiino? a aeiuiao ?
i?ioieiaeio iiaiaeo AIO iiaeooue aooe i?aeaeuai? aei 15-20 iniaei ia
eenoie o ia?oo iieiaeio aaaaoaoe?? ? aei 25-35 — o ae?oao. I?e
iayaiino?, e??i cieioii/ie, eieoeeiae?ae oa ?ioeo ciioaa?a ia 100
eenoe?a 5 oeaeeo ee?ua?aeieo o?ein?a iio?aaa canoinoaaiiy aea?eoaa?a
a?aeiaaea?.

E?eoa??? canoinoaaiiy ianoeoeeae?a. O?i?/i? ia?iaee ianaaeaeaiue
aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe eeoa i?e aeinyaiaii? a?aeiia?aeieo ??ai?a
/enaeueiino? oe?aeiee?a /e iioeiaeaeaiino? ieie ?ineei ya?aeieo
eoeueoo?, ui aecia/a?oueny ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a ianoaaeaiiy ?
aeyaeaiiy o?oinai?oa?iiai noaio ianaaeaeaiue. E?eoa??? aeioe?eueiino?
canoinoaaiiy ianoeoeeae?a i?ioe oe?aeiee?a ya?aeiee?a ?ic?iaeai? iaie ia
iniia? nai?o aaaaoi??/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aenia?oii? ioe?iee oa
ocaaaeueiaiiy no/anii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? (oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 1.

I???ioiai? e?eoa??? canoinoaaiiy ianoeoeeae?a o ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiiyo
(nii?iaeeia, ii??/ea, aa?on, iaeeia, noieoe?)

I???ioiai? no?iee i?iaaaeaiiy caoiae?aOe?aeeea? ia?eoeE?eoa???
canoinoaaiiyAei ?icioneaiiy a?oiueieNii?iaeeiiaee a?oiueeiaee ee?u15-20
% eou?a c ?-?? aaeii canaeaiiyIaa?yeaiiy — ii/aoie ?icioneaiiy a?oiueie
(aei oea?o?iiy)Eenoie?ooee (a?oiueeiaa, aa?aiaa e?eaiaona, nii?iaeeiiaa,
n?o/anoa)6-9 aonaieoeue ia 100 a?oiueien??ee a?oiueeiaee aeiaaiiinee3-5
aeoe?a ia 100 a?oiueieEe/eiee ieeueuee?a, eenoi?aee3-6 iani?aaaei?o
aonaieoeue ia 100 iieiaeeo eenoi/e?aAooii?caoe?y ?icaiia eenoie?ooea8-10
aonaieoeue ia 100 eenoeiaeo ?icaoieNoie/ii-iaeeiiaee aeiaaiiinee3-4 aec.
aeoe?a ia 1 eouIiiaeeoe? (iaaiiiaa iaeeiiaa, /a?aiiiaaeiaa
nii?iaeeiiaa)Iaaaeee? eieii?? iiiaeeoeue canaeythoue a?ae 15 aei 50 %
eenoeiaeo ? ieiaeiaeo ?icaoie (?? aae canaeaiiy — 15-20 % canaeaieo
eou?a)I?ney oea?o?iiy Iaeeiiaee aeoe (o ieaioaoe?yo iaeeie)2-3 aeoee ia
1 eouAaeeoe?20-25 % canaeaieo iaaii?aAa?oniaa aiai?aea*5-10 % canaeaieo
nooea?oue (o nooea?oo? ii 2-3 aonaieoe?), aai 15 % canaeaieo nooea?oue
(o nooea?oo? iaeia aonaieoey)Ee?u? iaaooeii?** (iaeeia, aa?on, /i?ia
nii?iaeeia)Iiiaae 5 iniaei ia eeno o nooo iiaiaeo ? iiiaae 15 — o
i?ioieiaeioO?aaaiue-/a?aaiueCeaoea nii?iaeeiiaa ? nee?aeaIioeiaeaeaii: 3
% iaaii?a ia iieiaeeo iinaaeeao , 5% — ia noa?ia?eiaeo iinaaeeaoI?ney
cae?aiiy ya?aeIiiaeeoe?***3-5 eieii?e ia 100 ?inoiaeo
aa?o?aieEenoia?eco/?* aonaieoe? oa iani?aaaei? aonaieoe?Iiiaae 10-12
aonaieoeue ia 100 eenoeao*a?aaiue-na?iaiueEe?u?**Iiiaae 20 ?ooiieo oi?i
ia 1 eeno

I?ei?oea aei oaaeeoe?:

I?e i?iaaaeaii? iae?e?a a?aoiao?oueny iayai?noue oeaeeo ? ia?aceoe/ieo
eiiao ii?o/ c oe?aeeeaeie ia?eoaie.

— * i?e o?aaeaii? 50 % aonaieoeue aai iani?aaaei?o aonaieoeue ia?aceoaie
ia?iaee ia i?iaiaeyoue;

— ** i?e ni?aa?aeiioaii? ?ooiieo ? ia?ooiieo noaae?e ?icaeoeo ee?u?a
1:1, 1:2 ? a?eueoa — ia?iaee a?aeeeaaeathoue;

— *** i?e ni?aa?aeiioaii? oac ?icaeoeo ao?aeioaa?a aei iiiaeeoeue
1:40-80 — ia?iaee ia i?iaiaeyoue.

Canoinoaaiiy AIO aei?aaaeiao?oueny, yeui ia eoeueoo?? i?enooi?e iaeei
aeii?ioth/ee oe?aeiee. Aea caaaeaee ie ia?ii ni?aao c eiiieaenii
oe?aeeeaeo aeae?a. Oiio iio??aii ae?aooaaoe noia?io caa?ico a?ae on?o
aeae?a, ye? oeiaeyoue o aeaiee iiiaio, oi/ canaeai?noue eiaeiei ?c ieo
ie?aii ia nyaa? AIO. Oea ? eiiieaeniee AIO. A?i neeaaea?oueny ?c /anoie
AIO ie?aieo aeae?a. *anoea AIO aeaeo aecia/a?oueny iiae?eii iieacieea
oaeoe/ii? u?eueiino? ia iieaciee oaaee/iiai AIO oeueiai aeaeo.
Eiiieaeniee AIO aei??aith? noi? /anoie aeae?a, aeyaeaieo i?e iae?eo.
sseui noia /anoie AIO aeyaeaieo aeae?a aei??aith? 1 aai a?eueoa,
cia/eoue /enaeuei?noue oe?aeiee?a oaea, ui o?aaa canoiniaoaaoe caniae
caoenoo.

