OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AA?A?IEO IAOE

?INOEOOO AO??IIE?EIEO ? E?EA?NUeEEO

?INEEI

IAEUeIEEIA IEOAEEI IEOAEEIAE*

OAeE 3.174(477.9)

AA?IA?IEIA?*IA IOe?IEA

O?AAE EIEOIAA

O CA’ssCEO C ?IO?IAeOEOe??TH ?? O E?EI

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 06.01.09 — ?ineeiieoeoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

N?ioa?iiieue — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a E?einueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?
I?i?noa?noaa AIE Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?,
I?eiea?a ?aaai Aieiaeeie?iae/, i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe
E?einueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?,
U??aaeia A?eoi? sseiaeaae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith ?ineeiieoeoaa
Iaeanueeiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo;

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Iie?euaiei Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/ naeoi?ii aa?ioaoi?ee
?inoeoooo ao??iie?eieo ? e?ea?nueeeo ?ineei OAAI.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
A.A. Aeieo/a?aa I?i?noa?noaa AIE Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a ?ineeiieoeoaa.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “10 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee E 52.353.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
ao??iie?eieo ? e?ea?nueeeo ?ineei ca aae?anith: 333034, E?ei, i.
N?ioa?iiieue, aoe. Ee?anueea, 150.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
ao??iie?eieo ? e?ea?nueeeo ?ineei: i. N?ioa?iiieue, aoe. Ee?anueea, 150.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “9” na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe
O?iaoiaa E.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iaiaaeai?noue aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a o
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa? ae?ae caaino?eei iaiao?aei?noue
aeei?enoaiiy aia?aicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e o ?ineeiieoeoa?.

Iniiai? aia?aiaeo?aoe a ??eueieoeoa? a?aeaoaathoueny i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
a?oioo aei n?aae ? cae?aiiy a?iaeath, a i?e ae?iuoaaii? i?inaiieo
eoeueoo? (eoeo?oaeca ? o.i.) ua e i?e aeiaeyae? ca iin?aaie. ?noioii
nei?ioeoe oe? aeo?aoe iiaeia ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy a ei?iiae?iaieoeoa?
aaaaoi??/ieo eoeueoo?. Oeae oeyo ??oaiiy i?iaeaie oaeiae aeicaiey?
cia/ii ciaioeoe aino?ioo ?ioi? i?iaeaie E?eio — cieceoe a?o?iao a?ic?th
a?oio?a ? noaa?e?coaaoe, a iio?i ? iie?ioeoe aeieia?/ia noaiiaeua.

Iiia?aaei? aei?iaoaaiiy ??cieo ei?iiaeo eoeueoo? o E?einueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? (aeae? EAeAO) aeyaeee iiao aeey
E?eio aaaaoi??/io ceaeiao eoeueoo?o — o?aao Eieoiaa (Sorghum almum
Parodi), yea ca a?iaeaei?noth oa ye?noth ei?io aeioe?euei?oa, i?ae
iaeii??/i? ceaee (eoeo?oaeca, noaeainueea o?aaa). I?ioa aeey oe?ieiai
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o?aae Eieoiaa (aeae? o?. Eieoiaa) a ei?iiae?iaieoeoai
E?eio iaiao?aei? noa?aiii a?aei?aoeueiaai? aa?ioaoi?/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??,
ai ca i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia E?ei ? i?eei?aeiiiith ciiith, aea oey
eoeueoo?a iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia ye aaaaoi??/ia.

Aeey ?ic?iaee ?aoe?iiaeueieo i?eeii?a aa?ioaoi?ee iaiao?aeii ciaoe
e?euee?ni? iieacieee aa?ia?ieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae eoeueoo?e, ui
caaacia/othoue ?aae?caoe?th o a?iaea? ?? iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae a
eiie?aoieo oiiaao na?aaeiaeua. O aeena?oaoe?? iiaeai? oe? aeai?,
io?eiai? iaie a ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Oaia aeena?oaoe?? aaciina?aaeiuei
iia’ycaia c oaiith “?ic?iaea aia?aicaa??aath/i? aeieiaiaa?aaeeeai?
nenoaie caaacia/aiiy oaa?ei caeaieie ei?iaie”, ui ? neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith aeiaai-no?ieiaiai ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o E?einueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe??
01.87.0036348) ? iia’ycaia c aea?aeaaiei i?iaeoii Oe?a?ie “Ei?ie”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Oe?eue aeaii? ?iaioe — aa?ia?ieia?/ia
oa?aeoa?enoeea o?. Eieoiaa, ia i?aenoaa? yei? iiaeia aoei a c?iaeoe
aeniiaie i?i a?aeiia?aei?noue i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia E?eio aeiiaai
oe??? eoeueoo?e ? aeioe?eueiino? ?? ?io?iaeoeoe?? a E?ei, a oaeiae ia
iniia? ?? aeiia aei iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua a?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueii
i?iaiaeeoe ?ic?iaeo iniiaieo caoiae?a ?? ae?iuoaaiiy. A?aeiia?aeii aei
oeiai aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaea/?:

— aea/aiiy aa?ia?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae ian?iiy o?. Eieoiaa;

aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?o ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo o?. Eieoiaa a oiiaao ia?aaea??iiai
E?eio;

aecia/aiiy iieaciee?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue iin?ae o?. Eieoiaa ye
i?iaeoeoe?ei? oioineioaoe/i? nenoaie;

— ia iniia? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/eoe aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue
ae?iuoaaiiy o?. Eieoiaa a oiiaao E?eio a ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eieie
aaaaoi??/ieie oa iaeii??/ieie ei?iiaeie eoeueoo?aie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeai?
ea?aeeiaeuei? oaiia?aoo?e i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy o?. Eieoiaa, i?i?iaeueia
aieia?noue ian?iiy ? a?oioo, iaiao?aei? aeey i?i?inoaiiy ? c’yae
noiae?a, iaeneiaeueia aeeaeia caai?oaiiy ian?iiy, o?eaae?noue
i?neycae?aeueiiai iieith oa ainiiaea?nueei? aeiaaia?/iino?.

Aia?oa aeey E?eio aecia/ai? oa?i?ie i?ioiaeaeaiiy oaiieia?/ieo oac,
aea/aia aeeiai?ea ?inoo ?ineei ? oi?ioaaiiy eenoyeiai? iiaa?oi? i?ioyaii
aaaaoaoe??, aeyaeaia aeeaeia i?iieeiaiiy ei?ai?a o a?oio ?
a?o?oaeoii?ea ei?aiaai? nenoaie, onoaiiaeai? oa?i?ie ooai?aiiy ei?aiaaeu
? oa?aeoa? ?oiueiai iioe?aiiy a a?oio?, aecia/aiee nooi?iue
ii?icino?eeino? ei?aiaaeu o ceiiaee ia??iae. Aecia/aia a?iaeaei?noue o?.
Eieoiaa ? no?oeoo?a a?iaeath, anoaiiaeaiee iioeiaeueiee ?iaeaen
eenoyeiai? iiaa?oi? ? aecia/ai? oioineioaoe/iee iioaioe?ae iin?a?a
??ciiai a?eo oa ainiiaea?nueea i?iaeoeoeai?noue oioineioaco ?
iioaioe?eii? a?iaeaeiino?. C iiaeyaeo ia?niaeoeae ae?iuoaaiiy o?.
Eieoiaa ia canieaieo caieyo E?eio aoea aea/aia iioaioe?eia
nieano?ee?noue oe??? eoeueoo?e.

Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue. C?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i aeioe?euei?noue
?io?iaeoeoe?? o?. Eieoiaa a ei?iiae?iaieoeoai E?eio. A?aei?aoeueiaai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei no?ieo n?aae ? aeeaeie caai?oaiiy ian?iiy.
Noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? iai?yiee aa?ioaoi?/ieo aeine?ae?a ii
oaeineiiaeaiith caoiae?a ae?iuoaaiiy aenieeo a?iaea?a caeaii? iane a
??ci? ca iiaiaeieie oiiaaie ?iee a caeaaeiino? a?ae a?eo ieaioaoe??.
Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aa?ia?ieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae o?.
Eieoiaa iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e ae?iuoaaii? oe??? eoeueoo?e a
noiaeeo a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/ieo oiiaao i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue aoee
aeeeaaeai? ia ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeeaae
o/aiuo-aa?a?ieeia a oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee naeueneiai
oicyenoaa a ia?eiae ia?aoiaea e ?uieo” (N?ioa?iiieue, 1995 ?.) oa
ui??/ieo (1996-1998 ??.) iaoeiaeo ? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
EAeAO.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 4 iaoeiaeo ?iaioao oa 1
oac?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. iieyaa? o aea/aii? oa ia?iaoe? iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?e c oaie, oi?ioethaaii? iaoe ? caaea/ aeine?aeaeaiue,
aeeiiaii? aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe, aiae?c? oa ocaaaeueiaii? io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a, iaienaii? oa ioi?ieaii? ca?o?a, noaoae, aeena?oaoe??.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y (118 noi??iie iniiaiiai
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo) neeaaea?oueny c anooio, oanoe ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae (190 iaeiaioaaiue,
o oiio /ene? 75 ?iicaiieo aaoi??a) ? aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeth/a? 39
oaaeeoeue, 11 iaethie?a ? 10 aeiaeaoe?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Noai aea/aiino? ieoaiiy oa iniiai? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiue.
?icaeyaea?oueny ?noi??y iioiaeaeaiiy, iioe?aiiy ? aea/aiiy o?. Eieoiaa
ia i?aenoaa? e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo iieaco?, ui aeae?eaiee a A?aaioei? ye
naiino?eiee aeae Sorghum almum Parodi ? a?a?eae, ui ooai?eany a
?acoeueoao? i?e?iaeiiai ia?acaieethaaiiy Sorghum halepensa c eoeueoo?iei
aeaeii Sorghum bicolor (Parodi, 1943; Davies and Eddye, 1959). I?ney
oeueiai o?. Eieoiaa iaea?aeaea aeinoaoiuei oe?iea iioe?aiiy a ?aeiiao c
o?ii?/iei, noao?ii?/iei ? iaa?oue iii??iei ee?iaoii Ao?eee, NOA,
Aano?ae??, ?iae??, ssiii??, Eaiaaee oa ?i. (Bog-dan, 1965; Edward and
Visser, 1967; Anon, 1959; England, 1960; Boyle, 1961; Popescu and Alby,
1971; Yoshiyama, 1971; Bebawi, 1986; Hubbard, 1960).

Ia?o? iia?aeiieaiiy i?i ?iaioo c iath ia Oe?a?i? c’yaeeeny ia ii/aoeo
80-o ?ie?a, aea aaoi?e, ye i?aaeei, o a?eueo?e i??? ina?oethaaee ieoaiiy
iia’ycai? c aioai?/iith oa?aeoa?enoeeith eoeueoo?e ? aeayeeie
ainiiaea?nueeeie iniaeeainoyie i?e ae?iuoaaii? ?? a cao?aeieo ?aa?iiao
e?a?ie (Aeaaaoeue, 1989; Ooaoo, 1991).

Aiae?c iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e iieacaa, ui i?aeoe/ii o an?o ?iaioao a?aenooi?
oi/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ciai?oi?o oiia, ui iaeneiaeueii caaeiaieueiythoue
aeiiae aa?iii?/iiai ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ?ineei o?. Eieoiaa ye? iaiao?aei?
aeey cae?eniaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aei oaeineiiaeaiiy
aa?ioaoi?ee oe??? eoeueoo?e. Oaeei /e-iii, aea/aiiy iiaeeeaino?
?io?iaeoeoe?? o?. Eieoiaa a oiiaao E?eio ia?aaeaa/a? i?iaaaeaiiy
niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ca oaeith i?ia?aiith:

1. Aea/aiiy aa?ia?ieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ian?iiy o?. Eieoiaa ye
iin?aiiai iaoa??aeo.

1.1. Aecia/aiiy ea?aeeiaeueieo (i?i?iaeueii?, iioeiaeueii? ?
iaeneiaeueii?) oaiia?aoo? i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy (eaai?aoi?iee ? iieueiaee
aeine?aee).

1.2. Anoaiiaeaiiy i?i?iaeueii? aieiaino? ian?iiy ? a?oioo, i?e yeeo
ian?iiy aaaaoi??/iiai ni?ai ni?iiiaeia i?i?inoaoe. (eaai?aoi?iee
aeine?ae)

1.3. Aecia/aiiy iaeneiaeueii? aeeaeie caai?oaiiy ian?iiy aeey
iaea?aeaiiy noiae?a (eaai?aoi?iee ? iieueiaee aeine?aee).

1.4. Aeyaeaiiy o?eaaeino? i?neycae?aeueiiai iieith ian?iiy ?
ainiiaea?nueei? aeiaaia?/iino? (eaai?aoi?iee aeine?ae).

1.5. Aea/aiiy iioaioe?eii? nieano?eeino? o?. Eieoiaa i?e i?i?inoaii?
ian?i-iy (eaai?aoi?iee aeine?ae).

2. Aea/aiiy oa?aeoa?o ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ?ineei aaaaoi??/iiai ni?ai a
oiiaao ia?aaea??iiai E?eio.

2.1. Aecia/aiiy no?ie?a i?ioiaeaeaiiy oaiieia?/ieo oac.

2.2. Aea/aiiy aeeiai?ee ?inoo noaaeei ? oi?ioaaiiy eenoeiai? iiaa?oi?
i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe??.

2.3. Aeyaeaiiy aeeaeie i?iieeaiiy ei?ai?a o a?oio ? a?o?oaeoii?ee
ei?aiaai? nenoaie ?ineei.

2.4. Anoaiiaeaiiy no?ie?a ooai?aiiy ei?aiaaeu ? oa?aeoa? iioe?aiiy ?o o
a?oio?.

2.5. Aecia/aiiy ii?icino?eeino? ei?aiaaeu o ceiiaee ia??iae.

3. Aecia/aiiy iieaciee?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue iin?ae o?. Eieoiaa ye
i?iaeoeoe?ei? nenoaie, ui oioineioacothoue.

3.1. Aecia/aiiy a?iaeaeiino? ? no?oeoo?e a?iaeath.

3.2. Anoaiiaeaiiy ?iaeaeno eenoeiai? iiaa?oi? ? oioineioaoe/iiai
iioaioe?aeo iin?a?a ??ciiai a?eo.

3.3. Aecia/aiiy ainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoeaiino? oioineioaco iin?a?a.

4. Aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iuoaaiiy o?. Eieoiaa.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea oiia i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?ae?a ? caaaeueii? iaoiaeeee
i?i-aaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iieueia? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ia
c?iooaai?e ae?eyioe? aenia?eiaioaeueii-aeine?aeiiai iiey EAeAO a
1995-1998 ?ieao. A?oio aeine?aeii? ae?eyiee oeiiaee aeey ia?aaea??ii?
ciie E?eio — /i?iicai i?oeaey?ii-ea?aiiao-iee iaeiaoioniee
eaaeiaeeienoee. Ea?aiiaoi?noue ca?eueoo?oueny c aeeaeiith. Caiane
aoiono a iao?iaiio oa?? noaiiaeyoue 250-270 o/aa, a oa?? 0-39 ni ai?no
eiai neeaaeaa 2,7-3,3 %. Acioo, ui eaaei a?ae?ie?co?oueny, a aoioniaiio
ai?eciio? i?noeoueny 5-11 ia ia 100 a a?oioo, ai?no aaeiaiai oinoi?o
iaaenieee — 0,077 %, eae?th — 1,247 %. Iaeneiaeueia a?a?ineii?/i?noue
o aa?oi?o oa?ao ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao 10,2- 12,0 %, aieia?noue
a’yiaiiy noaiiaeoue 16 % ? cieaeo?oueny aei 10 % o ieaei?o oa?ao.

??/ia e?euee?noue iiaae?a, ?o ?iciiae?e, iii?ny/ia oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y a
?iee aeine?aeaeaiue cia/ii a?ae??ciyeeny, aea oae? a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae
na?aaeiueiaaaaoi??/ieo iieaciee?a ? oeiiaeie aeey oe??? ciie E?eio.

Aa?ia?ieia?/i? aeanoeaino? ian?iiy aea/ai? a eaai?aoi?ieo ? iieueiaeo
oiiaao ca noaiaea?oiith iaoiaeeeith (AeA?AENOAIAeA?O 12038-84).
I?i?iuoaaiiy i?iaiaeeee a oa?iinoaoao OAO-01-200 ? OO-3 c ?ioa?aaeaie
oaiia?aoo? 5°N e 0,5°N. Nieano?ee?noue ian?iiy aecia/aee ca iaoiaeeeith
Nueiiooeii? (1973), ye aaeeo?eaoi?e aeei?enoiaoaaee ian?iiy noaeainueei?
o?aae ? eoeo?oaece. Aeeiai?eo ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ?ineei o?. Eieoiaa
aeine?aeaeoaaee a?aeiia?aeii aei “Iaoiaeeee aea?aeaaiiai
ni?oiaei?iaoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?” (1971).
Iaeenoyi?noue ?ineei aecia/aee ca eenoeiaeie ?iaeaenaie, ui aoee
?ic?aoiaai? iaie ie?aii aeey aa?oiueiai, na?aaeiueiai ? ieaeiueiai y?ono
eenoe?a. Ainiiaea?nueeo i?iaeoeoeai?noue oioineioaco ?ic?aoiaoaaee ca
iaoiaeeeith, cai?iiiiiaaiith Ie/eii?iae/ai (1966). Oa?aeoa? iioe?aiiy
ei?aiaaeu ? a?o?oaeoii?eo ei?aiaai? nenoaie aecia/aee oeyoii ?iceiiie
o?aioaeiei iaoiaeii ? a?aeieaaiiy ei?ai?a iai?ee?ioe? ia??iaeo
aaaaoaoe??. Ii?icino?ee?noue ei?aiaaeu aecia/aee ca iaoiaeeeith
Aa?aoeiai?, Aeaen??ai? ? Aeiia?aaeiai? (1973), i?yiei i?iii?iaeoaaiiyi.
Aea/aiiy aieeao aieiaino? ia i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy, aeeaeie eiai
caai?oaiiy ia iiaiioo noiae?a ? i?iaeoeoeai?noue iin?a?a i?iaiaeeeiny
ca i?ea?iaeueieie, ?ic?iaeaieie iaie iaoiaeeeaie, aeieeaaeiee iien yeeo
i?noeoueny a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?. Noaoenoe/ia ii?aoethaaiiy
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeaie aeenia?n?eiiai ?
?aa?an?eiiai aiae?co (Aeini?oia, 1985) ?c aeei?enoaiiyi
aeaeo?iiii-ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee.