Iienaia iaoiaeeea iae?eo oe?aeiee?a eiaeii? ya?aeii? eoeueoo?e, oeacai?
no?iee ? ia?ae?e aeae?a oe?aeiee?a, yeeo iio??aii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e
aecia/aii? EAIO.

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo

Ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? ?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo iaaaaeaia ia i?eeeaae?
caoenoo /i?ii? nii?iaeeie a ainiiaea?noa? Aeoiyinueeiai
?aaeaini-oaoi?eoio Euea?anueei? iaeano? ia ieiu? 6,5 aa a 1993 ? 1994
??. Aaciaei aa??aioii aoea o?aaeeoe?eia nenoaia o?i?/iiai caoenoo. A
eiio?ie? caoeni? caoiaee ia i?iaiaeeee. O aa??aio? ?ioaa?iaaii? nenoaie
canoinoaaee 4 ia?iaee : ia?oa — aiaooai, 25 % e.a. (1,5 e/aa) aai
ea?aioinii 50 % (1,3 e/aa) aei oea?o?iiy i?ioe ee/eiie iiiaeeoeue,
aaeeoeue, nii?iaeeiiai? iie? ; ae?oaa — a?ii?aia?aoii aeeiae (2 ea/aa)
i?ney oea?o?iiy i?ioe ee/eiie eoneie?eeeo oa eenoia?eco/eo ieeueuee?a;
o?aoy — i?ney cae?aiiy a?iaeath aoaoinii, 30 % c.i. (2,5 ea/aa) aai
noi?oeeae?iii, 20 % e.a. (0,6 e/aa) i?ioe iaaooeiiiai ee?ua, nee?aee ?
ceaoee ; /aoaa?oa — eai?aeioeeaeii, oeo? 100 ie?ae nii?/a (1 ea/aa)
i?ioe aonaieoeue eenoie?ooie, iieae, aiai?aie, ieeueuee?a. O ia??iae
i?ae oea?o?iiyi ? aeinoeaaiiyi ya?ae i?ioe eoneie?eeeo aeioneaee
o?eoia?aio i?e ni?aa?aeiioaii? 1:5. O aa??aio? a?ieia?/iiai caoenoo
i?iaaaeaii a no?iee, ye ? a ?ioaa?iaaiiio, /ioe?e ia?iaee eai?aeioeeaeii
? aeeiaeii oa aeione o?eoia?aie. A ?ioaa?iaai?e nenoai? ii??aiyii c
aaciaei aa??aioii /enei ia?iaie ianoeoeeaeaie ciaioeeinue o 4 ?ace (2
i?ioe 8), aeo?aoe ianoeoeeae?a — a 13,1 ?aca, cao?aoe ia o?i?/iee caoeno
— a 4 ?ace. *enoee i?eaooie o na?aaeiueiio ca aeaa ?iee noaiiaea: o
aaciaiio aa??aio? — 1810 a?i./aa, i?e ?ioaa?iaaiiio caoeno? — 1947
a?i./aa, a?ieia?/iiio caoeno? — 1207 a?i./aa. Ieoii?noue cao?ao ia
caoeno aoea — a?aeiia?aeii 5,7; 7,1; 7,0 ?ac?a. Aieiaiith ia?aaaaith
a?ieia?/iiai oa ?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo ? iaea?aeaiiy aeieia?/ii /enoi?
aenieiye?nii? i?iaeoeoe?? aeey e?eoaaeueiiai, ae??oe/iiai ? aeeoy/iai
oa?/oaaiiy.

Caeeth/aiiy

Ciie E?ninoaio ? Iie?nny Oe?a?ie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iioeiaeueieie
oiiaaie aeey ae?iuoaaiiy noaa?eueieo o?iaea?a aenieiye?nieo ya?ae,
i?eaeaoieo aeey ae?iaieoeoaa aeieia?/ii /enoeo i?ioe?aae?aoe?eieo
i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy ? oa?/iaeo aeiaaaie.

Iniaeeainoyie aa?ia?ioeaiic?a ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiue o oeueiio ?aa?ii? ?
iaaecae/aeii ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo a?eueoino? oe?aeiee?a ?
oai?ia. ?aii? ieiaeiiin?iiy ya?aeiee?a ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith /enaeueiino?
aeae?a, ye? iioeiaeaeothoue yaiaee (aeaye? eenoie?ooee, iie? oa ?i.).
Aaeeea aeiiii?/ia cia/aiiy oe?aeiee?a o ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiiyo aeiaaa?
aoaeoeaiiai caoenoo. Aea nenoaia o?i?/iiai caoenoo, yea ia?aianaia a
ya?aei? ianaaeaeaiiy, ia caaacia/o? noaa?eueiiai aoaeoo, ni?ey?
caa?oaeiaiith aeiae?eey ? i?iaeoeoe?? ?c caeeoeaie ianoeoeeae?a oa
i?iaeoeoaie ?o iaoaaie?cio.

Oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie, yea a?aeaoaaeinue a 70-o ?ieao, iineei
o?aaiaioa?iee oa?aeoa?, ai iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue o?i?/iei
caoiaeai. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aaeueioaaa ?icaeoie i?ioean?a naii?aaoeyoe?? a
ya?aeieo aa?ia?ioeaiicao. A?aenooi?noue aeiaaio?eaaei? no?aoaa?? caoenoo
ya?aeieo eoeueoo? a?ae oe?aeeeaeo i?aai?ci?a ia iiaeia eiiiainoaaoe
aaeineiiaeaiiyi ie?aieo aeaiaio?a caoenieo caoiae?a.

O iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo i?e ae??oaii? i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue caoenoo
ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiue oai?aoe/iith aacith aeey ?ic?iaee i?ia?aie
oi?aae?iiy /enaeuei?noth oe?aeeeai? ? ei?enii? oaoie ? a?ioeaiioe/iee
i?aeo?ae aei i?iaeaie aeeiai?ee /enaeueiino? /eaienoiiiaeo. A oiiaao
i?iieneiaeo ianaaeaeaiue aeey neeaaeaiiy nenoaie ?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo
a?aee aei oaaae ?ic?iaeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? oae? iieiaeaiiy:

— eiiieaeni? aeiiii?/i? ii?iae oeiaei/eiiino?, a?aenooi?noue yeeo
ni?eyea ?ioaineo?eaoe?? o?i?/ieo ia?iaie ? aeieeiaiith ianiaeo
?iciiiaeaiue ?yaeo oe?aeeeaeo aeae?a (ee?u?a, iieae, eenoie?ooie),
/enaeuei?noue yeeo i?e a?aenooiino? o?i?/ieo ia?iaie, aai i?e iecueeiio
??ai? ?o canoinoaaiiy eiio?ieth?oueny i?e?iaeieie ai?iaaie. Canoinoaaiiy
?ic?iaeaieo eiiieaenieo AIO aeey iniiaieo oe?aeiee?a ? oiiaieo ??ai?a
aoaeoeaiino? aieiaieo aioiiioaa?a oa aea?eoaa?a, i?e iayaiino? yeeo o
eiie?aoiiio aa?ia?ioeaiic? ia?iaee a?aei?iythoueny iaa?oue i?e
aeinyaiaii? ie?aieie aeaeaie AIO, ni?ey? ??ceiio cieaeaiith
ianoeoeeaeiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy a ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiiyo. I?e oeueiio
aaaeeeai iino?eii eiio?iethaaoe o?oinai?oa?io neooaoe?th;

— oe?eani?yiiaaia canoinoaaiiy aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a (ia?iaea
i?ae?yaeue ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiue i?ae /an caeyeueeoaaiiy ie?aieo aeae?a,
ia??cea iaaii?a, o?aaeaieo oai?iaaie, aeaeaeaiiy iaaii?a canaeaieo
aioo??oiueinoaaeiaeie oe?aeieeaie- noaaeia? aaeeoe?, iaeeiiaa noaaeiaa
iooa, nee?aea, ceaoea oa ?i.);

— Ciaioaiiy ianoeoeeaeiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy cae?enith?oueny ca ?aooiie:
a) a?aei?ie ?aiiueiaaniyieo iai?eneoaaiue eoeueoo? AeIIEii;

a) ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaeiia?iiiai iai?eneoaaiiy, yea, e??i cieaeaiiy aeo?ao
ianoeoeeae?a, i?aeaeuo? aoaeoeai?noue caoenieo caoiae?a ca ?aooiie
iie?ioaiiy yeino? iaianaiiy i?aia?ao?a ia ?ineeio. Oe? ia?iaee
aeicaieythoue cieceoe ?aeiiaiaeiaai? ii?ie aeo?aoe ianoeoeeae?a ia
20-45% aac cieaeaiiy ainiiaea?nueei? aoaeoeaiino?;

— cai?ia ia?iaie o?i?/ieie i?aia?aoaie ia ia?iaee i?e?ia?ieia?/ieie oa
?aaoeyoi?aie ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo eiiao aaaea aei iineeaiiy i?e?iaeiiai
oaeoi?a, ?aaoethth/iai /enaeuei?noue ciioaa?a;

— ni?eyiiy iaeiie/aiith ciioaa?a o ya?aeiiio aa?ia?ioeaiic? oeyoii
i?aen?ao a i?ae?yaeaeyo aai iaaeiei ianaaeaeaiue iaeoa?iiin?a,
i?eaaaethaaiiy eiiaoi?aeieo ioao?a, noai?aiiy iaaaeeeeo ino?iae?a
aa?aioiaaiiai aeaeeaaiiy i?e?iaeieo ei?enieo /eaienoiiiaeo oa ae?iuaieo
o a?ieia?/ieo eaai?aoi??yo.

?ic?iaeaia iaie ?ioaa?iaaia nenoaia aeicaiey? iaae?eii caoenoeoe
ya?aei? ianaaeaeaiiy a?ae oe?aeiee?a ? oai?ia i?e cia/iiio ciaioaii?
ianoeoeeaeiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ? aeo?ao ia caoeno. I?e canoinoaaii? oaei?
nenoaie neeaaeathoueny ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aeoea?caoe??
ei?enii? ae?yeueiino? i?e?iaeieo iiioeyoe?e ciioaa?a.

Aeey io?eiaiiy aeieia?/ii /enoi? i?iaeoeoe?? aeey aeeoy/iai ?
ae??oe/iiai oa?/oaaiiy i?e caoeno? ya?aeiee?a iaiao?aeii ea?oaaoenue
aeiiii?/ieie ii?iaaie oeiaei/eiiino? ? ??aiyie aoaeoeaii? /enaeueiino?
aioiiioaa?a oa aea?eoaa?a, a o aeiaaeeao, aea aieiaieie aeaeaie
aenooiathoue eenoia?eco/? oe?aeieee (ee/eiee ieeueuee?a, eenoie?ooie,
iieae), o?i?/i? ia?iaee cai?iththoueny ia?iaeaie c canoinoaaiiyi
i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo i?aia?ao?a.

AENIIAEE

1. Aeaeiaee neeaae oe?aeiee?a ya?aeieo eoeueoo? o i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiio
E?ninoaio ? Iie?nn? Oe?a?ie iae?/o? 172 aeaee, c yeeo 162 iaeaaeaoue aei
eeano eiiao (Insekta), 8 — ee?u? (?yae Acariformes) oa 2 — iaiaoiaee
(?yae Tylenchida):

a) ia noieoe? — 64 aeaee, c ieo 58 eiiaoe, ui iaeaaeaoue aei 7 ?yae?a
oa 20 ?iaeei, 4 — ee?u? (2 ?iaeeie) oa 2 — iaiaoiaee;

a) ia iaeei? — 51 aeae, c ieo 49 — eiiaoe (6 ?yae?a, 23 ?iaeeie), 2 —
ee?u?;

a) ia nii?iaeei? oa aa?on? — 57 aeae?a, na?aae yeeo 55 — eiiaoe (7
?yae?a, 20 ?iaeei), 2 — ee?u?.

Iaea?eueo /enaeueieie ? eoneie?ee? — 40,2 %, ??aiie?ee? — 23,8 %,
oaa?aeie?ee? — 18,3 %, aei ?ioeo a?oi iaeaaeaoue 12,7 %.

2. ?c iniiaieo oe?aeiee?a ya?aeieo eoeueoo? iioe?ai? iianthaeii oae?
aeaee: nii?iaeeiiaa nee?aea ? ceaoea, iaeeiiaee aeoe, iaeeiiai-noie/iee
aeiaaiiinee, ?icaiia, nii?iaeeiiaa, n?o/anoa, no?ieaoicieioenoa
eenoie?ooee, iyaeoie, a?oiueeia? iie?, iie?-e?eo?oee, aeiaoee aa?oniaee,
aeiaoee /i?iinii?iaeeiiaee, ae?aeiiiaee aa?oniaee ieeueueee, aaeeea
nii?iaeeiiaa, iaaiiiaa iaeeiiaa, ii??/eiaa aaeiaa, aa?oniaa iaaiiiaa
iiiaeeoe?, nii?iaeeiiaee a?oiueeiaee oa ?io? aeaee ee?u?a.