Aa?ia?ieia?/i? aeanoeaino? ian?iiy o?aae Eieoiaa. Aieea oaiia?aoo?e ia
i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy o?aae Eieoiaa. Anoaiiaeai? ea?aeeiaeuei? oaiia?aoo?e
i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy o?. Eieoiaa: i?i?iaeueia (+11,5°N), iioeiaeueia
(+33,0°N) ? iaeneiaeueia (+47,5°N), a oaeiae caeaaei?noue i?i?inoaiiy
ian?iiy i?e ??ci?e oaiia?aoo?? a?ae eiai ?ici???a: a?eueo cia/i?
ian?ieie (o?aeoe?? 1,7-2,0 ii) o anueiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? (a?ae
i?i?iaeueii? aei iaeneiaeueii?) i?i?inoathoue e?aua, i?ae ae??ai?
(o?aeoe?? 1,2-1,5 ii) (oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 1

I?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy o?aae Eieoiaa a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e

? ?ici??o, %

Oaiia?aoo?a (O), (N O?aeoe?? ian?iiy (D), ii Na?aaei? ii oaeoi?o O

IN?05=0,9

1,2>1,5 1,5>1,7 1,7>2,0 >2,0

11,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0.2 0,1

11,5 15,0 17,2 19,2 19,8 17,8

15,0 27,2 27,2 34,8 37,2 31,6

20,0 75,0 76,2 80,0 82,5 78,4

25,0 80,8 81,0 85,0 85,5 83,1

30,0 86,5 96,0 97,8 98,2 94,6

33,0 97,0 98,0 98,2 99,0 98,1

35,0 87,2 92,8 97,0 98,0 93,8

40,0 55,0 58,0 59,0 65,2 59,3

45,0 12,8 14,8 17,0 18,5 15,8

47,5 1,8 4,0 3,2 3,0 3,0

48,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0

Na?aaei? ii oaeoi?o D IN?05=0,5 44,9 47,1 49,3 50,6 48,0

Aeey i?eaaoieo na?aaei?o IN?05 = 1,79, m =3,7 %

C?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ian?iiy o?. Eieoiaa aeey i?i?inoaiiy
iio?aao? a?eueo aeniei? oaiia?aoo?e, i?ae ian?iiy noaeainueei? o?aae ?
eoeo?oaece. Oaeei /eiii, caaaeath/e ia oa, ui ca na?aaeiueiaaaaoi??/ieie
aeaieie o ia?aaea??iiio E?eio a?oio i?ia??aa?oueny aei +13 +15°N o
ae?oa?e ? o?ao?e aeaeaae? ea?oiy, oeae no?ie iiaea aooe iioeiaeueiei
aeey ?? n?aae. ? naia i?e n?aa? a oe? no?iee aoea io?eiaia iaea?eueoa
a?iaeaei?noue — 712 oe/aa.

Iia?o?yii-nooa ian?iiy o?. Eieoiaa i?noeoue a?ey 9 % aiaee. I?e
iaiaiaaeaiiio aeinooi? aiaee iiaeeiaiiy ?? ian?iiyi i?ioyaii ia?oi?
aiaeeie neeaei 7 % a?ae aeo?aeii? aaae, iio?i oaeaee?noue iiaeeiaiiy
ciaiooaaeany aei 1,3-1,8 % aiaee ia aiaeeio (iae. 1).

Iae. 1 Iiaeeiaiiy aiaee ian?iiyi o?aae Eieoiaa a caeaaeiino? a?ae /ano

I?ney aeinyaiaiiy ian?iiyi aieiaino? 33 % oaeaee?noue iiaeeiaiiy aiaee
ua a?eueo ciaioeeany, oa ian?iiy ii/eiaei i?i?inoaoe. Aeey oiai, uia
ian?iiy o?. Eieoiaa i?i?inei, aieia?noue a?oioo iiaeiia neeaaeaoe 85 %
a?ae aieiaino? no?eeiai a’yiaiiy. I?e oe?e aieiaino? i?ney ?ic??aaiiy
ian?iieo iaieiiie ??no ei??ioey i?eieiyany. O?eueee aeinyaiaiiy
aieiaino? a?oioo 100 % a?ae aieiaino? no?eeiai caa’yiaiiy caaacia/oaaei
??no ca?iaeeiai? a?oiueee, oiaoi ii/eiaee oi?ioaaoeny noiaee. Ia
i?aenoaa? oeeo aeaieo iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui i?e iin?a? ian?iiy ia
iaiao?aeio aeeaeio noiaee ooai?ththoueny c??aeaeaieie /a?ac aeneoaiiy
aa?oiueiai i?ioa?eo a?oioo ? ianooii? iiaaee aai iieeae aaea ia iiaeooue
aooe aoaeoeaieie.

Aieea aeeaeie caai?oaiiy ian?iiy ia iiaiioo noiae?a ? i?iaeoeoeai?noue
iin?a?a aeine?aeaeoaaany a niaoe?aeueiiio aenia?eiaio?, ui caaacia/o?
iaeneiaeueii ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ?inoo i?i?inoe?a. A ?acoeueoao?
aeine?aeo anoaiiaeaii, ui ??ciiiai?oia ca ?ici??ii ian?iiy oi?io?
i?i?inoee ??cii? iaeneiaeueii? aeiaaeeie. Oae, ae??ai? ian?ieie o?aeoe??
1,2 ii oi?ioaaee i?i?inoee aeiaaeeiith a?ey 18,5 ni, a ian?iiy o?aeoe??
2,0 ii iaee i?i?inoee aeiaae/? — aei 22,7 ni. O na?aaeiueiio ian?iiy o?.
Eieoiaa oi?io? iaeneiaeueio caaaeueio aeiaaeeio eieaiioeey ? iacieiioeey
20,5 ni. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iaeneiaeueiith aeeaeiith caai?oaiiy
ian?iiy oe??? eoeueoo?e a ?aeaaeueieo oiiaao iiaea aooe 20 ni.
Ca?eueoaiiy aeeaeie caai?oaiiy ian?iiy a?eueoa ca 12 ni ye o
eaai?aoi?ieo, oae ? a iieueiaeo oiiaao i?ecaiaeeei aei neeueiiai
c??aeaeaiiy noiae?a. Iaeneiaeueia aeeaeia, c yei? ian?iiy iiaei c?eoe a
eaai?aoi??? ? iieueiaeo oiiaao, neeaaea? 18 ni.

Aeeaeia caai?oaiiy ian?iiy aea? ?noioiee aieea ia no?iee iiyae noiae?a ?
ianoaaaiiy ia?oi? oe?nii? noeaeino?. Cao?eiea noiae?a neeaaeaea, a
caeaaeiino? a?ae aeeaeie caai?oaiiy, 2-11 aei?a, a cao?eiea oe?nii?
noeaeino? — a?ae 13 aei 19 aei?a. I?ci? ineaaeai? noiaee caiaeii
noi?ioaaee ia o?eueee a?eueo i?ci?e o?iaeae, aea e cia/ii ieae/ee (oaae.
2).

Oaaeeoey 2

Aieea aeeaeie caai?oaiiy ian?iiy ia a?iaeaei?noue caeaii? iane o?aae
Eieoiaa ia?oiai ?ieo aaaaoaoe??, oe/aa

?iee

aeine?aeaeaiue Aeeaeia caai?oaiiy ian?iiy, ni IN?05

2 6 10 14 18

1995 657 580 371 220 150 51

1996 510 782 411 235 163 64

1997 518 536 383 201 115 61

1998 274 316 198 87 30 50

A na?aaeiueiio 489,7 553,5 340,7 185,7 114,5 33,6

Iaioa a?iaeaei?noue ia aa??aioao ?c aeeaieei caai?oaiiyi ian?iiy ?
?acoeueoaoii a?eueo aei?noieeo oiia c?inoaiiy, ui neeaaeathoueny a E?eio
a ae?oao iieiaeio e?oa. Oae, iniiaia cieaeaiiy a?iaeaeiino? a?aeaoaaeiny
ca ?aooiie inoaiiueiai, o?aoueiai oeino. ?noioiiai cieaeaiiy
a?iaeaeiino? ia aa??aio? c aeeaeiith caai?oaiiy 6 ni o ii??aiyii? c
aa??aioii 2 ni a ?iee i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue ia aoei, ui aea?
i?aenoaao aaaaeaoe aeeaeio caai?oaiiy ian?iiy 6 ni iioeiaeueiith aeey
o?. Eieoiaa. aeine?aeaeoaaany a eaai?aoi?iiio aeine?ae? uiaei aeyaeaiiy
iioaioe?eii? iiaeeeaino? o?. Eieoiaa i?i?inoaoe a oiiaao oei?eaeiiai
canieaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui na?aae oaeeo eoeueoo? ye noaeainueea o?aaa ?
eoeo?oaeca aiia ia? a?eueoo no?ee?noue. Ian?iiy o?. Eieoiaa i?i?inoaei
ia aiaeyieo ?ic/eiao NaCl c iniioe/iei oeneii 18 aoi. Noaeainueea o?aaa
aeo?eioaaea o?eueee 12 aoi., eoeo?oaeca 5 aoi., oiae? ye ian?iiy an?o
o?ueio eoeueoo? i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiai aeia?a i?i?inoaei ia eiio?ie? (/enoa
aiaea). Oeae oaeo aea? i?aenoaao c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui o?. Eieoiaa
iiaea iaoe aeia?? ia?niaeoeae ?io?iaeoeoe?? ia c?iooaaieo caieyo
I?eneaaooy.

O ?acoeueoao? aea/aiiy aieeao no?ie?a caa?aaeaiiy ia noiae?noue ian?iiy
anoaiiaeaii, ui o?eaae?noue ia??iaeo i?neycae?aeueiiai aeic??aaiiy
ian?iiy oe??? eoeueoo?e a cae/aeieo oiiaao neeaaea? 3-4 i?nyoe?, ia
caaaeath/e ia oa, ui na?aeac?a?aia ian?iiy i?i?inoa? ia 11-13 %.

A?aenioie noiaeino? ian?iiy caeeoa?oueny i?aeoe/ii iaci?iiei i?ioyaii 5
?ie?a, neeaaeath/e a na?aaeiueiio 87,7 %. E??i oeueiai, ian?iiy o?.
Eieoiaa ia? ii??aiyii aenieo a?ieia?/io aeiaaia?/i?noue. Eieaeoe?ei?
c?acee, ui caa??aaeeny 6 ?ie?a, i?i?inoaee ia 48 %, 10 ?ie?a — ia 13 %,
14 ?ie?a — ia 3-4 %.

??no ? ?icaeoie o?. Eieoiaa. Anoaiiaeaii, ui no?iee ianoaaaiiy oaiioac
o ?ineei o?. Eieoiaa ia ca?aathoueny c ?ieaie, ui ? ?acoeueoaoii ??cieo
iiaiaeieo oiia, ye? neeaaeathoueny iaaani? (oaae. 3).

Oaaeeoey 3

No?iee ianoaaaiiy iaeaaaeeea?oeo oaiieia?/ieo oac o ?ineei o?aae Eieoiaa
ia?oiai ?ieo aaaaoaoe??

??e Aeaoa ianooio iiaii? oace

iin?a noiaee eou?iiy aeo?ae a o?oaeo Aei?oaiiy oea?o?iiy aineiaa
noeae?noue

1995 24.05 30.05 13.06 3.07 27.07 6.08 4.9

1996 7.05 15.05 28.05 16.06 10.07 20.07 17.08

1997 6.05 16.05 29.05 16.06 9.07 20.07 16.08

I?ci?e no?ie n?aae 1995 ?ieo iaoiiaea a?eueo i?ci? no?iee ianoaaaiiy
on?o oac aaaaoaoe??. I?eaeecii iaeiaeia? iiaiaei? oiiae iaee 1996 ? 1997
?iee ? oaiioace o?. Eieoiaa i?ioiaeeee i?eaeecii a o? nai? eaeaiaea?i?
no?iee. ??cieoey a o?eaaeino? i?ioiaeaeaiiy oac aeinyaaea 4-o aei?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a ia??iae n?aaa-noiaee o?. Eieoiaa iaioa aeiiaeeaa aei
oaiea, i?ae ca?iiaa ni?ai. Aeey ooai?aiiy noiae?a ?e iio??aia noia
iiceoeaieo oaiia?aoo? 110-137°N, a aeey ca?iiaiai ni?ai (Oaiaeue, 1994)
oey noia neeaaea? 220-260°N.

Oaiie i?ioiaeaeaiiy ianooiieo oac ?icaeoeo i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeaee a?ae
oaiia?aoo?ieo oiia ?ieo. Caaaeueia o?eaae?noue ia??iaeo noiaee-aineiaa
noeae?noue o o?. Eieoiaa neeaea 99-105 aei?a i?e noi? iiceoeaieo
oaiia?aoo? o ??ci? ?iee a?ae 1920°N aei 2124°N.

Aea/aiiy oaiieia?? ?icaeoeo o?. Eieoiaa a ianooii? ?iee aaaaoaoe??
iieacaei, ui noiaee c a?oiueie ei?aiaaeu c’yaeythoueny ia 8-10 aei?a
?ai?o, i?ae noiaee c ian?iiy. Iaaeae? ?ineeie ae?oaiai ? o?aoueiai ?ieo
aeeooy ?icaeaathoueny a?eueo oaeaeeeie oaiiaie (oaae. 4).

Oaaeeoey 4

No?iee ianoaaaiiy iniiaieo oac ?icaeoeo ?ineei o?aae Eieoiaa ia?oiai ?
ianooiiiai ?ie?a aaaaoaoe??

??e ??e aaaaoaoe?? Oaiieia?/i? oace

noiaee eouaiiy aeo?ae a o?oaeo Aei?oaiiy oea?o?iiy aineiaa noeae?noue

1997 Ia?oee 16.05 28.05 10.06 9.07 20.07 16.08

Ae?oaee 8.05 14.05 1.06 17.06 27.06 19.07

1998 Ae?oaee 20.04 10.05 30.05 19.06 29.06 28.07

O?ao?e 20.04 12.05 30.05 20.06 30.06 29.07

O 1998 ?ioe? ?ineeie ae?oaiai ? o?aoueiai ?ieo aaaaoaoe?? ?icaeaaeeny
iaeiaeiaeie oaiiaie ? ia?aeoee aei oace aineiai? noeaeino? ian?iiy
iaeii/anii. I?e oeueiio ?ineeie ae?oaiai ? ianooiiiai ?ie?a aaaaoaoe??
aoee ia oae aeiiaeea? aei oaiia?aoo?e. Oae, yeui a 1997 ?ioe? o ?ineei
ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy noia iiceoeaieo oaiia?aoo? ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae
neeaea 2004°N, oi a ?ineei ae?oaiai ?ieo aeeooy — o?eueee 1755°N. O 1998
?ioe? noie oaiia?aoo? i?e ?icaeoeo ?ineei ae?oaiai ? o?aoueiai ?ieo
aeeooy aoee i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaeie — 2021°N ? 2043°N a?aeiia?aeii. I?e
oeueiio iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe, ui 1998 ??e a?aecia/aany aenieith
oaiia?aoo?ith iia?o?y a e?oi?e ia??iae.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?ee ?inoo o?. Eieoiaa iieacaee, ui oaeaee?noue
?inoo ?ineei i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?? aeoaea ia??aiii??ia (oaae. 5).

O ia?oee ??e aaaaoaoe?? aei eou?iiy aiia neeaaea? anueiai 0,4 ni ca
aeiao. Iio?i ca ia??iae eou?iiy-aeo?ae o o?oaeo oaiie ?inoo iii?oii
i?enei?ththoueny aei 5,5 ni ca aeiao ? i?ae /an aeoiaeo a o?oaeo
aeinyaathoue 7,0 ni ca aeiao. Aei oace oea?o?iiy na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee
i?e??no aieiaiiai noaaea neeaaea? anueiai 0,9 ni. Iaaeae? a?i i?eieiy?
na?e ??no.

A ae?oaee ? o?ao?e ??e aeeiai?ea ?inoo ?ineei aoea i?eaeecii oaeith ae,
a aenioa ?ineei ia caeaaeaea a?ae a?eo iin?ao. Cieaeaiiy aenioe
o?aainoith a 1998 ?ioe? ia 30 % o ii??aiyii? c iiia?aaei?ie ?ieaie aoei
iaoiiaeaii iacae/aeii aei?noieeie oiiaaie aaaaoaoe??.

Oaaeeoey 5

Aeeiai?ea ?inoo ?ineei o?aae Eieoiaa a iin?aao ??cieo ?ie?a aaaaoaoe??,
ni

??e ?iee aaaaoaoe?? Oaiieia?/i? oace

noiaee eou?iiy aeo?ae a o?oaeo aei?oaiiy oea?o?iiy aineiaa noeae?noue
I??05

O na?aaeiueiio ca 1995-1997 Ia?oee 6,3 72,8 173,5 263,2 187,3 293,0 5,4

1997 Ia?oee 6,4 69,9 159,5 243,4 283,5 292,0 2,0

Ae?oaee 9,8 68,0 169,6 226,5 272,9 291,4 3,6

1998 Ae?oaee 9,5 72,5 163,7 198,3 205,0 205,0 2,1

O?ao?e 9,0 65,7 166,4 194,5 197,3 198,2 1,9

Aea/aiiy ei?aiaai? nenoaie ? ei?aiaaeu o?. Eieoiaa iieacaea, ui iniiaia
iana ei?ai?a ye o ia?o? ?iee (74,9 %), oae ? a ianooii? ?iee aaaaoaoe??
(80,2 %) ?icoaoiao?oueny o aa?oiueiio (0-60 ni) i?ioa?eo a?oioo.
Ae?aaeaii? y?oniino? ia aeyaeaii. O ia?oee ??e aaaaoaoe?? ei?ai?
aeinyaathoue aeeaeie 1,9 i c caaaeueiith aeiaaeeiith ei?aiaai? nenoaie
15285 i, o ae?oaee ??e aaaaoaoe?? ei?ai? aeinyaathoue aeeaeie 2,1 i,
caaaeueia aeiaaeeia ei?aiaai? nenoaie ca?eueoeeany ia 21,1 % ? neeaea
18510 i ia iaeio ?ineeio.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a oiiaao E?eio ooai?aiiy ei?aiaaeu o o?. Eieoiaa
ii/eia?oueny c oaiioace aeoiaeo a o?oaeo iacaeaaeii a?ae ?ieo
aaaaoaoe??. I?ioa e?euee?noue ei?aiaaeu o ?ineei ae?oaiai ? o?aoueiai
?ieo aeeooy ciaioo?oueny ia 13,1-62,2 % o ii??aiyii? c ia?oei ?ieii
aaaaoaoe??, ciaioo?oueny ? caaaeueia aeiaaeeia ei?aiaaeu ?c 6,8 i aei
3,7 i ia iaeio ?ineeio. C a?eii ieaioaoe?? cieaeo?oueny aeeaeia
caeyaaiiy ei?aiaaeu. Oae, yeui a ?ineei ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy aaeeea
/anoeia ei?aiaaeua caeeaaeaeany ia aeeaei? 34-39 ni, oi a ?ineei
ae?oaiai ?ieo aaaaoaoe?? na?aaeiy aeeaeia caeeaaeaiiy aoea 27-29 ni, a a
?ineei o?aoueiai ?ieo aaaaoaoe?? — 25 ni. Ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, ui oea
a?aeaoaa?oueny /a?ac ciaioaiiy ina?oeaiino? a?oioo a iin?aao.