3. AEeaeaiiy ee/eiie aeiaoiai oa ae?aeiiiaiai aa?oniaiai ieeueuee?a
/i?iith nii?iaeeiith aeeeeea? caaeaaeue ?o ia 67-95 % ? cieaeaiiy
ieiaeth/ino? ?iaai a 6-15 ?ac?a. Iaeeiiaee ieeueuee iiaea aeeaeoenue
eenoyi iaeeie. Ee/eiee ?icaiii? oa n?o/anoi? eenoie?ooie i?ney ia?aeaiiy
eenoy iioeiaeaeothoue aei 25 % ieiae?a. I?e i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e
iia?o?y naiee n?o/anoi? ? ?icaiii? eenoie?ooie a?aeeeaaeathoue yeoey a
ieaei?o y?onao eou?a, a i?e iioieiaeaii? ? i?aeaeuaii? aieiaino? — ia
aa?o?aee iaaii?a. ?icaiia eenoie?ooea neeuei?oa canaey? caao?yiai?,
cani?/ai? ia??caieie iaaiiaie ? caaouai? 6-7-??/i? ya?aeieee.

4. Ianiaa a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iiiaeeoeue ?c y?oeue a?aeaoaa?oueny a
ya?aeieeao ca 5-9 ae?a o na?aaeei? ea?oiy i?e noi? aoaeoeaieo oaiia?aoo?
49-52 i?ae /an ?icioneaiiy a?oiueie /i?ii? nii?iaeeie. ?icaeoie iaeiiai
iieie?iiy nii?iaeeiiai? iaaiiiai? iiiaeeoe? a?aeaoaa?oueny iaaani? ca
15-17, ae?oeo — ca 10-12, ainaie — ca 14-17 ae?a. Iaaani? aiia aea? 4-6,
ae?oeo — 5-6, ainaie — 2-3 iieie?iiy. Ia?o? 5-6 iieie?iue iaaiiiai?
aaeiai? iiiaeeoe? aeeaooue ia /i?i?e nii?iaeei?, a ianooii? 4-5 — ia
i?ii?aeieo aeeaeoaeyo. Ceioth/? yeoey aiia a?aeeeaaea? c e?ioey na?iiy ?
aei caii?ice?a. Ia /i?i?e nii?iaeei? ieiaeth/?noue inoaiiueiai iieie?iiy
neeaaea?: o iiiaeeoe? Oiaeaea?a — 4-7, aaeeei? nii?iaeeiiai? iiiaeeoe? —
5-6, Cryptomyzus galleopsidis — 7-9 y?oeue.

5. Iioeiaeaeai? iiiaeeoeyie iaaiie /i?ii? nii?iaeeie ii??aiyii c
iaiioeiaeaeaieie ciaioothoue e?i?eiee i?e??no ia 64-69 %, aceieo aei 85%
a?aeie?athoue, a i?e??no oeo, ui ia?aceioaaee, oiia?eueith?oueny a 3-6
?ac?a; ia ieo ciaioo?oueny a?iaeaei?noue ya?ae o 10-12 ?ac?a, ai?no
oeoe??a o yaiaeao — ia 2,2 %, caaaeueiiai acioo — ia 0,5 %, iana yaiaee
— ia 24 %.

6. O naciii?e aeeiai?oe? /enaeueiino? iiiaeeoeue iaeneioi ?o i?eiaaea?
ia ae?oao iieiaeio /a?aiy, a aei inai? eaea cieaeaiiy. *enaeuei?noue
ao?aeioaa?a ia?inoa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi /enaeueiino? iiiaeeoeue.
Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aioiiioaa?a ? iiiaeeoeue ia ii/aoeo ea?oiy a
na?aaeiueiio neeaaea? 1:188, a a na?aaeei? na?iiy — 1:10. Aioiiioaae
cieuothoue ca nacii o na?aaeiueiio 51 % iiiaeeoeue.

7. Aeiaeaoeiaa aeeaeaiiy naiie nii?iaeeiiai? nee?aee iaeoa?ii ea?oie
eoeueoo?ieo ? aeeeeo ?ineei aeinoia??ii i?aeaeuo? ieiaeth/?noue ?o ia
30-40 %. Iaea?eueo no?eeei aei canaeaiiy nee?aeith ? ni?o THiao —
canaeai?noue eiai a 6-11 ?ac?a iaioa i?ae ?ioeo. Caeaaeii a?ae
iaoai?ieia?/ieo oiia ?ieo 12-28 % aonaieoeue nii?iaeeiiai? nee?aee
caeeoathoueny ia iiaoi?io cei?aeth, ? ?icaeoie ?o a?aeaoaa?oueny ca
aeai??/iei oeeeeii. O iinooeea? ?iee /enei iniaei c iaeii??/iith
aaia?aoe??th ca?eueoo?oueny. Canaeai?noue /i?ii? nii?iaeeie nee?aeith
c?inoa? c 12 % o 3-4-??/ieo aei 56 % a 6-7-??/ieo ianaaeaeaiiyo. O
iioeiaeaeaieo iath eoeueoo?ao ciaioo?oueny: a?iaeaei?noue ii??/ie — ia
18-27 %, /i?ii? nii?iaeeie — aei 40%, ai?no a yaiaeao a?oai?io N — ia 43
%.

8. ?c 12 ?aeiiiaaieo ni?o?a /i?ii? nii?iaeeie iaioa canaeythoueny
a?oiueeiaei ee?uii Aieoaea ? Ieiae Oie?ueia. Iioeiaeaeai?noue iei ni?o?a
I?eio I.Iaie?i, I?eea?iaonueea ?aiiy, A?ei?onueea nieiaeea ? Neaaooa
noaiiaeoue a?aeiia?aeii 1; 2; 5; 7 % i?e iioeiaeaeaiino? ?ioeo 14-40
%.

9. A ya?aeieeao ?aa?iio ooi/iaia /enei aeae?a aioiiioaa?a neeaaea? 192,
c yeeo 12 ca?a?no?iaai? ooo aia?oa ; iaeaaaeeea?oeie ? : oeae?
aeoaeaeeoe?, eieoeeiae?aee, cieioii/ee, oeae? eeiie, ao?ae??aee,
?oiaaiii?aee, a?aeii?aee, oao?ie. *enaeuei?noue ?o c?inoa? o
o?aai?-/a?ai?, iio?i niaaea? ? ciiao c?inoa? ainaie. A eoeueoo?ao iaeeie
? /i?ii? nii?iaeeie /enei eieoeeiae?ae nyaa? 302-320 iniaei/aa. Aei
na?iiy e?euee?noue ia?aceo?a a?aeiinii e?eueeino? iiiaeeoeue, ui
i?eiaaea? ia iaeio iniaeio, c?inoa? a na?aaeiueiio a 23 ?ace. Ui?ieo
ia?aceoe cieuothoue aei 60 % aonaieoeue iyaeoi?a ? iieae, aei 69 %
iiiaeeoeue, a i?e aeioneao o?eoia?aie — aei 75-80 % y?oeue eenoie?ooie.
I?e o?i?/ieo ia?iaeao /i?ii? nii?iaeeie i?ioe iieae /anoeia
aiaeiia?aceo?a ?o aeaeeaa?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iiaeeeaino? iioei?caoe??
oeyo?a canoinoaaiiy ianoeoeeae?a c iaoith caa?aaeaiiy aioiiioaa?a.