Ei?aiaaeua ?ineei o?. Eieoiaa iathoue iaaenieo ii?icino?ee?noue — i?e
oaiia?aoo?? -3°N a?ey 75 % ceioth/eo a?oiueie ao?a/athoue ni?iiiaei?noue
aei i?i?inoaiiy. I?e oaiia?aoo?? -6°N aeeaeie caeeoa?oueny a?ey 12 %
a?oiueie, a i?e -9°N an? a?oiueee aeiooue. ?noioieo ?icoiaeaeaiue o
ii?icino?eeino? a?oiueie a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?icoaooaaiiy ?o ii aeiaaeei?
ei?aiaaeua aeyaeaii ia aoei. Aiane?aeie aeeaieiai caeyaaiiy ei?aiaaeu o
a?oio? caaeaaeue ceioth/eo ia ieo a?oiueie a oiiaao Ia?aaea??’y E?eio
aeoaea iaeieiia??ia a ia?o? o?e ?iee aeei?enoaiiy iin?ao, a aeey a?eueo
noa?eo ieaioaoe?e oea ieoaiiy iio?aao? aeiaeaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea iin?a?a o?aae Eieoiaa ye i?iaeoeoe?eieo oioineioaoe/ieo
nenoai. Aea/ai? iiaeeeaino? oa aoaeoeai?noue ?io?iaeoeoe?? o?. Eieoiaa a
oiiaao ia?aaea??iiai E?eio.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui oi?ioaaiiy eenoeiaiai aia?aoo a iin?aao
ia?oiai ?ieo aaaaoaoe?? a?aeaoaaeiny i?aeoe/ii iacaeaaeii a?ae oiia
?ieo (oaae. 6).

Oaaeeoey 6

Aeeiai?ea ia?inoaiiy ieiu? eenoeiai? iiaa?oi?

a iin?aao o?aae Eieoiaa ia?oiai ?ieo aaaaoaoe?? (i2/aa iin?ao)

?iee aeine?aeaeaiue ??e aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith Oaiieia?/i? oace

noiaee — c-e eeno eouaiiy aeo?ae a o?oaeo aei?oaiiy Oea?o?iiy aineiaa
noeae?noue I??05

1995 Ia?oee 26 156 4008 69221 77543 77765 289

1996 Ia?oee 26 179 4626 72012 78497 79754 405

1997 Ia?oee 25 139 3838 70102 74934 75073 143,2

Ae?oaee 47 1356 7728 72855 79978 79942 134

1998 Ae?oaee 51 2410 5087 69812 70240 70000 354,2

O?ao?e 44 5342 8650 68342 67937 67312 236,5

Ia ii/aoeo aaaaoaoe?? a?aecia/aeiny iia?eueia ia?inoaiiy ieiu? eenoy,
aea ii/eiath/e c oace eou?iiy oaeaee?noue ?inoo eenoy ia iin?aao cia/ii
c?inea ?o ieiua iiaeaithaaeany ca 7-10 aei?a.

I?ney aeeeaeaiiy aieioae ??no eenoeiaiai aia?aoo i?iaeiaaeo?oueny, aea
oaiie eiai neeueii cieaeathoueny. A oe?e oac? ieiua eenoy iin?ao
aeinyaa? 69000- 72000 i2/aa ? ?iaeaen eenoeiai? iiaa?oi? neeaaea?
6,9-7,2. A oaco aineiai? noeaeino? a?i aeinyaa? 8,0. Nooi?iue ?inoo
eenoy ? aeeiai?ea ia?inoaiiy ieiu? eenoeiai? iiaa?oi? ci?ith?oueny c
a?eii ieaioaoe??. Ia ii/aoeo aaaaoaoe?? aiia oaeaeei ia?inoa?, aea
ii/eiath/e c oace aeeeaeaiiy aieioae i?aeoe/ii ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
ieiu? eenoy ia ?ineeiao ia?oiai ?ieo aaaaoaoe??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?iiiaeiino? eenoy o?. Eieoiaa aaeaiooaaoeny aei oiia c
iecueeith ina?oeai?noth aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui aeoaea
aeniea e?euee?noue eenoy a iin?aao o?. Eieoiaa o oaco oea?o?iiy ?
ca?eueoaiiy ?? o oaiioac? aineiai? noeaeino? ian?iiy na?ae/aoue i?i
aenieiaoaeoeaia iiaeeiaiiy na?oea oeeie ?ineeiaie, ui iia’ycaii c
aenieith ni?iiiaei?noth eenoy o?. Eieoiaa aaeaiooaaoeny aei cao?iaiiy.
Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui o oaco oi?ioaaiiy ian?iiy ? eiai aineiai? noeaeino?
ieaei? eenoee ia noaaeao o iin?a?a o?aoueiai ? ia?oiai ?ieo aaaaoaoe??
caeeoathoueny aeeaeie i?e na?aaei?e ca aeaiue ina?oeaiino? a?aeiia?aeii
1500-5300 ethen?a, ui neeaaea? a?ey 1,5 % ? 5,3 % ina?oeaiino?
a?aee?eoi? ieiuaaeee a iieoaeaiiee /an. Oe? eenoee a ?aii? oace ?icaeoeo
(eou?iiy, aeo?ae o o?oaeo)

oi?ioaaeeny a oiiaao i?yiiai niiy/iiai ina?oeaiiy ? iaa?oue neeueia
cao?iaiiy aa?oi?ie eenoeaie ia aeeeeeaei ?oiueiai a?aeie?aiiy. Oaeee
??aaiue aaeaioaoe?? eenoy aei cao?iaiiy oa?aeoa?iee aeey ?ineei
o?ii?/ieo naaai (Oiieeia, 1977). A?aecia/aiee oaeo ia?, ia iaoo aeoieo,
i?eioeeiiaa cia/aiiy ? iia?/ii oa?aeoa?eco? o?aao Eieoiaa ye ?ineeio c
aeoaea aenieith i?iaeoeoeai?noth oea-iica.

Aea/aiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oioineioaco ? iioaioe?eii? a?iaeaeiino?
iin?a?a o?. Eieoiaa iieacaei, ui aeey caaacia/aiiy aeniei? a?iaeaeiino?
iaiao?aeii, uia oioineioaoe/iee iioaioe?ae (Oi) neeaaeaa ia iaioa
1 iei. i2 ?ae?a/aa (Ie/eii?iae/, 1966; Ee?iia, Eenoiiaae, Onoaiei,
1971). Ca iaoeie ?ic?aooieaie, Oi o?aainoiy o?. Eieoiaa a ??ci? uiaei
iiaiaeieo oiia ?iee aa??th?oueny a?ae 3,3 aei 4,9 iei. i2 ? ae?a/aa, ui
oa?aeoa?eco? oe? o?oioeaiice ye aenieii?iaeoeoeai? nenoaie, ye?
oioineioacothoue. A?iaeaei?noue i?yii caeaaeeoue a?ae Oi ?
ainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoeaiino? oioineioaco, oiio oeae iieaciee aoa
oaeiae aecia/aiee o o?aainoiyo ia?oiai, ae?oaiai ? o?aoueiai ?ieo
aaaaoaoe?? (oaae. 7). I?e??no nooi? ?a/iaeie caeaii? iane o?. Eieoiaa
eieeaaany a ??ci? ?iee a iaaeao a?ae 5 aei 8 a/i2 ia aeiao.

Oaaeeoey 7

Ainiiaea?nueea i?iaeoeoeai?noue oioineioaco iin?a?a o?aae Eieoiaa,

a nooi? ?a/iaeie/i2 ca aeiao

??e

aeine?aeaeaiue ??e

aaaaoaoe?? Oeine I??05

ia?oee ae?oaee

1997 ia?oee 7,40 4,87 1,23

ae?oaee 8,31 7,51

1998 ae?oaee 5,87 4,92 1,15

o?ao?e 6,19 4,30

I?e i?i?iaeueieo cia/aiiyo Oi = 3,3  iei. i2 ? ae?a/ aa ? IOo =
4,3 a/i2 ca aeiao ?ic?aoiaaia iaie iioaioe?eia a?iaeaei?noue nooi?
?a/iaeie caeaii? iane neeaaea? 141,9 oe/aa, a i?e iaeneiaeueieo
cia/aiiyo Oi = 4,9 iei. i2 ?ae?a/aa ? IOo = 8,31 a/i2 ca aeiao aiia
aei??aith? 407,2 oe/aa. Oea a?aeiia?aea? a?iaeaeiino? caeaii? iane a
iaaeao 473-1357 oe/aa.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? a?iaeaeiino? ? yeino? caeaii? iane o?. Eieoiaa aoei
anoaiiaeaii, ui oaeoe/ii io?eiaia a?iaeaei?noue aeia?a ocaiaeaeo?oueny c
?ic?aooieiaith. Aeey ii??aiyiiy a oaaeeoe? 8 i?eaaaeaia a?iaeaei?noue
?ioeo ei?iiaeo eoeueoo?.

Io?eiai? aeai? aiai?youe i?i oa, ui aaea a ??e iin?ao o?. Eieoiaa aea?
aenieee o?iaeae caeaii? iane — o na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee 708 oe/aa.
Ne?ae oaeiae a?aecia/eoe, ui ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae a oiiaao c?ioaiiy
an? ni?aia? eoeueoo?e aeaee o?e iiaiioe?iieo oeine. Eoeo?oaeca ca oeeo
aea oiiaao aeaea o?eueee iaeei.

Oaaeeoey 8

Ii??aiyeueia i?iaeoeoeai?noue ceaeiaeo ei?iiaeo eoeueoo?, oe/aa

Eoeueoo?a 1995 1996 1997

Oeine Oeine Oeine

1 2 3 Onueiai 1 2 3 Onueiai 1 2 3 Onueiai

O?aaa Eieoiao (ia?oee ??e aaaaoaoe??) 273 225 184 682 277 233 218 728
280 204 231 715

Noaeainueea o?aaa 261 232 101 594 266 228 129 622 271 242 150 663

Ni?ai ei?iiaa 245 216 123 584 271 243 84 598 254 244 123 621

Eoeo?oaeca 296 — — 296 386 — — 386 401 — — 401

I??05 22,8 18,3 14,1 49,0 19,4 18,5 24,0 37,0 27,4 20,7 22,1 53,7

A?iaeaei?noue o?. Eieoiaa ia?oiai ?ieo aaaaoaoe?? a eiaeiee ??e
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aaeuoaaea a?iaeae ?ioeo eoeueoo? ? neeaea iaeneiaeueii
728 oe/aa a 1996 ?ioe?. A ae?oaee ??e aeeooy a?iaeaei?noue o?.
Eieoiaa i?aeaeuo?oueny, ? a 1997 ?ioe? ie iaea?aeaee iaeneiaeueia
cia/aiiy , ui neeaei 830 oe/aa ca o?e oeine. O 1998 ?ioe?
aeine?aeaeoaai? o?aainoi? ae?oaiai ? o?aoueiai ?ieo aeeooy aeaee aeoaea
iecuee? a?iaea? — 435 ? 425 oe/aa a?aeiia?aeii, ui aoei iaoiiaeaii
iaaaoeaiei aieeaii ee?iaoe/ieo oiia oeueiai ?ieo ? a?aenooi?noth
?aaoey?iiai c?ioaiiy. Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui a?iaeaei?noue
eoeo?oaece ca oeeo oiia aoea ieae/a, i?ae o o?. Eieoiaa.

I?e aea/aii? yeino? io?eiaiiai a?iaeath (oaae. 9) aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui
nooi? ?a/iaeie a eenoyo i?noeoueny ia 1,7 %, a ne?iai i?ioa?io ia 8,6 %
a?eueoa, i?ae o noaaeao. O caaaeuei?e a?iian? a?iaeath eenoy
neeaaeathoue a?eueoa 40 %, noaaea iathoue iaaaeeeo oiaueio.

Oaaeeoey 9

sse?ni? iieacieee a?iaeath caeaii? iane o?aae Eieoiaa

(o na?aaeiueiio ca 1996-1997??.)

Iieaceee yeino? a?iaeath Oeine Eenoy Noaaeeie Any

a?iiana I??05

*anoea a caaaeuei?e a?iian?, % Ia?oee

Ae?oaee

O?ao?e 41,6

43,0

45,3 58,4

57,0

54,7 100

100

100 4,3

Ai?no nooi? ?a/iaeie, % a?ae a?iiane Ia?oee

Ae?oaee

O?ao?e 31,3

32,8

31,0 24,7

25,8

24,4 27,5

28,7

27,4 1,6

Ai?no ne?iai i?ioa?ia, % a?ae nooi? ?a/iaeie Ia?oee

Ae?oaee

O?ao?e 19,5

19,3

18,3 10,4

10,6

10,2 14,2

14,4

13,8 2,4

Oea icia/a?, ui a?iaeae o?. Eieoiaa iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey
aeaioiaeaiiy n?ia aeniei? yeino?.

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?iuoaaiiy o?. Eieoiaa a E?eio. Aeiiii?/i?
iieacieee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue i?iaeoeoeai?noue o?. Eieoiaa, ie
ii??aithaaee c aiaeia?/ieie iieacieeaie uiaei eoeueoo?, iaea?eueoa
aeecueeeo ?e ca a?ieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie — ye iaeii??/ieo (aeey
ii??aiyiiy ?? i?iaeoeoeaiino? a ia?oee ??e aaaaoaoe??), oae ?
aaaaoi??/ieo (oaae. 10, 11).

Oae, nia?aa?o?noue oeaioia?a caeaii? iane ? ei?iii?ioa?iiaeo iaeeieoeue
i?e ae?iuoaaii? o?. Eieoiaa a ii??aiyii? c eoeo?oaecith aeaoaaoa ia
16-27 % aaea a ia?oee ??e aaaaoaoe??.

Oaaeeoey 10

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?iuoaaiiy o?aae Eieoiaa a ia?oee ??e
aaaaoaoe?? (ia?aaea??ia ciia E?eio a na?aaeiueiio ca 1995-1997 ??.)

Eoeueoo?e A?iaeaei?noue, oe/aa Noia?i? aeo?aoe ia c?iuoaaiiy eoeueoo?e,
a?i./aa Nia?aa?o?noue, a?i./oe

caeaii? iane ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ei?ii-i?ioa?iiaeo iaeeieoeue

caeaii? iane ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue Ei?ii-i?ioa?iiaeo iaeeieoeue

O?aaa Eieoiaa 719 143,8 71,9 721,9 1,00 5,02 10,0

Noaeainueea o?aaa 626 125,2 62,9 588,3 0,94 4,70 9,4

Ni?ai ei?iiaa 601 126,6 60,7 578,9 0,96 4,57 9,7

Eoeo?oaeca ia caeaio iano 361 79,4 32,9 418,3 1,16 5,27 12,7

Oaaeeoey 11

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?iuoaaiiy o?. Eieoiaa a aaaaoi??/i?e
eoeueoo?? (ia?aaea??ia ciia E?eio (1996-1998))

Eoeueoo?e A?iaeaei?noue, oe/aa Noiia?i? aeo?aoe ia c?iuoaaiiy eoeueoo?e,
a?/aa Nia?aa?o?noue, a?i./oe

caeaii? iane ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ei?ii-i?ioa?iiaeo iaeeieoeue

caeaii? iane ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ei?ii-i?ioa?iiaeo iaeeieoeue

O?aaa Eieoiaa 620 124,0 62,0 461,2 0,74 3,72 7,44

?aea?an aenieee 437 91,8 52,0 418,6 0,95 4,56 8,1

Ianyieoea i/a?aoiiiae?aia 423 84,6 47,0 420,3 0,99 4,97 8,95

Aaea ca??ia 385 84,7 45,6 411,0 1,00 4,85 9,0

I?ioa o?. Eieoiaa ia?oiai ?ieo aaaaoaoe?? aeaui aei?iae/a iaeii??/ieo
ni?aiaeo ei?iiaeo eoeueoo?. sseui ae acyoe aei oaaae oa, ui oae? aeo?aoe
ye i?aeaioiaea a?oioo, n?aaa, aa?o?noue ian?iiy ? oinoi?ieo aeia?ea
iiaeii? aooe ca?aoiaai? a nia?aa?o?noue o?eueee ia iaeio o?aoeio aai,
iaa?oue, /aa?oue (i?e 3-4-??/iiio aeei?enoaii? iin?ao), oi ia?aaaaa o?.
Eieoiaa aoaea aacoiiaia. Caaaeuei? aeo?aoe ia aaeoa? iin?ao ciecyoueny c
721,9 aei 530 a?eaaiue, a nia?aa?o?noue oeaioia?a caeaii? iane aoaea
noaiiaeoe 0,74, ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue — 3,72, ei?iii?ioa?iiaeo iaeeieoeue
-7,44 a?eaaiue.

Ii??aiyiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iuoaaiiy o?. Eieoiaa c
ae?iuoaaiiyi ?ioeo aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa aeicaiey? c oiaaiai?noth c?iaeoe
aeniiaie i?i oa, ui o?. Eieoiaa ia?aeiieeai aeieaco? naith ia?aaaao
uiaei an?o iieaciee?a.

INIIAI? AENIIAEE

1. Iioeiaeueiith oaiia?aoo?ith i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy o?aae Eieoiaa ?
+33iN. I?e oaiia?aoo?? ieae/a +11,5iN ? aeua 47,5iN ian?iiy oe???
eoeueoo?e ia i?i?inoa?.

2. A oiiaao E?eio iioeiaeueiei no?ieii n?aae o?aae Eieoiaa ? o?aoy
aeaeaaea ea?oiy, eiee aa?oi?e oa? a?oioo i?ia??aa?oueny aei +13 +15iN.
O ia??iae n?aaa-noiaee o?aaa Eieoiaa iaioa aeiiaeeaa aei
oaiia?aoo?ieo oiia, i?ae ca?iiaa ni?ai.

3. Aaeeea ian?iiy (o?aeoe?? 1,7-2,0 ii) ? a?eueo oe?iiei iin?aiei
iaoa??aeii, i?ae ae??aia, oiio ui i?e a?aeoeeaii? oaiia?aoo?ieo oiia
a?ae iioeiaeueieo aiii i?i?inoa? e?aua.