10. Neeueii o?aaeai? ai?ioienoith ?inith eou? /i?ii? nii?iaeeie ni?oo
Ieiae Oie?ueia ia o?eueee cieaeothoue o?iaeaei?noue o 7-9 ?ac?a, a
o?aaeai? eou? aa?ono iaeaea cian?i ia aeathoue o?iaeath ianooii? 2-3
?iee, aiie neeuei?oa canaeythoueny oe?aeieeaie ii??aiyii ?c canaeaiiyi
iao?aaeaieo eou?a.

11. Iniiaieie ?aca?aaoe?yie oe?aeiee?a ya?aeieo eoeueoo? ? aeee?
ya?aei? ?ineeie : e?niaa iaeeia, iaeeia, nii?iaeeia, oeioeia, e?niaa
noieoey, a oaeiae ?io? aea?aai?, /aaa?ieeia? oa ieiaeia? ianaaeaeaiiy ?
iaieoeueoo?ai? a?ioiie. Nooo?ao ?ieue a?ae?a?a? ainiiaea?nueea
ae?yeuei?noue ethaeeie : i?aea?? ni?o?a, no?eeeo aei oe?aeiee?a ?
oai?ia, caaeainiaai?noue i?ia?aeueieo ? i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea, ia?iaea
i?ae?yaeue, caoiaee caa?aaeaiiy e i?eaaaethaaiiy aioiiioaa?a,
aeei?enoaiiy ianoeoeeae?a ? a?ieia?/ieo cania?a i?ioe oe?aeiee?a,
oai?ia, ao?yi?a, nai?/ania ye?nia ia??cea iaaii?a ? cieuaiiy ?o, ui
ciaioo? canaeai?noue eoeueoo? o?oioaaaie a 1,5-2 ?ace.

12. O ianaaeaeaiiyo, aea nenoaiaoe/ii i?iaiaeeoueny o?i?/iee caoeno
?ineei, ciaioaiiy /enaeueiino? oe?aeiee?a a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie
aaaaoi?aciaiai canoinoaaiiy ianoeoeeae?a, yea i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai
caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey oa ?icaaeainiaaiiino? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae
ei?enieie ? oe?aeeeaeie aeaeaie, niaeao?a ianiaiai ?iciiiaeaiiy
aaaaoueio oe?aeiee?a oa nooo?aiai ciaioaiiy ??aiy naii?aaoethaaiiy
/eaienoiiiaeo a aa?ia?ioeaiic?, ?, ye iane?aeie, iiaa?iaiiy aei iiaiai
aeoea ?ioaineaiiai aeei?enoaiiy o?i?/ieo cania?a. Canoinoaaiiy
?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo ya?aeiee?a a?ae oe?aeiee?a aea? iiaeeea?noue
ciaioeoe e?euee?noue o?i?/ieo ia?iaie, ia aeiionoeoe ao?ao o?iaeath,
iaea?aeaoe a?eueo /enoo i?iaeoeoe?th, i?eaeaoio aeey ae??oe/iiai,
e?eoaaeueiiai oa aeeoy/iai oa?/oaaiiy, ciaioeoe caa?oaeiaiiy
ianoeoeeaeaie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

13. ?aiiueiaaniyi? ia?iaee ya?aeiee?a AeIIE, ui i?iaiaeyoueny a
?aa?ii?, iaaoaeoeai? i?ioe ceioth/eo y?oeue, ? iaeiaoaeoeai? (52-59 %)
i?ioe ceioth/eo aonaieoeue eenoie?ooie. Aiie aeeeeeathoue cia/ia
ciaioaiiy /enaeueiino? aioiiioaa?a, ui aeeeth/a? ?o ?aaoethth/o ae?th a
ya?aeiiio aa?ia?ioeaiic?. A ?ac? a?aei?ie oeeo ia?iaie oaea /a?ac ??e
a?aeaoaa?oueny a?aeiiaeaiiy /enaeueiino? ciioaa?a, a /a?ac aeaa ?iee
/enei aeae?a ?o, ui ceiothoue o i?aenoeeueoe? ? iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao
a?oioo, c?inoa? : eieoeeiae?ae — o 4,5 ?aca; oeaeeo aeoaeaeeoeue — o
7,1; iaaoe?a — o 12,3 ?aca. A ianooii? 3-e ? 4-e ?iee /enaeuei?noue on?o
a?oi noaa?e?co?oueny ? aeinyaa? eiio?ieueiiai ??aiy.

14. Aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi ?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo ya?aeiee?a a?ae
oe?aeiee?a o ?aa?ii? ? i?i?iae?caoe?y canoinoaaiiy o?i?/ieo i?aia?ao?a ?
iinooiiaa ?o cai?ia i?e?ia?ieia?/ieie oa aeei?enoaiiyi ciioaa?a. ??oaiiy
i?i iio?aao canoinoaaiiy o?i?/ieo cania?a caoenoo ya?aeiee?a o
ainiiaea?noaao aeioe?eueii i?eeiaoe c o?aooaaiiyi ?ic?iaeaieo iaie
?aa?iiaeueieo i???ioiaieo e?eoa???a oa no?ie?a canoinoaaiiy ianoeoeeae?a
? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy eiiieaeniiai aeiiii?/iiai ii?iao oeiaei/eiiino?
ia iniia? niinoa?aaeaiue o eoeueoo?ao, aa?o/e aei oaaae o?c?ieia?/iee
noai, ??ai? aoaeoeaiino? aioiii- ? aea?eoaa?a, no?ee?noue ni?o?a,
?acoeueoaoeai?noue i?iaaaeaieo i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueeeo ?
aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a, ye? iineeththoue ?ieue a?ioe/ieo oaeoi??a a
iaiaaeaii? /enaeueiino? oe?aeiee?a.

15. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaie ?ioaa?iaaiee caoeno /i?ii? nii?iaeeie c
aeai?aciaith o?i?/iith oa aeaiia ia?iaeaie a?ieia?/ieie i?aia?aoaie ?
aeioneii o?eoia?aie i?ioe eiiieaeno oe?aeiee?a ni?ey? iaea?aeaiith ya?ae
ia oaeiio ??ai?, ye ? o?aaeeoe?eia nenoaia o?i?/iiai caoenoo, aea? ciiao
ciaioeoe e?euee?noue o?i?/ieo ia?iaie o 4, aeo?aoe ?inaeoeoeeae?a -o 13,
aeo?aoe eioo?a ia o?i?/iee caoeno — o 4 ?ace, cieceoe caa?oaeiaiiy
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ? iaea?aeaoe /enoee i?eaooie, ui caaacia/o?
ieoii?noue cao?ao o 7 ?ac?a.

I?IIICEOe?? AE?IAIEOeOAO

Aea?aeaai?e neoaea? caoenoo ?ineei ? aaciina?aaei?i
niaoe?ae?noai-caoenieeai o ainiiaea?noaao ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny nenoaia
?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo ya?aeieo eoeueoo? a?ae oe?aeiee?a, yea aeeth/a?
o?oinai?oa?iee eiio?ieue, i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nuee?, aa?ioaoi?/i?
caoiaee, canoinoaaiiy o?i?/ieo ? a?ieia?/ieo cania?a ia iniia?
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo aeiiii?/ieo ii?ia?a oeiaei/eiiino?.

Oni?oia ?aae?caoe?y oe??? i?ia?aie iiaea aooe aeinyaiooa eeoa i?e
a?aeiia? a?ae aaaeaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai nei?i/aiiy /enaeueiino? oe?aeiee?a
aae aei iiaiiai ?o cieuaiiy. Aeueoa?iaoeaith oeueiio ? ia?ao?ae ia
no?aoaa?th, iiaycaio c ?aaoethaaiiyi /enaeueiino? oe?aeeeaeo i?aai?ci?a
ia aeieia?/ii iioeiaeueiiio ??ai?, yeee eaaeeoue ieae/a ii?iao
oe?aeeeaino?. Aea ? a oeueiio ?ac? iio??aii aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?eeiie ?
caniae caoenoo ?ineei, ye? ia aieeaathoue cian?i aai ?o aieea iacia/iee
ia ei?eni? aeaiaioe aa?ia?ioeaiico ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiue.

Aeey ooai?aiiy iiaeo eoeueoo? ya?aeiee?a aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
naaeeaiee iaoa??ae ni?o?a, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny i?aeaeuaiith
no?ee?noth aei canaeaiiy oe?aeieeaie ? o?aaeaiiy oai?iaaie.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

Iiiia?ao?y

1. Aaaecaei ss.I. ?ioaa?iaaiee caoeno ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiue a?ae
oe?aeiee?a o i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiio E?ninoaio ? Iie?nn? Oe?a?ie. – Euea?a:
Na?o, 1999. – 184n.

A?ioo?e

2. Aaaecaei ss.I. Oe?aeieee ya?aeieo eoeueoo? ia Iie?nn? oa E?ninoaio
Oe?a?ie.- E.: O?iaeae, 1999.- 80 n.

3. Aaaecaei ss.I., Aoeueei ?.I.. Oaoiieia?y ae?iuoaaiiy nii?iaeeie oa
?? caoeno a?ae oe?aeiee?a.- Euea?a: aeaeaaie/ee a?aeae?e Euea?anueeiai
Aaie?anueeiai eieaaeaeo, 1999.- 88n. (iniaenoee aianie 50 %)

4. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei caoenoo ya?aeieo eoeueoo? a?ae oai?ia ?
oe?aeiee?a// TH.A. Eaethaeiee, N.?. Aioiithe, ss.I. Aaaecaei.- E.:
O?iaeae, 1999.- 48 n. (iniaenoee aianie 40%).

5. Aaaecaei ss.I. Oeyoe ciaioaiiy ianya?a canoinoaaiiy ianoeoeeae?a o
i?iieneiaeo ianaaeaeaiiyo ya?aeieo eoeueoo?.- E.: O?iaeae, 1999.- 32 n.

Iaoeia? noaoo?

6. Iieicee E.O., Aaaecaei ss.I.. Ie?ao?ieaeu i?ioea a?aaeeoaeae iaeeiu
// Caueoa ?anoaiee. — 1988.- ? 3.-N. 35-36 (iniaenoee aianie 50 %).

7. ssoeaiei A.A., Aaaecaei ss.I.. Eenoaiiniay iaeeiiay eenoiaa?oea e
ia?u ai?ueau n iae a oneiaeyo Eeaaneie iaeanoe // Caueoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? io a?aaeeoaeae aieaciae : Na. iao/. o?. /
ONOA.-E. : Ec-ai ONOA, 1988.- N. 94-96 (iniaenoee aianie 80 %).

8. ssoeaiei A.A., Aaaecaei ss.I.. Iaeeiiay eenoaiiniay eenoiaa?oea //
Caueoa ?anoaiee.- 1988.- ? 6.- N.39 (iniaenoee aianie 70 %).

9. Aaaecaei ss.I. Iie? — oe?aeieee ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiue o Euea?anuee?e
iaeano? // Iaoeiaee a?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- E.:
Aeae-ai IAO, 1998.-? 7.- N. 60-62.

10. Aaaecaei ss.I. Iiiaeeoe? nii?iaeeie ? aa?ono a Iie?nn? ? E?ninoaio
Oe?a?ie // Iaoeiaee a?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- E.:
Aeae-ai IAO, 1998.-? 10.- N. 101-106.

11. Aioiithe N.?., Aaaecaei ss.I.. Aeaeiaee neeaae oe?aeiee?a ya?aeieo
ianaaeaeaiue // Caoeno ?ineei.- 1999.-? 5.-N.21-22 (iniaenoee aianie 50
%).

12. Aaaecaei ss.I. Eenoie?ooee — oe?aeieee ya?aeiee?a Euea?aueie //
Caoeno ?ineei.- 1999.- ? 6.- N. 21-22.

13. Aaaecaei ss.I.. Ieeueueee ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiue Iie?nny ? E?ninoaio
Oe?a?ie // Iaoeiaee a?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- E.:
aeae-ai IAO, 1999.-? 13.- N.115-120.

14. Aaaecaei ss.I.. Aeiiii?/i? ii?iae oeiaei/eiiino? ie?aieo oe?aeiee?a
ya?aeieo eoeueoo? // N?euenueeee ainiiaea?. — 1999.- ? 5 — 6.- N.16-17.

15. Aaaecaei ss.I. Oe?aeieee ya?aeieo eoeueoo? // Oe?aeieee aaaaoi??/ieo
ianaaeaeaiue. — E.: O?iaeae, 1999.- N. 57-76.

16. Aaaecaei ss.I.. Iae?e oe?aeiee?a ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiue // Oe?aeieee
aaaaoi??/ieo ianaaeaeaiue. — E.: O?iaeae, 1999.- N. 210-213.