4. I?i?iaeueia aieia?noue ian?iiy, ca yei? aiii ii/eia? i?i?inoaoe
noaiiaeoue 33 % a?ae eiai iane. I?i?iaeueia aieia?noue a?oioo, ca yei?
c’yaeythoueny noiaee, neeaaea? 100 % a?ae aieiaino? no?eeiai a’yiaiiy.

5. Ian?iiy o?aae Eieoiaa i?e i?i?inoaii? a a?oio? caeaoia noiaeeoe c
aeeaeie 18-20 ni, aea aeey oiia E?eio iioeiaeueia aeeaeia caai?oaiiy
neeaaea? 6 ni. Naia aiia caaacia/o? iaeaeuo noiae?noue i?e
??ciiiai?oieo iiaiaeieo oiiaao o ia??iae i?ney n?aae.

6. Ian?iiy o?aae Eieoiaa caeaoia i?i?inoaoe i?e oei?eaeiiio canieaii?
a?oioiaiai ?ic/eio c eiioeaio?aoe??th NaCl 2,9 %. I?e oae?e
eiioeaio?aoe?? ian?iiy noaeainueei? o?aae ? eoeo?oaece ia i?i?inoa?.
Ioaea, o?aaa Eieoiaa iioaioe?eii ia? a?eueoo nieano?ee?noue, ui aea?
i?aenoaao aeey aeniiaeo i?i iiaeeeaa ?? ae?iuoaaiiy ia canieaieo a?oioao
E?eio.

7. O?eaae?noue ia??iaeo i?neycae?aeueiiai iieith ian?iiy o?aae Eieoiaa
neeaaea? 3-4 i?nyoe?, a a?ieia?/ia aeiaaia?/i?noue aeinyaa? 15 ?ie?a.

8. O ia?oee ??e aaaaoaoe?? aeeiai?ea i?ioiaeaeaiiy iniiaieo oaiieia?/ieo
oac ?icaeoeo o?aae Eieoiaa iiae?aia aei ?ioeo aeae?a ni?ai, i?e oeueiio
caaaeueia o?eaae?noue ia??iaeo n?aaa-aineiaa noeae?noue ian?iiy neeaaea?
a na?aaeiueiio a?ey 100 aei?a.

9. ??no ? ?icaeoie ?ineei o ae?oaee ? o?ao?e ??e aaaaoaoe??
a?aeaoaa?oueny oaeaeoa, oe?nia ni?e?noue ianooia? ?ai?o. AEa?ea ? nooa
iiaiaea c iecueeith aieia?noth iia?o?y ? aeaiieo oaiia?aoo?ao aeua
+40iN aeeeeea? cao?eieo ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ?ineei.

10. O?aaa Eieoiaa ?icaeaa? iiooaeio ei?aiaao nenoaio, ui aeinyaa?
aeeaeie 2 i ?c caaaeueiith aeiaaeeiith ei?ai?a a?eueoa 15 oen. i ia
iaeio ?ineeio a ia?oee ??e aaaaoaoe?? ? a?eueoa 18 oen. i o ae?oaee ?
o?ao?e ??e aaaaoaoe??.

11. Ooai?aiiy ei?aiaaeu o ?ineei o?aae Eieoiaa ia?oiai ?ieo aaaaoaoe?? a
oiiaao E?eio ii/eia?oueny i?ae /an oaiioace aeoiaeo a o?oaeo, iniiaia
?oiy iana ?icoaoiao?oueny a iaaeao i?iaeoe?? eoua ia a?oio ia aeeaei?
aei 40 ni.

12. A ae?oaee ? o?ao?e ??e aaaaoaoe?? e?euee?noue, aeiaaeeia ? aeeaeia
caeyaaiiy ei?aiaaeu ciaioothoueny, ui ?iaeoue ?o a?eueo o?aceeaeie i?e
aieea? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? o ceiiaee ia??iae.

13. Ei?aiaaeua o?aae Eieoiaa iathoue iecueeo ii?icino?ee?noue, i?ioa
niinoa?aaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ?oiy caaeaaeue o ceiiaee ia??iae a oiiaao
ia?aaea??iiai E?eio iaeieiia??ia.

14. O?aaa Eieoiaa a oiiaao E?eio ni?iiiaeia oi?ioaaoe aa?ioeaiice c
aeoaea aenieei nooiaiai iaeenoyiinoe (a?eueo 8 i2 eeno?a ia 1 i2 ieiu?
iin?ao) ? oioineioaoe/iei iioaioe?aeii 3,5-4,9 iei. i2?ae?a/aa.

15. Eenoy o?aae Eieoiaa iathoue aenieee nueoi?i76ooi?iue aaeaioaoe?? aei
oiia ina?oeaiiy, caaaeyee /iio eenoeiaee iieia i?iionea? ia iiaa?oith
a?oioo ia a?eueo 3-6 % na?oea.

16. Ainiiaea?nueea i?iaeoeoeai?noue oioineioaco eenoy o iin?aao o?aae
Eieoi-aa a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia aaaaoaoe?? ci?ithaaeany a?ae 4,3 aei
8,3 a nooi? ?a/iaeie a?iaeath caeaii? iane a ?ic?aooieo ia 1 i2 eenoe?a
ca aeiao, ui i?e a?aeiia?aeieo cia/aiiyo oioineioaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo
iin?ao caaacia/o? iioaioe?eio a?iaeaei?noue aei 1500 oe/aa.

17. Oaeoe/ia a?iaeaei?noue o?aae Eieoiaa ca ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue
neeaaeaea 728- 830 oe/aa ca o?e oeine. I?e oeueiio ?ici?? oein?a
iieacaa ??aiii??i?noue iaea?aeaiiy caeaii? iane i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe??.
Oaiaeaioe?? cieaeaiiy a?iaeaeiino? o?aainoi?a ae?oaiai ? o?aoueiai ?ieo
aaaaoaoe?? aeyaeaii ia aoei.

18. O?aaa Eieoiaa ye i?e iaeii??/iiio, oae ? i?e aaaaoi??/iiio
aeei?enoaii? iieacaea a?eueoo aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue ca an?ia
iieacieeaie o ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie o?aaeeoe?eieie ei?iiaeie eoeueoo?aie.

19. O?aaa Eieoiaa ? oe?iiith, ia?niaeoeaiith ei?iiaith eoeueoo?ith, ? ??
ae?iuoaaiiy ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeey ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa E?eio.

NIENIE ?IA?O, IIOAE?EIAAIEO CA OAIITH

AeENA?OAOe??

1. Iaeueieeia I.I. Iaeioi?ua aii?inu aeieiaee iiiaieaoiaai ni?ai a E?uio
//Iaoa?eaeu ?anioaeeeaineie iao/.-i?aeo. eiio. “Aeeaae o/aiuo
aa?a?ie-eia a oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee naeueneiai oicyenoaa
a ia?eiae ia?aoiaea e ?uieo”. – Neioa?iiieue: E?uineee eiieoao ii aeaeai
ia/aoe e eioi?iaoeee. 1995. – N. 19-20.

2. Naieaa A.A., Aiiai/oe A.A., Iaeueieeia I.I. ?ac?aaioea yeaiaioia
oaoiieiaee aicaeaeuaaiey iiiaieaoiaai ni?ai n o/aoii aai aeieiae/aneeo
iniaaiiinoae // I?iaeaiu ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiey e io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu
a iieaaiaenoaa E?uia/ Na. iao/. o?. E?uineiai NOE. – Neioa?iiieue, 1996.
– N. 50-54 (i?iaaaeaiea yenia?eiaioia e eo aiaeec, ee/iue aeeaae 33 %).

3. Iaeueieeia I.I. Iaeioi?ua aeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe o?aau Eieoiaa a
nayce n aa eio?iaeoeoeeae a ei?iii?iecaiaenoai E?uia // Aii?inu
noaaeeecaoeee e iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe AIE E?uia a enneaaeiaaieyo
iieiaeuo o/aiuo/ Na. iao/. o?. E?uineiai NOE. – Neioa?iiieue, 1997. –
N. 6-9.

4. Iaeueieeia I.I. Oa?aeoa?enoeea iinaaia o?aau Eieoiaa eae
i?iaeoeoeeiiiuo oioineioace?othueo nenoai/ Na. iao/. o?. E?uineiai AAO.
– Neioa?iiieue, 1999. – N. 47-56.

5. Iaeueieeia I.I. Aieea aaeao?/ieo oaeoi??a ia i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy oa
oi?ioaaiiy noiae?a o?aae Eieoiaa // Iaoeia? ?ic?iaee ? ?aae?caoe?y
iioaioe?aeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? / Ca. iaoe. i?. OAAI. –
Ee?a: Aa?a?ia iaoea, 1999. – N. 227-228.

AIIOAOe??

Iaeueieeia I.I. Aa?ia?ieia?/ia ioe?iea o?aae Eieoiaa o ca’yceo c
?io?iaeoeoe??th ?? o E?ei.- ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai
nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth
06.01.09 — ?ineeiieoeoai. — ?inoeooo ao??iie?eieo oa e?ea?nueeeo ?ineei
OAAI, N?ioa?iiieue, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii eiiieaeni?e aa?ia?ieia?/i?e ioe?ioe? o?aae
Eieoiaa (Sorghum almum Parodi). Aoee aea/ai? a?ieia?/i? oa
ainiiaea?nuee? aeanoeaino? ian?iiy, iaaecaiii? oa i?aecaiii? /anoei
?ineeie, anoaiiaeai? aeeiai?ea oi?ioaaiiy eenoeiai? iiaa?oi? ?
i?iaeoeoeai?noue oioineioaco iin?a?a. Aecia/aia a?iaeaei?noue oa ye?noue
caeaii? iane o?aae Eieoiaa. ?ic?aoiaaia aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue
ae?iuoaaiiy oe??? eoeueoo?e. C?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i aeioe?euei?noue
?io?iaeoeoe?? ?? o E?ei.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: o?aaa Eieoiaa, ?io?iaeoeoe?y, oaiia?aoo?a i?i?inoaiiy,
aieia?noue, aeeaeia caai?oaiiy, aeeiai?ea ?inoo, eenoeiaa iiaa?oiy,
i?iaeoeoeai?noue oioineioaco, a?iaeaei?noue, caeaia iana.