17. Aaaecaei ss.I. Oaiia?aie ?icaeoeo iniiaieo aeae?a oe?aeiee?a
ya?aeieo eoeueoo?// Oe?aeieee aaaaoi??/ieo ianaaeaeaiue. — E.: O?iaeae,
1999.- N. 256-257.

Oace aeiiia?aeae

18. Aaaecaei ss.I. Oaoia aeanoeie?ueuo a?aaeeoaeae iaeeiu a
Oeaio?aeueiie Eaninoaie ONN? // ??? nueacae Oe?aeineiai
aioiiieiae/aneiai iauanoaa. Oacenu aeieeaaeia.-E, 1987.- N. 42-43.

19. Aaaecaei ss.I., Ieenea I.I.. *aooae?ueua a?aaeeoaee iaeeiu e
?ac?aaioea ia? ai?ueau n ieie // Iieiaeua enneaaeiaaoaee e i?aeoeee-
?acaeoeth naeueneiai oicyenoaa Othiaineie iaeanoe. Oacenu aeieeaaeia.-
Othiaiue, 1987.- N. 62 (iniaenoee aianie 50 %).

AAAeCAEI ss.I. Aa?ia?ieia?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo
ya?aeieo ianaaeaeaiue a?ae oe?aeiee?a o i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiio E?ninoaio ?
Iie?nn? Oe?a?ie. -?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.09 —
aioiiieia?y. Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao. Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aaeineiiaeaiith caoenoo ya?aeieo eoeueoo? :
nii?iaeeie /i?ii? ? /a?aiii?, aa?ono, iaeeie, noieoe?. A ?acoeueoao?
aeine?aeaeaiue ooi/iaii: aeaeiaee neeaae, oeiaei/eii?noue iniiaieo
oe?aeiee?a (?icaiia, naeioeaainioaanoa, i?ieeaa, i?aeei?iaa, aa?aiaa,
ana?aeia, nii?iaeeiiaa, n?o/anoa, no?ieaoicieioenoa eenoie?ooee;
aa?oniaee iyaeoi; nii?iaeeiiaa i?eue, iaeeiiaa i?eue, iaeeiiaa
i?eue-e?eo?oea; aa?oniaa aiai?aea; noie/iee /i?iiieyienoee,
a?aa?i/anoiaonee ?icaiiee, ae?aeiiiaee aa?oniaee, aeiaoee aa?oniaee,
iaeeiiaee ieeueueee; aaeeea nii?iaeeiiaa, ii??/eiaa aaeiaa, aa?oniaa
iaaiiiaa iiiaeeoe? ? iiiaeeoey Oiaeaea?a; nii?iaeeiiaa nee?aea; n??ee
a?oiueeiaee, iaeeiiai-noie/iee aeiaaiiineee; ea?oeiaa, eenoeiaa
nii?iaeeiiaa, iaaiiiaa nii?iaeeiiaa aaeeoe?; a?oiueeiaee nii?iaeeiiaee,
cae/aeiee iaaooeiiee ee?u?). Anoaiiaeai? i?e/eie ?o aeniei?
/enaeueiino?. ?ic?iaeaia ? aei?iaoaaia o ae?iaieoeoa? ?ioaa?iaaia
nenoaia caoenoo ya?aeiee?a a?ae oe?aeiee?a. Ooi/iai? aeiiii?/i? ii?iae
oeiaei/eiiino?. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy eiiieaenieo aeiiii?/ieo
ii?ia?a oeiaei/eiiino?. Ooi/iaii aeaeiaee neeaae ciioaa?a ? ?o ?ieue a
ya?aeieeao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nii?iaeeia, aa?on, iaeeia, oe?aeieee, ?ioaa?iaaiee
caoeno.

AAAeCAEI ss.I. Aa?iaeieiae/aneia iainiiaaiea eioaa?e?iaaiiie caueou
yaiaeiuo ianaaeaeaiee io a?aaeeoaeae a naaa?ii-caiaaeiie Eaninoaie e
Iieanuea Oe?aeiu.- ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie
aeieoi?a naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.09 —
yioiiieiaey. Iaoeeiiaeueiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao Oe?aeiu. Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia oniaa?oainoaiaaieth caueou yaiaeiuo eoeueoo?:
nii?iaeeiu /a?iie e e?aniie, e?uaeiaieea, iaeeiu, eeoaieee. A
?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiee ooi/iai aeaeiaie ninoaa a?aaeeoaeae e
a?aaeiiiniinoue iniiaiuo aeaeia, eo aeieiaey, aeieiaey, oaiieiaey a
?aaeiia enneaaeiaaiee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi eeiaeiue i?e?ino iiaaaia /a?iie
nii?iaeeiu, iia?aaeaeaiiuo oeyie, oiaiueoaaony ia 56-65 %; ceiie aei 80
% eo iiaeaaao, a i?e?ino ia?aceiiaaaoeo oiaiueoaaony a 3-6 ?ac.
O?iaeaeiinoue yaiae ia ieo nieaeaaony a 10-12 ?ac, niaea?aeaiea naoa?ia
a yaiaeao oiaiueoaaony ia 2,2 %, iauaai acioa — ia 0,5 %. Aioiiioaae a
n?aaeiai ca nacii oie/oiaeatho aei 51 % oeae. Nii?iaeeiiaay iiaaaiaay
oey aeaao 11-15 iieieaiee ca nacii. I?e ieoaiee e?uaeiaieeiaiai
aeaaeiiiiaiai e aeaeoiai e?uaeiaieeiaiai ieeeeueueeia /a?iie nii?iaeeiie
67-95 % ee/eiie iiaeaaao, a ieiaeiaeoinoue eiaai nieaeaaony a 6-15 ?ac.
Iaeeiiaue ieeeeueuee ieoaaony oaeaea eenoueyie aaeaaeee. Ee/eiee
?icaiiie e nao/aoie eenoiaa?oie iinea iaueaaeaiey eenoueaa ia /a?iie
nii?iaeeia iia?aaeaeatho aei 25 % aa ieiaeia. Aeiiieieoaeueiia ieoaiea
naiie nii?iaeeiiie noaeeyiieoeu iaeoa?ii oeaaoia iiauoaao eo
ieiaeiaeoinoue ia 30-40 %. Iia canaeyao iiaaae a 3-4-eaoieo eoeueoo?ao
aei 11,8 %, a a 6-7-eaoieo — aei 56 %, /oi nieaeaao o?iaeaeiinoue aei 40
%, a niaea?aeaiea aeoaieia N -aei 49 %. Iaeaieaa onoie/ea e canaeaieth
noaeeyiieoeae ni?o /a?iie nii?iaeeiu THiiao. Ii/eiaue nii?iaeeiiaue eeau
neaai canaeyao ni?oa /a?iie nii?iaeeiu Ieiae Oiu?aa e Aieoaea.
Iaeeiiaue eeau a ?aaeiia ?acaeaaaony a 4-6 iieieaieyo. I?e n?aaeiae
iia?aaeaeaiiinoe iaeeiu yoei aeaeii o?iaeaeiinoue nieaeaaony ia 20-30 %,
a i?e neeueiie — ia 50-80 %; ea/anoai ieiaeia oooaeoaaony,
ceiinoieeinoue ?anoaiee nieaeaaony. Eenoiaa?oee aaeaaiaeii iia?aaeaeatho
10-90 % eenoueaa e 10-25 % ieiaeia /a?iie nii?iaeeiu e e?uaeiaieea.
Iaeeiiaay iieue iia?aaeaeaao aaeaaeeo ia 8 %, iaeeio — ia 17 %, aeeeoth
iaeeio — ia 23 %, neeueiaa a?aaeeo a caiouaiiuo ianaaeaeaieyo. N?aaee
i?e?iaeiuo ciioaaia 79 aeaeia oeuieeia, 107 — ia?aceoe/aneeo ianaeiiuo,
6 — eeauae. A yaiaeieeao, aaea ia i?eiaiyee oeie/aneeo i?aia?aoia,
canaeaiiinoue eieoeeiaeeeaeaie auea 3,3, ceaoiaeacie — 2,2 aec./eono;
oai, aaea i?iaaaeaia iaeia ia?aaioea- niioaaonoaaiii 0,6 e 0,3
aec./eono, a i?e aeaoo ia?aaioeao yoeo oeuieeia nianai ia iaeaeaii.
Auoiae aonaieoe eenoiaa?oie ec yeoe iinea ceiiaee i?e ionoonoaee
ia?aaioee AeIIE caeai/eaaaony a iaa. I?e i?eiaiaiee yoiai i?aia?aoa
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue yeoe ia iiaeaaao, io?iaeaeaiea aonaieoe ec ieo
caaea?aeeaaaony aei na?aaeeiu ethiy, /eneaiiinoue ciioaaia a eoeueoo?ao
a 2-25 ?ac iaiueoa, /ai i?e ionoonoaee ia?aaioie. A neo/aa ioiaiu
ia?aaioie /a?ac aeaa aiaea canaeaiiinoue aic?anoaao: eieoeeiaeeeaeaie —
a 4-5 ?ac, oeuiuie aeoaeaeeoeaie — a 7, iaoeaie — a 12 ?ac; oiaiueoaaony
canaeaiiinoue eenoiaa?oeaie, oa?ytho naia cia/aiea iyaeaieoeu, iiee,
eeaue. I?e eioaa?e?iaaiiie caueoa (ioiaia ?aiiaaanaiieo ia?aaioie AeIIE,
i?iaaaeaiea iaeiie oeie/aneie ia?aaioee aei oeaaoaiey, aoi?ie — iinea
oeaaoaiey aeii?aia?aoaie, auione o?eoia?aiiu a niioiioaiee 1:5 iinea
oeaaoaiey aei nic?aaaiey yaiae, o?aouey ia?aaioea — iinea nai?a o?iaeay
oeie/aneei i?aia?aoii, /aoaa?oay — eaieaeioeeaeii n oeo?ii 100) i?eaaaea
o?iaeay iieo/aia ia iaiueoa, /ai i?e o?aaeeoeeiiiie oeie/aneie
ia?aaioea, a ieoiaaiinoue cao?ao a 1,3 ?aca auoa. Eioaa?e?iaaiiay caueoa
nieaeaao /enei ia?aaioie oeie/aneeie i?aia?aoaie a 4 ?aca e ?anoiae
einaeoeoeeaeia — a 13 ?ac. Iieo/aia yeieiae/anee aieaa /enoay
i?iaeoeoeey, oneeaiu i?ioeannu naii?aaoee?iaaiey a aa?ioeaiica
aeaaiaea?y nio?aiaieth ciioaaia, cao?aou ieoieeenue a 7 ?ac. Ia?aaioee
i?iaiaeyony i?e iinoiyiiii iaaethaeaiee e aeinoeaeaiee /eneaiiinoe
a?aaeeoaeae, oeacaiiuo a ?ac?aaioaiiuo aaoi?ii yeiiiie/aneeo ii?iaao
a?aaeiiiniinoe. ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea ?an/aoia eiiieaeniiai
aeiiiie/aneiai ii?iaa a?aaeiiiniinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa : nii?iaeeia, e?uaeiaiee, iaeeia, a?aaeeoaee,
eioaa?e?iaaiiay caueoa.

GADZALO I.M. Agrobiological basis ground of the integrate of plants
protection of the berries plantations from the pests in the
north-western Forest- Steppe and wooded district of Ukraine. —
Manuscript.

The thesis for doctors degree in Agriculture on the speciality 03.00.09
— entomology. National Agricultural University, Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis deals with solving the problem on improvement of black
currants, red currants, gooseberry-bush, raspberry, strawberry plants
from the pests. As a result of investigations find out exactly the
composition of species, harm of pests: Archips rosana L., Epinotia
solangdriana Hb., Enarmonia formosana Scorp., Pandemis heparana Den. and
Schiff., Ptycholoma lecheana L., Adoxophyes orana F., Pandemis ribeana
Hb., Archips xylosteana L., Abraxas grossulariata L., Stigmella aurella
F., Incurvaria reibiella Bjerk, Incurvaria capitella Cl., Zophodia
convolutella Hb., Cladins pectinicornis Yeofr., Pamphillus hortorum Kl.,
Nematus ribesii Scorp., Pristiphora pallipes Lepel., Allantus cinctus
L., Hyperomyzus lactucae L., Hyperomyzus pallidus H.R.S., Cryptomuzs
ribis L., Aphis grossulariae Kolt., Aphis schneideri “C.B.”, Aegeria
tipuliformis Cl., Anthonomus rubi Hbst., Sciaphobus squalidus Gyll.,
Dasyneura tetensi Riibs., Dasyneura ribis Barn., Thomasiniana ribis
Mar., Tetranihus urticae Koch., Eriophyes ribis Westw. It was
establiched the causes high number of them. It was work out integrate
system of plant protection of berries plntations from pests, economical
door-steps of harm in the region of investigations, method of
determination of the integrate economical door-step of harm. It was find
out exactly the composition of species of zoobiotics and carnivores and
role of them in berries plantations.

Key words: currant, gooseberry, raspberry, integrate plant protection,
pests.

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