Iaeueieeia I.I. Aa?iaeieiae/aneay ioeaiea o?aau Eieoiaa a nayce n
eio?iaeoeoeeae aa a E?ui. – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea
o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe
06.01.09 — ?anoaieaaiaenoai. — Einoeooo yoe?iianee/iuo e eaea?noaaiiuo
?anoaiee ?anoaiee OAAI, Neioa?iiieue, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eiiieaeniie aa?iaeieiae/aneie ioeaiea
o?aau Eieoiaa (Sorghum almum Parodi) n oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey
niioaaonoaey ii/aaiii-eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee E?uia o?aaiaaieyi yoie iiaie
aeey Oe?aeiu ei?iiaie eoeueoo?u. Aaoi?ii auee i?iaaaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey
ii o?ai iniiaiui iai?aaeaieyi:

– ii?aaeaeaiea eiee/anoaaiiuo iieacaoaeae iniiaiuo oaeoi?ia aiaoiae
n?aaeu (oaiia?aoo?a, aeaaeiinoue) iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey i?i?anoaiey naiyi e
iieo/aiey anoiaeia, a oaeaea iaeneiaeueiie e iioeiaeueiie aeoaeiu
caaeaeee naiyi i?e iinaaa;

– eco/aiea oa?aeoa?a ?inoa aaaaoaoeaiuo i?aaiia e aeeiaieea ?acaeoey
?anoaiee a ?aciua ii iiaiaeiui oneiaeyi aiaeu, ioeaiea i?iaeoeoeeiiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae e ea/anoaa o?iaeay iinaaia o?aau Eieoiaa, yooaeoeaiinoue
aa aicaeaeuaaiey a n?aaiaiee n ae?oaeie o?aaeeoeeiiiuie ei?iiauie
eoeueoo?aie;

– auyaeaiea noaiaie onoie/eainoe o?aau Eieoiaa e iaaeaaii?eyoiui
oaeoi?ai aiaoiae n?aaeu (nieaonoie/eainoue, ii?icionoie/eainoue,
oicyenoaaiiay e aeieiae/aneay aeieaiaa/iinoue naiyi i?e eo o?aiaiee).

A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiuo eaai?aoi?iuo e iieaauo iiuoia auei
onoaiiaeaii, /oi ieieiaeueiay, iioeiaeueiay e iaeneiaeueiay oaiia?aoo?a
naiyi ninoaaeyao +11,5°N, +33,0°N e 47,5°N niioaaonoaaiii. I?e yoii a
oneiaeyo iaiioeiaeueiuo oaiia?aoo? e?oiiua naiaia i?i?anoatho eo/oa /ai
iaeeea. Naiaia o?aau Eieoiaa ia/eiatho i?i?anoaoue i?e aeaaeiinoe ii/au
85 % io aeaaeiinoe onoie/eaiai caayaeaiey (38 % io IIA), ii anoiaeu
iiaoo auoue noi?ie?iaaiu i?e iieacaoaea aeaaeiinoe ii/au ia iaiaa oi/ee
onoie/eaiai caayaeaiey (72 % io IIA). Ieieiaeueiay aeaaeiinoue naiyi,
iaiaoiaeeiay aeey eo i?i?anoaiey ninoaaeyao 33 % io eo iannu.
Iaeneiaeueiay aeoaeia ii/au, n eioi?ie, a eaeaaeueiuo oneiaeyo, naiaia
o?aau Eieoiaa iiaoo aeaaaoue anoiaeu ninoaaeyao 20 ni. Iioeiaeueiay
aeoaeia iinaaa a oneiaeyo iiuoa ninoaaeea 6 ni.

Aeaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee i?iecaiaenoao ii n?ieai naaa (o?aouey aeaeaaea
ai?aey) e aeoaeia caaeaeee naiyi (6 ni).

Iinaau o?aau Eieoiaa ioaa/atho o?aaiaaieyi aunieii?iaeoeoeaiuo
oioineioace?othueo nenoai – eiaeaen eenoiaie iiaa?oiinoe aeinoeaaao 8, a
oioineioaoe/aneee iioaioeeae 4,9 iei. i2?aeiae/aa, oicyenoaaiiay
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue oioineioaca 8,3 a/i2 a nooee. ?ann/eoaiiay
iioaioeeaeueiay o?iaeaeiinoue i?e ieieiaeueiuo e iaeneiaeueiuo cia/aieyo
yoeo iieacaoaeae iiaeao ninoaaeyoue 473-1357 oe/aa caeaiie iannu.
?aaeueiay o?iaeaeiinoue a n?aaeiai ca o?e aiaea ninoaaeea 708 oe/aa a
iinaaao ia?aiai aiaea e 830 oe/aa ai aoi?ie aiae eniieueciaaiey
o?aainoiy.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi naiaia o?aau Eieoiaa niiniaiu i?i?anoaoue a ?anoai?ao
NaCl n eiioeaio?aoeeae aei 2,9 %; naeaeai auaiae i oeaeaniia?aciinoe
eniuoaiey yoie eoeueoo?u ia canieaiiuo ii/aao I?eneaaouey. Oicyenoaaiiay
aeieaiaa/iinoue naiyi ninoaaeyao 5 eao, a aeieiae/aneay – 15 eao.

A ia?eiae aaaaoaoeee o?aaa Eieoiaa oi?ie?oao iiuioth ei?iaaoth nenoaio,
i?iieeathuoth ia aeoaeio aei 2 i n iauae i?ioyaeaiiinoueth ei?iae
15-18 oun. iao?ia ia iaeii ?anoaiea. Iaeiaei, aieueoay eo /anoue
(75-80 % a caaeneiinoe io aiaea aaaaoaoeee) ?aniieaaaaony a neia
0-60 ni, iiyoiio yoa eoeueoo?a i?e i?ioaiee aeaao onoie/eaua o?iaeae.

Ei?iaaeua o?aau Eieoiaa, iaania/eaathuea iiiaieaoiee oeeee ?acaeoey,
?aniieaaathony ia aeoaeia 25-40 ni a caaeneiinoe io aic?anoa o?aainoiy
(n aic?anoii aeoaeia caeaaaiey e eo eiee/anoai ia iaeii ?anoaiea
oiaiueoathony). Ii?icionoie/eainoue ei?iaaeu iaaaeeea; i?e -3°N
iia?aaeaeathony aei 75 % ii/ae, a i?e -9°N ana ei?iaaeuiua ii/ee
iiaeaatho. Naeaeai auaiae i oii, /oi aneaaenoaea aeoaieiai caeaaaiey
ei?iaaeu e iaee/ey ia ii/aa noa?ie e ioaau aeaaeue ei?iaaeu io ii?icia a
i?aaeai?iuo oneiaeyo E?uia iaeiaa?iyoia.

Ea/anoaaiiua iieacaoaee o?iaeay, ?aaiiia?iia iinooieaiea aai a oa/aiea
eaoa (o?e oeina), iiiaieaoiaa eniieueciaaiea iinaaia, niioaaonoaea yoie
eoeueoo?u ii/aaiii-eeeiaoe/aneei oneiaeyi E?uia e aunieay yeiiiie/aneay
yooaeoeaiinoue aa aicaeaeuaaiey a n?aaiaiee n ae?oaeie ei?iiauie
eoeueoo?aie aiai?yo i oeaeaniia?aciinoe eio?iaeoeoeee o?aau Eieoiaa a
ei?iii?iecaiaenoai E?uia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: o?aaa Eieoiaa, eio?iaeoeoeey, oaiia?aoo?a i?i?anoaiey,
aeaaeiinoue, aeoaeia caaeaeee, aeeiaieea ?inoa, eenoiaay iiaa?oiinoue,
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue oioineioaca, o?iaeaeiinoue, caeaiay ianna.

Melnikov M.M. Agrobiological estimation of sorghum almum in connection
with its introduction in Crimea.- Manuscript. Thesis for candidates
degree by speciality 06.01.09 — plant growing. — The institute of
Essential Oil and Medicine Plants, Simferopol, 1999.

The activity is dedicated complex agrobiological estimation of sorghum
almum (Sorghum almum Parodi). There were studied biological and
agricultural properties of a seed, above-earth and underground part of
plants, the dynamics formation of leaf surface and productivity of a
photosynthesis of crops is made known. Defined productivity and quality
of green weight of sorghum almum. The economic efficiency of processing
of this culture is calculated. The conclusion about expediency of its
introduction in Crimea is made.

Keywords: sorghum almum, introduction, temperature of germination,
moisture, depth of seal, dynamics of growth, leaf surface, productivity
of a photosynthesis, productivity, green weight.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 03.08.1999 ?.

Oi?iao 60?901/16.

Oe?aae 100 aecaiiey??a. Caeac ? 606. Aaceiooiaii.

Ia’?i 1,0 ae?. a?e. Aeaioiaeaii a ?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/iio a?aeae?e?

E?einueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

i. N?ioa?iiieue, n. Aa?a?ia

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